Нейронна організація кортико-гіпоталамічних зв’язків як функціональна основа емоційно-мотиваційної поведінки (електрофізіологічне дослідження): Авторе

I?i?noa?noai ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. Ai?ueeiai

IAO?ON Ea?ena Aaeaioei?aia

OAeE 612.826.4

Iae?iiia i?aai?caoe?y ei?oeei-a?iioaeai?/ieo ca’yce?a

ye ooieoe?iiaeueia iniiaa aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?eii? iiaaae?iee
(aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy)

14.03.03 — ii?iaeueia o?c?ieia?y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao?
?i.I.Ai?ueeiai I?i?noa?noaa ioi?iie caei?ia’y Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee:

aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?aaoeia Iaaei sseiae/

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee

oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.Ai?ueeiai,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e o?c?ieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

· aeieoi? a?ieia?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee Aaneeaiei
Aeieo?i A?oo?iae/, ?inoeooo o?c?ieia?? ?i.I.I.Aiaiiieueoey IAI Oe?a?ie,
i?ia?aeiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

· aeieoi? iaaee/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Oaeaea?iei Ieaenaiae? Ieeieaeiae/,
Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I.Ai?ueeiai, i?ioani?
eaoaae?e oa?iaeieia??

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa:

Aei?i?iiao?ianueea aea?aeaaia iaaee/ia aeaaeai?y IIC Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a
ii?iaeueii? o?c?ieia??

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “_15_”_09_1999 ?. i _11_ aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 11.600.01 o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
iaaee/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i.I.Ai?ueeiai (340003, Aeiiaoeuee,
i?.?ee?/a,16).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I.Ai?ueeiai (340003, Aeiiaoeuee,
i?.?ee?/a,16).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_31_”__07__ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Nieaeae ?.?.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. A?iioaeaion ? iaeiei c oi?eaeueieo ooai?aiue
aieiaiiai iiceo. Oe?iea caoe?eaaeaiiy, ui aeyaeythoue aei eiai aea/aiiy
aeine?aeieee ??cieo iai?yie?a, iia’ycaia c oei no?aoaa?/iei iieiaeaiiyi,
yea caeia? a?iioaeaion na?aae ?ioeo ooai?aiue aieiaiiai iiceo,
aaaaoia?aii?noth eiai ca’yce?a ? ooieoe?e, aaiethoe?eiith ?
ooieoe?iiaeueiith aaoa?iaaii?noth (a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? oeeo oa?i?i?a).
I?ioa, iaaooue, iaeaieiai?oei /eiieeii, yeee coiiaeth? iniaeeaee ?ioa?an
aei a?iioaeaiona, ? oa ianoaaeia, ui oey no?oeoo?a ? iaeaaaeeea?oei
oeaio?ii eiio?ieth iaeaea an?o aaaaoaoeaieo ooieoe?e, oeaio?ii, a yeiio
?ioaa?o?oueny ia?aiaa ? aoii?aeueia ?aaoeyoe?y. Naia c oe??th
ianoaaeiith iia’ycai? aaiethoe?ei?, ii?oieia?/i? ? ooieoe?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? a?iioaeaiona.

Ii/eiath/e c ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue Ea?iethna ? E?aeaeea
(1909), a?iioaeaion aoa ? ? ia’?eoii ieeueii? oaaae c aieo o?c?ieia?a ?
iae?iii?oieia?a, a?io?i?e?a ? oa?iaeieia?a, ee?i?oeeno?a ?
iaoiii?oieia?a. Aeaoaeueiiio aea/aiith aoee i?aeaeai? oiiia?ao?y, oeeoi-
? ieaeia?o?oaeoii?ea yaea? a?iioaeaiono, eiai ca’ycee c ??cieie
ooai?aiyie iiceo, iiaeeo?eaoe?? iiaaae?iee i?e iiae?aciaii? ?
aeano?oeoe??? ??cieo a?aeae?e?a a?iioaeaiono (Ranson et al., 1935; Hess,
1956; Oiieeo, 1965; A?auaieia, 1964; Noaeaeia, 1971; Aaeeaaaaeaeyi,
1967; 1969; 1977; 1981; 1983; Boulant, 1980; Grijaiva, 1990; Amann,
Constantinescu, 1990; Hennessey et al., 1990; Roeling et al., 1993;
Nakamura, 1993; Eacaeia e ae?., 1976; 1978; 1990; 1993; Kurzina et al.,
1995; Blair, 1996; Guillamon, Segovia, 1997; Risold et al., 1997;
Eociaoeia, 1998 oa ?i.). I?ioa ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue ana ae ia
aeicaieeee noai?eoe iaeiicia/ieo ? aaeaeaaoieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e
ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? a?iioaeai?/ieo iaoai?ci?a.

O/anoue a?iioaeaiono a ?ioaa?aoe?? ??cieo oi?i iiaaae?iee
caaacia/o?oueny iino?eiith eiai aca?iiae??th c aaaaoueia a?aeae?eaie
aieiaiiai iiceo (Sakanaka et al., 1988; Hansen, 1989; Nieto et al.,
1989; Hennessey et al., 1990; Seki, Zyo, 1992; Kazakov et al., 1992;
Kurzina et al., 1995; Guillamon, Segovia, 1997; Risold, Swanson, 1997).
Aea/aiiy oeeo ca’yce?a ? iaeiei ?c i?eioeeiiaeo i?aeoiae?a aeey
?ice?eooy ooieoe?iiaeueii? i?aai?caoe?? a?iioaeai?/ii? ae?eyiee.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy Eethaa?a ? Athn? (1939) oa oai?aoe/ia ?iaioa Iaiaoea
(1937) noaee ooiaeaiaioaeueieie aeey ?ice?eooy iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo iniia
iioeaaoe?eii-aiioe?iiaeueii? iiaaae?iee, caii/aoeoaaee ?aoaeueia
aea/aiiy aca?iiae?? a?iioaeaiono c e?ia?/ieie ooai?aiiyie iiceo. Oe?
?iaioe noaee ?aeaieia?/iith iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue (o
oiio /ene? oaeeo, ye? i?iaiaeyoueny ua c ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a o iao?e
eaai?aoi??? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?ioani?a A.I.Eacaeiaa), ni?yiiaaieo ia
aea/aiiy iniaeeainoae ei?oeeiooaaeueiiai eiio?ieth ae?yeueiino?
a?iioaeaiono (Eacaeia e ae?., 1976; 1986; 1990; 1993; Eacaeia, E?aaoeia,
1978; Kazakov et al., 1992). Aoei aeyaeaii ?yae eiie?aoieo iae?iiieo
iaoai?ci?a ae?yeueiino? a?iioaeaiono, ye? noai?ththoue i?aea?oioy
?aaoeyoe?? aioo??oiuei? noa?e i?aai?cio.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a aeine?aeaeaii? ei?oeei-a?iioaeai?/ieo aca?iiae?e
caeia? ieoaiiy a?aeiinii ?o ?ie? a iaoai?ciao aoa?aioiiai neioaco, a
oaeiae ?o cia/aiiy a ae?yeueiino? a?iioaeaiono ye iniiaiiai ?ioaa?aoi?a
iioeaaoe?eieo i?ioean?a i?aai?cio (Aiioei, Noaeaeia, 1971). Iaeo?ni?o?
aiaoii?/i? ca’ycee a?iioaeaiono c o?iioiaacaeueieie ? ia???oaeueieie
ei?oeeaeueieie oi?iaoe?yie (Nauta, 1964; Eoeo?e/eei, 1973; E?aaoeia,
1976; Eacaeia e ae?. 1978; 1986; Kazakov et al.,., 1992; N.P.Kurzina et
al., 1995; Glasca et al., 1989; Grijalva, Novin, 1990; Swanson,
Mogenson, 1981; Risold et al., 1997) aeicaieythoue ia?aaeaa/aoe, ui
aeaia ae?eyiea iiceo iiaea aooe a?aeae?eii, aea cae?enith?oueny
?ioaa?aoe?y neaiae?a, ui iaaeoiaeyoue a?ae caaaeaii? a?oie ei?oeeaeueieo
iie?a.

Ieoaiiy aea/aiiy iaoai?ci?a ?iaioe aaaaoieaiaeueii? o?eiaaiaoe/ii ?
ooieoe?iiaeueii aaoa?iaaiii? nenoaie iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaen — a?iioaeaion ?
aaaeeeaei aeey aeyaeaiiy aaiethoe?eieo i?eioeei?a ae?yeueiino? oe???
nenoaie, a oaeiae ?? ?ie? o oi?ioaaii? aiioe?iiaeueii-iioeaaoe?eii?
iiaaae?iee. Ao?i, aeaea?aea ieco?aeieo aieea?a ia a?iioaeaion ana ua
aea/ai? iaaeinoaoiuei, ? /?oe? oyaeaiiy i?i ooieoe?iiaeueia ?o
i?ecia/aiiy ia noi?iiaai?.

Iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoiei i?aeoiaeii aei aea/aiiy aeacaieo iaoai?ci?a ? ?o
ooieoe?iiaeueieo iniaeeainoae ? ?a?no?aoe?y aeoeaiino? ie?aieo iae?ii?a
a?iioaeaiona i?e noeioeyoe?? a?aeiia?aeieo aoiae?a. Oeae iaoiae
aeicaiey? anoaiiaeoe ia o?eueee iayai?noue iaaeiae?iiieo ca’yce?a, aea ?
?o ae?aaeai?noue ? iai?yiie (oii?/i? ? oace/i? aieeae, aeoeaaoe?y aai
aaeueioaaiiy), a oaeiae aeicaiey? neeanoe oyaeaiiy i?i no?oeoo?o
aeine?aeaeoaaieo ca’yce?a (iie?neiaioe/i?, ie?aineiaioe/i?).

?c e??eiaeo ae?eyiie iaea?eueoee ?ioa?an c oi/ee ci?o aiae?co
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aca?iiae?? c a?iioaeaionii yaeythoue i?i?aaeueia ?
iiynia ei?oeeaeuei? caeaeie, i???oi?iia ei?a ? a?iieaii. Oe?
ei?oeeaeuei? no?oeoo?e iathoue iaea?eueo o?nia a?aeiioaiiy aei
?aaoeyoe?? aaaaoueio aaaaoaoeaieo ooieoe?e. Ii?oieia?/i? aeai?
na?ae/aoue i?i iayai?noue cia/ieo i?iaeoe?e c oeeo ei?oeeaeueieo
ae?eyiie ei?e aei a?iioaeaiona. Ie??i oiai, caaaeai? ei?oeeaeuei?
no?oeoo?e ?noioii a?ae??ciythoueny a aaiethoe?eiiio aniaeo?; naia
inoaiiy ianoaaeia aeaea i?aenoaae eaae?o?eoaaoe ?o eiiieaen ye
iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaen.

Aaaeeeaei iaoai?ciii, ui caaacia/o? aca?iiae?th no?oeoo? aieiaiiai
iiceo, ? eiiaa?aaioe?y neaiae?a, ye? eaeooue ?c ??cieo no?oeoo?, aei
iaeieo e oeo aea iae?iiieo iaeeieoeue. Ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
eiiaa?aaioieo aeanoeainoae iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiono a?aeiinii
ei?oeeiooaaeueieo aieea?a iiaeooue aooe io?eiai? nooo?a? oaeoe aeey
iiaoaeiae noaie ooieoe?iiaeueii? aca?iiae?? aeacaieo no?oeoo?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue ye o?aaiaio caieaiiaaii? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
i?ioani?a I.ss.E?aaoeiaa eaoaae?aeueii? oaie “No?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueia
i?aai?caoe?y ca’yce?a e??eiaeo ooai?aiue c a?iioaeaionii” (?
aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? 0198 U 001646, oa?i?i aeeiiaiiy 1997-2000 ??.). Oaio
aeena?oaoe?? caoaa?aeaeaii ia can?aeaii? A/aii? ?aaee AeiiAeIO 12
aa?aciy 1998 ?., i?ioieie ? 3.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue: Iaoa i?aaenoaaeaii? ?iaioe – ?c
canoinoaaiiyi aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ieo iaoiaeee aeyaeoe iaoai?cie
aca?iia?aeiioaiue ??cieo a?aeae?e?a ei?e aaeeeeo i?aeoeue c yae?aie
a?iioaeaiona oa aecia/eoe i?eioeeie ?ioaa?aoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a.

