П’єзоопір у тонких шарах і мікрокристалах кремнію та германію p-типу провідності і сенсори на їх основі: Автореф. дис… канд. фіз.-мат. наук / Ю.М. П

AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO «EUeA?ANUeEA IIE?OAOI?EA»

Iaieia TH??e Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 537.32

I’?ciii?? o oiieeo oa?ao ? i?e?ie?enoaeao e?aii?th oa aa?iai?th ?-oeio
i?ia?aeiino? ? naini?e ia ?o iniia?

01.04.01 — o?ceea i?eeaae?a, aeaiaio?a ? nenoai

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe

Euea?a — 1999

5

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ae?oaeei?i Aiaoie?e Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”,

i?ioani?

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, n.i.n.

Eieiii?oeue Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a IAI Oe?a?ie,

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

— aeieoi? o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aao?e/oe Aanee?e Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo i?eeeaaeieo i?iaeai iaoai?ee oa

iaoaiaoeee IAI Oe?a?ie (i. Euea?a),

caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — Euea?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. ?.
O?aiea,

eaoaae?a o?ceee iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 25 ethoiai 2000 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.14 i?e Aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao?
“Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (79646, Euea?a-13, aoe.N.Aaiaea?e,12, aoae.124
aieiaiiai ei?iono).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe?
Aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea” (aoe. I?ioani?nueea,
1).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “21” n?/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aaeoea? ?.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. No/aniee aoai ?icaeoeo oaa?aeio?eueiiai
i?eeaaeiaoaeoaaiiy oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ?ic?iaeith iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
naini??a, caeaoieo i?aoethaaoe a aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao, a oaeiae
aeei?enoaiiyi iiaeo oaoiieia?e i?e?iaeaeo?ii?ee oa i?e?iiaoai?ee. I?e
oeueiio ia aeaiee /an e?aii?e ?-oeio i?ia?aeiino? ? iniiaiei aeoeaiei
iaoa??aeii naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei, ui coiiaeaii e?i?ei?noth eiai
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo oa?aeoa?enoee ii??aiyii c iaoa??aeii n-oeio. Iaoii?noue
i’?ci?acenoeaiee aoaeo naia o Si oa Ge ?-oeio iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiee ye
oai?aoe/ii, oae ? aenia?eiaioaeueii, iniaeeai i?e cia/ieo, aei 1 %,
??ciiiiey?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo.

Iiaeaeuei? oyaeaiiy i?i i?ioeane ia?aiino a aeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa Ge ia
i?e?ineii?/iiio ??ai? aeaoaeueii ?ic?iaeai? oaeiae eeoa aeey
iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a n-oe?o. Oea iiynith?oueny a?aeiiniith c?o/i?noth
iiaoaeiae iiaeaeae i?e aea/aii? aieeao iaeiia?niiai iai?oaeaiiai
aeaoi?ioaaiiy (IIAe) ia aea?aaeaioi? aeieeie a iecueeineiao?e/ieo oi/eao
ciie A??eethaia (CA): aeicaieai?noth e?i?eiiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo El ~ oa iia’ycaiith c oeei iiaeeea?noth e?i?eieo
caeaaeiinoae i?aeaeieeiiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo aeaeo?ii?a c aeaoi?iaoe??th .
A?aeii? c e?oa?aoo?e iiaeae? i’?ciiii?o a ae??eiaeo S? oa Ge oaeiae
aacothoueny ia aeicaieaiino? e?i?eiiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ia?a?iciiae?eo
eiioeaio?aoe?e ??cieo aaooie?a ae??ie.

I?e?ie?enoaee, ae?iuai? c aaciai? oace, caaaeyee nai?e no?oeoo?i?e
aeineiiaeino?, ? ye c?o/iei iiaeaeueiei iaoa??aeii aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a, oae ? oi?eaeueiith aeaiaioiith
aacith aeey noai?aiiy aeniei/ooeeaeo naini??a aeey ?iaioe a
aeno?aiaeueieo oiiaao. C ?ioiai aieo, oiie? oa?e — ia?niaeoeaiee
iaoa??ae aeey i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo naini??a, ine?eueee aiie caeaoi?
caaacia/eoe aenieee nooi?iue ?ioaa?aoe?? oa na??eiicaeaoi?noue
oaoiieia??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeeiioaaeenue ca ieaiii iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? ?iaioe AeO «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea» a?aeiia?aeii aei iai?yie?a iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo ?ia?o
eaoaae?e iai?ai?ia?aeieeiai? aeaeo?ii?ee ca i?ia?aiith I?iina?oe
Oe?a?ie: «Noai?aiiy aaaaoi-ooieoe?iiaeueieo i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo naini??a ia
iniia? ?ae?enoae?ciaaieo oa??a iie?e?aii?th oa iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo
i?e?ie?enoae?a» (oeo? Iie?naini?), i?ia?aiith AeEIO Oe?a?ie
«Canoinoaaiiy oaoiieia?? eaca?ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? oa??a iie?e?aii?th ia
ae?aeaeo?eeo aeey noai?aiiy ?ioaa?aeueieo i?eeaae?a i?e?iiaoai?ee oa
iioiaeaeo?ii?ee» (oeo? 04.01.01/015-95) oa ainiaeiaia??ieo ?ia?o.
Oeiaoeea ?iaioe ?c noai?eiiy neini?ia aeeth/eia a ?a?iieenueeo i?ia?aio
«NEXUSPAN-NEXUS».

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? eiiieaenia
aenia?eiaioaeueia ? oai?aoe/ia aea/aiiy i’?ciiii?o a e?aii?? oa aa?iai??
?-oeio i?ia?aeiino? aeey ?ic?iaee ia oe?e iniia? naini??a iaoai?/ieo
aaee/ei.

Aeinyaiaiiy iaoe aeiaaaei ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

· i?iaaaeaiiy oai?aoeei-a?oiiai? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a a
aeiaciiiae?aieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao ? anoaiiaeaiiy ia oe?e iniia?
aeicaieaieo o?ce/ieo iiaeaeae i’?ci?acenoeaiiai aoaeoo a p-Si oa p-Ge;

· aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy i’?ciiii?o p-Si oa p-Ge a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? ??ciiiiey?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e, aecia/aiiy eiinoaio i’?ci- oa
aeanoiiii?o oa ?o aeaoi?iaoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae;

· iiaoaeiae i?e?ineii?/ii? iiaeae? i’?ciiii?o Si oa Ge ?-oeio a oe?ieiio
ae?aiacii? aeaoi?iaoe?e c o?aooaaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?eii? caeaaeiino?
ni?i-i?a?oaeueiiai a?aeuaieaiiy;

· anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae aca?iica’yceo no?oeoo?e oa
i’?ciiii?o oiieeo oa??a Si oa Ge oa ?o aieeao ia ia?aiao?e naini??a
iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Oia?oa aenia?eiaioaeueii aeine?aeaeaii i’?ciii?? o e?aii?th oa
aa?iai?th ?-oeio a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ??ciiiiey?ieo IIAe || [111]
aeaoi?iaoe?e -1,2 % …+1 % ? aecia/aii aeaoi?iaoe?ei? caeaaeiino? ?o
eiinoaio i’?ci- oa aeanoiiii?o.

2. Oia?oa iieacaii, ui o aeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa Ge ye aaaee?, oae ? eaae?
ae??ee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaai?aie aoaeoeaieo ian, ye? cia/iith i??ith
caeaaeaoue a?ae aia?a?? oa aeaoi?iaoe??.

3. Oia?oa iieacaii, ui aeei?enoiaoth/e aacen iaca?aeieo oaici?ieo
i?aaenoaaeaiue, iiaeia aeaoae?coaaoe i?aaeea a?aeai?o aeey oaici??a
ai?cio?iiieo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a a aeiaciiiae?aieo
iai?ai?ia?aeieeao.

4. Oaeineiiaeaii i?e?ineii?/io iiaeaeue i’?ciiii?o IIAe Si oa Ge ?-oeio
i?ia?aeiino?, yea aia?oa a?aoiao? aeaoi?iaoe?eio caeaaei?noue
ni?i-i?a?oaeueiiai a?aeuaieaiiy so-ciie ? aeia?a ocaiaeaeo?oueny c
oai?aoeei-a?oiiaeie i?aaeeaie a?aeai?o.

