Методика розрахунку та дослідження нелінійних нестаціонарних аеродинамічних характеристик тілесних профілів у взаємодії з турбулентними струминами: Ав

Aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.?. AEoeianueeiai

“Oa?e?anueeee aa?aoe?eiee ?inoeooo”

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I?EIANUeEEE Ieoaeei Ieeieaeiae/

OAeE 629.7.016.7

IAOIAeEEA ?IC?AOOIEO OA AeINE?AeAEAIIss IAE?I?EIEO IANOAOe?IIA?IEO
AA?IAeEIAI?*IEO OA?AEOA?ENOEE O?EANIEO I?IO?E?A O ACA?IIAe?? C
OO?AOEAIOIEIE NO?OIEIAIE

01.02.05 – iaoai?ea ??aeeie, aaco oa ieacie

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? aa?iaeeiai?ee oa aeeiai?ee iieueioo
oaeoeueoaoo caaaeueii? aa?aoe?eii? i?aeaioiaee Oa?e?anueeiai ?inoeoooo
eueio/ee?a AIN I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: — eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee

Oaeiaaiei Aieiaeeie? Ieaen?eiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo eueio/ee?a AIN,

aeieoi?aio eaoaae?e aa?iaeeiai?ee oa aeeiai?ee iieueioo.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Aa?aneiaiei Aieiaeeie? Iao?iae/,

Aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai?

I.?. AEoeianueeiai “OA?”,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e aacioo?a?iieo aeaeaoi?a oa onoaiiaie.

— eaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio

Oo?/aiei Aieiaeeie? sseiaeaae/,

Oa?e?anueeee a?enueeiaee oi?aa?neoao,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e aa?iaeeiai?ee.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Oa?e?anueeee Aea?aeaaiee iie?oaoi?/iee
oi?aa?neoao,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie.

Caoeno aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 2 ” /a?aiy 2000 ?ieo i 14
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae64.062.02 o
Aea?aeaaiiio aa?ieini?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai, “OA?”,

ca aae?anith: 310070, i. Oa?e?a, aoe. *eaeiaa, 17.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aea?aeaaiiai
aa?ieini?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai, “OA?”.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 14 ” a?oaeiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee / Iacei A.TH. /

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiue. O oaia??oi?e /an ana a?eueo oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy ia iiaeo c?aceao aa?aoe?eii? oaoi?ee (AO) ciaoiaeeoue
aeei?enoaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo yaeu oa aoaeo?a, iia’ycaieo c? no?oieiieie
oa/?yie, oaeeo ye:

— aoaeo i?aeaeuaiiy i?noeaaiai oaeaee?niiai iaii?o ia e?ee? oa ?ioeo
aeaiaioao e?oaeueiiai aia?aoo (EA), ui iio?aieythoue o no?oieio;

— aoaeo aaeaeoe?? – oniieooaaiiy iia?o?y c ciai?oiueiai iioieo, ui aaaea
aei ci?ie i?noeaaeo eoo?a aoaee;

— aoaeo ci?uaiiy – e?i?? no?oio iniiaiiai iioieo ci?uothoueny i?e
iao?eaii? ia?aoeiaee o aeaeyae? no?oieie;

— aoaeo Eiaiaea, ui iieyaa? o i?eeyaaii? no?oieie aei e?eaie?i?eii?
iiaa?oi? oa “a?aenoaaeaiiy” ?? aiane?aeie iiceoeaiiai ?aae?aeueiiai
a?aae??ioa oeneo.

Aeey iie?ioaiiy ce?oii-iinaaei/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee e?oae?a ana a?eueo
oe?iei canoiniaothoueny nenoaie ca?eueoaiiy i?aeeiiii? neee, ui
aeei?enoiaothoue aia?a?th neeiai? onoaiiaee (NO), cie?aia nenoaia
iaaeoaaiiy aa?oiuei? iiaa?oi? e?eea oa cae?eee?a ?aaeoeaiith no?oieiith
aeaeaoia (nenoaia IAI). Ana a?eueo oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ciaoiaeyoue
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy aaeoi?ii oyae NO, aeei?enoaiiy aia?aaoe/ieo niinia?a
oi?aae?iiy a?ae?eaii iioieo c iiaa?oi? e?eea. Iaaeoi aaaeeeaith oa
aeooaeueiith ? caaea/a aea/aiiy aa?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee (AO)
iaoai?ciaaiiai e?eea i?e iaaeoaaii? eiai no?oieiith a?ae aeaeaoia aai
iia?o?yiiai aaeioa.

O ca’yceo c oeei i?iaeaia o?aooaaiiy ?ioa?oa?aioe?? no?oiei c iano/eie
aeaiaioaie aa?iaeeiai?/ieo eiiiiioaaiue aeoiaeeoue ia ia?aaei?e ieai.

Iacaaaeath/e ia ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ieo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo, iiee ui ia
aeaeyaea? iiaeeeaei ?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii aecia/aoe AO e?oaea o?eanii?
noaiaoecaoe?? c o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?oa?aioe?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oa
i?aoethth/i? NO.

Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo ianoaoe?iia?ieo
AO o?eanieo i?io?e?a o aca?iiae?? c oo?aoeaioiith no?oieiith i?e iaeeo
aeicaoeiaeo oaeaeeinoyo.

Caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue:

1. ?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue (II) oa noi?ioethaaoe caaea/o
iao?eaiiy aa?iaeeiai?/iiai eiiiiioaaiiy “iaoai?ciaaiee o?eaniee i?io?eue
— aeaeaoi”.

2. Iiaoaeoaaoe aeai?eoi /enaeueiiai ??oaiiy caaea/ iao?eaiiy aeia?eueieo
aeaiaei??ieo o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue c o?aooaaiiyi ?iaioe NO.

3. Aeine?aeeoe aieea aaiiao?e/ieo oa e?iaiaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a
aa?iaeeiai?/ieo eiiiiioaaiue ia ?o AO.

Iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? ye iaoiae aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo
ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO o?eanieo i?io?e?a o aca?iiae?? c oo?aoeaioiith
no?oieiith aeei?enoiao?oueny iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaoiae aeene?aoieo aeoi??a
(IAeA). Nooi?noue iiaeeo?eaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui iao?/i? iiaa?oi? oa
aeo?ia? iaeaie cai?iththoueny iiaea?eieie aeo?iaeie oa?aie, ui
iiaeaeththoueny aeo?iaeie ina?aaeeaie, eiaeiee c yeeo aeeth/a? a naaa
ia?o aeoi??a c iaeiaeiaith ii iiaeoeth oa i?ioeeaaeii? uiaei iai?yio
oee?eoeyoe??th.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie. Oaiaoeea aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue o?nii iia’ycaia c iniiaieie iai?yieaie iaoeiai?
ae?yeueiino? O?E AIN (iaeac canooiieea i?i?no?a iai?iie Oe?a?ie –
eiiaiaeoaa/a A?enueeiai-iia?o?yieo nee Oe?a?ie ?72 a?ae 16.05.97 ?.).
?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?aaenoaaeythoue i?aeoe/iee
?ioa?an ye aeey ?ic?iaiee?a na??eii? AO (AIOE “Aioiiia”), oae ? aeey
i?iaeooaaeueiee?a eaaeeo oa naii?iaieo EA (EA “Ce?o”, AO
“Iaoeiai-i?iieneiaee na?a?n”).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia ?iaioe iieyaa? a oiio ui:

— noai?aia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO o?eanieo
i?io?e?a o aca?iiae?? c? no?oieiith a?ae aeaeaoia;

— io?eiaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie niin?a ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy aeaiaei??ieo
eiiiiioaaiue c o?aooaaiiyi o?eaniino?;

— ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a ai?ieneiaoe?? oee?eoeyoe?? ia iiaa?oi? o?ea, ui
aeicaiey? “?aaeene?aoeciaaoe” /enaeueia ??oaiiy ? io?eiaoe aacia?a?aiee
?iciiae?e ia?aiao??a ii iano/ei iiaa?oiyi;

— i?iiiio?oueny iiaee niin?a iiaoaeiae o?a?eoi??e /anoie ??aeeie, ui
?ooathoueny o i?inoi??.

Aeinoia??i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee iaa?oioiao?oueny:

— aeei?enoaiiyi aeey iieno II ooiaeaiaioaeueieo o?ce/ieo caeii?a;

— ?ica’ycaiiyi ?yaeo oanoiaeo caaea/, ui iathoue oi/i? aiae?oe/i?
??oaiiy;

— c?noaaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy ia AII ieineiia?aeaeueiiai
iao?eaiiy oe?ieiai eeano ia’?eo?a aeine?aeaeaiue (ieanoeia, oeee?iae?,
i?io?eue e?eea, eaaa?ie oa aenooie) c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie oa
?acoeueoaoaie ?ic?aooie?a ?ioeo aaoi??a;

— iiaeaethaaiiyi a?aeiieo a?ae?iaeeiai?/ieo aoaeo?a (aeo?ia? aei??aeee
Ea?iaia, aoaeo Eiaiaea oa ?i.).