O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaoith ae??ooaaeeny oae? eiie?aoi? caaea/?:

1. I?iaiae?coaaoe /aniao i?aai?caoe?th ?iioeuenii? aeoeaiino? ie?aieo
iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona oa ?? ci?ie i?ae aieeaii noeioeyoe?? ei?e
aieiaiiai iiceo;

2. Aeine?aeeoe ?aaeoe?? ie?aieo iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiono ia iiiaeeiie?
iiae?aciaiiy iai-, a?o?-, ? iaeaiei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? ei?e aieiaiiai
iiceo;

3. Aeine?aeeoe ?aaeoe?? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a ia na??ei? iiae?aciaiiy
oeo naieo ae?eyiie ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo;

4. Aecia/eoe iayai?noue ? oa?aeoa? eiiaa?aaioe?? ieco?aeieo aoa?aioieo
neaiae?a, ui ?aeooue a?ae o?eiaaiaoe/ii ??cieo ei?oeeaeueieo ae?eyiie
aei a?iioaeaiono.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iienai? iniaeeaino? /aniai? i?aai?caoe?? ?iioeuenii? aeoeaiino? iae?ii?a
a?iioaeaiono. Eeaneo?eiaaii o?e oeie oaei? aeoeaiino? a?aeiia?aeii
nooiaith oeeee?/iino? ?iioeuenaoe?? oa o?e oeie ?iciiae?eo
i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a oiiiai? aeoeaiino? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a.
Io?eiai? i?ea?iaeuei? aeai? i?i ca’ycee iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaena c ??cieie
no?oeoo?aie a?iioaeaiono. Iienai? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?aaeoe?e a?iioaeai?/ieo
iae?ii?a ia noeioeyoe?th ??cieo ae?eyiie iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno. Iieacaii
???a?o?/iee aaiethoe?eiee i?eioeei i?aai?caoe?? oeeo ca’yce?a. Aeyaeaia
eieae?caoe?y iae?ii?a c ??cieie oeiaie a?aeiia?aeae oa iniaeeaino? ?o
?aaaoaaiiy ia e??eiao noeioeyoe?th ??cii? /anoioe.

I?iaeaiiino?iaaii, ui i?e na??eieo iiae?aciaiiyo aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe??
aeieeathoue cia/ii /ano?oa, i?ae caoaeaeoaaeuei?. Aeyaeaiee a?aae??io
aaeueioaaiiy, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny a aniaeo? o?eiaaiaco ei?oeeaeueieo
no?oeoo?: i?i?iaeueia /anoea aaeuei?aieo ?aaeoe?e niinoa??aaeany i?e
iiae?aciaii? iaiei?oaeno (i?i?aaeueia caeaeia), a?eueoith aiia aoea i?e
iiae?aciaii? iaaeooi/ii? ei?e (iiynia caeaeia), ua a?eueoith — i?e
iiae?aciaii? iaeaiei?oaeno (i???oi?iia ei?a), a i?e iiae?aciaii?
a?oeei?oaeno (a?iieaiia) aaeueioaaiiy aoei iaeaea ?aeeiei aeaeii
?aaeoe?e. A?aae??io aaeueioaaiiy, aeyaeaiee i?e iiiaeeiieeo
iiae?aciaiiyo, c?inoaa a oiiaao na??eii? noeioeyoe??.

Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy iiae?aciaiue e??eiaeo cii c ??cieie /anoioaie
i?eioeeiiai ia ci?ithaaei iai?yieo ?aaeoe?e a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a, aea
aieeaaei ia ?o ?ioaineai?noue.

Aia?oa i?iaaaeaii aeaoaeueiee aiae?c eiiaa?aaioieo aeanoeainoae
oanoiaaieo iae?ii?a, aeyaeai? oieone eiiaa?aaioe?? oa ?o eieae?caoe?y;
oea a naith /a?ao, aeicaiey? ?ioa?i?aooaaoe iaoai?cie ?ioaa?aoeaii?
ae?yeueiino? ?aaoeyoi?ieo cii a?iioaeaiono.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe. Oai?aoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe
iieyaa? o oiio, ui cai?iiiiiaai? iia? a?eueo aaeaeaaoi? oyaeaiiy i?i
aca?iia?aeiineie ei?e ? aiioe?iaaiii-iioeaaoe?eieo cii a?iioaeaiono;
cie?aia, aecia/aiee i?eioeei aaiethoe?eii? oa ooieoe?iiaeueii?
aaoa?iaaiiino? ca’yce?a oeeo no?oeoo?. ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeacothoue ia aaaeeeao ?ieue ei?oeei-a?iioaeai?/ieo aca?iia?aeiinei a
eiio?ie? ei?ith aaeeeeo i?aeoeue iioeaaoe?? i?e ?aae?caoe?? a?ieia?/ieo
iio?aa i?aai?cio, aeicaieythoue i?iiiioaaoe iiyniaiiy iaoai?ci?a
ei?oeeaeueiiai eiio?ieth a?noea?aeueieo ooieoe?e i?aai?cio. Oe? aeai?
iiaeooue aooe oai?aoe/iith aacith aeey iiaeaeueoiai aiae?co ? ciaeaeooue
canoinoaaiiy a iae?io?c?ieia?/ieo eaai?aoi??yo iaoeiai-aeine?aeieo
?inoeooo?a o?c?ieia??, eaoaae? o?c?ieia?? iaaee/ieo aoc?a oa
oi?aa?neoao?a, a oaeiae ciiaeooue aooe cai?iaaaeaeai? o iaaeaaia?/iee
i?ioean o ia?aa?ao aeeeaaeaiiy ?icae?e?a o?c?ieia?? OeIN oa aaaaoaoeaii?
ia?aiai? nenoaie.

Iaea?aeai? aeai? aeathoue iia? i?aenoaae aeey ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iaoiaaiaco
aeayeeo caoai?thaaiue, ui aeieeathoue ye iane?aeie ii?ooaiue ei?e
aieiaiiai iiceo, a oaeiae ia?aiai-ineo?/ieo ?iceaae?a, iai?eeeaae,
caoai?thaaiue, ye? noi?iaiaeaeothoueny ae?aioeaoaeueiei neiae?iiii,
noaeeiieie aeenoii?yie, ii?ooaiiyie oa?ii-, inii- /e
aiethinoaa?e?caoe??, oeeee?a nii-ianiaiiy oa ?io.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Aeena?oaioii iniaenoi aeeiiai? an?
aenia?eiaioe, iienai? a ?iaio?, i?iaaaeaiee e?eoe/iee aiae?c no/anieo
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaieo c ?icaeyiooi? i?iaeaie oa ia?iaea iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a, a oaeiae aeeeaaeai? an? ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe??. sseui aoee
aeei?enoai? ?aea? aai oaoi?/i? ?ic?iaee, eio?? iaeaaeaoue ni?aaaoi?ai
iioae?eiaaieo ?ia?o — o/anieeai aeine?aeieoeueei? a?oie, a oaeno?
c?iaeaii a?aeiia?aei? iineeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue
aeeeaaeai? ia XXXIII Anana?oiueiio eiia?an? o?c?ieia?/ieo iaoe
(Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1997); XV Iaoe?iiaeueiiio c’?cae? o?c?ieia?a Oe?a?ie
(Aeiiaoeuee, 1998); iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/ai?e 100-??//th
eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? o?c?ieia?? NIaAIO (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a, 1998);
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaaeeoeeineea i?eeiaeaiey
iaoaiaoe/aneeo e eiaeaia?iuo iaoe” (Oa?e?a, 1998); I-?e (onoaiia/?e)
eiioa?aioe?? Oe?a?inueeiai oiaa?enoaa iae?iiaoe (Ee?a, 1998); ia
can?aeaii? eaoaae?e ii?iaeueii? o?c?ieia?? Aeiiaoeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iaaee/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i.I Ai?ueeiai (1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a 14 ioae?eaoe?yo, a oiio
/ene? a 4 noaooyo o oaoiaeo iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao; 3 ioae?eaoe?? ai?uaii a
ca??ieeao noaoae, 7 — o iaoa??aeao ? oacao eiioa?aioe?e.

Ianya ? no?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 160 noi??ieao
iaoeiiieno, i?noeoue a nia? anooi oa iniiaio /anoeio, ui neeaaea?oueny c
iaeyaeo e?oa?aoo?e, aeeeaaeaiiy iaoiaeeee, ?acoeueoao?a aeanieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oa ocaaaeueiaiiy ?acoeueoao?a (6 ?icae?e?a), aeniiaee oa
nienie aeei?enoaieo e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae, yeee neeaaea?oueny c 202
iaeiaioaaiue, aeiaeaoie. A ?iaio? ai?uaii 12 oaaeeoeue oa 46
?ethno?aoe?e, ui caeia? 47 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO

Iaoa??aee e iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaaaeai? ia 19
aacii?iaeieo aei?ineeo e?oeao iaio noaoae ianith 2,5-3,5 ea a oiiaao
aino?iai aenia?eiaioo. O??o?a?/i? i?ioeaaeo?e oa ianooiiee
aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/iee aenia?eiaio i?iaiaeeeeny i?ae eiia?iiaaiei (eaoai?i
+ caeen acioo) ia?eicii. O??o?a?/ia ao?o/aiiy aeeth/aei aei naaa
aaianaeoe?th ? eaoaoa??caoe?th i?aai? v. femoralis, i?aia?iaeo ?
eaoaoa??caoe?th a.carotis interna, o?aoainoii?th, ae?aioaaiiy cisternae
subarachnoidalis, o?aiaiaoe?th /a?aia ? /anoeiao ani??aoe?th iiceiai?
oeaieie e?ai? i?aeoe? aei ventriculus lateralis. Oaa?ei ia?aaiaeeee ia
ooo/ia aeeoaiiy; iaaeae? e?aiaeueii aaiaeeee eaoai?i oa i?i?aeaenei a
i?aeo?eioth/eo aeicao.

?iioeuenio aeoeai?noue ie?aieo iae?ii?a a?aeaiaeeee iicaee?oeiii ca
aeiiiiiaith neeyieo i?e?iaeaeo?iae?a c iii?ii 10-20 IIi, caiiaiaieo
?ic/eiii NaN? (3 I). Aaaaeaiiy i?e?iaeaeo?iaea i?iaiaeeeiny /a?ac
eiio?aeaoa?aeueio i?aeoeth i?ae ??cieie eooaie aei ai?eciioaeueii?
noa?aioaene/ii? ieiueie oaeei /eiii, uia i?aeo?ae aei aeine?aeaeoaaii?
ae?eyiee caaacia/oaaa iaeiaioo o?aaiaoecaoe?th no?oeoo? a?iioaeaiona.
A?noieia?/ia aa?eo?eaoe?y oi/ie a?aeaaaeaiiy i?iaiaeeeany ca?aeii c
aoeanii Aeaeania?a oa Aeiii-Ia?oaia (1954) ca noaiaea?oiith iaoiaeeeith
i?ney aeaioiaeaiiy iine?aeiaieo o?iioaeueieo c??c?a iiceo.