5. Oia?oa iieacaii, ui aieea aeaoi?iaoe?? ia aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? aaaeeeo
oa eaaeeo ae??ie iiaea aooe caienaiee a ?iaa??aioiiio oaici?iiio
aeaeyae?, a a?aeiia?aei? ciii? ia?aiao?e oa aeaoi?iaoe?ei? eiinoaioe
ooai?ththoue eiio?aaa??aioi? oaici?e 4-ai ?aiao.

6. Oia?oa aeyaeaii cia/iee aieea aeaoi?iaoe?? ia i?ioeane ?icn?yiiy
ae??ie ca o/anoth i?aeciiieo ia?aoiae?a i?ae a?eeaie aaaeeeo oa eaaeeo
ae??ie.

7. Ia iniia? iiaeaethaaiiy i’?ciiii?o iie?e?aii?th aia?oa iieacaii, ui
iioaioe?ei? aa?’??e ia i?aeca?aieo a?aieoeyo (ICA) iacia/iith i??ith
aieeaathoue ia aeaoi?iaoe?eio ci?io ai?cio?ii?? iii?o a
?ae?enoae?ciaaieo EI?-no?oeoo?ao.

Aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a a?oioo?oueny ia aeei?enoaii?
oai?aoeei-a?oiiaeo iaoiae?a, ye?, ye a?aeiii, ? iaeneiaeueii iaae?eieie
oa i?e?iaeieie, ine?eueee aiie iniiaai? eeoa ia neiao???
iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaiai e?enoaea, a oaeiae caaacia/o?oueny aei??thaaiiyi
i’?ciiii?o ca a?aeiieie aenia?eiaioaeueieie iaoiaeeeaie. A??ia?aei?noue
oa oi/i?noue ?ic?aooie?a i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny iacia/ieie ?ica?aeiinoyie
?acoeueoao?a oai?aoe/iiai aiae?co oa aenia?eiaioo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

1. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i’?ciiii?o a
i?e?ie?enoaeao aeiaaaeaia iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?aiiy a?aie/iiai
aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ae?aiaciio i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei
aei 0,3 %.

2. Iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??io oaici/ooeeaino? ? oaoi?/iith ia?iaa??aioiith
oa?aeoa?enoeeith i’?ciiii?o ? ia iiaea aooe i?aenoaaith aeey aeniiaeo
i?i i?eaeaoi?noue iaoa??aeo aeey noai?aiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo
i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a.

3. O ?ae?enoae?ciaaieo eaca?ii oa?ao iie?e?aii?th aeiaeaoeiai aei
i?e?ineiao??? aeieea? cia/ii ieae/a iae?ineiao??y, yeo iaiao?aeii
a?aoiaoaaoe i?ae /an i?iaeooaaiiy oiiieia?? /ooeeaeo aeaiaio?a
i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo naini??a.

4. Aeoeaaoe?y no?oeoo?iooai?aiiy i?ae /an ?iiii-ieaciiaiai inaaeaeaiiy
oa??a Ge aeicaiey? nea?iaaii ci?ithaaoe ?o i’?ci?acenoeai? aeanoeaino?.

5. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy iiaoaeiae i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo
i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a ia iniia? EI?-no?oeoo?, ui ia?aaeaa/athoue
i?aeoe/ia aeei?enoaiiy i???iooth/i? eaca?ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeey
iie?auaiiy ?o oa?aeoa?enoee.

I?eeeaaei? ?acoeueoaoe aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieeaaeaii a iniiao
?ic?iaeaieo naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei, ye? aeei?enoai? ia AO «?iaeii»
(i. ?aaii-O?aie?anuee) oa IAI «Iie?naini?» (i. Euea?a). ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?iaie naini??a caoeuai? iaoaioaie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ioae?eaoe?yo, iaienaieo o ni?aaaoi?noa?,
caeiaoaa/aa? iaeaaeaoue: aenia?eiaioaeueia aeine?aeaeaiiy oa aecia/aiiy
eiinoaio i’?ciiii?o [1-2, 4-7, 10, 13-14], oai?aoeei-a?oiiaee aiae?c
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a [2], i?e?ineii?/ia iiaeaeue i’?ciiii?o [2, 9],
aecia/aiiy aca?iica’yceo no?oeoo?e oa i’?ciiii?o [1-2, 4-6, 8, 12],
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeeee ?ic?iaee naini??a oa iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy ?o
iiaoaeiae [3, 15-18].

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeenue oa aoee
iioae?eiaai? a iaoa??aeao oaeeo eiioa?aioe?e ? nai?ia??a: 5th Intern.
Workshop on Thermal Investigations of IC’s and Systems, (THERMINIC,
Rome, 1999); 4th Symposium Diagnostics & Yield — SOI materials
(Warsaw,1998); NATO Advanced Research Workshop (Kyiv, 1998); 2-nd
Intern. Sympos. on Microelectronic Technologies and Microsystems (Lviv,
1998); 11th Europ. Conf. on Solid-State Transducers (EUROSENSORS XI,
Warsaw, 1997); 3rd Intern. Workshop on Thermal Investigations of IC’s
and Microstructures (Cannes, 1997); Second Int.School-Conf. Phys.
Problems in Mater. Sci. of Semiconductors (Chernivtsi, 1997) oa ?io.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a 19 iaoeiaeo
i?aoeyo, ia?ae?e yeeo iiaeaiee o e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo. C ieo 13 noaoae o
?aoa?iaaieo aeaeaiiyo, 4 iaoaioe oa aaoi?nuee? na?aeioeoaa, 1
aeaiiiiaaiee ?oeiien.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c? anooio,
i’yoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa 3
aeiaeaoe?a. Caaaeueiee ianya ?iaioe noaiiaeoue 176 noi??iie, 57 ?enoie?a
oa 12 oaaeeoeue. A?ae?ia?ao?y i?noeoue 125 iaeiaioaaiue.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ia??oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie, aecia/aia iaoa ?iaioe,
iienaii iaoeiao iiaecio oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue ?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae
iiaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi iniiai? iieiaeaiiy eiioeioaeueii?
e?i?eii? oai??? iane?i/aiii iaeeo oa ne?i/aiieo aeaoi?iaoe?e
e?enoae?/ii? a?aoee iai?ai?ia?aeieea oa eiai ciie A??eethaia c
oai?aoeei-a?oiiai? oi/ee ci?o: 6-ia?aiao?e/ia a?oia iaeii??aeieo
aeaoi?iaoe?e ? oa?aeoa?enoeeith oaeoi?-i?inoi?o GL3(R)/SO(3). Cae?eniaii
iae?ineii?/iee (oaiiiaiieia?/iee) iien aieeao aeaoi?iaoe?? ia aoaeoe
ia?aiino a iai?ai?ia?aeieeao, ?ic?iaeaia oai?aoeei-a?oiiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a ia?aiino a aeiaciiiae?aieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao c
oi/eiaeie eoa?/ieie a?oiaie Td oa Oh.

Ca?aeii c i?eioeeiii Eth?? neiao??y oaici??a aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a
iieno?oueny a?aeiiith ?aaeoeoe??th ia oi/eiao a?oio i?yiiai (oaici?iiai)
aeiaooeo a?aeiia?aeieo iaca?aeieo i?aaenoaaeaiue i?oiaiiaeueii? a?oie
O(3):

D(j) G p, (1)

aea D(j) — iaca?aeia i?aaenoaaeaiiy aaae j iiaii? i?oiaiiaeueii? a?oie,
G — eiai ?aaeoeoe?y ia oi/eiao i?aea?oio G, iaca?aei? i?aaenoaaeaiiy
oi/eiai? i?aea?oie c e?aoi?noth p, — i?yia noia.

Ia iniia? ?iceeaaeo i?yiiai aeiaooeo iaca?aeieo i?aaenoaaeaiue iiaii?
i?oiaiiaeueii? a?oie O(3) o ?yae Eeaaoa-Ai?aeaia aeey i?inoi ca?aeii?
a?oie

D(i) D(j) =wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyya??D?? ???&?
?MathType??0???u?y??????aecia/aii aacen iaca?aeieo oaici?ieo
i?aaenoaaeaiue ye i?a?o oi/eiai? a?oie a?aeiinii i?yiiai aeiaooeo
i?oiaiiaeueieo a?oi (G) (O(3)…O(3))/G:

T(i k) T(j n) =wmetafile8? ??—???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyy ??D?? ???&?
?MathType??0???u?y??????aea T(ik) — /anoeia oaici?a k-ai ?aiao, yea
ia?aoai?th?oueny ca iaca?aeiei i?aaenoaaeaiiyi D(i). Aiaeii/an ?iaeaen k
cacia/a? aea?aaeaioi? i?aaenoaaeaiiy. Ine?eueee a?oia O(3) i?inoa, oaeee
i?a?oiee i?ino?? ia ia? a?oiiai? no?oeoo?e.