I?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe:

— ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe ? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe a
ianoaoe?iia?i?e iinoaiiaoe? aieea ?iaioe NO ia ciai?oi? iao?eaiiy
aa?iaeeiai?/ieo eiiiiioaaiue oa a?aoiaoaaoe oae? oaeoi?e, ye ?iaioa
iia?o?icaa??iee?a, iayai?noue no?oiei iaaiiai ?iioeueno, ?oi?
aaeaeoe?ei? aeanoeaino?, aieea ciai?oiueiai iao?eaiiy eiiiiioaaiiy ia
?iaioo NO;

— ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii aeene?aoecaoe?? ?ic?aooieiai? iiaa?oi?
i?io?e?a;

— aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? oo?aoeaioieo no?oiei a?ae aeaeaoi?a c
iiaa?oiath i?io?eth e?eea;

— ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei iioeiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iieiaeaiiy aiiaeie NO a?aeiinii ia?a??co e?eea.

?aae?caoe?y ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe. ?ic?iaeai? aaoi?ii iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy
?aae?ciaai?:

— a iaoiaeeoe? ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO o?eanieo
i?io?e?a c iaoai?caoe??th o aca?iiae?? c? no?oieiith a?ae NO a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio? “AEAI?EOI-14” (?096209, caiiaiee AE
AIN) i?e aeine?aeaeaii? aa?iaeeiai?/ieo eiiiiioaaiue EA c oi/ee ci?o
iioeiaeueiiai aca?ii?icoaooaaiiy aeaeaoia oa aeaiaio?a iaoai?caoe??
e?eea;

— a iaoiaeeoe? ?ic?aooieo ianoaoe?iia?iiai iao?eaiiy o?eanieo i?io?e?a a
iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee?e ?iaio? “Iii?aaea-1” (?098220, caiiaiee IAe?
IOI, i. Oa?e?a) i?e aiae?c? ieineiia?aeaeueii? oa/?? aaco a?ey iiniai?
/anoeie e?oath/i? iiaeae?;

— a iaoiaeeoe? ?ic?aooieo ianoaoe?iia?iiai iao?eaiiy o?eanieo i?io?e?a
i?e aeine?aeaeaii? AO i?io?eth ?-2-14 c? u?eeiiith iaoai?caoe??th i?e
i?iaeooaaii? eaaeiai e?oaea “Oaieen-02” o EA “Ce?o” (AO
“Iaoeiai-i?iieneiaee na?a?n”, i. Oa?e?a);

— a aeai?eoi? ? i?ia?ai? ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO
o?eanieo i?io?e?a o aca?iiae?? c oo?aoeaioieie no?oieiaie,
ca?a?no?iaaii? a oiiae? aeai?eoi?a ? i?ia?ai O?E AIN, a iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioean?.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny:

— ia VIII i?aeia?iaeiiio neiiic?oi? “Iaoiaee aeene?aoieo iniaeeainoae a
caaea/ao iaoaiaoe/ii? o?ceee” (Oaiaein?y, 1997 ?.);

— ia II i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoea oa ina?oa 99” (Oa?e?a, 1999
?.);

— ia I iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? eiioa?aioe?? O?E AIN (Oa?e?a, 1996 ?.);

— ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e aa?ia?ae?iaeeiai?ee Aea?aeaaiiai
aa?ieini?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. I.?. AEoeianueeiai, “OA?” (Oa?e?a, 1998
?.);

— ia iaoeiaiio nai?ia?? eaoaae?e aa?iiaoai?ee Ee?anueeiai ?inoeoooo AIN
(Ee?a, 1998 ?.);

— ia i?aeeaoaae?aeueieo nai?ia?ao OCAI O?E AIN (Oa?e?a, 1996-1999 ?.?.).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ii oai? aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii 9 iaoeiaeo noaoae, nienie
yeeo iaaaaeaiee a e?ioe? aaoi?aoa?aoo. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eieo
aeine?aeaeaiue oaeiae iioae?eiaai? a oacao I iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? O?E AIN oa ca?oao i?i iaoeiai-aeine?aeieoeuee? ?iaioe
“AEAI?EOI-14” oa “III?AAEA-1”. I?ia?aia ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo
ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO o?eanieo i?io?e?a c iaoai?caoe??th o aca?iiae?? c
oo?aoeaioieie no?oieiaie ca?a?no?iaaia a oiiae? aeai?eoi?a ? i?ia?ai O?E
AIN Oe?a?ie.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ?iaioao [1-6, 9], iaienaieo o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Oaeiaaiei oi?ioethaaiiy i?iaeai oa aiae?c io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a i?iaaaeai? ni?eueii. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, aea??
?ic?aooieiaeo iaoiae?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy /enaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeeiiai?
aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, a
yeeo aeeeaaeai? iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, io?eiai? a ?iaio?, ? nieneo
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. ?iaioa i?noeoue 150 noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai
oaenoo, 90 ?enoie?a ia 57 noi??ieao, 1 oaaeeoeth. Caaaeueiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? neeaaea? 207 noi??iie. A?ae?ia?ao?y i?noeoue 129
iaeiaioaaiue.

Ci?no ?iaioe

O anooi? ei?ioei aeeeaaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy aeooaeueiino? oaie,
noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?eaaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, aeeeaaeaia iaoeiaa iiaecia, i?aeoe/ia oe?ii?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ? ei?ioeee ci?no ?iaioe ca ?icae?eaie.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?noeoue iaeyae iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, ui
canoiniaothoueny i?e ?ic?aooieo aeicaoeiaiai iao?eaiiy o?e oa aiae?c
?nioth/eo niinia?a ??oaiiy ??aiyiue ?ooo, oi?ioethaaiiy caaaeueii?
iinoaiiaee caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.1 ?icaeyiooi iai?yiee (a ?aieao iiaeaeae Aeea?a ?
Iaa’?-Noiena), ui noi?ioaaeeny a i?aeoeoe? /enaeueiiai iiaeaethaaiiy
ea?oei aeicaoeiai? oa/?? ? i?aeoiaee aei ?aae?caoe?? ni?iuaiiai
iiaeaethaaiiy. C oeueiai ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiith
iiaeaeeth aaco i?e ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?e neeaaeii? i?inoi?iai?
eiio?ao?aoe?? ? iiaeaeue, ui aeei?enoiao? i?eiouaiiy i?i iioaioe?ei?noue
oa ?ciaio?iii?noue oa/??.

Aiae?c ?nioth/eo iaoiae?a ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?e iioieii aeicaoeiaiai
aaco iieaco?, ui iaea?eueo aoaeoeaiei, c oi/ee ci?o iaeiaioeo cao?ao
iaoeiiiai /ano i?e caaeia?euei?e aeey i?aeoe/ii? iaoe oi/iino? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a, ? iaoiae aeene?aoieo iniaeeainoae.

?icaeyaea?oueny i?iaeaia iiaoaeiae caieiooeo iiaeaeae oo?aoeaioiino? o
ianoeneea?e ??aeei? aeey ne?ae?a, ui ooai?ththoueny i?e a?ae?eaiiio
iao?eaii? o?e ? aeey ianoaoe?iia?ieo no?oiei.

O i?ae?icae?e? 1.2 oi?ioeth?oueny caaaeueia iinoaiiaea caaea/?
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Aeey iae?eo aieeao ?iaioe NO ia ciai?oi? iao?eaiiy iaiao?aeii
ciiaeaethaaoe caniieooaaiiy ciai?oiueiai iioieo o iia?o?icaa??ieee NO ?
iayai?noue a iioioe? no?oiei caaeaiiai ?iioeueno. C ?ioiai aieo, aaeoi?
aioo??oiuei? oyae, oiaoi noia on?o nee, ae?th/eo ana?aaeei? NO,
caeaaeeoue a?ae ciai?oiueiai iao?eaiiy EA.

O ?iaio? noaaeoueny caaea/a noai?aiiy II ? iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo
iao?eaiiy o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue, ui aeicaieeoue a?aoiaoaaoe aca?iiee
aieea ciai?oiueiai iao?eaiiy EA ? ?iaioe eiai NO.

Any aioo??oi?noue NO (?en.1) iiaeaeth?oueny iaei??th iiaa?oiath a
(“aeoeaiei ia?a??cii”).Ia oe?e iiaa?oi? no?eaeii iiaeooue ci?ithaaoeny
ia?aiao?e oa/??, ? /a?ac ia? caaea?oueny aeo?aoa ??aeeie. sseui
aaiiao??y ao?aeieo ? aeo?aeieo i?eeaae?a, aeo?aoa iiaeaeueii? oa
?aaeueii? NO aoaeooue iaeiaeiaeie, a u?euei?noue a no?oiei? iiaeaeueii?
NO aoaea ??aiith u?eueiino? no?oieie ia c??c? ?aaeueii? NO, oi c oai?aie
?iioeuen?a aeieeaa?, ui aioo??oi? oyae iaio NO aoaeooue ??ai?.