Aeey iiae?aciaiiy ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? iiiaeeiieeie oa na??eieie
(6-100 n-1) noeioeaie aoee aeei?enoai? a?iiey?i? i?o?iiia? aeaeo?iaee,
?cieueiaai? ca aeeeth/aiiyi e?i/ee?a. I?aeaeaeo?iaeia a?aenoaiue
noaiiaeea 1-2 ii; aeaeo?iaee aeiethaaeeny a oeaieio e??eiaeo ooai?aiue
ia aeeaeio 2-3 ii. Neea noeioeyoe?? eiaeii? c ei?oeeaeueieo ae?eyiie a 2
?ace ia?aaeuoaaea ii?iaiao aeey aeieeiaiiy aeeeeeaieo iioaioe?ae?a.
Inoaii? a?aeaiaeeeeny ca aeiiiiiaith neeyieo i?e?iaeaeo?iae?a c iecueeei
iii?ii ia a?aenoai? 2-3 ii a?ae noeioethth/eo aeaeo?iae?a.

Iiceoe?thaaiiy iiae?acithth/eo aeaeo?iae?a aeeiioaaeiny ca eii?aeeiaoaie
noa?aioaene/iiai aoeano ?aeiici-Noa?aoea (1961) o i?i?aaeuei?e (iiea 8),
iiyni?e (iiea 24) caeaeiao, i???oi?ii?e /anooe? (ia??aieaaeaey?i?e ei??)
oa a?iieaii? (NAC). Aea?? eaiaeo oa ia?aiao??a noeioeyoe??, a oaeiae
?ic?aooiee iieiaeaiiy e?i/eea aeaeo?iaea i?e eiai ia?ai?uaii?
cae?enithaaeeny ca aeiiiiiaith i?ia?aiii-aia?aoo?iiai eiiieaeno,
noai?aiiai a iao?e eaai?aoi??? ia aac? ia?niiaeueiiai eiii’thoa?a
(Eacaeia e ae?., 1992). Eiio?ieue nenoai aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy (iii?oi?eia
/anoioe na?oeaaeo nei?i/aiue, ia?aiao??a ooo/ii? aaioeeyoe?? eaaaiue,
i?aeo?eiaiiy caaeaii? oaiia?aoo?e o?ea) oaeiae cae?enithaaany
eiii’thoa?ii o a?aene?aeeiaoth/iio ?aaeei?.

Aeey aiae?co ?aaeoe?e aoaeoaaeenue a?noia?aie na?aaeiuei? /anoioe
(/anoioia?aie) ?o ?iioeuenaoe?? oa a?noia?aie ?iciiae?e?a
i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a aei ? i?ney noeioeyoe??. Aeey aecia/aiiy
noaoenoe/ii? a??ia?aeiino? ci?i /anoioe aeoeaiino? iae?ii?a i?ney
iaianaiiy ei?oeeaeueieo noeioe?a aeei?enoiaoaaee t-e?eoa??e
Nouethaeaioa. Aeiaeaoeiaei i?eeiiii, aeei?enoaiei aeey ioe?iee ?aaeoe?e,
aoei ii??aiyiiy iiiaio?a ?iciiae?e?a i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a oiiiai?
oa iinonoeioeueii? aeoeaiino?.

A ia?aa?ao aenia?eiaio?a aeine?aeaeoaaeenue ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a
eaoa?aeueiiai oa aaio?iiaae?aeueiiai a?iioaeaiona (HL oa Ivm
a?aeiia?aeii), ae?eyiee aei?naeueiiai a?iioaeaiona (aHd) ? ae?eyiee
i?iaeoe?? iaae?aeueiiai io/ea ia?aaeiueiai iiceo (IFA).

?ACOEUeOAOE AeINE?AeAEAIIss OA ?O IAAIAI?AIIss

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iioeuenii? aeoeaiino? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a.

Caaaeueiii?eeiyoi, ui ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? iae?iio ciaoiaeyoueny
o iaai?e ei?aeyoe?? c oa?aeoa?ii eiai oiiiai? aeoeaiino?. O ca’yceo c
oeei aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iioeuenii? aeoeaiino? (?A) a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a
iiaea iaoe naiino?eia cia/aiiy, ye ni?iaa ca’ycaoe ooieoe?th iae?iia oa
ia?aiao?e eiai oiiiai? aeoeaiino?. Aeey a?eueoino? aeine?aeaeaieo iaie
iae?ii?a aoee oa?aeoa?i? ia??iaee/i? eieeaaiiy /anoioe iine?aeiaiinoae
?iioeuen?a ? a?oioaaiiy o?eaaeinoae i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a (I?) a?ey
iaaieo aaee/ei. Ie aaaaea?ii, ui ia??iaee/i?noue a aeoeaiino?
a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a iiaea aooe ni?anoaaeaia c o?c?ieia?/ieie
eieeaaiiyie aeayeeo aaaaoaoeaieo ooieoe?e i?aai?cio, iaeiae aeey
i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy oeueiai iio??ai? niaoe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aoea i?iaiae?ciaaia ?A 53 a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a, /anoioa oiiiai?
aeoeaiino? yeeo ia?aaeuoaaea 5 n-1. O 21 iae?iia /anoioa ?A aoea iaaeoi
iecueeith (aa??thaaea a?ae 0,2 aei 5 n-1), ui oo?oaeithaaei ??
aeine?aeiee aiae?c.

Ca?aeii oa?aeoa?o /anoioia?ai o aeine?aeaeaieo iae?ii?a aoee aeae?eai?
o?e oeie oiiiai? ?A. Ia?oee oei (n) – oea aacia?a?aia aeoeai?noue
ia?aaoey?iiai oa?aeoa?o c iiiioiiiith a?noia?aiith iioi/ii? na?aaeiuei?
/anoioe ? a?aenooi?noth ia??iaee/iino?. Na?aaeiy /anoioa ?A iae?ii?a
oeueiai oeio neeaaeaea 7,2 ?ii/n. Oaeo ?A iaee 66% aeine?aeaeaieo
iae?ii?a. Caeiaaaeii, oaeee oei aeoeaiino? aaia?othoue iae?iie
anioeeaoeaiiai oeio (Anderson, Correia, 1977); naia oeei iiaeia iiynieoe
iaeneiaeueio e?euee?noue iaeeieoeue c iiae?aiith ?iioeuenaoe??th a HL.

Ae?oaee oei (r) aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee aacia?a?aiith ia??iaee/iith
aeoeai?noth, o ye?e niinoa??aaeeny ia??iaee/i? i?aeaeuaiiy oa
ciaiueoaiiy /anoioe ?A c ?ioa?aaeaie 2-10 n. Ia a?noia?aiao iioi/ii?
na?aaeiuei? /anoioe iiaeoeyoe?? aeoeaiino? oaeeo iae?ii?a aeaeyaeaee ye
??aiii??i? (ye? iaaaaeoaaee neioni?aeo) /ano?oaiiy ? oiia?eueiaiiy
?iioeuenaoe??, aai ye iia?euei? c?inoaiiy /anoioe ?iioeuenaoe?? c
ianooiiei oaeaeeei ?? niaaeii, aai, iaaiaee, ye oaeaee? c?inoaiiy ?
iia?euei? niaaee. Na?aaeiy /anoioa ?A iae?ii?a c aeoeai?noth oeio «r»
noaiiaeea 5,6 ?ii/n. *anoea oaeeo iae?ii?a neeaaeaea 19%. ? i?aenoaae
aaaaeaoe, ui iiae?aiee oei ?iioeuenaoe?? coiiaeth?oueny oee?eoeyoe??th
caoaeaeaiiy aai ia??iaee/iei aeeth/aiiyi aaeuei?aieo aoiae?a; oea aea?
iiaeeea?noue i?eionoeoe, ui oea iae?ii?, ye? ?aaoeththoue oeeee?/i?
i?ioeane (Hori et al., 1982; Glotzbach, Hellrer, 1984; Kiyohara et al.,
1984).

Oiiiaa aeoeai?noue o?aoueiai oeio (b) oi?ioaaeany c ia??iaee/ii
aeieeath/eo a?oiiaeo ?ic?yae?a (ia/ie), na?aaeiy o?eaae?noue yeeo
noaiiaeea 2-3 n ? ye? aoee ?icae?eai? oaeeie ae, aai aeaui a?eueoeie ca
o?eaae?noth (3-4 n) ?ioa?aaeaie. Iae?ii?a c oiiiaith aeoeai?noth oeio
«b» aoei 15%. Aacoiiaii, iayai?noue ia/eiai? ?iioeuenaoe?? naia ii nia?
ia ? aaniethoiei e?eoa???i aeey ?aeaioeo?eaoe?? oeeo ee?oei ye
nae?aoi?ieo, aea e?oa?aoo?i? aeai? na?ae/aoue, ui oey iciaea ? aeineoue
aaaiiith (Kendrick, 1983; Numan, 1983; Hyland et al., 1987); oiio iiaeia
aaaaeaoe, ui, a onyeiio ?ac?, cia/ia /anoeia «b» iae?ii?a ? nae?aoi?ieie
iaeeieoeyie.

O no?oeoo?? oiiiai? aeoeaiino?, ui aecia/aeany ca aeiiiiiaith iiaoaeiae
a?noia?ai ?iciiae?eo o?eaaeinoae I?, oaeiae aoei aeae?eaii o?e oeie.

Ia?oee oei (A) oa?aeoa?ecoaaany ??cei i?aaianeiao?e/iei ?iciiae?eii
o?eaaeinoae I?, ui iaaeeaeaany aei ioanii?anueeiai c a?aenooi?noth
aeoaea ei?ioeeo ?ioa?aae?a (c “ia?oaei” /anii). Iae?ii?a c oiiiai?
aeoeai?noth oeio “A” aoei 32%. sse a?aeiii, ioanii?anueeee ?iciiae?e I?
coiiaeth?oueny /enoi aeiaaeeiaei iaaeoiaeaeaiiyi ao?aeieo aieea?a
(Gerstein, Kiang, 1960; Rodieck et.al., 1962). A oe?e aeoeaiino?
cono??/aeeny ye aeoaea ei?ioe? (iaio? ca 20 in), oae ? aeineoue o?eaae?
(aei aeae?eueeio nio in) I?, i?ioa inoaii? ia oi?ioaaee ae?aaeaii?
iiaee. Oae? ?iciiae?ee oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny aenieeie cia/aiiyie aneiao???
oa aenoeano, ? ?o oanooaaiiy ca e??oa???i 2 iieacoaaei ?o a??ia?aeio
a?aei?ii?noue a?ae ii?iaeueiiai ?iciiae?eo.

Ae?oaee oei oiiiai? aeoeaiino? (S) aoa i?aaenoaaeaiee neiao?e/iei
aeecueeei aei ii?iaeueiiai (aaon?anueeiai) ?iciiae?eii I?. Cia/aiiy
aneiao??? oa aenoeano oeeo ?iciiae?e?a ia ia?aaeuoaaee e?eoe/iiai ??aiy.
Iae?ii?a, ui iaee “S” oei ?iciiae?eo, aoei 19%. sse a?aeiii ii?iaeueiee
?iciiae?e I? oi?io?oueny i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii? aei iae?iia iniiaiiai
aoiaeo, yeee aecia/a? na?aaeith /anoioo eiai ?ic?yae?a ? aaaaoueio
aeiaeaoeiaeo aoiae?a i?eaeecii iaeiaeiai? aaae.