Aeey oaici??a 4-ai ? aeua ?aia?a aeieeathoue oaici?i? aacene, ui
ia?aoai?ththoueny ca neaey?iei i?aaenoaaeaiiyi D(0), iaeiae ia iiaeooue
aooe caaaeai? aei neaey??a (aai inaaaeineaey??a) a?aeiinii a?oie O(3).
Oey ianoaaeia iaaea? iiaeeea?noue ooi/iaiiy i?aaee a?aeai?o. O oaaeeoe?
1 iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a a?aeai?o aeicaieaiiai aaceno
iaca?aeieo oaici?ieo i?aaenoaaeaiue a?oie O(3) aeey aeaoi?iaoe?eieo
aoaeo?a o aeiaciiiae?aieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao.

Oaae. 1

I?aaeea a?aeai?o aacen?a iaca?aeieo oaici?ieo i?aaenoaaeaiue.

D(j)Aeicaieaiee oaici?iee aacen iaca?aeieo
i?aaenoaaeaiueC1=ETdOhSO(3) = 0Dev 0 = 0Sp 0Dev 0 = 0Sp 0Dev 0
= 0Sp 0Dev 0D(0)D(0+)

D(1)

D(2)

D(2+)

D(3)D(3)

D(4)

D(4+)T(22)

T(22+)

3j=1T(j3)

4j=0T(j4)

4j=0T(j4+)

5j=1T(j5)

5j=1T(j5+)

6j=2T(j6)

6j=2T(j6+)

T(02)

T(02+)

0

0

0

0

0

T(46)

T(46+)

0

0

0

T(04)

T(44)

T(04+)

T(44+)

T(45)

T(45+)

T(46)

T(66)

T(46+)

T(66+)0

T(02+)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

T(44+)

0

0

0

0

T(04+)

T(44+)

0

T(45+)

0

T(46+)

T(66+)0

T(02+)

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

00

0

0

T(04+)

0

0

0

0 C oaae. 1 aeieeaa?, cie?aia, ui o Si oa Ge aeia?euei? neaey?i?
aaee/eie a oi/oe? (cnoae aia?aaoe/ieo cii, ia?a?iciiae?e eiioeaio?aoe?e
iin??a ? o. i.) ia iiaeooue iaoe e?i?eieo /eai?a a?aeiinii ai?cio?iiii?
(aeaa?aoi?ii? /anoeie) aeaoi?iaoe??:

T(22+)()  =  Dev = — 1/3Sp . (4)

Oaici? aeanoiiii?o m aecia/a?oueny ca a?aeiiei ae?acii:

ik = i (1 + miklr lr) (5)

? a aeiaciiiae?aiiio iai?ai?ia?aeieeo ia? neiao??th:

D(m) = D(1)2 D(1)2 =

(2D(0+)+D(1+)+3D(2+)+D(3+)+D(4+)) Oh 2D(0+)+D(4+). (6)

Ooo ? iaaeae? i?aenoiiaoaaiiy c yaiei cacia/aiiyi ?iaeaen?a lk
a?aeaoaa?oueny ca ?iaeaenaie l,k a i?aenoiiaoaaiiy aac cacia/aiiy
?iaeaeno — ca an?ia ?iaeaenaie, ui iiaoi?ththoueny.

?iceeaae oaici?a aeanoiiii?o a oeueiio aacen? ia? aeaeyae:

m = I1(m)T(02+) + I2(m)T(04+) + I3(m)T(44+), (7)

aea Ii(m) — oae? ?iaa??aioe:

I1(m) = 1/9 Spm = 1/3 (m11 + 2m12),

I2(m) = 4/15 (m11 m12 + 3m44), (8)

I3(m) = 2/5 (m11 m12 2m44).

Aeei?enoiaoth/e aiaeia?/i? iaca?aei? i?aaenoaaeaiiy neiao??? ?ioeo
e?iaoe/ieo eiao?oe??io?a iieacaii, ui an? i’?cie?iaoe/i? oa
i’?ciiaai?oi? aoaeoe o aeaoi?iiaaieo aeiaciiiae?aieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao
iathoue iiae?aio neiao??th, iienothoueny iaeiaeiaith e?euee?noth
eiinoaio (?iaa??aio?a) ?, a?aeiia?aeii, iathoue iiae?aiee aacen.

??ciiaeaeii a?aeiiiai iaoiaea ?iaa??aio?a aeiaeaeaii yaiee aeaeyae
iao?eoeue oeeo iaca?aeieo oaici??a ? iaaaaeaii ?o ca’ycie c? noa?e/ieie
aa?iii?eaie.

C ae?ac?a (6) oa (7) aeieeaa?, ui an? oaici?e /aoaa?oiai ?aiao
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a O iiaeia ?iaa??aioii ?iceeanoe ia
no?oeoo?ii-iacaeaaeio /anoeio Oi3 oa caeaaeio a?ae no?oeoo?e ai?cio?iiio
/anoeio Oai:

O = Oi3 + Oai; Ti3 = T(02+)(T) + T(04+)(T), Tai = T(44+)(T), (9)

ui ? c?o/iei i?ae /an aiae?co aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a o oa?ao.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? iieacaii aieea aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ae?iaeaeai? ciie
aaaeeeo, eaaeeo oa ni?i-i?a?oaeueii a?aeuaieaieo ae??ie o Si oa Ge.
Iieacaii, ui o a?aeiia?aeiino? aei /ioe?ee?aoiiai ae?iaeaeaiiy
aia?aaoe/iiai niaeo?o aieea ne?i/aii? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ciie aaaeeeo (l=1)
? eaaeeo ae??ie (l=2) iiaeia caienaoe o ?iaa??aioiiio oaici?iiio
aeaeyae?, neiao?e/iiio a?aeiinii aeiaooe?a kikj noiooiuei? aeaoi?iiaaii?
nenoaie eii?aeeiao oaeeueiaiai eiaaeoi?a oa oaici?a aeaoi?iaoe?? :

El(k,) = A k2 + a Sp +

+ (1)l (Bijmn ki kj km kn + 2Dijmn ki kj mn + dijmn ij mn)1/2, (10)

aea Bijmn, Dijmn, dijmm — ocaaaeueiai? eiio?aaa??aioi? oaici?e ciiieo
ia?aiao??a oa aeaoi?iaoe?eieo eiinoaio. Aeey i?aaenoaaeaiiy A8+ oe?
oaici?e iathoue ianooii? eiiiiiaioe:

Biiii = B2, Biimm = B2/2, Bijmn = D2/4, Diiii = B b, Diimm =
Bb/2,

Dijmn = Dd/4, diiii = b2, diimm = b2/2, dijmn = d2/4, ij, mn,
(11)

aea A,B,D — ciii? ia?aiao?e, a, b, d — aeaoi?iaoe?ei? eiinoaioe
aaeaioii? ciie.

?icuaieaiiy cii aaaeeeo oa eaaeeo ae??ie o oeaio?? CA aei??aith?

E = 2(dijmn ij mn)1/2. (12)

Ia iaeiiia?aiao?e/ieo i?aea?oiao E? aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icuaieaiiy E ~ ia ?
aia-e?oe/iith ooieoe??th aeaoi?iaoe?? a ieie? 0. O aaaaoiia?aiao?e/iiio
aeiaaeeo E ~ ij2 i?e 0. Ia ?en.1 iaaaaeaii aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? aaeaioii?
ciie Si i?e IIAe acaeiaae iai?yieo [111], a ia ?en.2 — a?aeiia?aei?
?ciaia?aaoe/i? (E = 26 iaA) iiaa?oi?.

?en.1.Aia?aaoe/iee niaeo? aaeaioii? ciie IIAe || [111] Si: 1,1′- hh,
2,2′- lh, 3,3′- sh; 1,2,3- ? = 0; 1′,2′,3′- ? = -0,4 %.

