Менеджмент в соціальній сфері економічних систем: Автореф. дис… канд. екон. наук / Т.В. Власова, Донец. держ. ун-т. — Донецьк, 1999. — 20 с. — укp.

3

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

AeIIAOeUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

OAeE 658:338.242

Aeaniaa Oaoyia Aaeaioei?aia

IAIAAeAEIAIO A NIOe?AEUeI?E NOA?? AEIIII?*IEO NENOAI

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 08.06.02 — I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia

AAOI?AOA?AO

Aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Aeiiaoeuee 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie (i.Aeiiaoeuee).

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaeiaii TH??e
Aieiaeeie?iae/, Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith i?aeia?iaeii? aeiiii?ee

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo
iaoe, i?ioani? ?aaiia Ieeiea ?aaiiae/, caa.naeoi?ii ?AI IAI Oe?a?ie

— eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio*eaeeeia Aaiaae?e Aeieo?iae/,
ia?oee a?oea-i?aceaeaio Aeiiaoeueei? oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneiai? iaeaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa — ?inoeooo i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei Ee?anueeiai
iaoe?iiaeueiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (i.Ee?a),
a?aeae?eaiiy «I?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie»

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 21 ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 11.051.01 o Aeiiaoeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 340002,
Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.*aethne?ioe?a, 198a, aoae.214

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o a?ae?ioaoe? Aeiiaoeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo (334055, i.Aeiiaoeuee, aoe.Oi?aa?neoaonueea,
24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 19 aa?aciy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Iaa/ei A.N.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oe?a?ia, o?ainoi?ioth/e aeiiii?eo,
ia? /?oei aecia/eoeny a iai?yieo naiai ?icaeoeo ye ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa. Iae?ath/e oeyo nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa,
aiia iiaea ni?inoeoe ?ica’ycaiiy eiea i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c oi?ioaaiiyi
eiinoeooth/eo iniia oeueiai oeio ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, iath/e ia oaac?
ianaiia?aae aeina?ae I?ia//eie.

Aeina?ae oe??? e?a?ie aaaeeeaee c aeaio oi/ie ci?o: Cao?aeia I?ia//eia ?
i?eeeaaeii oiai, ui iiaeia aeinyaoe ia oeyoo ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai
?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, No?aeia I?ia//eia aea? iiaeeea?noue aea/eoe
i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? a nioe?aeueia ?eieiaa ainiiaea?noai. ? ine?eueee
eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa ? a?aee?eoith, oi
Oe?a?ia ia? aea??. C iaeiiai aieo, aiia iiaea aeei?enoaoe eeoa o?
aeaiaioe nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa, ye?
a?aeiia?aeathoue ?? iaioae?oaoo, o?aaeeoe?yi ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo,
i?e?iaeiei oiiaai. C ?ioiai – aiia iiaea aianoe iia? aeaiaioe, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue ?? eieeoi? aeiiii?/io oa nioe?aeueio nenoaie.
Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iaa?oioiaaia iaiao?aei?noth
iaenei??oiai ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? noa?e a eiioaeno?
?icaoaeiae a Oe?a?i? nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee, a
oaeiae iaaeinoaoi?i aiae?cii iaiaaeaeiaioo nioe?aeueii? noa?e
aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane ia?aoai?aiue a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? aeine?aeaeaii
oaeeie a?aeiieie a/aieie, ye A.Oeeeiaiei, TH.Iaoiiia, A.Ia?ithe,
A.?iei/a, A.Ianoa?aiei, I.Ieioi?eia, I.Iiiaiei, A.Iiaeoeueeee,
A.Eeeiaiei, A.?oiyioeaa, ?.Iai/aiei, A.E?aae?nia, A.Aieioei.

Caaaeuei? ieoaiiy o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa ?icaeyiooi a ?iaioao
TH.Iaeiaiia, Ae.Eoe’yiaiea, E.Aaaee?ia, A.Naiaiiaa, E.Aaeueoea?iae/a,
ss.Ei?ia?, A.?aaea?aa, O.?i?a, A.-O.Ceiia, I.Oeyooa, A.Aeaeiaina,
A.Eeeiaioa.

Na?aae iaoeiaeo onoaiia aeioe?eueii i?aee?aneeoe ?ic?iaee ?inoeoooo
ii??aiyiiy aeiiii?/ieo nenoai oi?aae?iiy (O?e?in-oi?aa?neoao, O?I),
?inoeoooo i?iaoeueeiai ainiiaea?noaa (O?I), ?OI-?inoeoooo (O?I),
?inoeoooo Na?oiai? aeiiii?ee ? i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei IAI Oe?a?ie
(Ee?a).

Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue iaoeia? i?aoe? E.A?oa?aea,
A.Ithea?a-A?iaea, A.Ieeaia, ?.Aooiaia, O-?.Iaoa?na, ?. O?eaey,
ioae?eaoe?? Oeaio?o “Nioe?aeueiee iii?oi?eia”, Aenia?oii? ?aaee c
caaaeueieo ieoaiue aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo (O?I), iaoeia? ?ic?iaee Oeaio?o
aeiiii?/ieo oa nioe?aeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue (O?I).

Nie?ath/enue ia ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a oe?e neeaaei?e oa
aaaaoia?aii?e noa?? oa, a?aoiaoth/e iaiao?aei?noue iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee
?? oai?aoe/ieo oa iaoeiai-i?eeeaaeieo aniaeo?a, aeioe?eueii
cai?iiiioaaoe eiiieaen oai?aoe/ieo oa iaoiaeieia?/ieo iieiaeaiue,
ni?yiiaaieo ia i?aeoe/ia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iaiaaeaeiaioo o nioe?aeuei?e
noa?? aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie.

Aeooaeuei?noue oa ceiaiaeaii?noue aeacaieo i?iaeai coiiaeee aea?? oaie
aeaii? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Iaoa??aee
aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeei?enoaii i?e aeeiiaii? aea?aeathaeaeaoii?
aeine?aeieoeueei? oaie “Iaoiaeieia?/i? ieoaiiy ?aaoethaaiiy
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ii? ae?yeueiino? ia ??ai? ?aa?iio oa ?ic?iaea
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ?? aeoea?caoe??” (? aea?ae?a?no?aoe?? A-96/3).

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? no/ani? eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii?
noa?e aeiiii?/ieo nenoai, oaeineiiaeaiiy ?? iaiaaeaeiaioo.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? nioe?aeueia noa?a aeiiii?/ieo nenoai ye
neeaaeiaa /anoeia iaoe?iiaeueieo caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a 90-o
?ie?a oa ia?niaeoeae ?? oaeineiiaeaiiy oa iie?ioaiiy.

Iaoa oa caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo canaae ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a
Oe?a?i?, ni?yiiaaiiai ia aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa
nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee o ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii?
aeiiii?ee ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Aeinyaiaiiy iinoaaeaii? iaoe coiiaeei oae? iniiai? caaea/?:

§ aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaee/ieo aniaeo?a nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai
ainiiaea?noaa O?I c iiaeeea?noth aaeaioaoe?? eiai aeaiaio?a aei oiia
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie;

§ i?iaaaeaiiy aiae?co aieeao ?ie? aea?aeaae oa cania?a aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy ia nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaio ?eieiao aeiiii?eo;

§ aecia/aiiy ?ie? iaiaaeaeiaioo o ?icaeoeo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano c iaoith ae??oaiiy nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai caeiyoino?;

§ aecia/aiiy iiaeeeainoae i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? canoinoaaiiy
o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a aeey
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai nioe?aeueii? noa?e;

§ aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ?aaoethaaiiy cania?a
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee o?ainoi?iaoe??;

§ ?ic?iaea ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo a
nioe?aeuei?e noa?? ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo ?icaoaeiae ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie.

O?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ioiieththoue ia??iae c 1990 aei 1998
?ie?a.

Oai?aoe/iith oa iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? nenoaiiee i?aeo?ae, ?noi??ei-eiiia?aoeaiee,
aeiiiiao??/iee, noaoenoe/iee, ea?oia?ao?/iee iaoiaee, caniae ii??aiyiue
oa iia?oioaaiue.