O?ao?e oei (?), ui cono??/aany o 49% iae?ii?a, coiiaethaaa a?iiaeaeueia
(/ano?oa iie?iiaeaeueia) ?iciiae?eaiiy I?. Oae? ?iciiae?ee
oa?aeoa?ecoaaeeny aaeeeei cia/aiiyi aneiao??? oa iecueeei aenoeanii ?
oaeiae a??ia?aeii a?ae??ciyeeny a?ae ii?iaeueiiai ca?aeii c e?eoa???i 2.
Oaeee oa?aeoa? ?iciiae?e?a aea? i?aenoaae aaaaeaoe, ui aei oeeo iae?ii?a
iaaeoiaeyoue ia??iaee/i? aaeuei?ai? aieeae, ? oea coiiaeth? oi?ioaaiiy
i?i?ioi?a ? ae?aaeaieo iiae a iaeano? o?eaaeeo ?ioa?aae?a.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ?A na?ae/aoue i?i aeineoue neeaaeio ? ??ciiiai?oio
i?aai?caoe?th neiaioe/ieo aoiae?a aei aeine?aeaeaieo iae?ii?a. Ia iiaeia
aeeeth/eoe, ui aeaye? c oeeo iae?ii?a caeaoi? aaia?oaaoe aeoeai?noue,
yea ia coiiaeaia neiaioe/ieie aieeaaie ? iiaea ?icaeyaeaoeny ye
nooiaeania, aai iaeniaea?ia (Rodieck et al.,., 1962; Anderson, Correia,
1977). Aacoiiaii, aeoaea aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey oi?ioaaiiy ?A iae?ii?a
a?iioaeaiona iathoue aaeuei?ai? aoiaee aei oeeo iae?ii?a. Iayai?noue
oaeeo aoaeoeaieo aoiae?a ca?aeii c oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a?noia?ai I?
i/aaeaeia iaeaea o iieiaeie aeine?aeaeaieo iae?ii?a.

I/aaeaeii, ui aeeeaaeai? aeua aeai? iathoue aeineoue iiia?aaei?e
oa?aeoa?, a i?eiouaiiy uiaei ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?aeaioeo?eaoe??
aeine?aeaeaieo a?iioaeai?/ieo iaeeieoeue a?aeiia?aeii oa?aeoa?enoeeai ?o
?A ? /enoi a?iioaoe/iei; c?icoi?ei, ui aeaiee aniaeo ooieoe?iiaeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? iae?iiieo nenoai a?iioaeaiono iio?aao? iiaeaeueoeo
niaoe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

2. Ei?oeeiooaaeuei? aieeae ia iae?iie a?iioaeaiona i?e iiiaeeiie?e
noeioeyoe?? no?oeoo? iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona ia iiae?aciaiiy
aaiethoe?eii aaoa?iaaiieo ae?eyiie ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo iiiaeeiieeie
noeioeaie aoee i?iaiae?ciaai? a?aeiia?ae? 136 ee?oei. Ie
aeeoa?aioe?thaaee iae?iie, ye? ?aaaoaaee ia oae? iiae?aciaiiy ia?aeiiei
caoaeaeaiiyi, ia?aeiiei aaeueioaaiiyi aai ia a?aeiia?aeaee ia oaeo
noeioeyoe?th.

A oeo aeiaaeeao, eiee iae?iie aaia?oaaee oiiiao ?iioeuenaoe?th, ye
a??ia?aei? ?icaeyaeaeeny a?aeiia?ae?, ye? yaeyee niaith a?aeoeeaiiy a?ae
??aiy oiio ia iiaeai?ia noaiaea?oia a?aeoeeaiiy cia/aiiy /anoioe.

Iiiaeeiiea noeioeyoe?y i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie aeeeeeaea a aeine?aeaeaieo
a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?iiao aieiaiei /eiii caoaeaeoaaeuei? a?aeiia?ae?.
E?euee?noue oaeeo ?aaeoe?e a?eueo i?ae a /ioe?e ?ace ia?aaeuoaaea
e?euee?noue aaeuei?aieo a?aeiia?aeae. I?e noeioeyoe?? iiynii? caeaeie
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caoaeaeoaaeueieo ? aaeuei?aieo ?aaeoe?e ia iiiaeeiie?
iiae?aciaiiy aoei cia/ii iaioei ? neeaaeaei 1,5:1,0. A oiiaao
iiae?aciaiiy i???oi?iii? ei?e iiiaeeiieeie noeioeaie aeoeaaoe?ei? oa
aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a ?a?no?oaaeeny i?aeoe/ii iaeiaeiai /anoi.
Caaaeueia e?euee?noue aaeuei?aieo a?aeiia?aeae ia iiiaeeiie?
iiae?aciaiiy oe??? ae?eyiee a aeaa ?ace ia?aaeuoaaea e?euee?noue
caoaeaeoaaeueieo.

Aiae?c ?aaeoe?e a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a ia iiiaeeiieo noeioeyoe?th
??cieo ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? ?aaeoe?? c
i?i?iaeueieie eaoaioieie ia??iaeaie (EI), ye? neeaaeaee iaio i?ae 6 in,
a?aei?/aeeny i?e iiae?aciaii? i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie. Aeiyoie noaiiaeee
eeoa ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a Hvm, aea na?aaei?e EI aoa 23 in. Iaeiaio
?ioaineai? a?aeiia?ae? c iaeneiaeueieie EI niinoa??aaeeny i?e
iiae?aciaii? a?iieaiia, iniaeeai o iae?ii?a Hvm, aea na?aaeiy
o?eaae?noue EI neeaaeaea 52 in (oea aoee ia?aaaaeii aaeuei?ai?
?aaeoe??). Oe? aeai? ocaiaeaeothoueny c ?acoeueoaoaie ii?oieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue (Ieeaeaaeca, Eeeiaaeca 1965; 1969; Eueaiae/, 1971;
Naiieeia, 1972; Mogenson, 1981; Eacaeia, E?aaoeia, 1978; Eacaeia e ae?.,
1976, 1986, 1990; Kazakov et al., 1992; Kurzina et al., 1995; Swanson,
Risold et al., 1997).

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe aeineoue oe?iea i?aaenoaaieoeoai ??cieo no?oeoo?
iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno a a?iioaeai?/i?e ae?eyioe?, ui o cia/i?e /anoei?
aeiaaee?a coiiaeth? iiaeeea?noue ia?ae?eooy i?iaeoe?e iaei??? ae?eyiee
ei?e i?aaenoaaieoeoaii ?ioi? (Eacaeia, E?aaoeia, 1978; Aaeeaaaaeaeyi,
1981; Kazakov et al., 1992; Azuma, Chiba, 1996; Eaaieoeeee, 1997). O
eiaei?e c ae?eyiie a?iioaeaiona aeyaeyeeny iae?iie, ui a?aeiia?aeaee ia
iiae?aciaiiy iaei???, aeaio, o?ueio, aai an?o /ioe?ueio oanoiaaieo
ei?oeeaeueieo ae?eyiie (iaeiiaa?aaioi?, a?-, o?e- oa oao?aeiiaa?aaioi?
iae?iie). A oiiaao iaoeo aenia?eiaio?a i?e ei?oeeaeueieo iiae?aciaiiyo
iiiaeeiieeie noeioeaie iaea?eueoa /enei eiiaa?aaioieo aeaiaio?a
niinoa??aaeinue o HL ? Ivm, aea eieae?coaaeeny oieone c ae?aaeaiith
eiiaa?aaioe??th neaiae?a c ??cieo ei?oeeaeueieo ae?eyiie. C
a?eiiaa?aaioieo iae?ii?a o oeeo a?aeae?eao a?iioaeaiona aeii?ioaaee
ee?oeie, aei yeeo iaaeoiaeeee neaiaee c i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie oa iiynii?
ei?e. Na?aae o?eeiiaa?aaioieo iae?ii?a ia?aaaaeaee ee?oeie o IL ? Ivm,
ui a?aeiia?aeaee ia iiae?aciaiiy i?i?aaeueii? ? iiynii? caeaei ?
i???oi?iii? ei?e. Iae?iie, ui ?aaaoaaee ia iiiaeeiie? iiae?aciaiiy an?o
/ioe?ueio oanoiaaieo ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?, aoee iiiaeeiieeie, ?
eieae?coaaeeny aiie a iniiaiiio o IL. I?e iiiaeeiieeo iiae?aciaiiyo
??cieo ae?eyiie ei?e o eiiaa?aaioieo iaeeieoeue ie aeyaeyee
caeaa?eueoiai aeoeaaoe?ei? a?aeiia?ae?.

3. Aoaeoe na??eii? noeioeyoe?? ??cieo ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? a iae?iiao
a?iioaeaiona.

A oiiaao na??eii? noeioeyoe?? (ye iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii?) aoea
aeine?aeaeaia aeoeai?noue 74 a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a. Aiae?c
ei?oeeiooaaeueieo aieea?a ia a?iioaeai?/i? iae?iie iieacaa, ui o 15%
iae?ii?a na??eia ei?oeeaeueia noeioeyoe?y, ia aeeeeeath/e noaoenoe/ii
a??ia?aeieo c?ooaiue oiiiai? /anoioe ?iioeuenaoe??, i?ecaiaeeea aei
ia?aoai?aiiy oeio ?iciiae?eo o?eaaeinoae i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a.

Iaea?eueo iioe?aieie oi?iaie ci?ie no?oeoo?e oiiiai? ?iioeuenii?
aeoeaiino? o a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a i?ae aieeaii na??eieo ei?oeeaeueieo
iiae?aciaiue aoee aeaa aeaee ?aaeoe?e. Ia?oa iieyaaea o ia?aoai?aii?
neiao?e/iiai “S” — ?iciiae?eo o “P” — ?iciiae?e, ia?aaaaeii ca
?aooiie iiyae ei?ioeeo I? o ia??iae i?neyae?? iiae?aciaiiy. Na?aae on?o
i?iaiae?ciaaieo iaie aeiaaee?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? ?iciiae?e?a I? /anoea
iiae?aieo ci?i neeaea 50%.

Ae?oaa ?aaeoe?y iieyaaea o ia?aoiae? “A” — ?iciiae?eo o “?”. Oaeeo
?aaeoe?e aoei 25%. Aei ?ioeo oi?i ia?aoai?aiiy ?iioeuenieo iioie?a o
iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona i?ae aieeaii na??eieo ei?oeeaeueieo noeioe?a ne?ae
a?aeianoe ia?ao?ae “?” — ?iciiae?eo o “A” aai “?” o “S”, aea eiaeia c
oeeo ia?aoai?aiue cono??/aeiny o aeineoue iaaaeee?e e?eueeino?
aeiaaee?a.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aoaeue-yeiai /?oeiai ca’yceo i?ae oa?aeoa?ii
ia?aoai?aiiy iaeiiai ?iciiae?eo I? o ?ioee, ? eieae?caoe??th
aeine?aeaeoaaiiai iae?iio aai aeaeii ei?oeeaeueiiai iiae?aciaiiy iai
aeyaeoe ia aaeaeiny.