?en. 2. ?ciaia?aaoe/i? iiaa?oi? ae??ie IIAe Si.

Aeey a?aooaaiiy ni?i-i?a?oaeueii a?ae-uaieaii? (so) ciie (l=3), ui ia?
neiao??th i?aaenoaaeaiiy A7+, i?eeiaeiny a?aeiia iae?-i?eia ca
aeaoi?iaoe??th iaaeeaeaiiy aia?aa-oe/iiai niaeo?a a ieie? k0, yea
io?eiaia iaoiaeii ?iaa??aio?a. O Si aieea so-ciie ia ?icuaieaiiy cii
i?iyaey?oueny a cia/ieo a?ae oeeaiiyo a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy (12) oa
iae?-i?eiiio c?inoaii? so c aea-oi?iaoe?th. O Ge aieea so-ci-ie ?
a?ae/ooiei eeoa i?e cia/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo ||>0,6 %.

Cai?iiiiiaaii c?o/io ?ic?aooieiao oi?ioeo aeey aecia/aiiy aonoeie
noai?a gl (E,) l- ai aaooieo iin??a o aeaoi?iiaaiiio iai?ai?i-a?aeieeo:
i??a, ui aeieea? i?e ona?aaeiaii? aeaiaioa ia’?io dk3 ii
?ciaia?aaoe/-i?e iiaa?oi? SE:

gl (E,)dE = ?dk3) = dE = wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
? ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy?yyy`??/?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????P@????Pq???u?y??????aea dSE =
d1d2 — aeaiaio iiaa?oi? a aeia?eueieo eii?aeeiaoao (1,2)
?ci-aia?aaoe/ii? iiaa?oi?; Jl — iao?eoey sseia? cai?ie eii?aeeiao
(E,1,2) (k1,k2,k3).

Aoaeoeai? iane aonoeie noai?a ae??ie mdl o aeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa Ge
aecia/aeenue ii??aiyiiyi /enaeueii ?ic?aoiaaieo ca ae?acii (13) aonoei
noai?a l-ai aaooieo ae??ie o aeaoi?iiaaiiio iai?ai?ia?aeieeo c
a?aeiia?aeiei ae?acii aeey noaiaea?oii? (?cio?iiii? oa ia?aaie?/ii?)
ciie:

(2mdl(E,))3/2 E1/2 (22?3) = Jl1>. (14)

?ic?aoiaai? oaeei /eiii caeaaeiino? a?ae aia?a?? El iin?y aoaeoeaieo
ian aonoeie noai?a aaaeeeo oa eaaeeo ae??ie Si iieacaii ia ?en.3.

?en.3. Aoaeoeai? iane aonoeie noai?a ae??ie IIAe Si: 1,1′,1»- hh,
2,2′,2»- lh, i?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo: 1,2- = 0; 1′,2′- || = 0,4 %; 1»,2»-
|| = 1,2 %.

Caeaaeii a?ae aia?a?? oa aeaoi?iaoe?? oe? iane ci?iththoueny o
aeae?eueea ?ac?a, a i?e iaeeo aia?a?yo ?ioa?aaee ?o cia/aiue
ia?aoeiathoueny.

I?eaa?oa? oaaao no?eaeiiiae?aia iiaaae?iea aoaeoeaieo ian a ieie? E0,
0:

wmetafile8? ??i???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A !???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy`!??w?? ???&?
?MathType?????u@th??????ui ? iane?aeeii iaaiae?oe/iino? ciiiiai
niaeo?o ia iaeiiia?aiao?e/ieo i?aea?oiao aeaoi?iaoe?? a ieie? k0, 0.
Aeey Ge caeaaeiino? aoaeoeaieo ian aiaeia?/i?. Cia/aiiy o?iiioaioe?aeo
?ic?aoiaoaaee /enaeueii, aeoiaey/e c ??aiy eaaoaaiiy ai?ii e oiiae
iaci?iiino? eiioeaio?aoe?? ae??ie i?e ai?cio?iii?e aeaoi?iaoe??.
O?iiioaioe?ae ca?eueoo?oueny ye i?e noeneo, oae ? i?e ?icoyao, oiaoi c
aeaoi?iaoe??th ae?iaeaeaiiy ae??eiaiai aaco c?inoa?.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii aiae?c a?aeiieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo oa
oai?aoe/ieo ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i’?ciiii?o iiiie?enoae?/iiai Si
oa Ge ?-oeio i?ia?aeiino?, c yeiai c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui iniiaiei
?acoeueoaoii ae?? aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ii?? oeeo iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a ?
aeieeiaiiy ai?cio?ii?? i?e iaeaea iaci?ii?e neaey?i?e /anoei? iii?o.
Oeae aeniiaie ? o?ce/iith iniiaith eiioeaioe?? noai?aiiy aeniei/ooeeaeo
i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei. Aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy i’?ciiii?o o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ??ciiiiey?ieo IIAe
aeaoi?iaoe?e a?aenooi?. Cacia/aii, ui an? a?aeii? c e?oa?aoo?e iiaeae?
ia?aiino a ae??eiaeo S? oa Ge iai?ai?ia?aeieeao aacothoueny ia
iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiaeae?, yea iienaia a ?iaioao A.E.A??a oa A.A.I?eona ca
aiaeia??th aei aeaeo?iiieo iai?ai?ia?aeiee?a: iiaeeea?noue e?i?eieo
aeaoi?iaoe?eieo caeaaeiinoae o ia?a?iciiae?e? eiioeaio?aoe?e aaaeeeo oa
eaaeeo ae??ie i?e ai?cio?iii?e aeaoi?iaoe??. Aeei?enoaiiy oaei? iiaeae?
aeey iiyniaiiy a?aeiieo e?i?eieo ci?i iii?o c aeaoi?iaoe??th noia?a/eoue
i?aaeeai a?aeai?o (aeea. oaae.1).

Iaaaaeaii iniaeeaino? iaoiaeeee oa aeaioiaeaiiy c?ace?a i?e?ie?enoae?a
aeey aea/aiiy i’?ci?acenoeaiiai aoaeoo i?e cia/ieo ??ciiiiey?ieo
aeaoi?iaoe?yo. Iieacaii, ui eiao?oe??io oaici/ooeeaino? ? c?o/iith
oaoi?/iith oa?aeoa-?enoeeith, aea ia iieno? o?ce/io aeanoea?noue
(i’?ciii??) o aeayeiio e?enoaei-a?ao?/iiio iai?yieo, caeaaeeoue a?ae
i?oaeiiai noaio e?enoaea, ? oiio ia iiaea aooe i?aenoaaith aeey aeniiaeo
i?i i?eaeaoi?noue iaoa??aeo aeey noai?aiiy i?e?i-aeaeo?iiieo
i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a. ?ic?aoiaai? eiinoaioe i’?ci- oa aea-noiiii?o
? ?o aeaoi?iaoe?ei? caeaaeiino? oa iieacaia iiaeeea?noue ?icoe?aiiy
a?aie/iiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ae?aiaciio naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei.

Iiaoaeiaaia i?e?ineii?/ia iiaeaeue i’?ciiii?o IIAe Si oa Ge c
a?aooaaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?eii? caeaaeiino? ni?i-i?a?oaeueii ?icuaieaiiy.
Aieea aeaoi?iaoe?? ia ii?? ?ic?aoiaoaaee ca a?aeiiei aeey
iaaeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa Ge ?-oeio iaoiaeii: aeoiaey/e ?c ni?iuaii? nenoaie
e?iaoe/ieo ??aiyiue Aieueoeiaia aeey ia??aii-aaaeieo ooieoe?e ?iciiae?eo
aaaeeeo oa eaaeeo ae??ie o iaaeeaeaii? ie?aieo /an?a ?aeaenaoe?? ll aeey
ia?aoiae?a o iaaeao l-? ciie oa a?aeiia?aeii lm aeey lm i?aecii-ieo
ia?aoiae?a. I?eeiaee iaaeeaeaiiy ?cio?iiii? ?iia??iino? i?oaeiiai
?icn?yi-iy Wlm(k,k’,) c iacaeaaeieie a?ae aeaoi?iaoe?? ?ioaa?aeaie
ia?ae?eooy aeio?a-nueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aiie?ooae Ilm().