?ioi?iaoe?eiith iniiaith ?iaioe ? aeai? noaoenoe/ieo ui??/iee?a
I?i?noa?noaa noaoenoeee Oe?a?ie, I?i?noa?noaa aeiiii?ee O?I, iaoa??aee
ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo oa caei?aeiiieo niaoe?ae?no?a
c ieoaiue nioe?aeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo, aeai? Oeaio?o “Nioe?aeueiee
iii?oi??ia”.

A i?ioean? ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aea/aii oai?aoe/i? oa caeiiiaeaa/?
iieiaeaiiy, ye? i?aaenoaaeai? aaoi?aie o iiiia?ao?yo, noaooyo, a?ioo?ao
? o.?. Oaeiae aoei aeei?enoaii ii?iaoeaio aaco I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe?
Oe?a?ie, Eiinoeoooe?th Oe?a?ie, caeiiiaeaa/? aeoe Oe?a?ie oa O?I.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? o ianooiieo aieiaieo iieiaeaiiyo:

§ aeine?aeaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe i?aeie?aa?ae?cio ye aieiaii?
oai??? nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee c iiaeeea?noth
canoinoaaiiy ?? aieiaieo aeaiaio?a a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?;

§ i?iaaaeaii nenoaiiee aiae?c i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy
o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo ia?aoai?aiue
nioe?aeueii? noa?e c iaoith ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai caeiyoino?;

§ ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iaiaaeaeiaioo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c
oi/ee ci?o i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue;

§ cai?iiiiiaaii iia? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie aaeaioaoe?? nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee aei oiia ?eieo ye can?a iiaeieaiiy nioe?aeueieo iaaa?acae?a
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa;

§ ?ic?iaeaii aeeiai?/io iiaeaeue o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a, a oaeiae aeai?eoi
i?iaiico aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino? oa no?oeoo?e caeiyoeo a aeiiii?oe?, ui
ia? caaacia/eoe iaea?eueo aoaeoeaia ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iaiaaeaeiaioo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e;

§ ia canoaa? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
cai?iiiiiaaii iiaeaeue o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e
aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie ye neeaaeiai? /anoeie nioe?aeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo;

§ ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeniee eiioeaiooaeueiee i?aeo?ae uiaei aecia/aiiy
iiaeeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy i?iaoeueeiai aeina?aeo
nioe?aeueiiai oa iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?, ui iaoiiaeaii
niaoeeo?/ieie ia?aaaaaie ?aae?caoe?? cai?iiiiiaaiiai iiaeaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoe?
eiiieaenieo iaoiaee/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaii? eiioeaioe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aeiaaaeai? aei ??aiy iaa?oioiaaieo
aiae?oe/ieo aeniiae?a oa eiie?aoieo i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e:

§ Aecia/aiiy ?aaoethth/i? ?ie? aea?aeaae a nioe?aeuei?e ?eieia?e
aeiiii?oe? oa cai?iaaaeaeaiiy iaoai?cio aaeaioaoe?? aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy aei oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.

§ I?aeoe/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei noeioethaaiiy ?icaeoeo iaeiai oa
na?aaeiueiai a?ciano a Oe?a?i?.

§ I?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee ca iai?yiaie: no?aooaaiiy ia
aeiaaeie aac?ia?ooy, iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy, nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy,
iaaee/iiai no?aooaaiiy.

§ Iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei cae?eniaiiy o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii?
noa?e ca ?aooiie aae?aniiai ia?a?iciiae?eo aea?aeaaieo eioo?a.

§ ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy canoiniaaii a i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino?
Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai a?aeae?eo oi?aiaaeueii-i?iieneiai? iaeaoe
(OII), a i?aai?caoe?? iaiaaeaeiaioo ni?eueiiai i?iaoeueei-oe?a?inueeiai
i?aei?e?inoaa “Eeaoea Aiao”, i?e ?ic?iaoe? eo?n?a “Na?oiaa aeiiii?ea”,
“Na?oiaa aeiiii?ea oa i?aeia?iaei? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie”, “Aeiiii?ea
ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i”, “?aa?iiaeueia aeiiii?ea”, i?i ui na?ae/aoue aeoe
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? oa i?aeoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe aoei aeeeaaeaii ia iaei?e ?aa?iiaeuei?e oa i’yoe
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo: I?aeia?iaeia aoc?anueea eiioa?aioe?y
“Ia?eaoeia, iaiaaeaeiaio, i?aei?e?iieoeoai” – Aeiiaoeuee, AeiiAeO, 1996;
?in?enueei-oe?a?inueeee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee nai?ia? “I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo
ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca’yce?a” – Aeiiaoeuee, AeiiAeO, 1995;
I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee nai?ia? “I?aeia?iaeia eia?noeea o
e?a?iao c ia?ao?aeiith aeiiii?eith” – Aeiiaoeuee, AeiiAeO, 1996;
Aoc?anueea eiioa?aioe?y, i?enay/aia 60-??//th AeiiAeO “Aeiiii?ea,
iaiaaeaeiaio, ia?eaoeia, e?euee?ni? iaoiaee” – Aeiiaoeuee, AeiiAeO,
1997; I?aeia?iaeiee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iee nai?ia? “?icaeoie CAC oa i?iaeaie
caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo ?iaanoeoe?e aei aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie” –
Aeiiaoeuee-Neaa’yiia??nuee, 1997, 1998.

Ioae?eaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aoee aeeeaaeai? a 12 ioae?eaoe?yo,
caaaeueiei ianyaii 6,5 ae.a., c yeeo 10 ianyaii 4,2 ae.a. iaeaaeeoue
aaoi?ia? iniaenoi.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a,
aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (156 iaeiaioaaiue). Iniiaiee
ci?no aeeeaaeaiee ia 193 noi??ieao ae?oeiaaiiai oaenoo, ?iaioa i?noeoue
17 oaaeeoeue, 17 ?enoie?a, 5 aeiaeaoe?a.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe?EII? ?IAIOE

Ia?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?enay/aiee aiae?co
iaoiaeieia?? oa oai??? nioe?aeueiiai ?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. ?icaeyiooi
iniiai? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo oa ?aaoethaaiiy i?ioean?a nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee a aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao ie?aieo e?a?i. A ?iaio? cacia/a?oueny,
ui noai?aiiy /e a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aoaeue-yei? e?a?ie ia?aaeaa/a?
iaiao?aei?noue ?icaoaeiae nioe?aeueii? aea?aeaae. ssne?aaei i?eeeaaeii
oaei? ae?yeueiino? ? I?ia//eia, aea yeui nioe?aeueia a?ae?iaeaeaiiy O?I
a?aeaoaaeiny o ?a?iiaenueeiio iaaeieeoiueiio na?aaeiaeu?, oi Oe?a?ia ia?
cae?enithaaoe o?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane a oiiaao aioo??oiuei? e?ece ? ia
oii? aeaaiiieo/iiai nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo a?eueoino? ?a?iiaenueeeo
aea?aeaa. Noia?a/eeaee i?ioean ia?aoai?aiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei
iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue iiooeo iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a ooaa?aeaeaiiy
iiaiai ci?noo, iiceoeaii? eia?ee nioe?aeueii? aeeiai?ee, cae?eniaiiy
aaeaeaaoii? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee. Inoaii? iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
?ioaineo?eaoe?? oaii?a ?ic?iaee ? ?aae?caoe?? i?ea?iaeueii? oe?a?inueei?
nioe?aeueii? iiaeae?, yea ia? aooe caniiaaiith ia iaai?e oai?aoe/ii oa
aiae?oe/ii iaa?oioiaai?e eiioeaioe??.

Iaoeiaa ?ic?iaea aeaii? i?iaeaie iaoiiaeaia iaiao?aei?noth iiooeo
iioeiaeueieo cania?a ? oi?i iaiaaeaeiaioo nioe?aeueii? noa?e aeiiii?/ii?
nenoaie c o?aooaaiiyi noia?a/eeai? niaoeeo?ee nioe?iaeeiai?ee
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Cacia/aia nooo?ai aeooae?co? ?ic?iaeo ye iaoeiaeo i?iaeai nioe?aeueiiai
?icaeoeo oa iaiaaeaeiaioo nioe?aeueii? noa?e, oae ? ?o aiae?c a
iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/iiio aniaeo?.

Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ciaoiaeeoue na?e aeya a oi?aae?ii?, ?aaoethaaii?
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a. Nioe?aeueia oi?aae?iiy, nioe?aeueia ?aaoethaaiiy
? iniiaiei iaoai?ciii, ?ino?oiaioii ?aae?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee.

Nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ia?aaeaa/a? aecia/aiiy aeeaeiieo oaiaeaioe?e
?icaeoeo a on?o noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ui iaoiiaeththoue i?ioean
?icaeoeo nioe?aeueiiai aoooy ? nioe?aeueii? aaciaee ethaeeie oa
oe?eani?yiiaaiee aieea ia ieo noa’?eo?a ?aaoeyoeaii? ae?yeueiino?.

Nioe?aeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio – oea nenoaia oi?aae?inueeeo, ?aaoeyoeaieo,
i?aai?caoe?eieo, naii?aaoeyoeaieo caoiae?a, ae?e, ? ianaiia?aae
oe?eani?yiiaaii? ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia oi?ioaaiiy oa
?aae?caoe?th nioe?aeueieo iio?aa, ui a?aeia?aaeathoue aeeoo?a? ?ioa?ane
ethaeeie ? noni?euenoaa.

Iaoa nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ca no/anieo oiia iieyaa? o ae??oaii?
noia?a/iinoae noni?eueiiai, nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo, ye? aaeueiothoue
i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee,
noaiiaeaiiy na?aaeiueiai eeano, nioe?aeueii? iia?eueiino?,
caoaa?aeaeaiiy ae?eiaeo iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai aeeoo?caaacia/aiiy
ethaeeie ye aieiaiiai noa’?eoo nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo.

Nooo?aeie i?e/eiaie aeieeiaiiy iani?eyoeeaeo oaiaeaioe?e ? o?oaeiiu?a o
nioe?aeuei?e noa?? a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae noaei aeei?enoaiiy oi?i oa
iaoiae?a aee?aeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy, ni?iaa iaiiaieoe iia? oi?ie
oi?aae?iiy noa?ei ci?noii, aaniethoecaoe?y iaeiaoaeoeaieo cania?a
oi?aae?iiy, iaaeiioe?iea aio/eeo oa aoaeoeaieo oi?i nioe?aeueiiai
?aaoethaaiiy, naii?aae?caoe?? iniaeno?noth naiai nioe?aeueiiai
iioaioe?aeo.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo aea? ciiao aecia/eoe ye
aieiaiee nenoaiiooai?thth/ee /eiiee caeiiiaeaa/i-ii?iaoeaio aaco. Ia
i?aenoaa? caeii?a oa ?ioeo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a oi?iothoueny aea?aeaai?
i?aaie oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei caoenoii, ?aaeaiaioothoueny ?o
aca?iia?aeiineie c iaaea?aeaaieie i?aai?caoe?yie oa ianaeaiiyi.
Caeiiiaeaanoai oa ?io? ii?iaoeai? aeoe iaoiiaeththoue oi?ioaaiiy
oiiae?a, ye? aeoioeththoue eiooe, i?ecia/ai? ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno oa
ii?yaeie ?o aeei?enoaiiy, a oaeiae i?aeaioiaeo eaae??a nioe?aeueieo
i?aoe?aiee?a (ye aea?aeaaieo, oae ? iaaea?aeaaieo onoaiia).

A eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee i?ia?aeiei ? i?eioeei
nioe?aeueii? aeiiiiiae. I?ae iath ?icoi?thoue noan?aea?i?noue, yea
i?iyaey?oueny o aeaeyae? aeiiiiiae aeey naiiaeiiiiiae ? ia aaeueio?
?eieia? a?aeiineie.

?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? ia? aooe caniiaaia ia caaaeueieo i?eioeeiao
cae?eniaiiy nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee:

§ i?eioeei nie?aea?iino? ? noan?aea?iino?;

§ i?eioeei no?aooaaiiy, iiaeeo?eiaaiee ca aeiiiiiaith aeaiaio?a
nioe?aeueiiai caaeainoaaiiy;

§ i?eioeei noai?aiiy o?eia/?a no?aoiaeo oiiae?a o aeaeyae? naiino?eieo
ioae?/ii-i?aaiaeo i?aai?a, ye? i?aoeththoue ia i?aenoaa?
naiia?yaeoaaiiy;

§ i?eioeei iaeaaeiino? aei oiai /e ?ioiai aeaeo nioe?aeueiiai
no?aooaaiiy ye iniiae aeey io?eiaiiy iineoa;

§ i?eioeei iaia’yceiaiai no?aooaaiiy, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeei ca?aeii
?c caeiiaie anoaiiaeththoueny i?aaia? aca?iia?aeiineie;

§ i?eioeei? caaacia/aiiy aeeoo?aiai ??aiy, yeee ? iaoith anoaiiaeaiiai
caeiiii nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi oiai, ui nioe?aeueia iie?oeea ciaoiaeeoueny a oeaio??
oaaae o?iainiai? iie?oeee Oaaea?aoeaii? ?anioae?ee I?ia//eie ? nenoaia
o?iainiaiai ieaioaaiiy aea?aeaae. Oae, o o?iainiaiio ieai? ia
1993-1997 ?iee o aeaeaoeao oaaea?aoe?? ii noa?ao caaaeaiue ia?oei
ioieoii eaeooue aeaeaoee ia nioe?aeueiee caoeno ianaeaiiy (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoey 1. Aeaeaoee athaeaeaoo Oaaea?aoeaii? ?anioae?ee I?ia//eie ii
a?aeiia?aeieo noa?ao caaaeaiue nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a 1993-1997 ?ieao,
oen. i?iaoeueeeo ia?ie

Noa?e caaaeaiue199319941995199619971. Iain?eia no?aooaaiiy ?ia?oiee?a oa
neoaeaiaoe?a, i?i?iaeueia iain?eia
no?aooaaiiy62257742637566276963791472. Iie?oeea ?eieo i?aoe?, ioi?iia
i?aoe?40468329832913223501172963. Eiooe ia aeoiaaiiy, ioi?iio
iaoa?einoaa, n?iaeio iie?oeeo787676199326932696214. Eiooe ia
ae?oae21850203902039020390203905. Eiiiainaoe?ei? eiooe ia
aeeoei365635522859275927006. Eiooe ia i?ai?thaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa
aeeoea5504503503203207. Caaacia/aiiy aea?oa
a?eie13701141341412513429131958. A?aeiiaeaiiy iiaa?iaiiy
ia?anaeaioe?a200117901732165115959. N?euenueeiainiiaea?nueea nioe?aeueia
iie?oeea6830721775568005844410. ?io? caoiaee a nioe?aeuei?e
noa??60215883546148124840?acii168200168281166563151003157548O a?aenioeao
aei oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoo36,535,134,832,131,5Ia canoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai
aiae?co ?inoeoooe?iiaeueio no?oeoo?o nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo a Oe?a?i?
iiaeia cia?aceoe o aeaeyae? noaie (?en.1).

?en. 1. I?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaa no?oeoo?a nenoaie nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo

A ?iaio? a?aecia/aii, ui no?aoaa??th o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano iiaeiii
aooe i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueieo aeeaaeaiue, ia?o ca ana ia
canaaeao ye?niiai iaiiaeaiiy ?ie? a?ciano. Cacia/aii eeth/ia? iai?yiee
oeueiai i?ioeano:

1. Ia?aiin aeoeaioo c ia?iuoaaiiy aea?aeaaieo ?iaanoeoe?e a noni?eueio
noa?o ia ?aoe?iiae?caoe?th ?o canoinoaaiiy.

2. I?eaaoecaoe?y nioe?aeueii? noa?e.

3. ?icaeoie nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e e?oiiiai a?ciano.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ?icaeoeo nioe?aeueii? noa?e O?I cana?ae/ea
iiaeeea?noue aaeaioaoe?? oai?aoe/ieo aniaeo?a iaiaaeaeiaioo nioe?aeueii?
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee aei oiia Oe?a?ie, a?aoiaoth/e niaoeeo?/i? ?ene
oe?a?inueeiai iaioae?oaoo.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? i?iaaaeaii iiaeeaeaiee aiae?c iaiaaeaeiaioo
nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a.