O oaia??oi?e /an ?niothoue niiniae ?ic?aooieo aoaeoeaieo oa?aeoa?enoee
NO. Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iioei?ciaaieo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeaoia
(A.I.Eiaaeueeia, TH.I.Ia/a?a, A.N.Iie?a, 1984) aeicaiey? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe
aioo??oi?e o?aeo aeaeaoia ? io?eiaoe ia?aiao?e aaco ia c??c? niiea.
Ao?aeieie ia?aiao?aie aeey oe??? iaoiaeeee ? oaeaee?noue, u?euei?noue ?
noaoe/iee oene iaa?aath/iai iioieo, caaeaia i?ia?aia oi?aae?iiy NO,
iieiaeaiiy aaaeaey ea?oaaiiy aeaeaoiii. ?ic?aoiaai? ii oe?e iaoiaeeoe?
aaee/eia aeo?aoe /a?ac NO ? u?euei?noue no?oieie ia c??c? niiea
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye ii/aoeia? aeai? i?e iiaeaethaaii? ?iaioe NO.

A caaea/? aaaaeathoueny caaeaieie:

— aei?noe? iiaa?oi? , no ? a, (?en. 1) ui caaeathoue aaiiao??th iao?/ii?
iiaa?oi?, ciai?oi?o iao?/ieo iiaa?oiiue NO, “aeoeaiiai ia?a??co”;

— i?noea noiaeo c iao?/ii? iiaa?oi? aeo?iaeo iaeai p;

— oaeaee?noue iaa?aath/iai iioieo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 noaoe/iee oene ia iane?i/aiiino? p;

— u?euei?noue ??aeeie o iaa?aath/iio iioioe? oa a no?oiei? n;

— ianiaa aeo?aoa ??aeeie Q /a?ac NO.

Iiaa?oiy iaae no?oieie s ni?eueii c no ? a ae?eeoue anth iaeanoue oa/??
ia aea? ciie: D — iaeanoue ciai?oiuei? oa/?? ? Ds — iaeanoue oa/?? a
no?oiei?. Oa/?y iioaioe?eia anthaee, ca aeiyoeii iiaa?oiiue , no, p , s
oa a. C ??aiyiiy ia?ic?eaiino? aeo?ea?, ui iioaioe?ae cao?aieo
oaeaeeinoae ? aa?iii?eiith ooieoe??th, oiaoi caaeiaieueiy? ??aiyiith
Eaieana. Oiae? iiea oeneo a aeia?euei?e oi/oe? i?inoi?o aecia/a?oueny
?ioaa?aeii Eio?-Eaa?aiaea. Ciath/e aaee/eio oeneo o eiaei?e oi/oe?
iiaa?oi?, iiaeia ciaeoe neeo ? iiiaio, ye? ae?thoue c aieo ??aeeie ia
o?ei. Oaeei /eiii, ae??oaiiy caaea/? iao?eaiiy caiaeeoueny aei ??oaiiy
??aiyiiy Eaieana, yea iiaeiii caaeiaieueiyoe ianooiiei iaaeiaei oiiaai:

— iai?io?eaiiy ia aei?noeeo iiaa?oiyo ? no;

— caoooaiiy caoaeaeaiue ia iane?i/aiiino?;

— oiia? aacia?a?aiino? oeneo ? ii?iaeueii? oaeaeeino? ia aeo?ia?e iaeai?
p ? iaaeao no?oieie s;

— a oi/eao noiaeo aeo?iaeo iaeai p ? no?oieie s – a?iioac?
*aieea?ia-AEoeianueeiai-Eoooa i?i e?ioeaa?noue oaeaeeino? ia aino?eo
e?aeeao;

— caa?aaeaiiy ianiai? aeo?aoe ??aeeie /a?ac NO.

*a?ac aaeeeo neeaaei?noue ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy EA c i?aoethth/ith NO a
oe?eiio o aeai?e ?iaio? ae??oo?oueny aeaiaei??ia iae?i?eia
ianoaoe?iia?ia caaea/a iao?eaiiy o?eaniiai i?io?eth c iaoai?caoe??th ?
i?aoethth/ith NO. A iiaeaeueoiio i?eionea?oueny ocaaaeueieoe io?eiaio
iaoiaeeeo ? ia?aeoe aei ?ic?aooieo i?inoi?iaeo o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue c
i?aoethth/eie aeaeaoiaie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aaiaeyoueny nenoaie eii?aeeiao, aeaiaeyoueny iniiai?
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy, noi?ioeueiaai? i?eeiyo? i?eiouaiiy ? iaiaaeaiiy
(i?ae?icae?e 2.1).

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.2 aeeeaaeai? iniiai? iieiaeaiiy /enaeueiiai iaoiaeo.
Caienaia ?ic?aooieiaa nenoaia e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue /enaeueiiai
iaoiaeo aeey aeeiiaiiy iaaeiaeo oiia.

O oaia??oi?e /an aeey ?ic?aooieo AO iano/eo iiaa?oiiue oe?iei
aeei?enoiao?oueny IAeA (N.I.A?eioea?eianueeee, I.?.I?oo, 1978).
Nooi?noue oeueiai iaoiaeo iieyaa? o cai?i? aacia?a?aieo aeo?iaeo oa??a,
yeeie iiaeaeth?oueny iao?/ia iiaa?oiy oa ?? aeo?iaee ne?ae, nenoaiaie
aeene?aoieo aeoi??a. Aacia?a?ai? ca /anii iaaeia? oiiae , oee?eoeyoe??,
oa ?io? ia?aiao?e oa/?? i?e ianoaoe?iia?iiio iao?eaii? cai?iththoueny
no?ae/anoeie ?oi?ie ci?iaie ca ?ic?aooieiaee ?ioa?aae aac?ici??iiai /ano
. Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui o IAeA aeeiiothoueny on? iaaeia? oiiae, ui
ia?a?aoiaai? aeua. I?e oeueiio iioaioe?ei?noue oa/?? iica iiaa?oiiue ,
no , p , s oa a aeeiio?oueny iiaoaeiaith a?ae?iaeeiai?/ii caieiooeo
aeo?iaeo nenoai. Iaeiae, /a?ac iniaeeaino? iiaoaeiae aeo?iaeo noai, o
IAeA aeyaey?oueny, ui aeo?iaa iiaeaeue iaeaie ooieoe?iiaeueii iia’ycaia
?c aeo?iaith iiaeaeeth iao?/iiai o?ea. Oea, ?acii c iaaieie ia?aaaaaie,
i?ecaiaeeoue aei iio?aae ?ic?iaee ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeo?iaeo noai aeey
eiaeiiai eeano caaea/, ui iaieio/a i?ecaiaeeoue aei noai?aiiy iiai?
i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo. C iaoith iiaeaeueoiai aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeo, aoea
cae?eniaia iiaeeo?eaoe?y IAeA (A.I.Aia?eiia, I.A.Aeai?ae, 1986).
Nooi?noue iiaeeo?eaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui iao?/i? iiaa?oi? oa aeo?ia?
iaeaie cai?iththoueny iiaea?eieie aeo?iaeie oa?aie (E.A. Eieoeyinueeee,
1978), ui iiaeaeththoueny caieiooeie aeo?iaeie ?aieaie ?c iino?eiith
oee?eoeyoe??th ii ia?eiao?o. Oe? ?aiee iiaeooue aooe aeia?eueii? oi?ie,
ia iathoue ana?aaeei? naaa ?ioeo ?aiie oa oi?eathoueny iii?ae niaith
non?aei?ie noi?iiaie aac ii?iaeiei oa ?ic?ea?a. Oaeei /eiii,
caaacia/o?oueny a?ae?iaeeiai?/ia caieioo?noue aeo?iai? nenoaie. Aeey
aeaiaei??iiai aeiaaeeo aeo?ia? ?aiee o?ainoi?iothoueny o ia?e
iane?i/aiieo aeoi??a c iaeiaeiaeie ii aaniethoiiio cia/aiith oa
i?ioeeaaeieie ii ciaeo oee?eoeyoe?yie.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.3 ?icaeyiooa ieoaiiy ui-aei noaiaoecaoe??
??ciiiai?oieo aeaiaei??ieo eiiiiioaaiue. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee niin?a
?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?eanieo i?io?e?a.

Aei oeueiai /ano aeineoue aeia?a aeine?aeaeai? oa?aeoa?enoeee oiieeo
i?io?e?a, ye? iiaeaeththoueny oiieeie ieanoeiaie c o?aooaaiiyi aeaeoao
iane?i/aiii oiiei? no?oieie c caaeiuei? e?aeee /e o aca?iiae?? oeeo
i?io?e?a ?c no?oieiith a?ae aeaeaoi?a. I?ioa, i?e ca?eueoaii? a?aeiinii?
oiaueie i?io?eth iiiaae 6% , ?ic?aooieia? oa aenia?eiaioaeuei? aeai?
ocaiaeaeothoueny iacaaeia?eueii. O ?yae? aeiaaee?a i?e iaaeoaaii? oaeeo
i?io?e?a no?oieiaie aeyaeythoueny ??ciiiai?oi? iiceoeai? aa?iaeeiai?/i?
aoaeoe, oae caaia «i?eeeiaiiy no?oieie», ui aaaea aei cao?eioaaiiy
a?ae?eao iioieo ? ca?eueoaiith aa?iaeeiai?/ii? yeino?, iniaeeai c
o?aooaaiiyi iiooaeii? iaoai?caoe??. Ona oea i?eiooo? iiaeaethaaoe
iiae?ai? eiiiiioaaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi o?eaniino? ? e?eaecie iiaa?oi?
i?io?eth. A ?iaio? ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea oa i?eioeeiiai iieacaia
iiaeeea?noue ?ic?aooieo aeaiaei??ieo eiiiiioaaiue ii oae?e
noaiaoecaoe??. Aeey c?o/iino? iiaoaeiae ?ic?aooieiai? aeo?iai? noaie,
aeei?enoiao?oueny iiaeoeueiee i?eioeei, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeei
iiaa?oi? noaiaoeco?oueny ie?aieie oeiiaeie iiaeoeyie c aaoiiiiieie
aeo?iaeie nenoaiaie, a aeo?ia? iaeaie «i?aenoeeiaothoueny» a oi/eao
a?ae?eao iioieo ? c’?aeiothoueny i?ae niaith oaeiae o aeaeyae? ie?aieo
iiaeoe?a. Eiio?ieuei? oi/ee, a yeeo aeeiio?oueny oiiaa i?i iai?io?eaiiy,
?icoaoiaothoueny a na?aaeei? i?ae eiaeiith ia?ith aeoi??a. A yeino?
i?eeeaaeo iaaiaeeoueny aeo?iaa noaia i?io?eth c cae?eeeii ? NO,
?icoaoiaaii? i?ae i?io?eai (?en.2).