Canoinoaaiiy iiae?aciaiue ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? c ??cieie /anoioaie (6,
8, 12, 30, 60, 100 n-1) i?eioeeiiai ia ci?ithaaei iai?yieo aeieeeeo
?aaeoe?e. sseui i?e iiae?aciaii? aoaeue-yei? no?oeoo?e ?icaeaaeany
aaeuei?aia ?aaeoe?y, oi aiia a?aecia/aeany ? i?e aeei?enoaii? ?ioeo
/anoio iiae?aciaiiy. ?acii c oei, c?inoaiiy /anoioe iiae?aciaiiy
cae/aeii iii?oii ci?ithaaei caaaeueio ?ioaineai?noue ?aaeoe??
(e?euee?noue ?iioeuen?a a i?e). Iae/ano?oa c i?aeaeuaiiyi /anoioe
iiae?aciaiiy ae?aaeai?noue ?aaeoe?? iaeaea e?i?eii c?inoaea, aea oea
cae/aeii niinoa??aaeiny o iaiaaeaiiio ae?aiacii? /anoio ei?oeeaeueii?
noeioeyoe??

Aeieeaaeiee aiae?c ?aaeoe?e iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona ia na??ei?
iiae?aciaiiy iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno iieacaa, ui caoaeaeoaaeuei? oa
aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe?? /anoi oi?ioaaee a?aeiia?ae? c iayai?noth
on-off-aoaeo?a.

Na??eia noeioeyoe?y i?i?aaeueii? ? iiynii? caeaei, i???oi?iii? ei?e oa
a?iieaiia aeeeeeaea a iae?iiao aeine?aeaeoaaieo ae?eyiie a?iioaeaiona
ia?aaaaeii aaeueioaaiiy. Eeoa i?e iiae?aciaii? i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie a HL
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aaeuei?aieo ? caoaeaeoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e neeaaeaei
0,8:1,0, i?e/iio oea aoea ?aeeia ae?eyiea a?iioaeaiona, a ye?e
caoaeaeoaaeueieo a?aeiia?aeae ia na??eio noeioeyoe?th
iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno ?a?no?oaaeiny a?eueoa, i?ae aaeuei?aieo. Caaaeueia
e?euee?noue aaeuei?aieo a?aeiia?aeae ia na??eio noeioeyoe?th
i?i?aaeueii? ei?e a 1,7 ?ace ia?aaeuoaaea e?euee?noue caoaeaeoaaeueieo.
Ia iiae?aciaiiy iiynii? ei?e na??yie noeioe?a iae?iie a?iioaeaiona
oaeiae a?aeiia?aeaee ia?aaaaeii aaeuei?aieie ?aaeoe?yie, ye? aeieeaee a
o?e ?ace /ano?oa, i?ae caoaeaeoaaeuei?. I?ae /an na??eii? noeioeyoe??
i???oi?iii? ei?e ie ?a?no?oaaee iaea?eueoo e?euee?noue iae?iiieo
?aaeoe?e, aea na?aae ieo a oe?eiio aaeuei?aieo aoei a aeaa’youe ?ac?a
a?eueoa, i?ae caoaeaeoaaeueieo. Ia na??ei? iiae?aciaiiy a?iieaiia
iae?iie a?iioaeaiona a?aeiia?aeaee iaio aeoeaii, i?ae ia iiae?aciaiiy
?ioeo ae?eyiie ei?e. Iaeiae ? a oeeo oiiaao aaeuei?aieo a?aeiia?aeae
niinoa??aaeiny a o?noue ?ac?a a?eueoa ii??aiyii ?c caoaeaeoaaeueieie.

I?e na??eiiio iiae?aciaii? iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno cia/ii ca?eueooaaeany
a?aeiinia e?euee?noue oao?aeiiaa?aaioieo iae?ii?a. sseui ia iiiaeeiie?
iiae?aciaiiy ei?e oaeeo ee?oei aoei o?eueee 5 %, oi i?e na??ei?e
noeioeyoe?? ie ca?a?no?oaaee 15% oao?aeiiaa?aaioieo iae?ii?a, oiaoi
ao?e/? a?eueoa. Eieae?coaaeeny aiie caeaa?eueoiai a aaio?ieaoa?aeueieo
a?aeae?eao IL ? Ivm. Naia ooo aeyaeyeeny iniiai? oieone eiiaa?aaioe??.
Ia a?aei?io a?ae aoaeo?a iiiaeeiiei? noeioeyoe??, i?e na??eieo
iiae?aciaiiyo aeey oeeo oieon?a eiiaa?aaioe?? oa?aeoa?iith aoea
iayai?noue iae?ii?a c aaeuei?aiei oeiii ?aaeoe?? ia an? aeaee
oano-noeioeyoe??. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeae?a ?aaeoe?e ca iiae?aieo oiia aoei
oaeei: caoaeaeoaaeueieo a?aeiia?aeae ?a?no?oaaeiny anueiai 4 %, a
aaeuei?aieo — 34 %. I?e na??ei?e noeioeyoe?? ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?,
ii??aiyii c iiiaeeiieith, ciaiooaaeiny /enei iae?ii?a, ye? a?aeiia?aeaee
ia iiae?aciaiiy aeaio aai o?ueio ae?eyiie ei?e. A?eiiaa?aaioi? iae?iie
a?aeiia?aeaee caeaa?eueoiai ia iiae?aciaiiy i?i?aaeueii? oa iiynii?
cae?ooie, aai iiynii? cae?ooee oa i???oi?iii? ei?e. Na?aae
o?eeiiaa?aaioieo iae?ii?a ia?aaaaeaee ee?oeie, ui a?aeiia?aeaee ia
noeioeyoe?th i?i?aaeueii? e iiynii? cae?ooie oa i???oi?iii? ei?e.

4. Iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? aieiaiiai iiceo c
a?iioaeai?/ieie iae?iiaie.

Canoinoaaiiy iiiaeeiieeo oa na??eieo iiae?aciaiue ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?
aeicaieeei aeyaeoe cia/io ??ciiiai?oi?noue aieea?a, yeeo iiaeooue
caciaaaoe iae?iie a?iioaeaiona c aieo ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?. I?e
oeueiio iaoa?ie aieea?a, eio?? iaaeoiaeyoue c ??cieo a?aeae?e?a ei?e,
iathoue ?noioi? a?aei?iiino?.

?icaeyaeath/e ieoaiiy uiaei ?ioaineaiino? aieea?a c aieo ei?e aaeeeeo
i?aeoeue iiceo, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe iaea?eueo o?ni? ca’ycee inoaiiuei? c
IL oa Ivo. Ie aeyaeee, ui naia a oeeo ae?eyieao a?iioaeaiona
eieae?ciaaia iaeneiaeueia e?euee?noue iae?ii?a, ?aaaoth/eo ia
noeioeyoe?th iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno. Naia ooo ?ici?uai? aeaa iniiaieo
oieone eiiaa?aaioe?? aieea?a aei iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona, i?e/iio ia?oee
ciaoiaeeoueny a aei?nieaoa?aeueieo a?aeae?eao IL, a ae?oaee — a
eaoa?aeueieo a?aeae?eao Ivo. Iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe, ui a oiiaao
iiiaeeiieeo iiae?aciaiue a oeeo oieonao ia?aaaaeaee iae?iie ?c
?aaeoe?yie ci?oaiiai oa caoaeaeoaaeueiiai oei?a, a i?e na??ei?e
noeioeyoe?? ia?aaaaeaee aaeuei?ai? a?aeiia?ae?.

Aeyaeaiee a?aae??io aaeueioaaiiy c aieo ??cieo ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?,
i/aaeaeii, ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe c o?aooaaiiyi o?eiaaiaoe/iiai aniaeoo. A
oiiaao iiiaeeiiei? noeioeyoe?? i?i?iaeueia i?iii?oe?y aaeuei?aieo
?aaeoe?e a?aeiinii caoaeaeoaaeueieo niinoa??aaeany i?e iiae?aciaii?
iaiei?oaeno (i?i?aaeueia caeaeia), a?eueoith aiia aoea i?e iiae?aciaii?
i?ii?aeii? ei?e (iiynia caeaeia), ua a?eueoith— i?e iiae?aciaii?
iaeaiei?oaeno (i???oi?iia ei?a), a i?e iiae?aciaii? a?o?ei?oaeno
(a?iieaii) aaeueioaaiiy aoei i?aeoe/ii ?aeeiei aeaeii ?aaeoe??.

Aeaui ?ioa ea?oeia a?aei?/aeany a oiiaao iiae?aciaiiy e??eiaeo ae?eyiie
na??yie noeioe?a. Caoaeaeoaaeuei? ?aaeoe?? a IL ia?aaaaeaee o?eueee i?e
iiae?aciaii? i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie, a i?e noeioeyoe?? ?ioeo ae?eyiie ei?e
aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe?? a a?iioaeaion? ?a?no?oaaeeny iaaaaaoi /ano?oa, i?ae
caoaeaeoaaeuei?. Ia na??eio noeioeyoe?th iiynii? caeaeie oa i???oi?iii?
ei?e iae?iie aId a?aeiia?aeaee o?eueee aaeueioaaiiyi. Iae?iie Ivo ia
iiae?aciaiiy i???oi?iii? ei?e oa a?iieaiia oaeiae ?aaaoaaee o?eueee
aaeueioaaiiyi. Na??ei? iiae?aciaiiy ei?oeeaeueieo ae?eyiie aeeeeeaee a
iae?iiao IFA ia?aaaaeii aaeuei?ai? a?aeiia?ae?, i?e/iio iaea?eueoa ?o
e?euee?noue niinoa??aaeany i?e iiae?aciaii? i???oi?iii? ei?e oa
a?iieaiia.

Iiae?aio ??cieoeth o ni?aa?aeiioaii? aaeuei?aieo ? caoaeaeoaaeueieo
?aaeoe?e a a?iioaeaion? a ?ac? canoinoaaiiy iiiaeeiieeo oa na??eieo
iiae?aciaiue ei?oeeaeueieo a?aeae?e?a iiaeia iiynieoe oei, ui i?e
na??eieo iiae?aciaiiyo a a?eueo cia/i?e i??? caoaeaeothoueny aeiaeaoeia?
iiceia? no?oeoo?e, ? oea i?ecaiaeeoue aei aeeth/aiiy a aeoeai?noue
aaeuei?aieo ee?oei, ye? aoiaeyoue aei iae?iiieo eaioetha?a (e?e),
aeyaeaieo ?ai?oa (Eacaeia, E?aaoeia, 1978).

Oaeei /eiii, ?aaeoe?? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii?
neaiae?a c ??cieie ia?aiao?aie a?ae iae?ii?a ei?e iiaeooue a?ae??ciyoeny
ia o?eueee e?euee?nii, aea e ye?nii (nai?i iai?yiii).

Iiaeia aeneiaeoe i?eiouaiiy, ui eiee a?ae iae?ii?a ei?e aei a?iioaeaiona
iaaeoiaeyoue iiiaeeiie? ?iioeuene (aai, iiaeeeai, ?o aeoaea ei?ioe?
na???), ?icae?eai? o?eaaeeie i?ae?iioeuenieie ?ioa?aaeaie,
a??ia?aei?noue aeieeiaiiy a iae?iiao a?iioaeaiona ei?ioeio?eaaeeo
aeene?aoieo caoaeaeoaaeueieo aoaeo?a ? a oe?eiio aeineoue cia/iith. Oea
ia aeeeth/a? iiaeeeaino? oiai, ui ia iaai? a?iioaeai?/i? iaeeieoe?
iiaeooue cae?enithaaoeny oaeiae aeene?aoi? aaeuei?ai? aieeae. sseui ae
?c ei?e iaaeoiaeyoue na??ei? ?iioeueni? iineeaiiy aai aeiaaio?eaaea
?iioeuenaoe?y c aeinoaoiueith /anoioith, ?noioii i?aeaeuo?oueny
a??ia?aei?noue oiai, ui a aeaiiio iae?ii? a?iioaeaiona aeieeia
a?aeiia?aeiee ia??iae aaeueioaaiiy. Oaeei /eiii, niaoeeo?ea
ei?oeeiooaaeueiiai eiio?ieth a?iioaeai?/ieo iaoai?ci?a aaco?oueny ia
o?eueee ia oii?/iiio i?eioeei? (iia’ycaiiio, ye aaea caaaeoaaeiny, c
aaiethoe?eieie iniaeeainoyie ie?aieo ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?). Aoaeoe
ei?oeeaeueieo aieea?a nooo?ai caeaaeaoue a?ae iaoa?io neaiae?a, ye?
iaaeoiaeyoue c eiio?iethth/eo ooai?aiue.