Iniaeea?noue nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?ieue
aea?aeaae ?aae?co?oueny ia no?eueee o o?iainoaaii? caoiae?a nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee, ne?eueee a caoiaeao iie?oeee nioe?aeueiiai ii?yaeeo, c oei,
uia anoaiiaeoe iaa?oioiaai? noaaee ? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae nioe?aeueieie
aeieaoaie. Oaei? iiaaae?iee aeiaaa? a?ae ia? eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueiiai
?eieiaiai ainiiaea?noaa. A nioe?aeuei?e iie?oeoe? aea?aeaaa aa?a o/anoue
ye aeiaeaoeiaa aeaea?aei iioi/iiai o?iainoaaiiy caeaa?eueoiai i?e
?ica’ycaii? iia?aoeaieo oa iioi/ieo oe?eae. Aea?aeaaa iinoaaey? a
nioe?aeueiee athaeaeao aeecueei 30% an?o eiai eioo?a, ui aeicaiey? ?e
cina?aaeaeoaaoe naith ae?yeuei?noue ye aea?aeaae-nea?aieea ianaiia?aae o
noa?ao, ye? ia iia’ycai? ?c caeiiiaeaa/ei no?aooaaiiyi. Ioaea, i?e
aeeiiaii? nioe?aeueiiai athaeaeaoo ooieoe?? aea?aeaae – iin?y
aea?aeaaiino? aeciathoueny ? o?iainiai ocaeiiththoueny ii an?e noaooyo
aeo?ao ? ye nea?aieea – ii noaooyo, ui ia iia’ycai? c iaia’yceiaei
no?aooaaiiyi, yeiai aeiaaa? ae?th/a caeiiiaeaanoai.

Eeane/iith ooieoe??th aea?aeaae a nioe?aeueiiio ?eieiaiio ainiiaea?noa?
caeeoa?oueny cae?eniaiiy i?aaiai? ?aaeaiaioaoe?? aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee.
Aei ae?oaiai eiiieaeno caaaeaiue aea?aeaae iaeaaeeoue iaiao?aei?noue
oi?ioaaiiy eii’thieoo?ii? iie?oeee, yea a i?ioeae?yea iiaeeeaino?
aeieeiaiiy caaaeueiiaeiiii?/ii? ia??aiiaaae.

Aei aaaeeeai? a?oie caaaeaiue aea?aeaae iaeaaeeoue iaiao?aei?noue
oi?ioaaiiy eiinoeoooe?eieo i?eioeei?a nioe?aeueii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.

Aei noa?e nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae aoiaeeoue oaeiae
?aaeaiaioaoe?y i?aa iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a ? iie?oeea ni?eyiiy ?o o/ano?
a oi?aae?ii? ae?iaieoeoaii. Coneeey aea?aeaae iiaeii? aooe ni?yiiaai? ia
iaiaaeaiiy caeaaeiino? iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a a?ae ?iaioiaeaaoe?a ?
caaacia/aiiy ?i a?aeiia?aeieo nioe?aeueieo i?aa, cie?aia, i?aaa ia
?ioi?iaoe?th, ni?a?ia?oieoeoai ? ni?ao/anoue a oi?aae?ii? ae?iaieoeoaii
noiniaii ae??oaiiy ieoaiue oiia i?aoe?, ca?eueiaiiy c ?iaioe ? iieaoe
i?aoe?.

Ia iaio aaaeeeaith neeaaeiaith /anoeiith nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae
? cae?eniaiiy no?oeoo?ii? ? ?aa?iiaeueii? iie?oeee, a oaeiae iie?oeee
aeiiii?/iiai ?inoo, ye? caeaa?eueoiai aecia/athoueny nioe?aeueieie
i??i?eoaoaie, aaeaea aiie ni?eythoue iii’yeoaiith iane?aee?a aaeocaaeo ?
?aa?iiaeueieo c?ooaiue aeey i?aoe?aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa, a oaeiae
ni?eythoue ?o aaeaioaoe?? aei iiaeo oiia. ?, ia?aoo?, aei nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee aea?aeaae iaeaaeeoue aecia/aiiy iie?oeee ia?a?iciiae?eo
aeioiae?a, ye noeoiiino? caoiae?a aeey ni?eyiiy ooai?aiith aeaniino? o
oe?ieeo aa?noaao ianaeaiiy.

I?aenoiiaoth/e, iaiao?aeii aeciaoe, ui iniiaia ?aeay
nioe?aeueii-?eieiai? aeiiii?ee iieyaa? a oiio, uia ia iniia?
eiieo?aioii? aeiiii?ee ii?aeiaoe i?eaaoio ?i?oe?aoeao c nioe?aeueiei
ae??aithaaiiyi, yea iiaeiia i?aai?coaaoe aea?aeaaa ? ?aae?ciaoaaoe
caaaeyee aoaeoeaiiio ooieoe?iioaaiith ?eieo.

Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui aeaiaioe ?eieo i?aoe? a Oe?a?i? ca?iaeaeothoueny
i?ae aieeaii caeaa?eueoiai nioe?aeueieo, i?ae aeiiii?/ieo oiia. I?ioa
aeiiii?/ia iie?oeea acaaae? iaaiei /eiii aieeaa? ia i?ioeane, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny ia ?eieo i?aoe?. Iae?iaeiiii?/i? ia?aoai?aiiy ca inoaii?
?iee ia ni?eyee ?icaeoeo ae?iaieoeoaa, a ioaea ? noeioethaaiith iiieoo
ia i?aoeth (oaae.2).

Oaaeeoey 2. Aeeiai?ea ci?i iniiaieo iae?iaeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a a
Oe?a?i? ca 1992-1997 ??., % aei iiia?aaeiueiai ?ieo

Iieaciee199219931994199519961997AAI-9,9-14,2-23,0-12,2-10,0-3,2Ian?a
i?iieneiai? i?iaeoeoe??-6,4-8,0-27,2-12,0-5,1-1,8Ianya i?iaeoeoe??
n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa-8,3-1,5-16,5-3,6-9,5-1,9Ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a
ia?iaeiiai niiaeeaaiiy-9,4-15,9-25,0-17,8-17,8-13,8Eai?oaeuei?
aeeaaeaiiy-36,9-10,3-23,0-28,6-22,0-7,5*enaeuei?noue caeiyoeo o aaeocyo
aeiiii?ee-4,0-2,5-5,1-1,0-5,0-8,2Ca?aeii c io?oe?eieie noaoenoe/ieie
aeaieie ianya AAI a 1997 ?. ii??aiyii c 1992 ?. nei?ioeany ia 49,5%,
i?iieneiaa ae?iaieoeoai – aei 45,2%, ae?iaieoeoai oiaa??a ia?iaeiiai
niiaeeaaiiy – aei 63,3%. *enaeuei?noue caeiyoeo o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee
nei?ioeeany ca oeae ia??iae c 24,0 aei 20,2 iei./ie., oiaoi ia 16,0%,
ui aeaco? ia iayai?noue i?eoiaaiiai aac?ia?ooy.

A?aoiaoth/e cacia/ai? oaiaeaioe??, aoei i?iaiae?ciaaii i?iaeaio
iaiaaeaeiaioo ?icaeoeo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c iaoith
?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai caeiyoino?. Iacaaaeath/e ia c?inoaiiy oaea?/?
e?eueeino? iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa c 1992 ?., o iaeiio a?cian? caeiyo? eeoa 1
iei.a?iiaaeyi, oiaoi 4% aeiiii?/ii aeoeaiiai ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie (?en.2).

?en. 2. Caeiyo?noue ia iaeeo ? na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie,
1992-1997 ??.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue o ae??oaii? i?iaeaie iaiaaeaeiaioo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai
a?ciano iathoue a?ae?a?aaaoe neii?aeeiiaai? ae??, a?ae i?aaiaiai caoenoo
i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa e e?ea?aeoaaiiy ia?aoeiae ia eiai oeyoo aei
iineaaeaiiy iiaeaoeiaiai oeneo.