Aeo?iaa nenoaia i?io?eth (e?eea iane?i/aiiiai ?iciaoo) neeaaea?oueny c
aeaio iiaa?oiiue: aa?oiuei? ? ieaeiuei?, a oie /an, ye aeo?iaa nenoaia
ieanoeie neeaaea?oueny c iaei??? iiaa?oi?. Ciai?oi? iao?/i? iiaa?oi?
aeaeaoia iiaeaeththoueny aeaiia oiieeie ieanoeiaie. Iaea?aeai? aeo?ia?
nenoaie aeiiiaiththoueny iiaa?oiyie a?eueieo aeoi??a, ui noiaeyoue c
caaei?o e?aeie i?io?e?a ? ciai?oi?o iao?/ieo iiaa?oiiue aeaeaoi?a, ye?
noai?ththoue aeo?iaee ne?ae (aeo?iao iaeaio) ? oo?aoeaioio no?oieio.

Iiaeaethaaiiy aeo?iaiai oa?o ia i?io?e?, ciai?oi?o iao?/ieo iiaa?oiyo
aeaeaoia, a ne?ae? ? no?oiei? cae?enith?oueny ia?aie aeene?aoieo
aeoi??a. Ia ia?aaei?o e?aeeao ciai?oi?o iao?/ieo iiaa?oiiue aeaeaoi?a
(iia?o?icaa??iee?a) ?icoaoiao?oueny ua iaeia ia?a aeoi??a, oee?eoeyoe?y
yeeo aecia/a?oueny c oiiae caaeaii? aeo?aoe ??aeeie e??cue
iia?o?icaa??iee aeaeaoia. I?e ?icaeyae? /enaeueiiai iaoiaeo a?aecia/eii
cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a ?ic?aooieo o?eanieo i?io?e?a. I.A.Aeai?aeii (1986)
aeiaaaeaii, ui aeey caieiooi? iiaa?oi? iao?eoey eiao?oe??io?a aieeao
ae?iaeaeaia, a?eueo oiai, nenoaia e?i?eieo aeaaa?a?/ieo ??aiyiue (NEA?),
ui iaea?aeo?oueny i?e iaoaiaoe/iiio caieno oiiae iai?io?eaiiy ia
aei?noe?e iiaa?oi? a on?o eiio?ieueieo oi/eao ianoi?nia. Iei aea
cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a ??oaiiy oe??? caaea/? oeyoii aeeeth/aiiy c
?icaeyaeo iaei??? aeo?iai? ?aiee (aoaeue-yei?), oee?eoeyoe?y yei?
aaaaea?oueny oioiaeii ??aiith ioeth (a?aeiia?aeia eiio?ieueia oi/ea i?e
oeueiio caa??aa?oueny). Iaea?aeaia ia?aaecia/aia NEA? ia? ?aeeia ??oaiiy
i ?ica’yco?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ?aaoey?ecoth/i? ci?iii? (?.E.Eeoaiia,
1985). O?ce/iee nain ?aaoey?ecoth/i? ci?iii?, i/aaeaeii iieyaa? o oiio,
ui i?ney ??oaiiy nenoaie aiia iiaea? niaith aaee/eio iioeaee a NEA? ?,
ioiae, ? iaeiaeiaith aeey an?o eiio?ieueieo oi/ie oaeaee?noth
“i?io?eaiiy”. A i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?aooieao aaee/eia oe??? oaeaeeino?
iacia/ia ? ciaioo?oueny i?e c?inoaii? /enea iniaeeainoae, iiaeaethth/eo
o?ei.

A ?iaio? i?iiiio?oueny ?ioee niin?a aeae?eaiiy ?aeeiiai ??oaiiy.

Ii-ia?oa, oiiao ??aiino? ioeth aeia?eueii? iaia?aae caaeaii?
oee?eoeyoe?? cai?ieoe oiiaith ??aiino? ioeth noie oee?eoeyoe?e on?o
aeo?iaeo ia?.

Ii-ae?oaa, iaiao?aeii a?aooaaoe oaeo ianoaaeio: oi/a ??oaiiy, ui
iaea?aeaia c aeei?enoaiiyi ?aaoey?ecoth/i? ci?iii? ? caaacia/o?
aeinoaoiuei iae? oaeaeeino? i?io?eaiiy a eiio?ieueieo oi/eao, oei ia
iaio, iiea oaeaeeinoae ana?aaeei? i?io?eth a?ae??ciy?oueny a?ae
ioeueiaiai. Ciaioeoe aaee/eio oeeo oaeaeeinoae iiaeia caaaeaiiyi
ona?aaeei? i?io?eth aeiaeaoeiai iaaii? e?eueeino? eiio?ieueieo oi/ie, o
yeeo aeiaaa?oueny ??ai?noue ioeth aaniethoii? oaeaeeino? oa/??.

Aia?oa iiae?aia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy caieiooeo o?e aeey
o?eaei??iiai aeiaaeeo cai?iiiiiaaia I.A.Aeai?aeii oa A.I.Oaeiaaiei
(1989). Aaoi?ii oey iaoiaeeea aeei?enoaia aeey ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy
o?eanieo i?io?e?a. Aeiaeaoeia? eiio?ieuei? oi/ee (a caaaeueiiio aeiaaeeo
i?e neeaaei?e oi?i? i?io?eth ?o iiaea aooe aeinoaoiuei aaeeea
e?euee?noue) ?ici?uothoueny ana?aaeei? i?io?eth ia a?aenoai?, a?eueo?e
ca i??o aeene?aoiino?, a?ae eiai ieaeiuei? oa aa?oiuei? iiaa?oiiue
??aiii??ii ii onueiio ia’?io. Oe? aea? oiiae aeiaeathoueny aei NEA?,
aiane?aeie /iai iaea?aeo?oueny ia?aaecia/aia nenoaia. ??oaiiy oe???
nenoaie ciaoiaeeoueny ca aeiiiiiaith iaoiaeo iaeiaioeo eaaae?ao?a.
Oaeee niin?a ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?eanieo aeaiaei??ieo eiiiiioaaiue
aeicaiey? a?eueo oi/ii aeeiioaaoe a?aie/i? oiiae ana?aaeei? o?e oa
?ic?aoiaoaaoe ea?oeio ciai?oiueiai iao?eaiiy, o ii??aiyii? c ??oaiiyi
caaea/? i?e aeei?enoaii? ?aaoey?ecoth/i? ci?iii?.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.4 iieacaia iiaeeea?noue canoinoaaiiy iie?iii?aeueieo
aaaaoi/eai?a aeey iiaeaiiy no?eaea iioaioe?aeo, ?ic?aoiaaiiai a
eiio?ieueieo oi/eao iiaa?oi?, o aeaeyae? aacia?a?aieo ooieoe?e.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.5 caienai? ??aiyiiy aeey ?ic?aooieo eiao?oe??io?a
aa?iaeeiai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy c aeei?enoaiiyi ooieoe??, yea ai?ieneio?
no?eaie iioaioe?aeo.

O i?ae?icae?e? 2.6 i?iiiio?oueny iiaee niin?a iiaoaeiae o?a?eoi??e
??aeeeo /anoeiie, ye? ?ooathoueny o i?inoi??. Nooi?noue eiai iieyaa? a
o?aooaaii? ii?iaeueiiai oa oaiaaioe?aeueiiai i?enei?aiue i?e ?ic?aooieo
ia?ai?uaiue. Oaeei /eiii, o?a?eoi??y ?ooo aeoi?o ca aeene?aoio i??o /ano
ai?ieneio?oueny aeoaith eiea. A?aei?noth oeueiai niiniao ? oa, ui a?i
iicaaaeaiee a?ae “aeeeae?a” a ia?ai?uaii? i?e aeia?eueieo
ni?aa?aeiioaiiyo i?ae ia?aiao?aie ?ic?aooieo (oee?eoeyoe?? aeoi?o a?ae
yeiai ?ic?aoiao?oueny ia?ai?uaiiy, a?aenoai? oi/ee aei aeoi?o, aaee/eie
e?ieo ca /anii). I?iaaaeai? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue ui oaeee niin?a
aeioe?eueiee i?e ?icaeyae? ii/aoeiaeo aoai?a ?icaeoeo ianoaoe?iia?ieo
oa/?e. A iiaeaeueoiio, i?e ?ic?aooieo i?enei?aiiy aeo?a ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
ia a?aoiaoaaoe aieea aeoi??a, ye? ciaoiaeyoueny a?ae iueiai ia
a?aenoai?, a?eueo?e aeaio oa?aeoa?ieo ?ici???a.