I?ioeane ei?oeeiooaaeueiiai aaeueioaaiiy ? caoaeaeaiiy, a oaeiae ?o
aca?iiae?y a?ae?a?athoue aaaeeeao ?ieue a ei?oeeaeueiiio eiio?ie?
aaeaioeaii? iiaaae?iee c ?? aaaaoaoeaieie oa aiioe?eieie i?iyaaie. Oea a
?noioi?e i??? a?aoiaaii a oai??? aiioe?e Eaiiiia, ca?aeii c yeith
aeeeth/aiiy aaeuei?aieo aieea?a ei?e aaeeeeo i?aeoeue ia a?iioaeaion
aeeeeea? ae?aaeai? aiioe?ei? ?aaeoe?? (Cannon, Britton, 1925).

?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy eiiaa?aaioieo aeanoeainoae a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a
aeicaieythoue ioe?ieoe oa?aeoa? ? aeaye? iaoai?cie ?ioaa?aoeaieo
i?ioean?a, ui a?aeaoaathoueny a yae?ao a?iioaeaiona i?e iaaeoiaeaeaii?
aei ieo ei?oeeaeueieo neaiae?a a?ae aaiethoe?eii oa ooieoe?iiaeueii
aaoa?iaaiieo ooai?aiue. Ia?o ca ana, i?eaa?oa? oaaao ??cia e?euee?noue
iae?ii?a, ui a?aeiia?aeathoue ia iiae?aciaiiy aeaio ? a?eueoa
ei?oeeaeueieo ae?eyiie, ye? eieae?cothoueny a ??cieo a?aeae?eao
a?iioaeaiona. Iaea?eueoa ?o /enei niinoa??aaeinue o IL ? Ivm.
A?aeiia?aeii ?o eieae?caoe??, oea iae?iie, ye? aa?ooue o/anoue a
i?aai?caoe?? neeaaeieo aacoiiaieo oa?/iaeo ?aoeaen?a. Eiiaa?aaioe?y
ei?oeeaeueieo ?iioeuen?a ia iae?iiao a?iioaeaiona, i/aaeaeii, yaey?
niaith oi?aa?naeueia yaeua ?, iiaeeeai, eaaeeoue a iniia? i?ioean?a
?ioaa?aoe??, ye? i?ioiaeyoue a ?o iae?iiao ia?aae ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi
?iioeuenaoe?? a ?io? a?aeae?ee oeaio?aeueii? ia?aiai? nenoaie.

I?e ni?anoaaeaii? oa?aeoa?enoee aoiae?a aei iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona c
ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? aoei aeyaeaii, ui o aeayeeo iae?ii?a ao?ae c
iaei??? ei?oeeaeueii? ae?eyiee ? caoaeaeoth/ei, a ao?ae c ?ioi? —
aaeuei?aiei; i?e oeueiio cae/aeii iaeei c ieo ? aeii?ioth/ei. Iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue oaeeo iae?ii?a aoea ciaeaeaia o IL. I?aai?ciaai? oaeei /eiii
ooieoe?iiaeuei? eaiee i?eioneathoue a??ia?aei?noue iiaeoeyoe?? aieeao
iaei??? ei?oeeaeueii? ae?eyiee aieeaaie, ui iaaeoiaeyoue ?c ?ioi?
ei?oeeaeueii? ae?eyiee.

Ii??aiyiiy eiiaa?aaioieo aeanoeainoae iae?ii?a i?e iiiaeeiieeo ?
na??eieo iiae?aciaiiyo aeyaeei ?noioi? a?aei?iiino? aoaeo?a oaeeo
aieea?a. I?e iiiaeeiieeo iiae?aciaiiyo iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno
niinoa??aaeeny iae?iie a?iioaeaiona c ae?ne?aoieie caoaeaeoth/eie oa
ci?oaieie ?aaeoe?yie; a i?ae /an /anoioii? noeioeyoe?? ?a?no?oaaeeny
iae?iie, ui aaia?oaaee, ia?aaaaeii aaeuei?ai? ?aaeoe??. Oaea
ooieoe?iiaeueia i?aai?caoe?y yaea? a?iioaeaiona aea? iiaeeea?noue
aeoiaoe i?i oii?/iee oa?aeoa? aieea?a ca oiia na??eii? noeioeyoe?? ?
aeno?aiee oa?aeoa? aieea?a i?e iiiaeeiieeo iiae?aciaiiyo.

Ioaea, caaaeii iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa oeie aieea?a ia iae?iie
a?iioaeaiona c aieo iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno: ei?eaoth/? oii?/i? oa ioneia?
aeno?ai?.

AENIIAEE

1. Aiae?c ?iioeuenii? aeoeaiino? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a aeia?a, ui
iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e oeie aeeiai?ee na?aaeiuei? /anoioe ?o
?iioeuenaoe??, ye? a?ae??ciythoueny nooiaiai ia??iaee/iino?:
aacia?a?aiee ??aiii??iee, oeeee?/iee oa ia/eiaee. Aeae?eythoueny oaeiae
o?e oeie ?iciiae?e?a i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a oiiiai? aeoeaiino?:
neiao?e/iee (aeecueeee aei ii?iaeueiiai), aneiao?e/iee (aeecueeee aei
ioanii?anueeiai ?iciiae?eo) ? iie?iiaeaeueiee. Oa?aeoa?enoeee oiiiai?
aeoeaiino? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a ei?aeththoue c ooieoe?iiaeueieie
iniaeeainoyie oe??? ae?eyiee.

2. O?eiaaiaoe/ii aaoa?iaaii? ei?oeeaeuei? no?oeoo?e ii-??ciiio ca’ycai?
c yae?aie a?iioaeaiona. Iiynia caeaeia ? i???oi?iia ei?a ni?aaeythoue
iaea?eueo ae?aaeai? aieeae ia aeoeai?noue iae?ii?a eaoa?aeueiiai ?
aei?naeueiiai a?iioaeaiono, ae?eyiee i?iaeoe?? iaae?aeueiiai io/ea
ia?aaeiueiai iiceo ? aaio?iiaae?aeueiiai a?iioaeaiono. Oa?aeoa? aieea?a
ia iacaai? a?iioaeai?/i? no?oeoo?e c i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie ? a?iieaiia ?
a?eueo aeeoociei. Aeiyoie neeaaea? /?oei ae?aaeaiee ca’ycie i?i?aaeueii?
caeaeie c eaoa?aeueiei a?iioaeaionii.

3. ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a a?iioaeai?/ieo yaea? i?e na??ei?e ei?oeeaeuei?e
noeioeyoe?? a?ae??ciythoueny ca oa?aeoa?ii oa ae?aaeaii?noth, a ?iiae? ?
ni?yioaaiiyi, a?ae aoaeo?a iiae?aciaiiy iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno
iiiaeeiieeie noeioeaie. Na??ei? iiae?aciaiiy coiiaeththoue cia/ii
a?eueoo a?aeiinio e?euee?noue aaeuei?aieo ?aaeoe?e a?iioaeai?/ieo
iae?ii?a.

4. A oiiaao iiae?aciaiiy no?oeoo? ei?e aaeeeeo i?aeoeue iiiaeeiieeie
noeioeaie aeyaeaiee a?aae??io aaeueioaaiiy, yeee iieyaa? o oiio, ui
i?i?iaeueia e?euee?noue aaeuei?aieo ?aaeoe?e niinoa??aaeany i?e
iiae?aciaii? iaiei?oaeno (i?i?aaeueia caeaeia), a?eueoith aiia aoea i?e
iiae?aciaii? iaaeooi/ii? ei?e (iiynia caeaeia), ua a?eueoith — i?e
iiae?aciaii? iaeaiei?oaeno (i???oi?iia ei?a), a i?e iiae?aciaii?
a?oeei?oaeno (a?iieaiia) aaeueioaaiiy aoei iaeaea ?aeeiei aeaeii
?aaeoe?e. A?aae??io aaeueioaaiiy, aeyaeaiee i?e iiiaeeiieeo
iiae?aciaiiyo, c?inoa? a oiiaao na??eii? noeioeyoe??.

5. Canoinoaaiiy iiae?aciaiue e??eiaeo cii c ??cieie /anoioaie ia
ci?ithaaei iai?yieo ?aaeoe?e a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a ia na??eio
noeioeyoe?th. ?c c?inoaiiyi /anoioe ?ioaineai?noue a?aeiia?ae? iae?iia
iiaea ci?ithaaoeny. Aeecueea aei e?i?eii? caeaaei?noue ?aaeoe?? a?ae
/anoioe noeioeyoe?? ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo? niinoa??aa?oueny eeoa a
iaaeao iaaii? iaeano? /anoio. Na??eia noeioeyoe?y ei?oeeaeueieo no?oeoo?
aoea ni?iiiaeia ci?ithaaoe oei /aniai? i?aai?caoe?? ?iioeuenii?
aeoeaiino? iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiona.

6. Aeey a?eueoino? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a aeanoeaa ae?aaeaia
eiiaa?aaioe?y neaiae?a c ??cieo ae?eyiie ei?e. Aeyaeaii aeaa oieone
oaei? eiiaa?aaioe??. Ia?oee ciaoiaeeoueny o aei?nieaoa?aeueieo
a?aeae?eao eaoa?aeueiiai a?iioaeaiono, ae?oaee — o aei?nieaoa?aeueieo
a?aeae?eao aaio?iiaae?aeueiiai a?iioaeaiono. Iae/ano?oa cono??/aeiny
niieo/aiiy aoiae?a a?ae i?i?aaeueii?, iiynii? caeaei oa i???oi?iii?
ei?e, a oaeiae a?ae i?i?aaeueii? oa iiynii? caeaei ? a?ae iiynii?
caeaeie oa i???oi?iii? ei?e. I?e na??ei?e noeioeyoe??
iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno e?euee?noue iae?ii?a, eio?? a?aeiia?aeathoue ia
iiae?aciaiiy an?o /ioe?ueio ei?oeeaeueieo cii, aoea ao?e/? a?eueoith,
i?ae oaea i?e iiiaeeiieeo iiae?aciaiiyo.

7. Caaaeii iiaeia aeae?eeoe aeaa oeie aieea?a c aieo
iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaeno ia iae?iie a?iioaeaiono: ei?eaoth/? oii?/i? oa
ioneia? (aeno?ai?). Neeaaeia iae?iiia i?aai?caoe?y ca’yce?a aaiethoe?eii
aaoa?iaaiieo ei?oeeaeueieo cii c yae?aie a?iioaeaiono a?a? iaeaaaeeea?oo
?ieue o cae?eniaii? ?yaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ooieoe?e iiceo, iai?aaeaieo
ia oi?ioaaiiy ? ?aae?c?oe?th ??ciiiai?oieo iiaaae?ieiaeo ?aaeoe?e c ?o
aiioe?eieie oa aaaaoaoeaieie eiiiiiaioaie.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. E.A.Iao?on, I.ss.E?aaoeia, E.Y.Eociaoeia. Ei?oeeiooaaeueiua aeeyiey
ia iae?iiu ?acee/iuo ioaeaeia aeiioaeaiona // Iae?ioeceieiaey.-
1997.-O.29, ?3.-N.167-175.