A Oe?a?i? iaiao?aeii i?enei?eoe ?aaeuei? ?eieia? o?ainoi?iaoe??, oiaoi
eiiieaenia ?aoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, e?aaeeooaaiiy, i?eeiyooy
caeiio i?i ieaoaae?, nei?i/aiiy aeae?a e?oeaicoaaiiy i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
ae?yeueiino?, ni?iuaiiy i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaiai iae?eo e noaoenoe/ii?
ca?oiino? noa’?eo?a iaeiai a?ciano.

Neoaeae caeiyoino? iathoue ni?eyoe noai?aiith iaeeo i?aei?e?inoa. Ca
iayai?noth eioo?a o oiiae? caeiyoino? neoaeae iathoue iaaeaaaoe e?aaeeoe
iniaai, ca?a?no?iaaiei o neoaea? caeiyoino? ia i?aai?caoe?th
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? e aenooiaoe aa?aioii i?e iaea?aeaii?
e?aaeeoo a aaieo.

O ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao na?oo ?ieue iaeeo ? na?aaei?o i?aei?e?inoa
iaooeeueii c?inoa?. Ia ieo i?eiaaea? 70-80% caaaeueii? e?eueeino?
ainiiaea?nueeeo i?aai?caoe?e. sse?ac aiie aeaiiino?othoue aenieo
aoaeoeai?noue i?enoinoaaiiy aei aeeiai?/ieo ci?i a aeiiii?/i?e
ae?yeueiino? e ae?iaeythoue iieiaeio iaoe?iiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoo.

Iaeee ? na?aaei?e a?cian ae?ae aaaeeeaee c iiaeyaeo caeiyoino? e
no?eeino? ainiiaea?nueeiai ?icaeoeo, ine?eueee caeaoiee iaeoaeae/a ?
aio/ei ?aaaoaaoe ia noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue ? caieoe
niiaeeaa/?a.

Noai?aiith oa caa?aaeaiith ?iai/eo i?noeue ni?eyoeia oaeiae ?ic?iaea ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy caeii?a Oe?a?ie “I?i aea?aeaaio i?aeo?eieo iaeiai
i?aei?e?iieoeoaa”, “I?i i?aaiaee caoeno i?eaaoii? aeaniino?”,
i?aeaioiaea Eiioeaioe?? aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee uiaei ?icaeoeo a Oe?a?i?
iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa.

*a?ac aeuo, i?ae ia aaeeeeo i?aei?e?inoaao, i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, a
oeueiio naeoi?? aeiiii?ee noai?th?oueny aeecueei 10% AAI. Na?aae
aieiaieo i?e/ei iaaaoeaieo oaiaeaioe?e ?icaeoeo iaeiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa
iiaeia iacaaoe:

§ iaaeineiiae?noue, neeaaei?noue e ianoaa?euei?noue /eiii?
ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace (iniaeeai iiaeaoeiaiai caeiiiaeaanoaa);

§ iaiii??iee iiaeaoeiaee oyaa?, neeaaei?noue nenoaie iae?eo oa aoaeeoo;

§ a?aenooi?noue nenoaie o?iainoaaiiy e e?aaeeooaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano,
aenie? a?aenioeia? noaaee;

§ a?aenooi?noue ?icaeiooi? ?eieiai? ?io?ano?oeoo?e;

§ iecueeee niiaeea/ee iiieo;

§ iaaeinoaoi? ?ioi?iaoe?eia e eiinoeueoaoeaia caaacia/aiiy;

§ a?ae i?ioan?eieo ciaiue ? aeina?aeo uiaei caiyooy a?cianii.

Aieea cacia/aieo iaaaoeaieo oaeoi??a i?aeneeth?oueny a?aenooi?noth
nioe?aeueieo aa?aio?e ianaeaiith. ?c iaoith noeioethaaiiy aoaeoeaii?
no?oeoo?e caeiyoino? aeioe?eueii ?ic?iaeoe nenoaio caoiae?a c?
noeioethaaiiyi ca oaeeie iai?yiaie:

§ e?ea?aeaoe?y iaaoaeoeaieo ?iai/eo i?noeue ? noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo
i?noeue o ia?niaeoeaieo aaeocyo aeiiii?ee;

§ aea?eueiaiiy i?aoe?aiee?a o aeai?aneaieo aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, ?oiy
i?ioan?eia i?aeaioiaea oa ia?ai?aeaioiaea c iiaeaeueoei
i?aoeaaeaoooaaiiyi o aaeocyo aeiiii?ee, ui ?icaeaathoueny.

Iaeaaaeeea?oei iai?yiii oaeineiiaeaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e ia? aooe
iianthaeia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy i?ia?aneaieo aeae?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy:
no?aooaaiiy o ?ac? aac?ia?ooy; iaaee/ia no?aooaaiiy; iain?eia oa ?ioa
no?aooaaiiy; no?aooaaiiy a?ae iauanieo aeiaaee?a ia ae?iaieoeoa?.

C iaoith iii’yeoaiiy nioe?aeueieo iane?aee?a aac?ia?ooy o ?iaio?
cai?iiiiiaaii aeeiai?/io aeiiii?ei-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue ?ooo ie?aieo
a?oi ae?iaie/iai ia?niiaeo a i?iieneiaiio ?aa?ii?:

dae / dt = f1 (1i , 2i, 3i , ae , J , u i , m k ),

d1i / dt = f2 (ae , 1i , J , u i , m k ),

d2i / dt = f3 (1i , 2i , J, u i , m k ), (1)

d 3i / dt = f4 (3i , u i , J, m k ),

daei? / dt = f5 ( ae , 1i , 2i , 3i , a , u i, J, m k).

Aeaiaioe iiaeae?:

1) i – ae?iaie/ee ia?niiae (1i – iaeieaae?o?eiaai? ?ia?oieee, 2i –
eaae?o?eiaai?, 3i – aenieieaae?o?eiaai? );

2) ae – ae?oe;

3) aei? – aei?ine?;

4) ana ianaeaiiy i?aeei?y?oueny caeiio i?e?iaeiueiai ciaioaiiy, a ae?oe
i?aeei?ythoueny caeiio i?e?inoo i?iii?oe?eii aei i;

5) i?eionea?oueny ia?ao?ae ?iai/eo c a?oi 1i, 2i, aei a?oie 3i, i?ney
?o iaa/aiiy o na?aaei?o oa aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao;

6) a?aeiia i?iioneia ni?iiiaei?noue na?aaei?o oa aeueo iaa/aeueieo
caeeaae?a.

E?i?ei? oa iae?i?ei? ooieoe?? f1, f2, f3, f4, f5 o i?aa?e /anoei?
nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue a?aoiaothoue i?ioeane ia?iaeaeaiiy,
iiaiie?ooy, ia?aeaae?o?eaoe??, iaa/aiiy, ?iaae?aeiino? oa nia?o? oeyoii
??cieo eiia?iaoe?e ci?iieo u i – oaeaeeino? ia?anoaaiiy ??cieo a?oi
ianaeaiiy a iaeeieoeth /ano; J — na?aaei?o /an?a ia?aaoaaiiy ianaeaiiy o
o?e aai ?io?e ae?iaie/?e a?oi? oa eiao?oe??io?a m k (i?e?ino?a ca
?aooiie k-i? a?oie ?iaae?aeiino?, ia?aeaae?o?eaoe?? oa ?i.).

Ia?ai?ithth/e ci?ii? u i, J oa eiao?oe??ioe m k caeaaeii a?ae ciai?oi?o
oiia (noaio ?eieiaeo no?oeoo? a ?aa?ii?), iiaeia oeyoii ??oaiiy
iaaaaeaii? nenoaie aeeoa?aioe?eieo ??aiyiue (1) i?iaiicoaaoe ye?nii oa
e?euee?nii aeeiai?eo o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a i?iieneiaiai ?aa?iio.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiaaii i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie aaeaioaoe??
nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae aei oiia ?eieo, cie?aia, eiioeaioe?y
o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e oa oeyoe ?? ?aae?caoe?? ia no/aniiio
aoai? ?icaeoeo aeiiii?ee ? iaoiaee/i? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee c iaoith ae??oaiiy i?iaeai
iaiaaeaeiaioo a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai.