Iieacaii, ui ?icuaieaiiy cii yaii aoiaeeoue eeoa o /an ?aeaenaoe?? 12
ia?a-oiae?a ?c ciie aaaeeeo aei aeaoi?iaoe?eii-a?aeuaieaii? ciie eaaeeo
ae??ie:

12-1(E,) = ??W12(k,k’, ).I12()EXP(-E/eO) J1-1(,k,,)?. (16)

*ane ?aeaenaoe?? 11, 22, 21 ?ioeo ia?aoiae?a caeaaeaoue a?ae
aeaoi?iaoe?? eeoa /a?ac ona?aaeiaiiy ?c caeaaeiei a?ae aeaoi?iaoe??
yeia?aiii (13):

lm-1(E,) = ?Wlm(k,k’,).Ilm().Jl-1(,k,,)?. (17)

Aieea aeaoi?iaoe?? ia a?aeiia?aeiee iaoai?ci ?icn?yiiy oa?aeoa?ecoaaee
o oa?i?iao a?aeiia?aeieo aoaeoeaieo ian, ye? aecia/aee iiae?aii aei
aoaeoeaieo ian aonoeie noai?a (14): ii??aiyiiyi ?ic?aoiaaieo /an?a
?aeaenaoe?? lm(E,) c a?-aeiieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie aeey noaiaea?oii?
ciie:

lm(E,) = o.Er mls(E,). (18)

Iiae?aii aei aoaeoeaieo ian aonoeie noai?a oe? iane oaeiae cia/iith
i??ith caeaaeaoue a?ae aia?a?? oa aeaoi?iaoe?? ? iathoue no?eaee, ui
iienothoueny ni?aa?ae-iioaiiyi (15), c oeo naieo i?e/ei. Aiaeia?/ii,
ona?aaeiaiiyi ii ?ciaia?-aaoe/i?e iiaa?oi? eaaae?aoo oaeaeeino? oa
ii??aiyiiyi c? noaiaea?oiith ciiith, aecia/aee aoaeoeai? iane
oaeaeeino?, ye? cia?aaeai? ia ?en. 4.

?en.4. Aoaeoeai? iane oaeaeeino? ae??ie IIAe Si: 1,1′,1»- hh, 2,2′,2»-
lh,i?e aeaoi?iaoe?yo: 1,2- = 0; 1′,2′- || = 0,4 %; 1»,2»- || = 1,2 %.

Ia a?aei?io a?ae aeuaiaaaaeaieo ian, iiaaae?iea aoaeoeaieo ian
oaeaeeino? ye?nii ci?ith?oueny c? ci?iith ciaea aeaoi?iaoe??: aiie
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeaoue a?ae aia?a?? oa aeaoi?iaoe?? eeoa i?e IIAe
?icoyao ? iaeaea iino?ei? i?e aeaoi?-iaoe?? noeneo.

Aeaeo?ii?ia?aei?noue i?e IIAe ?ic?aoiaoaaee a?aeiia?aeii aei i?eeiyoi?
iiaeae? ca ae?acii

wmetafile8? ??‚???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
A?7???&??yyyy?????Ayyy3/4yyyA6??~?? ???&? ?MathType??@
???u?????????»????-??????· ????U
????????b????©(?????+???O?U$????,$????,$??
?QU$???O?o4????c5????c5???Qo4???uAth??????aea vl =
h-1(kEl)[111] — oaeaee?noue ae??ee l -? ciie o iai?yieo [111], f0l —
??aiiaaaeia ooieoe?y ?iciiae?eo,

l-1 = (j)lm-1 (20)

— noia?iee /an ?aeaenaoe??, a i?aenoiiaoaaiiy a?aeaoaa?oueny ca an?ia
ciiaie eaaeeo, aaaeeeo oa ni?i-i?a?oaeueii a?aeuaieaieo ae??ie oa ca
j-oei iaoai?ciii ?icn?yiiy.

?en.5. I’?ciii?? a Si, ?ic?aoiaaiee ca iiaeaeyie: 1,2- ae?ini?ae., i?e
?ic-n?yii?: 1- ia ae. oiiiiao, 2- ia ?ii?c. aeii?oeao; 3- ?aaeueiee
ciiiee niaeo?; ?=31017ni-3, T=293K

?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a aeey Si iaaaaeai? ia ?en.5 ?acii c
aenia-?eiaioaeueieie cia/aiiyie oa ia/eneaiiyi ca a?aeiiith iiaeaeeth c
e?i?eiei aeaoi?iaoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii oa ae?ini?ae-ieie ?ciaia?aaoe/ieie
iiaa?oiyie. ?icoiaeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ii? e?eai? c eenia-?eiaioaeueieie
oi/eaie i?e aeaoi?iaoe?? ?icoyao > 0,7 % ?iia??ii aeeeeeaii ni?iuaiei
o?aooaaiiyi aieeao so-ciie. sse aeaeii c ?en. 5, iiaeaeue c e?i?eiei
aea-oi?iaoe?eiei iioaioe?aeii caaeia?eueii iieno? i’?ciii?? eeoa i?e
cia/ieo aea-oi?iaoe?yo noeneo: E>>eO. Aa??thaaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai
iioaioe?aeo o caeaae-iinoyo (,d)/0 ?ic?aoiaai? cia/aiiy eiinoaio d:
-5,21 aA aeey Si oa -4,47 aA aeey Ge, ye? aeia?a ocaiaeaeothoueny c
a?aeiieie aeaieie, ui io?eiai? ca ?ioeie iaoiaeeeaie.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi i’?ciii?? o oiieeo oa?ao Si oa Ge.
Ia-aaaeai? iniaeeaino? oaoiieia?? i???i-ooth/i? eaca?ii?
?ae?enoae?caoe?? no?oeoo? e?aii?e-ia-?cieyoi?? (EI?) ye iaea?eueo
ia?niaeoeaii? aeey noai?aiiy i?e?i-aeaeo?iiieo naini??a iaoai?/ieo
aaee/ei. Ia iniia? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i’?ciiii?o oiieeo
oa??a Si oa Ge ?ic?aoiaai? eiinoaioe aeanoi-iii?o oa iieacaii
aca?iica’ycie no?oeoo?e c i’?ciiii?ii i?e ??cieo niiniaao io?eiaiiy
oa??a. A oa?ao iie?-Si i?ney eaca?ii? ?ae?enoae?caoe?? aeiaeaoeiai aei
eoa?/ii? i?e?ineiao??? aeieea? cia/ii ieae/a iae?ineiao??y D4h, i?iyae
yei? iaiao?aeii a?aoiaoaaoe i?ae /an i?iaeooaaiiy oiiieia??
i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo nai-ni??a. Aei??thaaiiy iieacaee c?inoaiiy a
iie?e?aii?th neaey?ii? /anoeie oaici?a aeanoiiii?o T(02+)(m) aei 7…10
ii??aiyii c ?? aenia?eiaioaeueiei cia-/aiiyi aeey iiiie?enoae?/iiai ?-Si
c oaeith ae eiioeaio?aoe??th ae??ie Gac = 1/9Spm 4,7.

Aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aieeao i?aeca?aiieo a?aieoeue ia i’?ciii??
aeei?enoiaoaaee a?aeiio iiaeaeue oa?iiai?n?eii-aeeooc?eiiai ia?aiino
iin??a e??cue iioaioe?ei? aa?’??e ia ICA. Ia ?en.6 iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooieo aieeao ooai?aiiy iioaioe?eieo aa?’???a o oa?ao iie?-Si c
??ciith no?oeoo?ith ia ci?io i’?ciiii?o oa eiai oaiia?aoo?ii?
caeaaeiino? i?e ??cieo oa?aeoa?ieo ?ici??ao ca?ai L 0,1…100 iei..

?en.6. Aieea ICA ia ci?ie aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ai?cio?iiiiai iii?o iie?-Si
(a) oa eiai oaiia?aoo?ii? caeaaeiino? (b): 1- L~0,1 iei, 2- L~10 iei,
L~100 iei.

C ?en.6 aeaeii, ui i?aeoe/ii iioaioe?ei? aa?’??e ia i?aeca?aieo
a?aieoeyo aieeaathoue ia aeaoi?iaoe?eio ci?io ai?cio?ii?? iii?o eeoa
ia?a-e?enoae?ciaaiiai ae??aiie?enoae?/iiai iie?e?aii?th c
eiioeaio?aoe??th ai?o iaioa 3.1019 ni-3.