O?ao?e ?icae?e i?enay/aiee ia?aa??oe? aeinoia??iino? io?eiaieo
?acoeueoao?a oa iaoiaee/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi, iai?aaeaiei ia aeyaeaiiy
iiaeeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaeaieo i?aeoiae?a aeey ??oaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo caaea/.

Ia iniia? aeeeaaeaieo ?ai?oa oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue ?ic?iaeaia i?ia?aia
?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO o?eanieo i?io?e?a c
iaoai?caoe??th o aca?iiae?? c oo?aoeaioieie no?oieiaie, oa?aeoa?enoeea
yei? iaaea?oueny o i?ae?icae?e? 3.1.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.2 i?e iiaeaethaaii? a?ae?eaiiai iao?eaiiy oiiei?
ieanoeie ? oo?aoeaioiiai ne?aeo ca iath aeinoia??i?noue ?ic?iaeaii?
iaoiaeeee oa ae??caeaoi?noue i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo iaa?oioiao?oueny:

— ii??aiyiiyi io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a c /eneiaeie ?ic?aooieaie ?ioeo
aaoi??a (N.I.A?eioea?eianueeee, I.?.I?oo, 1978; ?.A. Eiaoiithe, 1993);

— iiaeaethaaiiyi a /enaeueiiio aenia?eiaio? a?aeiiiai aoaeoo — aeo?iaiai
ne?aeo ca ieanoeiith o aeaeyae? “oaoiai?” aei??aeee Ea?iaia (?en.3);

— caaeia?eueiei iiaiaeaeaiiyi c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie
?ic?aooieiai? ea?oeie

— oa?aeoa?enoee ne?aeo ca ieanoeiith (G.E.Gadd, 1962).

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.3 i?e ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy ?cieueiaaieo o?eanieo
i?io?e?a e?eea i?iaaaeai? iaoiaee/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy ii aeai?o
iioeiaeueii? e?eueeino? aeo?iaeo ina?aaee?a ? caeiio ?oiueiai ?iciiae?eo
ii iiaa?oi? i?io?eth. Iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueiei ? aeei?enoaiiy
ia??aiii??iiai ?iciiae?eo aeene?aoieo iniaeeainoae ca caeiiii
“eineiono”. Iiaa?oith i?io?eth ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny iiaeaethaaoe
oanoeaeanyooth (N=60) aeo?iaeie ina?aaeeaie. Ia ?en.4 iaaiaeyoueny
?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooieo ?iciiae?eo eiao?oe??ioo oeneo ii iiaa?oi?
i?io?eth Ae-2-17 i?e iiaeaethaaii? eiai iiaa?oi? ??ciith e?euee?noth
aeene?aoieo aeoi??a (N=30, N=60 oa N=90) oa ?ici?uaii? ?o ca caeiiii “
eineiono” i?e eoo? aoaee
=picscalex100010009000003b2000000020015000000000005000000090200000000040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.

I?e N=30 ia?ii iacaaeia?eueio oi/i?noue uiaei ?iciiae?eo oeneo ii iaii
iiaa?oiyi. Canoinoaaiiy N=90, oi/a ? iacia/ii ca?eueoo? oi/i?noue
?ic?aooie?a, aea i?ecaiaeeoue aei ca?eueoaiiy /ano ?aooieo, iniaeeai i?e
??oaii? ianoaoe?iia?ieo caaea/ c iao?eaiiy neeaaeieo o?eanieo
eiiiiioaaiue. Aaee/eia e?ieo ca /anii iiaea aooe ca?eueoaia i?eaeecii a
aeaa-o?e ?ace o ii??aiyii? c i?iiiiiaaiith ?ai?oa
(N.I.A?eioea?eianueeee, I.?.I?oo, 1978) aac ?noioiiai iia??oaiiy
oi/iino?.

Cai?iiiiiaaiee niin?a ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?eanieo aa?iaeeiai?/ieo
i?io?e?a i?e aaaaeaii? o?ueio aeiaeaoeiaeo eiio?ieueieo oi/ie ana?aaeei?
i?io?eth aeicaiey? ?noioii (i?eaeecii ia 50%) cieceoe oaeaeeino?
ana?aaeei? i?io?eth a ii??aiyii? c? oaeaeeinoyie, io?eiaieie a
aiaeia?/ieo ?ic?aooieao, aeeiiaieo c aeei?enoaiiyi ?aaoey?ecoth/i?
ci?iii? (?.E.Eeoaiia, 1985), a oaeiae a?eueo oi/ii iiaeaethaaoe ieoo?a?
iiey oaeaeeinoae a?ey iiaa?oi? i?io?eth.

Caaeia?eueia iiaiaeaeaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo AO i?io?e?a
e?eea c iayaieie aeaieie o?oaieo aenia?eiaio?a (A.A.Ooaeia,
I.I.E?aneeueueeia, A.E.Aieeia, A.I.A?aeaai?aeaanueeee, 1940)
i?aeoaa?aeaeo? a??ia?aei?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee.

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.4 i?e iiaeaethaaii? iao?eaiiy oeee?iae?o
aeinoia??i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee oa ae??caeaoi?noue i?ia?aie
?ic?aooieo iaa?oioiao?oueny:

— aa?iei iiaiaeaeaiiyi ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooieo ?iciiae?eo eiao?oe??ioo
oeneo N? ii iiaa?oi? oeee?iae?o i?e eiai aacoee?eoeyoe?eiiio iao?eaii? c
oi/iei ??oaiiyi (I.A.Ei/ei, E.A.E?aaeue, I.A.?ica, 1963);

— iiaeaethaaiiyi a /enaeueiiio aenia?eiaio? aeo?iaiai ne?aeo ca
oeee?iae?ii o aeaeyae? “oaoiai?” aei??aeee O.Ea?iaia (?en.5);

— iaea?aeaiiyi ?ic?aooieiai? ea?oeie iao?eaiiy oeee?iae?o a ??ci?
iiiaioe /ano aeecueei? aei ?aaeueii?, yea iaea?aeaia ca aeiiiiiaith
oaeaee?nii? e?iiceiiee, ui niinoa??aaeanue a aenia?eiaio?
(A.?.Ai?enaiei, 1962);

— caaeia?eueiei iiaiaeaeaiiyi c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie ?ic?aoiaaieo
ona?aaeiaieo oa noaoenoe/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee ne?aeo ca oeee?iae?ii
(Bradbury, 1976).

O i?ae?icae?e? 3.5 i?e iiaeaethaaii? aeo?eaiiy oo?aoeaioii? no?oieie o
caoiieaiee i?ino?? aeinoia??i?noue ?ic?iaeaii? iaoiaeeee ?
ae??caeaoi?noue i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieo iaa?oioiao?oueny:

— ii??aiyiiyi ?acoeueoao?a iiaeaethaaiiy aeo?iaeo no?oeoo? no?oieie,
io?eiaieo aaoi?ii, c ?ic?aooieaie, aeeiiaieie ?ioei aaoi?ii (I.A.Oeaiia,
1983);

— iiaeeea?noth iiaeaethaaiiy a aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo
ii/aoeiaiai aoaio ?icaeoeo no?oieie c ooai?aiiyi a?eaiaeaeii? ciie,
iaiaaeaii? ia?aaei?i o?iioii no?oieie (Aeae.Ayo/aei?, 1973) (?en.6);

— caaeia?eueiei iiaiaeaeaiiyi c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie
?ic?aoiaaiiai ona?aaeiaiiai ca /anii cia/aiiy iiaeiaaeiuei? oaeaeeino?
oa na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/iiai cia/aiiy ioeuenaoe?? oaeaeeino? acaeiaae in?
no?oieie (C.A.Shollenberger, 1973).