Uiaei oeyo?a ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie caeiyoino?, a aeena?oaoe?eiiio
aeine?aeaeai? cai?iiiiiaaii aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue o
i?iieneiai ?icaeiooeo ?aa?iiao. Aieiaiei o oeueiio aeai?eoi? aenooia?
iieaciee i?e?inoo iioaioe?aeo, ui oa?aeoa?eco? ci?ie ??aiy i?eoiaaiiai
aac?ia?ooy a caeaaeiino? a?ae oaii?a ?inoo (aai cieaeaiiy) ae?iaieoeoaa,
oaii?a ?ioeyoe?? ? nei?i/aiiy aeaoooy iaaeeeoeiai? ?iai/i? neee.

Ia iniia? i?eaaaeaiiai a ?iaio? aiae?co o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e
a oe?eiio nenoaio o?iainiaiai caaacia/aiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e aecia/aii
o aeaeyae? a?ao?/ii? iiaeae?: (?en.3)

?en. 3. O?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e

Aaoi?ii ?iaioe aeiaiaeeoueny, ui iiaiaaaaeaiiy, ye? iaiao?aeii
cae?enieoe o iain?eiiio caaacia/aii? Oe?a?ie, iieyaathoue o oiio, uia
cae?enieoe ?iciiae?e aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy ? aecia/eoe iaoai?ci
aeoioeyoe?? eioo?a. A ?aieao o?oaeiai? iain?? iiaeie iathoue noaoe
/ioe?e iniiaieo aeaiaioe:

1) ?iciiae?e aeaea?ae iaea?aeaiiy no?aoiaeo aiane?a: iaeia /anoeia aoaea
niea/oaaoeny ?iaioiaeaaoeyie (ia?aooaaiiy ia oiiae ca?ieaoe), a ae?oaa —
naieie i?aoe?aieeaie (a?ae?aooaaiiy c ca?ia?oii? ieaoe);

2) aaaaeaiiy ia?nii?o?eiaaiiai iae?eo no?aoiaiai noaaeo, ?ici??o
ca?ia?oeo (c yeiai niea/oaaeenue no?aoia? aianee) ? ?ici??o aianeo;

3) iiaoaiia, ii/eiath/e c 2000 ?ieo, ca?eueoaiiy ia 6 i?nyoe?a ui??/ii
iain?eiiai a?eo aei 65 ?ie?a aeey /ieia?e?a ? 60 ?ie?a – aeey ae?iie;

4) i?aeaeuaiiy ?ici???a iain?? a?aeiia?aeii aei ?iaeaenaoe?? a?ioiaeo
aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy (ia ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae), a iiaeaeueoiio caeaaeii
a?ae c?inoaiiy na?aaeiuei? ca?ieaoe i?aoe?aiee?a.

O oe?eyo ?aoi?ioaaiiy iain?eii? nenoaie Oe?a?ie i?iiiio?oueny acyoe ca
i???ioe?e “eiioeaioe?th o?ueio eieii”, yea aoea ?ic?iaeaia ua o 1957
?ioe? Ethaea?aii A?oa?aeii ? yea i?iaeiaaeo? aeei?enoiaoaaoeny o
i?aeoeoe? ?icaeiooeo e?a?i. Ca?aeii c iath nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy
noa?ino? neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio aeaiaio?a: caeiiia iain?y, ae?iaie/?
no?aooaaiiy oa naiicaaacia/aiiy.

Oaeee i?aeo?ae iaee?aua ii?aeio? aeaa iniiaieo i?eioeeie, ye?
ae?aaeathoue aeanio ? ni?eueio a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca aeaoooaaiiy aeeooy
?iaeea?aeooio. Nueiaiaei? a onueiio na?o? niinoa??aa?oueny eiiaa?aaioe?y
aei i?iaoeueei? eiioeaioe?? nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy.

Uiaei iiaeieaiiy i?iaeaie a?aeiino? a iioeeiio a?oe? iiaea ni?eyoe
ae?iaeaiiy aio/eeo oa iia?eueieo iiaeaeae ?iai/iai /ano. Iai?eeeaae, o
Oaaoe?? aaea aaaaoi ?ie?a ?nio? iiaeaeue, yea c?iaeea cae/iei ia?ac
“iain?iia?a ia iaiiaio noaaeo”. C /ano iain?eii? ?aoi?ie 1992 ?ieo
aiaeia?/ia iiaeaeue ai?iaaaeaeo?oueny o I?ia//ei?. Aiia aeicaiey?
iaiieiaeei ethaeyi iinooiiai a?aeoiaeeoe a?ae i?ioan?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
a iieiaeei i?aoethaaoe a ?iai/ee /an, ui aea?eueiy?oueny. Ioaea,
iaiiaiee ?iai/ee aeaiue iiaeia ?icaeyaeaoe ye can?a iiaeieaiiy
aac?ia?ooy, oaeineiiaeaiiy i?aai?caoe?? i?aoe? oa ci?oeiaiiy
nioe?aeueii? nenoaie iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?.

A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? iniaeeai cacia/aii, ui aaaeeeaei
aniaeoii nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee ? iiaeaoeiaee aniaeo. Nioe?aeueiee caoeno
ianaeaiiy /a?ac iiaeaoeiao nenoaio iieyaa? a iaaeaii? i?euea
iaeicaaacia/aiei aa?noaai ianaeaiiy oa oo?eiaioeyi, aea?eueiaii? a?ae
iiaeaoe?a aeioiae?a th?eaee/ieo oa o?ce/ieo in?a, ye? iiaeaoee
ni?yiiaothoueny ia nioe?aeueii-cia/ei? caoiaee oa aeaaiae?ei?noue.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e ia?aaaae ? iaaeie?ee i?yiiai ? iai?yiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy,
c?iaeaii aeniiaie, ui o?eueee oeyoii ?o ii?aeiaiiy iiaeia iiaoaeoaaoe
iiaeaoeiao nenoaio, yea a a?aeiia?aeaea o?neaeueiei ?ioa?anai aea?aeaae
oa nioe?aeueiei ?ioa?anai iiaeaoeiieaoiee?a. Iai?yi? iiaeaoee, ui
niaaeathoue ia i?aaeiaoe niiaeeaaiiy, caaaeaee aeineoue i?eaooeia? aeey
aea?aeaae. Ine?eueee aiie aeeth/athoueny a oe?io oiaa?o, ?o nieaoa
a?aeaoaa?oueny iaiii?oii aeey niiaeeaa/a ? ia noi?iaiaeaeo?oueny
iaaeiieaoith.

Aea ii?yae c o?neaeueieie ia?aaaaaie iai?yi? iiaeaoee iathoue iaaeie?ee:
aiie iinyoue ?aa?aneaiee oa?aeoa?. Iaaeath/e ia aeo?aoe, aiie aeaeaei ia
? i?iii?oe?eieie aeioiaeai. C iaeyaeo oiai, ui niiaeeaaiiy ia
ciaoiaeeoueny a i?yiiio a?aeiioaii? i? c aeioiaeaie, i? c iaeiii
a?iiaaeyi, iai?yi? iiaeaoee ia i?aaeiaoe ia?oi? iaiao?aeiino? ? oe?ieiai
aaeeoeo ia i?iii?oe?ei? iaeiiaiio iieiaeaiith ianaeaiiy ? /anoi
a?aaeathoue a?aei? n?i’? cia/ii neeuei?oa, i?ae caiiaei?.

Aenie? noaaee iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a oa anoaiiaeaiiy ?o aac iaeaaeiiai
aeai?o iiaeooue aeeeeeaoe nii/aoeo nei?i/aiiy niiaeeaaiiy, a iio?i ?
ae?iaieoeoaa. C?icoi?ei oaeiae, ui iai?yia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a iioaioe?ae?
iana ca?yae ?ioeyoe??, oae ye ciaioo? eoi?aaeueio ni?iiiaei?noue iieaoe
i?aoe?.