I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy no?oeoo?e oa i’?ciiii?o aaoa?iai?oaen?eieo oa
iie?e?enoae?/ieo oa??a ?-Ge iieacaee, ui aeoeaaoe?y i?ioean?a
no?oe-oo?iooai?aiiy i?ae /an ?iiii-ieaciiaiai inaaeaeaiiy ie?aie
aeicaiey? nea?iaaii ci?ithaaoe ?o i’?ci?acenoeai? aeanoeaino?. Aaee/eia
neaey?ii? /anoeie oaici?a aeanoiiii?o oaeiae c?inoa? ii??aiyii c
iiiie?enoaeii.

?ic?iaea naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei ia iniia? i?e?ie?enoae?a oa oa??a
Si oa Ge ?icaeyiooa o i’yoiio ?icae?e?. Ia i?aenoaa? oai?aoeei-a?oiiai?
eeane-o?eaoe?? ? o?ce/ii? iiaeae? i’?ciiii?o ?ic?iaeaia eiioeaioe?y
noai?aiiy i?e?i-aeaeo?iiieo i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a iaoai?/ieo
aaee/ei, yea aaco?oueny ia ai?cio?iiiiio i?oaeiiio aeaiaio?,
i’?ci?acenoeaiiio aoaeo? i?e ai?cio?iii?e aeaoi?iaoe?? oa aei??thaaii?
ai?cio?iiii? /anoeie iii?o DevR.

Cai?iiiiiaaii ?iaa??aioiee e?eoa??e () aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueiino?
i?oae-iiai noaio ia iiaa?oi? ai?cio?iiiiai /ooeeaiai aeaiaioa
i?e?iaeaeo?iiiiai naini?a ia iniia? aaee?aeiai? ii?ie ai?cio?iiii?
/anoeie oaici?a iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue X:

wmetafile8? ??w???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? ?A
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy? ??·?? ???&? ?MathType?? ?
???u?????????»????-?????I?-???W-???I?n???Wn???I
?E???WE???I? Icia/aiee oaeei /eiii -e?eoa??e ?iaa??aioii
aecia/a? /anoeio aeaoi?-iaoe??, yea ?icuaieth? ae?iaeaeaio ciio. Aeey
i?oaeieo noai?a, ye? cae/aeii aeei-?enoiaothoueny o naini?ao
0,6…0,7, oi/a max=1. Ca?aene aeieeaa? ia?-niaeoeai?noue oa
iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo iiaeo ai?cio?iiieo i?oaeieo aeaiaio?a.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaii? eiioeaioe?? ni?iaeoiaaii oa aeaioiaeaii
i?e?iaeaeo?iii? naini?e oeneo oa coneeey c eaca?ii-?ae?enoae?ciaaieie
EI?-no?oeoo?aie. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeey ca?eueoaiiy ?oei?aii? i?oeiino?
i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo naini??a aeei?enoiaoaaoe i?oaei? aeaiaioe c? neeueii
eaaiaaiiai (>1019ni-3) e?aii?th. Iieacaii cia/io ia?aaaao
no?oeoo?ii-aeineiiaeeo i?e?ie?enoae?a Si oa Ge aeey aeaioiaeaiiy
naini??a ia a?aie/iee ae?aiacii aeaoi?iaoe?e ±1 %. ?ic?iaeai? naini?e ?
ca iniiaieie ia?aiao?aie: — aeo?aeiei neaiaeii 50…100 iA oa
oaiia?aoo?iei ae?aiaciiii -60…+150 0N, ?iai/ith /anoioith aei
100…200 eAoe — ia iinooiathoueny naini?ai i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo o??i:
«Motorola», «Endevco», «Honeywell» oa ?i.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee

1. Ia i?aenoaa? oai?aoeei-a?oiiai? eeaneo?eaoe?? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a
oa noai?aii? i?e?ineii?/ii? iiaeae? ooi/iaii iaoai?ci i’?ciiii?o Si oa
Ge ?-oeio: ?icuaieaiiy ae?iaeaeaieo cii eaaeeo oa aaaeeeo ae??ie o
ia?ic?eaiiio ii?aeiaii? c? ci?iith ?o ?ciaia?aaoe/ieo iiaa?oiiue,
a?aeii? iiaeae? i’?ciiii?o ae??eiaeo Si oa Ge c iaci?iieie
?ciia?aaoe/ieie iiaa?oiyie caaeia?eueii iienothoue i’?ciii?? eeoa i?e
cia/ieo aeaoi?iaoe?yo noeneo: E>>eO.

2. Anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa Ge p-oeio ye aaaee?, oae ?
eaae? ae??ee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaai?aie aoaeoeaieo ian, ye? iathoue
??ciiiai?oi?, a oiio /ene? iaiiiioiii? caeaaeiino? a?ae aia?a?? oa
aeaoi?iaoe??.

3. Ia i?aenoaa? aenia?eiaioaeueiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i’?ci?acenoeaiiai
aoaeoo a i?e?ie?enoaeao Si oa Ge iieacaia iiaeeea?noue cia/iiai
?icoe?aiiy a?aie/iiai aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ae?aiaciio i’?ci?acenoeaieo
naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei aei 0,3 %.

4. ?c oai?aoeei-a?oiiaiai aiae?co aoaeo?a ia?aiino a aeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa
Ge aeieeaa?, ui oaici?e aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a iiaeia ?iaa??aioii
?iceeanoe ia no?oeoo?ii-iacaeaaeio /anoeio oa caeaaeio a?ae no?oeoo?e
ai?cio?iiio /anoeio.

5. Iiaeaethaaiiyi i’?ciiii?o iie?e?aii?th ?-oeio iieacaii, ui
iioaioe?ei? aa?’??e ia i?aeca?aieo a?aieoeyo aieeaathoue ia
aeaoi?iaoe?eio ci?io ai?cio?ii?? iii?o eeoa a ia?ae?enoae?ciaaiiio
ae??aiie?enoae?/iiio iaoa??ae?.

6. Iioei?caoe?y i?e?ino?oeoo?e oa??a iie?e?aii?th a EI?-no?oeoo?ao i?e
i???iooth/?e eaca?i?e ?ae?enoae?caoe?? i?ecaiaeeoue aei cia/iiai
(1,5…2 ?ace) ca?eueoaiiy ?o i’?ciiii?o ?, a?aeiia?aeii, aei ?noioiiai
iie?auaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee naini??a.

7. I?aaenoaaeaia o?ce/ia eiioeaioe?y noai?aiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo
i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai ?iaa??aioiiai
e?eoa??th i?oaeiiai noaio ai?cio?iiiiai /ooeeaiai aeaiaioa oa
aei??thaaii? ai?cio?iiii? /anoeie oaici?a iii?o iieaco? iai?yiie ?o
iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy.

8. Ia iniia? no?oeoo?ii-aeineiiaeeo i?e?ie?enoae?a Si oa Ge noai?ai?
oi?eaeuei? naini?e cia/ieo (1 %) i?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e.

9. Cai?iiiiiaaii iia? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy iiaoaeiae i?e?iaeaeo?iiieo
i’?ci?acenoeaieo naini??a ia iniia? EI?-no?oeoo?, ye? iniiaieie
ia?aiao?aie ia iinooiathoueny ae?iaai i?ia?aeieo ca?oa?aeieo o??i.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao:

1. Druzhinin A., Lavitska E., Maryamova I., Pankevich I., Pankov Y.
Electrical and piezoresistive characterisation of laser recrystallized
polysilicon layers in SOI stryctyres // Electron Technology.-
1999.-V.32.- No.1/2.- P.146-150.

2. Druzhinin A., Maryamova I., Lavitska E., Pankov Y. Physical aspects
of multifunctional sensors based on piezothermomagnetic effects in
semiconductors // Sensors and Actuators: A. Physical.-1998.-V.68.-
No.1-3.- P.229-233.

3. Eaaeoneay A.I., Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Ae?oaeeiei A.A., Iaieia TH.I.
Aeeyiea no?oeoo?u ia iueacinii?ioeaeaiea oiieeo neiaa iieee?aiiey
//Iai?aaie/aneea iaoa?eaeu.-1996.- O.32.- ?10.- N.1162-1164.

4. V.A.Voronin, I.I.Maryamova, A.A.Druzhinin, E.N.Lavitska, Y.M.Pankov
SOI pressure sensors based on laser recrystallized polysilicon /
Physical and Technical Problems of SOI Structures and Devices. Ed. by
J.P.Collinge et al. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Netherlands.- 1995.-
P.281-286.