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? a i?ae?icae?e? 4.1 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe
?ic?aooie?a ii aeine?aeaeaiith AO ??ciiiai?oieo aa??aio?a eiiiiioaaiiy
ia?a??co e?eea eaaeiai e?oaea c? u?eeiiith oa aacu?eeiiith
iaoai?caoe??th, aeeiiaiiai ia aac? i?io?eth ?-2-14 . Iaaiaeyoueny
?iciiae?eai? oa noia?i? AO, ieoo?a? iiey oaeaeeinoae i?e aaca?ae?eaiiio
oa a?ae?eaiiio iao?eaii? ??cieo aa??aio?a eiiiiioaaiiy i?e
noaiaoecaoe?? u?eeiii? iaoai?caoe?? ye o?eaniei i?io?eai, oae ? oiieith
ieanoeiith (?en.7). Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey?
a?eueo oi/ii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe i?aeniieooth/o neeo i?io?e?a. ?ai?oa, i?e
noaiaoecaoe?? i?io?eth oiieith ieanoeiith (o ?aieao IAeA),
i?aeniieooth/a neea aecia/aeany ca?aeii aii??e/iei oi?ioeai ii
oee?eoeyoe?? iaeaeeae/iai aei ia?aaeiuei? e?aeee i?e?aeiaiiai aeoi?o
(N.I.A?eioea?eianueeee, A.E.Ne?eia/, 1975). I?e o?eani?e noaiaoecaoe??
iiaeiaaeiy neea aecia/a?oueny aaciina?aaei?i ?ioaa?oaaiiyi ii eiioo?o
ia?a??co e?eea aeiaooeo oeneo ia i?noeaaee eoo iaoeeo eiioo?o i?io?eth.
Oea aeicaiey? a?eueo oi/ii ?ic?aoiaoaaoe oa?i??i? iiiaioe aeaiaio?a
iaoai?caoe??, i?ae i?e noaiaoecaoe?? oiieeie ieanoeiaie. Iniaeeai
aea?aeia o?eania noaiaoecaoe?y i?e ?ic?aooieo oa?aeoa?enoee u?eeiii?
iaoai?caoe??.

Aeae? a o i?ae?icae?e? 4.2 iaaaaeai? ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?aooie?a
ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue i?e iaaeoaaii? ?o iiaa?oi?
no?oieiith aeaeaoia, aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea ??ciiiai?oieo aaiiao?e/ieo
? aia?aaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a nenoaie ia noia?i? ? ?iciiae?eai? AO, a oaeiae
iaaiaeeoueny aeo?iaa no?oeoo?a oa/?? oa ieoo?a? iiey oaeaeeinoae.

Aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? oo?aoeaioieo no?oiei a?ae aeaeaoi?a c
iiaa?oiath i?io?eth e?eea. ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue aeicaieythoue
c?iaeoe aeniiaie, ui iaea?eueo i?eeiyoiei, c oi/ee ci?o ca?eueoaiiy
iano/eo aeanoeainoae, ? aa?oi? ?icoaooaaiiy aeaeaoia a?aeiinii e?eea.

Iaea?eueoa cia/aiiy iii?o aeinyaa?oueny oiae?, eiee aiiaeiea ?ici?uaia
aaciina?aaeiuei iaae aai i?ae e?eeii. I?e aenoaaii? aiiaeiee c oe???
iaeano? ye aia?aae, oae ? ca caaeith e?aeeo e?eea, ii?? eiiiiioaaiiy
iii?oii ciaioo?oueny.

Ca?eueoaiiy aeianaiiy aiiaeie aei ia?aaeiuei? e?aeee e?eea
(picscalex100010009000003c9000000030015000000000005000000090200000000040
0000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e01180005000000310201000000050
000000b0200000000050000000c02400240011200000026060f001a00ffffffff0000100
00000c0ffffffa6ffffff00010000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706
50000600009000000fa0200000c000000000000002200040000002d01000005000000140
2840055000500000013028400a50015000000fb0220ff000000000000900101000000040
2001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01010008000000320ae00
19400010000006b0015000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6
573204e657720526f6d616e000076040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320
a80013300010000006c000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb0
21000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d010100040
00000f00102000300000000000001000003000000000000ffffff00000000) c 0.6 aei
0.9 cieaeo? caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io iii?o eiiiiioaaiiy ia 30-40%.
Ine?eueee a?eueoa aenoaaiiy aiiaeiee i?eaiaeeoue aei cia/ieo
eiino?oeoeaieo o?oaeiiu?a, iiaeaeueoa ca?eueoaiiy ia?aiao?o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 aeey
cieaeaiiy iii?o ?ioa?oa?aioe?? noa? iaaeioe?eueiei.

A ae?aiacii? aenioe i?eiio
(picscalex10001000900000340010000030017000000000005000000090200000000040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) ca?eueoaiiy
ia?aiao?opicscalex100010009000003c90000000300150000000000050000000902000
000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010
00000050000000b0200000000050000000c02400280011200000026060f001a00fffffff
f000010000000c0ffffffa6ffffff40010000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746
8547970650000600009000000fa0200000c000000000000002200040000002d010000050
000001402840052000500000013028400e20015000000fb0220ff0000000000009001010
000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00ccde040000002d0101000800000
0320ae001d20001000000e30015000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001010000000402001
054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e0000de040000002d01020004000000f0010100080
00000320a80013c000100000068000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000100
00000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0
1010004000000f0010200030000000000000a0001c501000000000000170000000000
iacia/ii aieeaa? ia eiao?oe??io iii?o eiiiiioaaiiy ”i?io?eue —
aiiaeiea”.

Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a /enaeueieo aenia?eiaio?a iaea?eueo iioeiaeueieie
aeey iiae?aieo eiiiiioaaiue ? ia?aiao?e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 0.9 ?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 0.9.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacothoue, ui iioeiaeueiee eoo caeeeiaiiy aiiaeiee a
caeaaeeoue, aieiaiei /eiii, a?ae eooa aoaee i?io?eth e?eea (?en.8).

Ia aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie iaaeoaaiiy aa?oiuei? iiaa?oi? e?eea, a ia?oo
/a?ao, aieeaathoue oi?ia ? i?noea ?icoaooaaiiy niiea, e?eaecia iiaa?oi?
iaoai?ciaaiiai i?io?eth, a oaeiae oaeaee?noue no?oieie ia c??c? niiea.
Aoaeoeai?noue nenoaie, e??i oiai, ci?ith?oueny a caeaaeiino? a?ae aenioe
?icoaooaaiiy niiea iaae iiaa?oiath e?eea, a?ae cia/aiiy eooa caeeeiaiiy
aiiaeie NO, a oaeiae a?ae iieiaeaiiy c??co niiea a?aeiinii caaeiuei?
e?aeee e?eea ii oi?ae?. Cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey?
aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea aeuaiaaaaeaieo ia?aiao??a ia noia?i? ?
?iciiae?eai? AO aeia?eueiiai eiiiiioaaiiy.

I?e aa?oiueiio ?icoaooaaii? NO a?aeiinii iaoai?ciaaiiai e?eea aaeaeiny
ciiaeaethaaoe aoaeo Eiaiaea, ui iieyaa? a oaiaeaioe?? no?oieie i?eeyaaoe
aei e?eaie?i?eii? iiaa?oi? ? “a?aenoaaeoaaoe” ?? aiane?aeie iiceoeaiiai
?aae?aeueiiai a?aae??ioo oeneo (?en.9).

I?e ieaeiueiio ?icoaooaaii? aeaeaoia a?aeiinii e?eea c cae?eeeii
iie?ioaiiy iano/eo aeanoeainoae eiiiiioaaiiy iiaeeeai aiane?aeie iiyae a
?aeii? ieaeiuei? iiaa?oi? cii caaeo?aiiy. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea ci?ie
ciai?oi?o oi?i ia AO EA. ?ic?aoiao?oueny ci?ia ca /anii aeo?iai?
no?oeoo?e oa/??, ieoo?aeo iie?a oaeaeeinoae, aa?iaeeiai?/ieo
eiao?oe??io?a.

?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? aeeiioaaoe ?ic?aooiee oa/?? ?aeaaeueii?
ianoeneo?ii? ??aeeie ca aenooiaie ? caaeeaeaiiyie (eaaa?iaie)
??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie (?en.10), aea/aoe ioeuenaoe?? oeneo ? iaaaioaaeaiiy
ia aeaiaioao eiiiiioaaiue, ?acoeueoaoe oeeo aeine?aeaeaiue iaaaaeai? o
i?ae?icae?e? 4.3.

Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee.

1. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo ianoaoe?iia?ieo AO
aeia?eueieo aeaiaei??ieo o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue c o?aooaaiiyi ?iaioe NO,
yea aeicaiey?:

— aeine?aeaeoaaoe aieea ??ciiiai?oieo aaiiao?e/ieo oa aia?aaoe/ieo
ia?aiao??a eiiiiioaaiiy ia noia?i? ? ?iciiae?eai? AO;

— a?aoiaoaaoe ?ioa?oa?aioe?th i?ae aeaiaioaie aa?iaeeiai?/ieo
eiiiiioaaiue;

— a?aoiaoaaoe aieea ?iaioe aeaeaoia ia ciai?oi? iao?eaiiy iano/eo
iiaa?oiiue;

— ?ic?aoiaoaaoe aeo?iao no?oeoo?o oa/?? ? ieoo?a? iiey oaeaeeinoae.

2. Cai?iiiiiaaiee a ?iaio? niin?a ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?eanieo i?io?e?a
iai?aaeaiee ia a?eueo oi/ia ??oaiiy caaea/? iao?eaiiy aa?iaeeiai?/ieo
o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue a /anoei? aeeiiaiiy a?aie/ii? oiiae ana?aaeei?
i?io?eth. A i?aenoieo oea aeicaiey? oi/i?oa iiaeaethaaoe iiey
oaeaeeinoae iaaeiei i?io?eth, a oaeiae a?eueo oi/i?oa ?ic?aoiaoaaoe
?iciiae?eai? AO, o ii??aiyii? c ??oaiiyi caaea/? ca aeiiiiiaith
?aaoey?ecoth/i? ci?iii? Eeoaiiaa (1985 ?.).