Aeey cieaeaiiy ??aiy ?aa?aneaiino? iiiaeaoeoaaiiy caea?oueny iaiao?aeiei
aio/ei c?noaaeyoe ?ici??e iai?yiiai iiiaeaoeoaaiiy c ieaoini?iiiaei?noth
noa’?eoa.

No/ania oaiaeaioe?y iiaeaoeiai? iie?oeee ?icaeiooeo e?a?i iieyaa? o
oiio, uia iaeeaaeaoe iai?yi? iiaeaoee ia i?aaeiaoe ae?oai?yaeiiai
cia/aiiy, eeoath/e a?eueieie i?ae iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?aaeiaoe ia?oi?
iaiao?aeiino?, iiiiaithth/e i?eaooeiao /anoeio athaeaeaoo aaeeeeie
iniaenoeie iiaeaoeaie ? iiaeaoeaie c? niaaeeo.

Aea aeacaiee o?iainiaee ee?iao iiaea iaoe i?noea o?eueee a e?a?iao, ye?
aeinyaee aenieiai ??aiy ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? a yeeo ae??n ??aaiue
niiaeeaaiiy. Oa?aeoa?iith a?aei?ii?noth e?a?i c iecueeei ??aiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?, iaaiaee, iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?aaeiao?a ia?oi?
iaiao?aeiino?.

Iiaeaoeiaa iie?oeea Oe?a?ie ia a?aecia/a?oueny nioe?aeueiith
ni?yiiaai?noth, a?ae??ciy?oueny yne?aai ae?aaeaiei o?neaeueiei
oa?aeoa?ii. Noaaea iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue ia i?aaeiaoe ia?oi?
aeeoo?ai? iaiao?aeiino? anoaiiaeaia ia aeineoue aenieiio 20% ??ai? i?e
oiia? iino?eii? cao?eiee aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe.

A ca?oa?aeieo e?a?iao anoaiiaeai? ieae/? noaaee iiaeaoeo, canoiniaothoue
i?eueaia? noaaee iai?yieo iiaeaoe?a. Oae, a I?ia//ei? iniiaia noaaea
iiaeaoeo ia aeiaeaio aa?o?noue neeaaea? 14%, ae?? oaeiae i?eueaiaa a
?ici??? 7%, cie?aia aeey i?iaeoeo?a oa?/oaaiiy (e??i nie?oieo iaii?a oa
iai?io?a eaoa, ?anoi?ai?a), aeey a?iiaaenueeiai o?ainii?oo, cania?a
?ioi?iaoe?? (eieae, aacaoe, aeo?iaee) oa oai??a ienoaoeoaa.

Noiniaii ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a Oe?a?i?, oi aaee/eio iaiiiaeaoeiaaiiai
i?i?ioio, ui ca?ac aei??aith? 17 a?eaaiue, iiaeia aaaaeaoe
aeinoaoiueith. C?icoi?ei, ui iaaea i?i?ioio, a?eueiiai a?ae
iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, aecia/a?oueny iio?aaaie aea?aeaae ? ??aiai aeiiii?/iiai
?icaeoeo e?a?ie.

Nenoaia iiiaeaoeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia?aaeaa/a? oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo ca ?aooiie noyaiaiiy iiaeaoe?a c iaeicaaacia/aieo aa?noa
iniiaii? iane ianaeaiiy. I?eaooeiaee iiaeaoie c a?iiaaeyi noa? iaeiei ?c
iniiaieo iiaeaoe?a iiiiaiaiiy athaeaeaoo. Oae, yeui a 1996 ?ioe?
aeioiaee a?ae i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo noaiiaeee 4,8% aea?aeaaiiai
athaeaeaoo, oi a 1 eaa?oae? 1998 ?ieo aiie aaea aoee 14,4%.

A Oe?a?i? a inoaii? ?iee iineeth?oueny iaaaoeaia oaiaeaioe?y coaiae?iiy
iaoe??. Iaaaaeaii aeai? ianoaaeaiiy Na?oiaiai aaieo. A Oe?a?i? ca
iaaeaie a?aeiino? (i?aee?aneeii – a?aeiino?, a ia “iaeicaaacia/aiino?”)
ia?aaoaaei o 1992 ?ioe? 11% ianaeaiiy, a o 1996 ?ioe? – 74%. Eaaeaa
e?ioe? c e?ioeyie caiaeeee 90% ianaeaiiy.

Oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a Oe?a?i? iiaeiii
a?aeaoaaoenue ye a iai?yieo ciaioaiiy noaaie ia?aooaaiue ia oiiae iieaoe
i?aoe?, oae ? oeyoii ia?aaoaeiae nenoaie iiiaeaoeoaaiiy i?eaooeiaei
iiaeaoeii. I?e oeueiio, e??i cieaeaiiy ??aiy iaiiiaeaoeiaaiiai i?i?ioio
oa anoaiiaeaiiy ?aoe?iiaeueii? oeaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy, i?eaooeiaee
iiaeaoie aeioe?eueii noyaoaaoe c a?aooaaiiyi n?iaeiiai noaio, e?eueeino?
i?aoethth/eo a n?i’?, iayaiino? ae?oae ? oo?eiaioe?a oa aeaeo
iaea?aeaieo aeioiae?a.

I?e aecia/aii? ?ici??o iiaeaoeo ii ca?ia?oi?e ieao? cai?iiiiiaaii oae?
niaoe?aeuei? ?ino?oiaioe, ye “iiaeaoeia? eeane”, “iiaeaeia? ea?oe”,
“iiaeaoeia? oaaeeoe?”. Cie?aia, aeae?eaii o?noue iiaeaoeiaeo eean?a, ye?
iia?oiiaothoue ?ia?oiee?a ? neoaeaiaoe?a caeaaeii a?ae ?o n?iaeiiai
noaio, e?eueeino? i?aoethth/eo a n?i’?, ni?eueiiai /e ie?aiiai aaaeaiiy
iae?eo iaea?aeaieo aeioiae?a, iayaiino? ae?oae. Aei ia?oiai eeano
iaeaaeaoue iaiae?oaeai? ?ia?oieee aac ae?oae oa o? c iae?oaeaieo,
iaaeia?eeo /e ?iceo/aieo, o yeeo a?aenooi? oiiae aeey aeeth/aiiy a
a?eueo aeaaiaeaoi? o?ao?e /e /aoaa?oee eeane. A ae?oaee iiaeaoeiaee eean
aoiaeyoue iaiae?oaeai?, ?iceo/ai? /e iaaeia?e?, ui iathoue ia nai?io
oo?eiaii? ia iaioa iaei??? aeeoeie, yeui ?i iaeaaeeoue a?eueia a?ae
iiaeaoeo iaaia noia aeey i?aeo?eiee n?iaeiiai athaeaeaoo. Aei o?aoueiai
eeano a?aeianai? iae?oaeai? ?ia?oieee, oa yeui a n?i’? i?aoeth? o?eueee
iaeei c iiae?oaeaey. sseui i?aoeththoue iaeaeaa c iiae?oaeaey, oi iaeei
c ieo ca ni?eueiith caiaeith ia?aoiaeeoue aei i’yoiai eeano. *aoaa?oee
eean aeeth/a? n?i’? c i?aoethth/ei iiae?oaeaeyi, ye? iiiaeaoeiaothoueny
ie?aii. I’yoee eean – oea iae?oaeai? ?ia?oieee, a n?i’? i?aoeththoue
1 /ieia?e, 1 ae?oaeeia, aea iaeei c ieo ca ni?eueiith caiaeith
aeeth/aiee a o?ao?e eean. Oinoee eean i?ecia/aiee aeey ?ia?oiee?a, ui
iathoue ca?ia?oie a aeae?eueeio i?noeyo c iaoith ?o iae?eo.

A?aoiaoth/e ia?aaeiaee aeina?ae aeniei ?icaeiooeo ca?oa?aeieo e?a?i, a
Oe?a?i? aeioe?eueii oaeiae aoei a oaeineiiaeeoe nenoaio noyaiaiiy
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo, c?iaeaoe ?? aio/e?oith.