5. Drushinin A.A., Maryamova I.I., Kogut I.T., Pankov Y.M. New
generation of mechanical sensors on the basis of laser-recrystallized
poly-Si layers //Sensors and Actuators.-1992.V.30.- No.1-2.- P.27-33.

6. Ae?oaeei?i A.A., Ia?`yiiaa ?.E., Einoo? A.A., Iaieia TH.I.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy oaici?acenoeaieo aeanoeainoae ?ae?enoae?ciaaieo
iie?e?aii??aeo oa??a //O?ce/ia aeaeo?ii?ea.-1992.- 42.- N.83-88.

7. Ae?oaeeiei A.A., Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Einoo? A.A., Iaieia TH.I.
Iueaci?acenoeaiua naini?u ia iniiaa no?oeoo? e?aiiee-ia-ecieyoi?a
//Iao?ieiaey.-1991.- 5.- N.20-25.

8. Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Iaieia TH.I. Oiieiieaii/iua oaici?acenoi?u,
iieo/aiiua eiiii-ieaciaiiui ?aniueaieai //I?eai?u e nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey.-1989.- ?7.- N.31-32.

9. Ooi?ee TH.A., Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Iaieia TH.I. E ?an/aoo iaeeiaeiinoe
oaicii?aia?aciaaoaeae ia iniiaa iieoi?iaiaeieeia n au?iaeaeaiiuie ciiaie
//Oece/aneay aeaeo?iieea.-1989.- ?39.- N.33-39.

10. Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Iaieia TH.I. Oiieiieaii/iua aa?iaieaaua
oaici?acenoi?u, iieo/aiiua eiiii-ieaciaiiui ?aniueaieai //?aaeeiaeaoaee
e ?aaeeieiiiiiaiou.-1987.- Aui.1(268).- N.33-39.

11. Iaieia TH.I. Aeoeaecaoeey i?ioeannia no?oeoo?iia?aciaaiey a ieaieao
e?aiiey e aa?iaiey iiae aicaeaenoaeai eiiiie aiiaa?aee?iaee //Oece/aneay
aeaeo?iieea,-1985.- ?31.- N.69-73.

12. Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Iaieia TH.I., Ai?ioeei A.E. Yeaeo?e/aneea naienoaa
e no?oeoo?a oiieiieaii/iuo aa?iaieaauo oaici?acenoi?ia //Oece/aneay
aeaeo?iieea.-1982.- ? 24.- N.95-96.

13. Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Iaieia TH.I., Ai?ioeei A.E., ?iiaithe I.I.
Eneaaeiaaiea oaiciiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee ieaiie aa?iaiey //Oece/aneay
aeaeo?iieea.-1980.- ? 21.- N.133-136.

14. Naiaeoeiaa A.A., Ia?ueyiiaa E.E., Caaaiy/ TH.E., Iaieia TH.I.,
Ai?ioeei A.E. Iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua oaici?acenoi?u n ?anoe?aiiui
aeeaiaciiii aeaoi?iaoeee //I?eai?u e nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey. -1976.- ? 1.-
C.23

15. Iao. 23103 A Oe?a?ia, IEB G01L9/06, H01L21/28. I’?ci?acenoeaiee
aeao/ee /Iaieia TH.I., Ae?oaeei?i A.A., Ia?’yiiaa ?.E. (Oe?a?ia).4 n.;
Iioae. 30.06.98, Athe. ?3.

16. Iao. 3059 Oe?a?ia, IEB G01L9/04. Oaiciiao?e/iee aeao/ee oeneo
/Iaieia TH.I., Ia?’yiiaa ?.E. (Oe?a?ia).- 4 n.; Iioae. 26.12.94, Athe.
?5-1.

17. Iao. 2029264 ?inneeneay Oaaea?aoeey, IEB G01L9/04. Oaiciiao?e/aneee
aeao/ee aeaaeaiey /Iaieia TH.I., Ia?ueyiiaa ?.E. (Oe?a?ia).- 4 n.;
Iioae. 20.02.95, Athe. ?5.

18. A.n. 977937 NNN?, IEE G01B7/18. Niinia ecia?aiey aeeiaie/aneeo
aeaoi?iaoeee /*aeo?ei A.O., Iaieia TH.I. (NNN?).- 3230996/25-28;
Cayaeaii 06.01.81; Iioae. 30.11.82, Athe. ?44. -3 n.

19. Iaieia TH.I. Eiiii-noeioee?iaaiiue ?ino oiieeo ieaiie e?aiiey e
aa?iaiey ia aii?oiuo iiaeeiaeeao // Aeai. A Oe?IEEIOE 03.01.1985. ?19
OE-85.- N.118-127.

Iaieia TH.I. I’?ciii?? o oiieeo oa?ao ? i?e?ie?enoaeao e?aii?th oa
aa?iai?th ?-oeio i?ia?aeiino? ? naini?e ia ?o iniia?. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.04.01 — o?ceea
i?eeaae?a, aeaiaio?a ? nenoai. — Aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao «Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea». Euea?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii eiiieaeniiio aenia?eiaioaeueiiio ?
oai?aoe/iiio aea/aiith i’?ciiii?o a Si oa Ge ?-oeio i?ia?aeiino? aeey
?ic?iaee ia oe?e iniia? naini??a iaoai?/ieo aaee/ei. I?iaaaeaia
oai?aoeei-a?oiiaa eeaneo?eaoe?y aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aoaeo?a o
aeiaciiiae?aieo iai?ai?ia?aeieeao ? anoaiiaeai? aeicaieai? o?ce/i?
iiaeae? i’?ci?acenoeaiiai aoaeoo a p-Si oa p-Ge. Aeine?aeaeaii i’?ciii??
a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? ??ciiiiey?ieo aeaoi?iaoe?e -1,2 %…+1 % ?
aecia/ai? aeaoi?iaoe?ei? caeaaeiino? ?o eiinoaio i’?ci- oa aeanoiiii?o.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui o aeaoi?iiaaieo Si oa Ge ye aaaee?, oae? eaae? ae??ee
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaai?aie aoaeoeaieo ian, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae aia?a??
oa aeaoi?iaoe??. Aecia/aii aca?iica’ycie i’?ciiii?o oa no?oeoo?e a
oiieeo oa?ao Si oa Ge. ?noioiiai iie?auaiiy oa?aeoa?enoee naini??a
aeinyaiooi caaaeyee aeei?enoaiith eaca?ii-?ae?enoae?ciaaieo
EI?-no?oeoo?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: i’?ciii??, e?aii?e, naini?, eaca?ia ?ae?enoae?caoe?y.

Pankov J.M. Piezoresistance of p-type silicon and germanium thin layers
and microcrystals and sensors on their base.- Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 01.04.01 — physics of
devices, elements and systems. — State university «Lviv polytechnic».
Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to the complex theoretical and experimental
study of the piezoresistance of p-type Si and Ge for the development of
piezoresistive sensors. Theory group classification of strain effects in
diamond-type semiconductors on the base of irreducible tensor
representations is developed. The investigation of piezoresistance in
p-type Si and Ge microcrystals in the wide strain range –1.2 %…+1 % is
carried out; the constants of piezo- and elastoresistance and their
deformation dependencies are calculated. It is established that the
heavy and light holes in strained Si and Ge are characterized by the set
of effective masses, which have different dependencies from the energy
and strain. The correlation between piezoresistance and structure of Si
and Ge thin layers is determined. The significant improvement of
sensor’s performance is achieved due to laser recrystallized
SOI-strucrures application.

Key words: piezoresistance, silicon, germanium, sensor, SOI-strucrure,
laser recrystallization.

Iaieia TH.I. Iueacinii?ioeaeaiea a oiieeo neiyo e iee?ie?enoaeeao
e?aiiey e aa?iaiey ?-oeia i?iaiaeeiinoe e naini?u ia eo iniiaa. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa
oeceei-iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.04.01 — oeceea
i?eai?ia, yeaiaioia e nenoai. Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao “Eueaianeay
iieeoaoieea” Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio yenia?eiaioaeueiiio e
oai?aoe/aneiio eco/aieth iueacinii?ioeaeaiey a Si e Ge ?-oeia
i?iaiaeeiinoe aeey ?ac?aaioee ia yoie iniiaa naini?ia iaoaie/aneeo
aaee/ei e ninoieo ec aaaaeaiey, iyoe ?acaeaeia, auaiaeia e nienea
eniieueciaaiiuo eeoa?aoo?iuo enoi/ieeia.