/L.Natrus, P.Ya.Kravtsov, I.E.Kuznetsov . Corticofugal Influences on the
Neurons of Different Regions of the Hypothalamus // Neuriphysiology.-
1997.-Vol.29, N3.-P.130-136./

2. I.ss.E?aaoeia, E.A.Iao?on. Iniaaiiinoe ?aaeoeee iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona
ia na?eeiua ?acae?aaeaiey ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa // A?o. eeei. e yeni.
iaae.- 1998.- O. 7, ?1.-N.83-86.

3. I.ss.E?aaoeia, E.A.Iao?on. Ei?oeeiooaaeuei? aieeae ia iae?iiio
aeoeai?noue aiioe?iaaiii-iioeaaoe?eieo cii a?iioaeaiona //
Iae?ioeceieiaey.- 1998.-O.30, ? 6.-N.473-478.

/P.Ya.Kravtsov, L.Natrus. Corticofugal Effects on the Neuronal Activity
in the Emotiogenic/Motivational Zones of the Hypothalamus //
Neuriphysiology.- 1998.-Vol.30, N6.-P. 389-393/

4. I.ss.E?aaoeia, E.A.Iao?on. Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiiaa?aaioe??
a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a //O?c?ieia?/iee aeo?i.- 1999.-O. 45, ?
1-2.-N.127-134.

5. E.A.Iao?on. Iniaaiiinoe eiiaa?aaioeee iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona a
oneiaeyo iaeeii/iie e na?eeiie noeioeyoeee ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa // Aii?.
yeni. e eeei. iaae.: Na. noaoae.- Aeiiaoee, 1997.- *. 2.-N.-127-130.

6. E.A.Iao?on. Acaeiiaeaenoaea aicaoaeaeaiey e oi?iiaeaiey ia iae?iiao
aeiioaeaiona i?e iaeeii/iuo e na?eeiuo ?acae?aaeaieyo ei?u aieiaiiai
iicaa // Aii?. yeni. e eeei. iaae.: Na. noaoae.- Aeiiaoee, 1997.- *.
2.-N. 124-127.

7. Yeaeo?ioeceieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea eioaa?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe
aeiioaeaiona, eae iniiau aaeaioeaiiai iiaaaeaiey n aai aaaaoaoeaiuie
eiiiiiaioaie / I.ss.E?aaoeia, E.A.Iao?on, O.E.Iaiiaa, I.A.I?ieioueaaa,
A.O.Aiae?aaaa, E.N.Ua?aaeia // Oi?noaaneea /oaiey: Na. iao/i.-i?aeo.
?aaio. Aui.1.- Aeiiaoee, 1999.-N.105-108.

8. Niioiioaiea aicaoaeeoaeueiuo e oi?iiciuo ?aaeoeee ia iae?iiao
aeiioaeaiona i?e ?acae?aaeaiee ?acee/iuo ioaeaeia ei?u aieiaiiai iicaa /
A.I. Eacaeia, I.ss. E?aaoeia, E.Y.Eociaoeia, E.A.Iao?on, A.A.Eaiaa,
N.I.Ua?aaeia, A.A.Niaae?ue, I.A.Niaae?ue // Oeceieiaey a aunoeo o/aaiuo
caaaaeaieyo ?innee e NIA: Iaoa?eaeu iao/iie eiioa?aioeee, iinayuaiiie
100-eaoeth eaoaae?u ii?iaeueiie oeceieiaee NIaAIO.- Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a,
1998.-N.13-15.

9. I.ss.E?aaoeia, E.A.Iao?on, A.O.Aiae?a?aa. Iniaeeaino? ?aaeoe?e
iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiono ia iiae?aciaiiy ??cieo a?aeae?e?a ei?e aieiaiiai
iiceo// O?c?ieia?/iee aeo?i.-1998.- O. 44, ? 3.-N.38-39.

10. E.A.Iao?on, A.A.Oa?auaiei, I.A.I?ieio’?aa. Iniaeeaino? ?aaeoe?e
iae?ii?a a?iioaeaiono ia na??ei? iiae?aciaiiy ei?e aieiaiiai iiceo //
O?c?ieia?/iee aeo?i.-1998.- O.44, ? 3.-N.45-46.

11. Results of morphological and electrophysiological analysis of
projections from the evolutionary distinct cortical areas to preoptic
neurons / ?.Kuznetsov, P.Kravtsov, A.Tereschenko, L.Natrus // Abstr.
XXXIII International Congress of Physiological sciences.- St.-Peterburg,
1997.- P 080.02.

12. E.A.Iao?on. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iae?iiia yiioeeiiaeueii-iioeaaoeeiiiuo
cii aeiioaeaiona ia noeioeyoeeth ?acee/iuo ei?oeeaeueiuo ia?aciaaiee //
Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu iaaeeoeeiu Aeiiaanna : Oac. iao/iuo o?oaeia
iieiaeuo o/aiuo e niaoeeaeenoia. -Aeiiaoee, 1997.-N.45.

13. E.A.Iao?on. ?ieue eiiaa?aaioiie aieinoe iae?iiia, eae iaoaiecia
eioaa?aoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe aeiioaeaiona // Aeooaeueiua i?iaeaiu
iaaeeoeeiu Aeiiaanna : Oac. iao/i. o?. iieiaeuo o/aiuo e niaoeeaeenoia.-
Aeiiaoee, 1997.- N.46.

14. Computerized Complex for Functional Identification of Hypothalamic
Neurons / V.Kazakov, P.Kravsov, I.Kuznetsov, L.Natrus // Iao/i. eiio.
Iaaeeoeeineea i?eeiaeaiey iaoaiaoe/aneeo e eiaeaia?iuo iaoe: Oa?ueeia,
1998.-N.88.

Iao?on E.A. Iae?iiia i?aai?caoe?y ei?oeei-a?iioaeai?/ieo ca’yce?a ye
ooieoe?iiaeueia iniiaa aiioe?eii-iioeaaoe?eii? iiaaae?iee
(aeaeo?io?c?ieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy).- ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaith eaiaeeaeaoa iaaee/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 14.03.03 — ii?iaeueia o?c?ieia?y. Aeiiaoeueeee
aea?aeaaiee iaaee/iee oi?aa?neoao ?i.I Ai?ueeiai, Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

Ca oiia aino?iai aenia?eiaioo i?ae eiia?iiaaiei ia?eicii
aeine?aeaeoaaeeny ?aaeoe?? iae?ii?a yaea? ?ino?aeueiiai a?iioaeaiona ia
iiiaeeiie? oa na??ei? (6—100 n-1) iiae?aciaiiy i?i?aaeueii? ? iiynii?
ei?e, i???oi?iii? /anoee oa a?iieaiia. Iae?iii? ?aaeoe?? aoee iiae?eai?
ia ia?aeiii caoaeaeoth/e oa ia?aeiii aaeuei?ai?.

Iienai? iniaeeaino? /aniai? i?aai?caoe?? ?iioeuenii? aeoeaiino? iae?ii?a
a?iioaeaiono. Eeaneo?eiaaii o?e oeie oaei? aeoeaiino? a?aeiia?aeii
nooiaith oeeee?/iino? ?iioeuenaoe?? oa o?e oeie ?iciiae?eo
i?ae?iioeuenieo ?ioa?aae?a oiiiai? aeoeaiino?.

Iiae?aciaiiy i?i?aaeueii? caeaeie iiiaeeiieeie noeioeaie aeeeeeaei
caoaeaeoaaeuei? ?aaeoe?? a /ioe?e ?ace /ano?oa, i?ae aaeuei?ai?. I?e
iiae?aciaii? iiynii? caeaeie ni?aa?aeiioaiiy caoaeaeoaaeueieo oa
aaeuei?aieo a?aeiia?aeae aoei 1,5:1, i???oi?iii? ei?e — 1:1. Ia
iiae?aciaiiy a?iieaiio e?euee?noue aaeuei?aieo ?aaeoe?e ia?aaeuoaaea
e?euee?noue caoaeaeoaaeueieo a aeaa ?ace. A?aae??io aaeueioaaiiy,
aeyaeaiee i?e iiiaeeiieeo iiae?aciaiiyo, c?inoaa a oiiaao na??eii?
noeioeyoe??.

I?ae /an na??eii? noeioeyoe?? e??eiaeo ae?eyiie ia?aaaaeaee aaeuei?ai?
a?aeiia?ae? a?iioaeai?/ieo iae?ii?a: ?o e?euee?noue iaeaea a /ioe?e ?ace
ia?aaeuoaaea e?euee?noue caoaeaeoaaeueieo ?aaeoe?e. Iiae?aciaiiy c
??cieie /anoioaie ia ci?ithaaei iai?yieo ?aaeoe?e. Anoaiiaeaii
iayai?noue aeaio oieon?a eiiaa?aaioe?? neaiae?a c ei?oeeaeueieo
ae?eyiie. Ia?oee eieae?co?oueny a eaoa?aeueieo a?aeae?eao a?iioaeaiona,
ae?oaee — o aaio?iiaae?aeueieo.

Io?eiai? aeai? aeicaieythoue ?icaeyaeaoe oa?aeoa? aca?iia?aeiinei i?ae
o?eiaaiaoe/ii ??cieie ooai?aiiyie ei?e aaeeeeo i?aeoeue e yae?aie
a?iioaeaiono, a oaeiae aeae?eeoe aeaa oeie aieea?a ia iae?iie
a?iioaeaiono c aieo iaia?o?iaeaiei?oaena: ioneia? (aeno?ai?) oa
ei?eaoth/e oii?/i?.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ei?oeei-a?iioaeai?/i? ca’ycee, iae?iii? ?aaeoe??,
a?iioaeaion, iiiaeeiiea noeioeyoe?y, na??eia noeioeyoe?y, eiiaa?aaioe?y
ei?oeeaeueieo aoiae?a.

Natrus L.V. Neuronal organization of the cortico-hypothalamic
connections as a functional basis of emotional and motivation behavior.
— Manuscript.

Thesis for a degree of Candidate of Medical Sciences in the speciality,
14.03.03 — physiology of humans.- Donetsk State Medical University named
after M. Gorky, Donetsk, 1999.

In acute experiments on cats under mixed (ketamine+N20) anesthesia we
studied neuronal responses in the rostral hypothalamus to single and
serial stimulations (6-100 sec-1) of the prefrontal cortex, cingulate
cortex, cortex of the pyriform lobe and hippocampus.

Stimulation of the prefrontal cortex evoked excitatory responses four
times more frequently than inhibitory ones. For cingulate cortex
stimulation, the ratio of excitatory/inhibitory responses was 1,5:1.
Stimulation of the pyriform cortex evoked activatory and inhibitory
responses with a nearly similar probability. In the case of hippocampal
stimulation, inhibitory responses appeared two times more frequently
than excitatory reactions. More expressed prevalence of inhibitory
responses was found when serial stimuli were applied. No pronounced
changes in the pattern of responses were found when the frequency of
stimulation increased, and only the intensity of reactions was modified.

We have delineated two main foci of convergence of signals from the
above mentioned cortical areas. The first such focus was located in the
lateral hypothalamic nucleus, while the second was identified in the
ventromedial hypothalamus nucleus.

The data obtained allow us to classify two types of influences, which
the evolutionary distinct cortical areas exert upon hypothalamic
neurons: there are tonic corrective (emulated by serial stimulation) and
triggering (single stimulation) influences.