3. ?ic?iaeaiee a ?iaio? niin?a ai?ieneiaoe?? oee?eoeyoe?? ia iiaa?oi?
aeicaieea io?eiaoe aacia?a?aiee ?iciiae?e ia?aiao??a ii iiaa?oi?
aa?iaeeiai?/ieo eiiiiioaaiue. Oea aeicaieeei ia?aeoe aei aiae?oe/iiai
iiaeaiiy aeene?aoiiai ?ica’ycaiiy, ui a?aee?eaa? iia? iiaeeeaino? aeey
iiaeaeueoiai ??oaiiy caaea/ a?ae?iaa?iaeeiai?ee.

4. Cai?iiiiiaaiee iiaee niin?a iiaoaeiae o?a?eoi??e /anoie ??aeeie, ui
?ooathoueny o i?inoi??, aeicaiey? a?eueo oi/ii iiaeaethaaoe aeo?iao
no?oeoo?o oa/?? oa oi/i?oa a?aoiaoaaoe aca?iiae?th aeo?iaiai ne?aeo oa
oo?aoeaioii? no?oieie c iiaa?oiath o?e.

5. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei aeene?aoii? iiaeae? iiaa?oi? i?io?eth
e?eea, ui ? ?aoe?iiaeueiith c oi/ee ci?o e?eueeino? ?ic?aooieiaeo
ae?eyiie oa caeiio ?oiueiai ?iciiae?eo.

6. Aeei?enoaiiy aeey iieno iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ooiaeaiaioaeueieo
o?ce/ieo caeii?a, iiaeaethaaiiy a?aeiieo aoaeo?a ? i?iaaaeaiiy oanoiaeo
?ic?aooie?a iao?eaiiy aa?iaeeiai?/ieo oi?i, aeey yeeo ? /enaeuei?
??oaiiy, a oaeiae caaeia?eueia ocaiaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a ii
?ic?iaeai?e iaoiaeeoe? c ?ic?aooieiaeie aeaieie ?ioeo aaoi??a oa
?acoeueoaoaie o?ce/ieo aenia?eiaio?a aeicaieythoue noaeeoe i?i
aeinoia??i?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

7. Aeine?aeaeai? ieoaiiy aca?iiae?? oo?aoeaioieo no?oiei a?ae aeaeaoi?a
c iiaa?oiath i?io?eth e?eea, oae ca?eueoaiiy aeianaiiy aiiaeie aei
ia?aaeiuei? e?aeee e?eea
(picscalex100010009000003c9000000030015000000000005000000090200000000040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) c 0.6 aei
0.9 cieaeo? caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io iii?o eiiiiioaaiiy ia 30-40%.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey eiiiiioaaiue c ieaei?i ?icoaooaaiiyi iioiaiiaeie
iioeiaeueiei ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ia?aiao??apicscalex100010009000003c9000000030015000000000005000000090200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01010004000000f001020003000000000000040001c5010000000000001700000000000.
9 oa
picscalex100010009000003c90000000300150000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02400280011200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa6ffffff40010000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000600009000000fa0200000c000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
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001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00cc16040000002d01010008000000320ae001
d20001000000e30015000000fb02e0fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e000016040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a
80013c000100000068000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02
1000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d0101000400
0000f001020003000000000000040001c5010000000000001700000000000.9.
Aecia/ai? iioeiaeuei? eooe caeeeiaiiy aiiaeiee a caeaaeiino? a?ae eooo
aoaee ia e?aena?nueeiio ?aaeei? iieueioo.

8. I?e aeine?aeaeaii? eiiiiioaaiue c aa?oi?i ?icoaooaaiiyi NO aecia/aiee
aieea aeo?aoe iia?o?y /a?ac aeaeaoi oa aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a
eiiiiioaaiiy ia eiai AO, ciiaeaeueiaaiee aoaeo Eiaiaea, ?aae?caoe?y
yeiai iaaiaeeoue aei iie?ioaiiy iano/eo aeanoeainoae nenoaie.

9. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe iao?eaiiy o?eanieo
i?io?e?a c ??ciiiai?oieie i?noeaaeie ci?iaie a aaiiao???, oa/?th ??aeeie
ca aenooiaie oa caaeeaeaiiyie ??ciiiai?oii? oi?ie, ?ic?aoiaoaaoe
ioeuenaoe?? oeneo oa aa?iaeeiai?/i? iaaaioaaeaiiy.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaaii o oaeeo ?iaioao:

1. I?eianeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.A. E ?an/aoo aaiiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
oaeaniiai i?ioeey // Nai?iee iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ii
ay?iaeeiaieea e aeeiaieea iieaoa EA.- Oa?ueeia: OEE AAN, 1996.- N.
56-58.

2. I?eianeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.A. E ?an/aoo iaeeiaeiuo ianoaoeeiia?iuo
ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeaniiai i?ioeey // Nai?iee
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneeo iaoa?eaeia ii ay?iaeeiaieea e aeeiaieea iieaoa EA.-
Oa?ueeia: OEE AAN, 1996.- N.59-65.

3. I?eianueeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.I. Aei ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy o?eaniiai
i?io?eth // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Oa?e?a: O?E AIN, 1997, aei.1.-
N.149-159.

4. I?eianueeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.I. Aei ?ic?aooieo iae?i?eieo
ianoaoe?iia?ieo aa?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiia?iaoe?? o?eanieo
i?io?e?a oa oiieeo iano/eo iiaa?oiiue // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.-
Oa?e?a: O?E AIN, 1997, aei.1.- N.160-165.

5. I?eianueeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.I. Canoinoaaiiy iaoiaeo aeene?aoieo
aeoi??a aeey ?ic?aooieo aieeao oo?aoeaioii? no?oieie a?ae aeaeaoi?a ia
iae?i?ei? ianoaoe?iia?i? aa?iaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee o?eaniiai
i?io?eth c iaoai?caoe??th // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Oa?e?a: O?E
AIN, 1997, aei.1.- N.166-174.

6. I?eianeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.A. Enneaaeiaaiea ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee yeaiaioia eiiiiiiaee aiaiii-o?ainii?oiiai naiieaoa n
o/aoii ?aaiou ?aaeoeaiiai aeaeaaoaey // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aeione
22.- Oa?e?a: OAO, 1999.- N.105-110.

7. I?eianeee I.I. E nicaeaieth caieioouo iiaeaeae oo?aoeaioiinoe i?e
io?uaiii iaoaeaiee oae e enoa/aiee no?oe // Aanoiee OAIO. Auione 62.-
Oa?ueeia: OAIO, 1999.- N.29-31.

8. I?eianeee I.I. E ?an/aoo aiaoiaai iaoaeaiey eaoaoaeueiiai aiia?aoa n
o/aoii ?aaiou aai neeiaie onoaiiaee // Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. Aeione
4(26).- Oa?e?a: OAO, 1999.- N.109-113.

9. I?eianueeee I.I., Oaeiaaiei A.I. Aecia/aiiy o?a?eoi??e ??aeeeo
/anoeiie a ianoaoe?iia?ieo aeaiaei??ieo caaea/ao aa?ia?ae?iaeeiai?ee //
Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue.- Oa?e?a: O?E AIN, 1999, aei.1.- N.83-88.

Aiioaoe?y

I?eianueeee I.I. Iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo oa aeine?aeaeaiiy iae?i?eieo
ianoaoe?iia?ieo aa?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee o?eanieo i?io?e?a o
aca?iiae?? c oo?aoeaioieie no?oieiaie. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy a/aiiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 01.02.05 — iaoai?ea ??aeeie, aaco oa ieacie.-
Aea?aeaaiee aa?ieini?/iee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? I.?. AEoeianueeiai, “OA?”;,
Oa?e?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee oa i?iaaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy ui aei ioe?iee aieeao no?oieie a?ae neeiai? onoaiiaee ia
aa?iaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoai?ciaaieo o?eanieo i?io?e?a. A ?iaio?
ye /enaeueiee iaoiae iae?i?eii? aa?iaeeiai?ee aeei?enoiao?oueny
iiaeeo?eiaaiee iaoiae aeene?aoieo aeoi??a. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea
aeicaiey? iiaeaethaaoe ? ?ic?aoiaoaaoe a ianoaoe?iia?i?e iinoaiiaoe?
iao?eaiiy aeia?eueieo aeaiaei??ieo o?eanieo eiiiiioaaiue c o?aooaaiiyi
?ioa?oa?aioe?? ie?aieo aeaiaio?a oa i?aoethth/i? neeiai? onoaiiaee a
iaeano? iae?i?eii? ci?ie aa?iaeeiai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee.