Ai aaaaeaiee iainiiaaia aeooaeueiinoue aeenna?oaoeeiiiuo enneaaeiaaiee,
noi?ioee?iaaia eo oeaeue e caaea/e, iienaia iao/iay iiaecia e
i?aeoe/aneay oeaiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia.

Ia iniiaa iaci?a e aiaeeca iao/iuo ioaeeeaoeee iieacaii, /oi iniiaiui
?acoeueoaoii aeaenoaey aeaoi?iaoeee ia nii?ioeaeaiea Si e Ge ?-oeia
yaeyaony aicieeiiaaiea aiecio?iiee i?e ii/oe iaeciaiiii aai on?aaeiaiiii
cia/aiee.

?ac?aaioaia oai?aoeei-a?oiiiaay eeanneoeeaoeey aeaoi?iaoeeiiiuo
yooaeoia a aeiaciiiaeiaiuo iieoi?iaiaeieeao. Ia iniiaa ?aceiaeaiey
i?yiiai i?iecaaaeaiey iai?eaiaeeiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee iieiie i?oiaiiaeueiie
a?oiiu O(3) a ?yae Eeaaoa-Ai?aeaia ii?aaeae?i aacen iai?eaiaeeiuo
oaici?iuo i?aaenoaaeaiee eae i?aeo oi/a/iie a?oiiu G ioiineoaeueii
i?yiiai i?iecaaaeaiey a?oii O(3), /oi aeaei aiciiaeiinoue
aeaoaeece?iaaoue i?aaeea ioai?a oaici?ia aeaoi?iaoeeiiiuo yooaeoia.
Iieacaii, a /anoiinoe, /oi a yoeo iaoa?eaeao a oeaio?a ciiu A?eeethyia
neaey?iua aaee/eiu (niauaiey yia?aaoe/aneeo cii, ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea
eiioeaio?aoeee iineoaeae e o. i.) ia ii-aoo eiaoue eeiaeiuo /eaiia
ioiineoaeueii aiecio?iiiie /anoe aeaoi?iaoeee.

Iienaii aeeyiea iaeiiinii iai?yaeaiiiai aeaoi?ie?iaaiey (IIAe) || [111]
ia au?iaeaeaiiua ciiu oyae?euo, eaaeeo e so-iouaie?iiuo aeu?ie a Si e
Ge. A Si aeeyiea so-ciiu i?iyaeyaony a iaeeiaeiii aic?anoaiee so n
aeaoi?iaoeeae. A Ge aeeyiea so-ciiu ciiu caiaoii oieueei i?e
cia/eoaeueiuo aeaoi?iaoeeyo  > 0,6 %.

Ia iniiaa yenia?eiaioaeueiiai enneaaeiaaiey iueacinii?ioeaeaiey p-Si e
p-Ge a oe?ieii aeeaiaciia ?aciiiiey?ieo aeaoi?iaoeee -1,2 %…+1 %,
ii?aaeaeaiu eiinoaiou iueaci- e yeanoinii?ioeaeaiey e eo
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiua caaeneiinoe. Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?aiey
a?aie/iiai aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai aeeaiaciia naini?ia iaoaie/aneeo aaee/ei.
Iino?iaia iee?ineiie/aneay iiaeaeue iueacinii?ioeaeaiey IIAe Si e Ge
?-oeia. Iieacaii, /oi e?aeea e oyaeaeua aeu?ee oa?aeoa?ecothony iaai?aie
yooaeoeaiuo iann, eioi?ua a caaeneiinoe io yia?aee e aeaoi?iaoeee
eciaiythony a ianeieueei ?ac n ia?anaeathueieny eioa?aaeaie cia/aiee.
Auyaeaii cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea aeaoi?iaoeee ia i?ioeannu ?annayiey
aeu?ie i?e o/anoee iaaeciiiuo ia?aoiaeia iaaeaeo aaoayie oyae?euo e
eaaeeo aeu?ie. Ecaanoiua iiaeaee iueacinii?ioeaeaiey ia iniiaa eeiaeiiai
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea yaeythony aneiioioe/anee aa?iuie i?e
aieueoeo aeaoi?iaoeeyo naeaoey, o.a. i?e aeaoi?iaoeeiiiii ?anuaieaiee
cii, cia/eoaeueii i?aauoathuai kT. ?ann/eoaiiua cia/aiey eiinoaio d
aeaoi?iaoeeiiiiai iioaioeeaea ninoaaeytho –5,21 yA aeey Si e –4,47 yA
aeey Ge.

Iieacaia acaeiinaycue no?oeoo?u e iueacinii?ioeaeaiey a oiieeo neiyo Si
e Ge. Yenia?eiaioaeueiua ecia?aiey eiinoaio yeanoinii?ioeaeaiey iieacaee
cia/eoaeueiia aic?anoaiea neaey?iie /anoe ii n?aaiaieth n a? cia/aieyie
aeey iiiie?enoaeee/aneiai iaoa?eaea. Iiaeaee?iaaieai iueacinii?ioeaeaiey
iieee?aiiey iieacaii, /oi iioaioeeaeueiua aa?uea?u ia iaaeca?aiiuo
a?aieoeao i?aeoe/anee ia aeeytho ia aeaoi?iaoeeiiiia eciaiaiea
aiecio?iiee nii?ioeaeaiey a ?ae?enoaeeciaaiiii iiee-Si.

Enoiaey ec oece/aneie iiaeaee iueacinii?ioeaeaiey ?ac?aaioaia
eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey iee?iyeaeo?iiiuo naini?ia, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia
aiecio?iiiii oi?oaii yeaiaioa, iueaci?acenoeaiii yooaeoa i?e
aiecio?iiiie aeaoi?iaoeee e ecia?aiee aiecio?iiiie /anoe nii?ioeaeaiey,
/oi a niaieoiiinoe iicaieyao oiaiueoeoue aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?iuo
a?aaeeaioia. I?aaeeiaeai eiaa?eaioiue e?eoa?ee aeey ii?aaeaeaiey
iioeiaeueiinoe oi?oaiai ninoiyiey aiecio?iiiiai /oanoaeoaeueiiai
yeaiaioa naini?a, iniiaaiiue ia yaeeeaeiaie ii?ia aeaaeaoi?a oaici?a
iaoaie/aneeo iai?yaeaiee e ii?aaeaeythuee aeaoi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay
?anuaieyao au?iaeaeaiioth ciio. Aeey oi?oaeo ninoiyiee, iau/ii
eniieuecoaiuo a naini?ao, =0,6…0,7, oioy max=1. Ec yoiai neaaeoao
ia?niaeoeaiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue iienea iiauo aiecio?iiiuo oi?oaeo
yeaiaioia. I?aaeeiaeaii aeey oaaee/aiey ?ac?ooathuae i?i/iinoe
iee?iyeaeo?iiiuo naini?ia eniieueciaaoue oi?oaea yeaiaiou ec neeueii
eaae?iaaiiiai (>1019ni-3) e?aiiey. Nouanoaaiiiai oeo/oaiey oa?aeoa?enoee
?ac?aaioaiiuo iee?iyeaeo?iiiuo naini?ia aeinoeaiooi aeaaiaea?y
eniieueciaaieth i?eaioe?othuae eaca?iie ?ae?enoaeeecaoeee
iieee?aiieaaiai neiy a EIE-no?oeoo?ao. Iieacaii i?aeiouanoai
no?oeoo?ii-niaa?oaiiuo iee?ie?enoaeeia Si e Ge ?-oeia aeey ecaioiaeaiey
naini?ia aieueoeo (1%) aeaoi?iaoeee. ?ac?aaioaiiua naini?u caueuaiu
iaoaioaie e iaeaaeatho neaaeothueie iniiaiuie ia?aiao?aie: auoiaeiie
neaiae 50…100 iA, oaiia?aoo?iue aeeaiacii -60…+150 0N, ?aai/ay
/anoioa aei 100…200 eAoe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iueacinii?ioeaeaiea, e?aiiee, aa?iaiee, naini?,
EIE-no?oeoo?a, eaca?iay ?ae?enoaeeecaoeey.

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