Key words: corticohypothalamic connections, neuronal responses,
hypothalamus, single stimulation, serial stimulation, convergence of
cortical inputs.

Iao?on E.A. Iae?iiiay i?aaiecaoeey ei?oeei-aeiioaeaie/aneeo naycae eae
ooieoeeiiaeueiay iniiaa yiioeeiiaeueii-iioeaaoeeiiiiai iiaaaeaiey
(yeaeo?ioeceieiae/aneia enneaaeiaaiea).- ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iaaeeoeeineeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 14.03.03 — ii?iaeueiay oeceieiaey Aeiiaoeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue iaaeeoeeineee oieaa?neoao ei. I.Ai?ueeiai, Aeiiaoee,
1999.

Enneaaeiaaeenue ?aaeoeee iae?iiia eaoa?aeueiiai aeiioaeaiona (HL),
aaio?iiaaeeaeueiiai aeiioaeaiona (Hvm), iaeanoe aei?naeueiiai
aeiioaeaiona (aHd) e iaeanoe i?iaeoeee iaaeeaeueiiai io/ea ia?aaeiaai
iicaa (MFB) ia iaeeii/iua e na?eeiua ?acae?aaeaiey (6-100 n-1)
i?i?aaeueiie (iiea 8), iiyniie (iiea 24) ei?u, ie?eoi?iiie aeiee
(ia?eaieaaeaey?iay ei?a) e aeiiieaiia (NA3).

I?e aiaeeca aenoia?aii n?aaeiae /anoiou (/anoioia?aii) auaeaeaii o?e
aeaea oiiiaie aeoeaiinoe, ioee/athueony ?aciie noaiaiueth ia?eiaee/iinoe
eiioeuenaoeee: iai?a?uaiay aeoeaiinoue ia?aaoey?iiai oa?aeoa?a n
iiiioiiiie aenoia?aiiie oaeouae n?aaeiae /anoiou e ionoonoaeai
ia?eiaee/iinoe; iai?a?uaiay ia?eiaee/aneay aeoeaiinoue, a eioi?ie
iaaethaeaeenue ia?eiaee/aneea o/auaiey e o?aaeaiey n eioa?aaeaie
ii?yaeea 2-10 n; oiiiaay aeoeaiinoue o?aoueaai oeia i?aaenoaaeaia
ia?eiaee/anee aicieeathueie a?oiiaie ?ac?yaeia (ia/eaie), n?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?uo auea ?aaia 2-3 n e eioi?ua ?acaeaeyeenue
oaeei aea eee ianeieueei aieueoeie ii aeeeoaeueiinoe (3-4 n)
eioa?aaeaie. Auee auyaeaiu o?e oeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey aeeeoaeueiinoae
iaaeeiioeueniuo eioa?aaeia: aneiiao?e/iue (A), neiiao?e/iue (S),
iieeiiaeaeueiue (?). Iiae aeeyieai ei?oeeaeueiuo ?acae?aaeaiee o 15%
iae?iiia iaaethaeaeinue i?aia?aciaaiea iaeiiai oeia ?ani?aaeaeaiey a
ae?oaie: /aua anaai “S” a “?” eee “A” a “?”.

?aaeoeee iae?iiia auee ?acaeaeaiu ia aeaa a?oiiu: ia?ae/ii
aicaoaeeoaeueiua e ia?ae/ii oi?iiciua. I?e ?acae?aaeaiee i?i?aaeueiie
ecaeeeiu aicaoaeeoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee ?aaeno?e?iaaeinue a /aou?a ?aca
aieueoa, /ai oi?iiciuo. Ia ?acae?aaeaiea iiyniie ecaeeeiu
aicaoaeeoaeueiuo ioaaoia oaeaea auei aieueoa, eo niioiioaiea n
oi?iiciuie ninoaaeyei 1,5:1. ?acae?aaeaiea ie?eoi?iiie ei?u aucuaaei a
?aaiie noaiaie aeoeaaoeeiiiua e oi?iiciua ?aaeoeee iae?iiia. I?e
?acae?aaeaiee aeiiieaiia caiaoii i?aaaee?iaaee oi?iiciua ioaaou, eo
iauaa eiee/anoai a aeaa ?aca i?aauoaei eiee/anoai aicaoaeeoaeueiuo.

N?aaiaiea eaoaioiuo ia?eiaeia (EI) ?aaeoeee iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona
iieacaei, /oi iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiua ?aaeoeee n ieieiaeueiui EI (ii?yaeea
6 in) ioia/aeenue i?e ?acae?aaeaiee i?i?aaeueiie ecaeeeiu, (eneeth/aiea
ninoaaeyee ?aaeoeee iae?iiia Hvm). Iaeiaiaa au?aaeaiiua ioaaou n
iaeneiaeueiui aeey aeiioaeaiona EI iaaethaeaeenue i?e ?acae?aaeaiee
aeiiieaiia, iniaaiii o iae?iiia Hvm, aaea n?aaeiyy aaee/eia EI
ninoaaeyea aieaa 50 in.

A oiaea yenia?eiaioia eco/aeenue ?aaeoeee iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona ia
na?eeiua ei?oeeaeueiua ?acae?aaeaiey n /anoioie 6, 8, 12, 30, 60 e 100
n-1. I?eiaiaiea noeioeia ?aciie /anoiou ia eciaiyei iauae iai?aaeaiiinoe
?aaeoeee: anee i?e noeioeyoeee eaeie-eeai ei?oeeaeueiie no?oeoo?u n
eaeie-oi /anoioie aicieeaea oi?iiciay ?aaeoeey, oi iia ioia/aeanue e i?e
eniieueciaaiee eiuo /anoio ?acae?aaeaiey. Iau/ii n aic?anoaieai /anoiou
?acae?aaeaiey au?aaeaiiinoue ?aaeoeee (eiee/anoai eiioeuenia,
aaia?e?oaiuo iae?iiii i?e aeaiiie eioaineaiinoe ?acae?aaeaiey)
eciaiyeanue. *aua anaai, n iiauoaieai /anoiou ?acae?aaeaiey
au?aaeaiiinoue ?aaeoeee ii/oe eeiaeii aic?anoaea, iaeiaei yoi
ioia/aeinue eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiii aeeaiaciia /anoio.

A oneiaeyo na?eeiie noeioeyoeee iaia?oeiaeaiei?oaena auyaeaii /aou?a
iniiaiuo oeia ?aaeoeee: aicaoaeeoaeueiua, oi?iiciua ?aaeoeee, a oaeaea
aicaoaeeoaeueiua e oi?iiciua on-off-yooaeou. I?e na?eeiuo ?acae?aaeaieyo
ei?eiauo no?oeoo? oi?iiciua ?aaeoeee aicieeaee cia/eoaeueii /aua, /ai
aicaoaeeoaeueiua (niioiioaiea 3,8:1). Iniaaiii y?ei i?aiaeaaeaiea
oi?iiciuo ioaaoia iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona iaae aicaoaeeoaeueiuie
iaaethaeaeinue i?e na?eeiuo ?acae?aaeaieyo ie?eoi?iiie ei?u (9:1), i?e
?acae?aaeaiee iiyniie ecaeeeiu eiee/anoai oi?iiciuo ?aaeoeee a o?e ?aca
i?aauoaei eiee/anoai aicaoaeeoaeueiuo, a i?e ?acae?aaeaiee i?i?aaeueiie
ecaeeeiu niioiioaiea oi?iiciuo e aicaoaeeoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee ninoaaeyei
1,7:1. Ia na?eeiua ?acae?aaeaiey aeiiieaiia ?aaae?iaaee iaiaa 50%
iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona, e i?e yoii oi?iiciuo ioaaoia auei a oanoue ?ac
aieueoa, /ai aicaoaeeoaeueiuo. Iae?iiu, ioaa/athuea ia i?aaeuyaeaiea
na?eeiuo noeioeia, eieaeeciaaeenue i?aeiouanoaaiii a eaoa?aeueiuo
ioaeaeao HL, Hvm e MFB, aaea iaaethaeaeenue iaeaieaa au?aaeaiiua oieonu
eiiaa?aaioeee.

I?e iaeeii/iie noeioeyoeee ei?u aieueoeo iieooa?ee aue auyaeai a?aaeeaio
oi?iiaeaiey, ?anniao?eaaaiue n o/aoii oeeiaaiaca ei?oeeaeueiuo no?oeoo?.
Ieieiaeueiia i?aiaeaaeaiea oi?iiciuo ?aaeoeee iaae aicaoaeeoaeueiuie
iaaethaeaeinue i?e ?acae?aaeaiee iaiei?oaena (i?i?aaeueiay ecaeeeia),
aieueoei iii auei i?e ?acae?aaeaiee iaaeooi/iie ei?u (iiyniay ecaeeeia),
aua aieueoei — i?e ?acae?aaeaiee iaeaiei?oaena (ie?eoi?iiay ei?a), a i?e
?acae?aaeaiee a?oeei?oaena (aeiiieaiia) oi?iiaeaiea auei i?aeoe/anee
aaeeinoaaiiui aeaeii ?aaeoeee. A?aaeeaio oi?iiaeaiey aic?anoaao a
oneiaeyo na?eeiie noeioeyoeee.

Onoaiiaeaii iaee/ea aeaoo oieonia n au?aaeaiiie eiiaa?aaioeeae neaiaeia
ec ei?oeeaeueiuo iaeanoae. Ia?aue eieaeeciaaeny a eaoa?aeueiuo yae?ao
aeiioaeaiona, a aoi?ie — a aaio?iiaaeeaeueiuo. I?e iaeeii/iuo
?acae?aaeaieyo no?oeoo? iaia?oeiaeaiei?oaena iaaethaeaeenue a iniiaiii
aicaoaeaeathuea e niaoaiiua ?aaeoeee iae?iiia aeiioaeaiona, a ai a?aiy
/anoioiie noeioeyoeee ?aaeno?e?iaaeenue iae?iiu, ioaa/athuea
i?aeiouanoaaiii oi?iiciuie ?aaeoeeyie.

Iieo/aiiua aeaiiua iicaieytho aieaa aaeaeaaoii ?anniao?eaaoue oa?aeoa?
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo oeeiaaiaoe/anee ?acee/iuie ia?aciaaieyie ei?u
aieueoeo iieooa?ee e ii?aaeaeaiiuie yae?aie aeiioaeaiona. O/eouaay
oa?aeoa? ioaaoia ia na?eeioth noeioeyoeeth e iaeeii/iua ?acae?aaeaiey
iiaeii auaeaeeoue aeaa oeia aeeyiee ia iae?iiu aeiioaeaiona ni noi?iiu
iaia?oeiaeaiei?oaena: ei??eae?othuea oiie/aneea e ioneiaua yeno?aiiua.

Auyaeaiiay iaie neiaeiay iae?iiiay i?aaiecaoeey naycae yaiethoeeiiii
aaoa?iaaiiuo ei?oeeaeueiuo cii n yae?aie aeiioaeaiona yaeyaony
aaaeiaeoei eiiiiiaioii ooieoeeiiaeueiie iae?ioeceieiae/aneie iniiau
?acee/iuo oi?i aaeaioeaiiai iiaaaeaiey n aai yiioeeiiaeueiuie e
aaaaoaoeaiuie ninoaaeythueie.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ei?oeei-aeiioaeaie/aneea nayce, iae?iiiua ?aaeoeee,
aeiioaeaion, iaeeii/iay noeioeyoeey, na?eeiay noeioeyoeey, eiiaa?aaioeey
ei?oeeaeueiuo aoiaeia

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