Io?eiaa iiaeaeueoee ?icaeoie niin?a ?ic?aooieo iao?eaiiy aeaiaei??ieo
eiiiiioaaiue c o?aooaaiiyi o?eaniino?. ?ic?iaeaiee niin?a ai?ieneiaoe??
oee?eoeyoe?? ia iiaa?oi? o?ea, ui aeicaiey? “?aaeene?aoeciaaoe”
/enaeueia ??oaiiy ? io?eiaoe aacia?a?aiee ?iciiae?e ia?aiao??a ii
iano/ei iiaa?oiyi. I?iiiio?oueny iiaee niin?a iiaoaeiae o?a?eoi??e
/anoie ??aeeie, ui ?ooathoueny o i?inoi??. ?ic?iaeai? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii
aeene?aoecaoe?? ?ic?aooieiai? iiaa?oi? i?io?e?a. ?ic?iaeai?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei iioeiaeueieo aaiiao?e/ieo ia?aiao??a, ui
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iieiaeaiiy aiiaeie neeiai? onoaiiaee a?aeiinii ia?a??co
e?eea.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aa?iaeeiai?/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee, o?eaniee i?io?eue,
aeene?aoiee aeoi?, ai?ieneiaoe?y oee?eoeyoe??, oo?aoeaioia no?oieia,
neeiaa onoaiiaea.

Aiiioaoeey

I?eianeee I.I. Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa e enneaaeiaaiea iaeeiaeiuo
ianoaoeeiia?iuo ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeaniuo i?ioeeae ai
acaeiiaeaenoaee n oo?aoeaioiuie no?oyie. – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 01.02.05 — iaoaieea aeeaeeinoe, aaca e ieaciu. —
Ainoaea?noaaiiue ay?ieinie/aneee oieaa?neoao ei. I.A. AEoeianeiai “OAE”,
Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana aieaa oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea ia iiauo ia?acoeao
aaeaoeeiiiie oaoieee iaoiaeeo eniieueciaaiea ?acee/iuo yaeaiee e
yooaeoia, naycaiiuo ni no?oeiuie oa/aieyie. A nayce n yoei i?iaeaia
o/aoa eioa?oa?aioeee no?oe n ianoueie yeaiaioaie auoiaeeo ia ia?aaeiee
ieai.

Ianiio?y ia ?acaeoea oai?aoe/aneeo iaoiaeia ?an/aoa, iiea aua ia
i?aaenoaaeyaony aiciiaeiui ?an/aoiui iooai ii?aaeaeyoue
ay?iaeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee naiieaoa oaeaniie noaiaoecaoeee n
o/aoii eioa?oa?aioeee ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia e ?aaioathuae neeiaie
onoaiiaee a iaeanoe iaeeiaeiiai eciaiaiey ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo
oa?aeoa?enoee.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeeee e i?iaaaeaieth
enneaaeiaaiee ii ioeaiea aeeyiey no?oe io neeiaie onoaiiaee ia
ay?iaeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoaiece?iaaiiuo oaeaniuo i?ioeeae i?e
iaeuo aeicaoeiauo nei?inoyo. A ?aaioa a ea/anoaa /eneaiiiai iaoiaea
iaeeiaeiie ay?iaeeiaieee eniieuecoaony iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiue iaoiae
aeene?aoiuo aeo?ae. ?ac?aaioaiiay iaoiaeeea iicaieyao iiaeaee?iaaoue e
?ann/eouaaoue a ianoaoeeiia?iie iinoaiiaea iaoaeaiea i?iecaieueiuo
aeaoia?iuo oaeaniuo eiiiiiiaie n o/aoii eioa?oa?aioeee ioaeaeueiuo
yeaiaioia e ?aaioathuae neeiaie onoaiiaee a iaeanoe iaeeiaeiiai
eciaiaiey ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee.

I?aaeeiaeai iiaue niinia ?an/aoa iaoaeaiey oaeaniuo i?ioeeae. Nooue aai
ninoieo a oii, /oi oneiaea ionoonoaey oa/aiey aioo?e oaea auiieiyaony
ia?yaeo n oneiaeai iai?ioaeaiey. Yoi aeinoeaaaony caaeaieai aioo?e
i?ioeey aeiiieieoaeueiuo eiio?ieueiuo oi/ae. Iieo/aaiay
ia?aii?aaeaeaiiay nenoaia eeiaeiuo aeaaa?ae/aneeo o?aaiaiee aeey
iaoiaeaeaiey iaecaanoiuo oee?eoeyoeee ?aoaaony iaoiaeii iaeiaiueoeo
eaaae?aoia.

Iieacaia aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iieeiiieaeueiuo iiiai/eaiia aeey
i?aaenoaaeaiey nea/ea iioaioeeaea, ?ann/eoaiiiai a eiio?ieueiuo oi/eao
iiaa?oiinoe, a aeaea iai?a?uaiuo ooieoeee. Caienaiu au?aaeaiey aeey
?an/aoa eiyooeoeeaioia ay?iaeeiaie/aneie iaa?ocee n eniieueciaaieai
ooieoeee, aii?ieneie?othuae nea/ie iioaioeeaea. Yoi iicaieyao
“?aaeene?aoece?iaaoue” /eneaiiia ?aoaiea e iieo/eoue iai?a?uaiia
?ani?aaeaeaiea ia?aiao?ia ii ianouae iiaa?oiinoe.

Nouiinoue i?aaeeaaaaiiai niiniaa iino?iaiey o?aaeoi?ee aeeaeeeo /anoeoe
aeaeaeoueony a i?ino?ainoaa caeeth/aaony a o/aoa ii?iaeueiuo e
oaiaaioeeaeueiuo onei?aiee i?e ?an/aoa ia?aiauaiee. Oaeei ia?acii,
o?aaeoi?ee aii?ieneie?othony aeoaie ie?oaeiinoe. Yoi ecaaaeyao io
“aua?inia” a ia?aiauaieyo i?e i?iecaieueiuo niioiioaieyo iaaeaeo
ia?aiao?aie ?an/aoa.

?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii aeene?aoecaoeee ?an/aoiie iiaa?oiinoe
i?ioeeae. ?ac?aaioaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii auai?o iioeiaeueiuo
aaiiao?e/aneeo ia?aiao?ia, oa?aeoa?ecothueo iieiaeaiea aiiaeie neeiaie
onoaiiaee ioiineoaeueii na/aiey e?uea. Enneaaeiaaiu aii?inu
acaeiiaeaenoaey oo?aoeaioiuo no?oe io aeaeaaoaeae n iiaa?oiinoueth
i?ioeey e?uea. Enneaaeothony ay?iaeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeey
ni uaeaaie iaoaiecaoeeae, i?eaaaeaiu ?acoeueoaou ?an/aoia
ianoaoeeiia?iuo ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeaniuo eiiiiiiaie i?e
iaaeoaa eo iiaa?oiinoe no?oae aeaeaaoaey, enneaaeoaony aeeyiea ?acee/iuo
aaiiao?e/aneeo e yia?aaoe/aneeo ia?aiao?ia nenoaiu ia noiia?iua e
?ani?aaeaeaiiua ay?iaeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, a oaeaea i?eaiaeyony
aeo?aaua no?oeoo?u oa/aiey e iaiiaaiiua iiey nei?inoae.

Iiaeaee?iaaiea ecaanoiuo oece/aneeo yooaeoia, i?iaaaeaiea oanoiauo
?an/aoia iaoaeaiey ay?iaeeiaie/aneeo oi?i, aeey eioi?uo anoue /eneaiiua
?aoaiey, a oaeaea oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia niaeaniaaiea ?acoeueoaoia
?an/aoia ii ?ac?aaioaiiie iaoiaeeea n ?an/aoiuie aeaiiuie ae?oaeo
aaoi?ia e ?acoeueoaoaie oece/aneeo yenia?eiaioia iicaieytho noaeeoue i
aeinoiaa?iinoe iieo/aiiuo ?acoeueoaoia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ay?iaeeiaie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, oaeaniue i?ioeeue,
aeene?aoiue aeo?ue, aii?ieneiaoeey oee?eoeyoeee, oo?aoeaioiay no?oy,
neeiaay onoaiiaea.

Abstract

Orlovskiy I.N. Procedure of calculation of nonlinear and nonstationary
aerodynamic characteristics of body profiles in interaction with
turbulent streams. – A manuscript.

The dissertation for acquirement of academic degree of the candidate of
engineering science in the field of fluid and plasma mechanics
(speciality 01.02.05). – State Aerospace University named Zhukovskiy,
(Kharkov Aviation Institute), Kharkov, 1999.

Dissertation is devoted to development of procedure and conducting
investigations on calculation of power plant stream influence on
aerodynamic characteristics of body aerofoils. Modified method of
discrete vortexs as a numeral method of nonlinear aerodynamics is used.
This procedure makes possible to design and to calculate the
streamlining of arbitrary two-measured body configurations taking into
account separate elements interference and acting power plant in the
area of nonlinear changing of aerodynamic characteristics.

The method of calculation of two-measured configurations stream-liming
in accordance to bodylines was developed. The method of approximation of
circulation on body surface was worked out. This method makes possible
to rediscretizate the numeral solution and to receive non-interrupting
distributing of parameters on the lifting surface. Besides, new method
of designing of trajectories of liquid particles moved in space was
proposed. Recommendations about discretization the calculated profile
surfaces was worked out. Recommendations how to choose optimal geometric
parameters characterized a position of power plant pods relatively to
wing section was worked out.

Key words: aerodynamic characteristics, body aerofoil, discrete vortex,
approximation of circulation, turbulent stream, power plant.

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