AENIIAEE

Ia iaoiaee/iiio oa oai?aoe/iiio ??aiyo o aeena?oaoe?? i?iaaaeaii
?ic?iaeo iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e oa i?aeoe/ieo i?iiiceoe?e
uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy iaiaaeaeiaioo nioe?aeueii? noa?e:

§ aeine?aeaeaii iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe i?aeie?aa?aeueii? oai??? ye
i?ia?aeii? oai??? nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee oa
cai?iiiiiaaii canoinoaaoe ?? aieiai? aeaiaioe, cie?aia, i?eioeei
?eieiai? naiaiaee ainiiaea?thaaiiy c i?eioeeiii nioe?aeueiiai
ae??aithaaiiy;

§ c iiceoe?e nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo i?iaaaeaii aiae?c i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee, cie?aia, a nioe?aeuei?e noa??,
c iaoith ?ica’ycaiiy i?iaeai caeiyoino?. ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi aeeiai?ee
/enaeueiino? oa no?oeoo?e caeiyoeo a aeiiii?oe?, ui ia? caaacia/eoe
nei??oa ae??oaiiy i?iaeai iaiaaeaeiaioo nioe?aeueii? noa?e;

§ ?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iaiaaeaeiaioo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano c
oi/ee ci?o i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue; caiia?aaiiy nioe?aeueiei
iaaa?acaeai a oiiaao aac?ia?ooy aeiaaa? aeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai
ao?o/aiiy. C oe??th iaoith aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe oae? iaoiaee
aea?aeaaiiai noeioethaaiiy iaeiai a?ciano: aeinooi aei e?aaeeoi??a,
noai?aiiy nioe?aeueii? ?io?ano?oeoo?e, iiaeaoeia? aaaeae?.

§ ia canoaa? eiiieaeniiai aiae?co i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueiiai caoenoo
ianaeaiiy oa o?aoiaoth/e a?aenooi?noue o?iainiaeo eioo?a aeey
cae?eniaiiy ci?ie nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo?, aecia/aii eiioeaiooaeueio
iiaeaeue o?iainoaaiiy nioe?aeueii? noa?e oeyoii ia?a?iciiae?eo
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo ia nioe?aeuei? oe?e?;

§ ?ic?iaeaii eiiieaeniee iaoai?ci uiaei aecia/aiiy iiaeeeaino?
i?aeoe/iiai canoinoaaiiy i?iaoeueeiai aeina?aeo nioe?aeueiiai oa
iain?eiiai caaacia/aiiy a Oe?a?i?, ui coiiaeaii niaoeeo?/ieie ia?aaaaaie
?aae?caoe?? cai?iiiiiaaiiai iiaeaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo iiaeaeueiiai
i?aeoiaeo aei aiae?co aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a a oiiaao ianoaa?eueiiai
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. I?iiiio?oueny 3-??aiaaa nenoaia iain?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy oa aeei?enoaiiy iaoiaeeee oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie noyaiaiiy
i?eaooeiaiai iiaeaoeo.

NIENIE IIOAE?EIAAIEO AAOI?II ?IA?O CA OAIITH AeENA?OAOe??

1. Iaeiaii TH.A., ssoeaiei A.A., Aeaniaa O.A. Iaiaoeeee i?eia? aeinoiei
iiae?aaeaiey // Aeaeiaie aanoiee. – ? 4. – Eeaa, 1997. – N.26-27 (0,2
ae.a.). Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue 0,1 ae.a. – Cai?iiiiiaaii aieiai?
aeaiaioe aaeaioaoe?? i?iaoeueeiai aeina?aeo aei oiia Oe?a?ie.

2. Aeaniaa O.A. O?ainoi?iaoe?ei? i?ioeane o No?aei?e I?ia//ei?.
I?iaeaie ?icaeoeo ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ieo ca`yce?a oa caeo/aiiy ?iicaiieo
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aeey ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, IAA, 1998. –
N.4-15 (0,8 ae.a.)

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e?ecena a oaieueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe // Oaieue Oe?aeiu. – ? 12. – Eeaa,
1997. – N.15-18 (0,3 ae.a.). Aeena?oaioo iaeaaeeoue 0,1 ae.a. –
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i?iieneiaino? Aeiiaoeueeiai ?aa?iio.

5. Aeaniaa O.A. Iiceoeaiee aeina?ae I?ia//eie aeey ?icaeoeo
oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee. Eiaanoeoeeiiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea onoie/eaiai
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6. Aeaniaa O.A.Oe?aeia e Aa?iaiey. Nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou
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7. Iaeiaii TH.A., Oiie/aaa I.A., Aeaniaa O.A. e ae?.
Ciai?oiueiaeiiii?/ia ae?yeuei?noue (ca??iee iaoeiaeo ?ia?o). –
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AIIOAOe?ss

Aeaniaa O.A. Iaiaaeaeiaio a nioe?aeuei?e noa?? aeiiii?/ieo nenoai. –
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe
nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.06.02 –
I?aei?e?iieoeoai, iaiaaeaeiaio oa ia?eaoeia.

Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie,
Aeiiaoeuee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? cai?iiiiiaaii eiioeaioe?? ?icaeoeo
nioe?aeueii? noa?e, oaeineiiaeaiiy ?? iaiaaeaeiaioo. ?ic?iaeaii
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i? canaaee ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioo a
Oe?a?ie, ni?yiiaaiiai ia aoaeoeaia aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa
nioe?aeueii-i???ioiaaii? aeiiii?ee aeey ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? aeiiii?ee
?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Aeey ?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe cai?iiiiiaaii
oae? iaoiaee: aecia/aii i?ia?aei? aniaeoe oai??? i?aeie?aa?ae?cio ye
aieiaiiai aeaiaioo nioe?aeueii? ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee c iiaeeea?noth ??
canoinoaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?; ?ic?iaeaii aeeiai?/io iiaeaeue
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaeo ?ano?n?a a oiiaao i?iaaaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
ia?aoai?aiue nioe?aeueii? noa?e c iaoith iiaeieaiiy aac?ia?ooy;
?ic?iaeaii eiioeaioe?th iaiaaeaeiaioo iaeiai oa na?aaeiueiai a?ciano ye
caniao i?aeaeuaiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? a?o/eciyiiai ae?iaieoeoaa
aeey noai?aiiy iiaeo ?iai/eo i?noeue. ?ic?iaeaii oa cai?iiiiiaaii
aeai?eoi i?iaiico aeeiai?ee /enaeueiino? oa no?oeoo?e caeiyoeo a
aeiiii?oe?.

Cai?iiiiiaaii aaeaioeaiee i?aeo?ae uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai?
nenoaie Oe?a?ie c o?aooaaiiyi aeina?aeo O?I.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: nioe?aeueia noa?a, nioe?aeueiee iaiaaeaeiaio,
nioe?aeueia caaacia/aiiy, aaeaioeaiee i?aeo?ae, aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy,
?eiie i?aoe?, iain?eia caaacia/aiiy.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aeaniaa O.A. Iaiaaeaeiaio a nioeeaeueiie noa?a yeiiiie/aneeo nenoai. –
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa yeiiiie/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.06.02 – I?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoai, iaiaaeaeiaio e
ia?eaoeia.

Aeiiaoeeee ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao Ieienoa?noaa ia?aciaaiey
Oe?aeiu, Aeiiaoee, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee i?aaeeiaeaia eiioeaioeey ?acaeoey
nioeeaeueiie noa?u, niaa?oainoaiaaiey aa iaiaaeaeiaioa. ?ac?aaioaiu
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneea iniiau ?aaoee?iaaiey nioeeaeueiiai iaiaaeaeiaioa a
Oe?aeia, iai?aaeaiiiai ia yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea i?aeiouanoa
nioeeaeueii-i?eaioe?iaaiiie yeiiiieee aeey ?acaeoey ioa/anoaaiiie
yeiiiieee ?uii/iie o?ainoi?iaoeee. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee iinoaaeaiiie oeaee
i?aaeeiaeaiu neaaeothuea iaoiaeu: ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua aniaeou oai?ee
i?aeieeaa?aeecia eae aeaaiiai yeaiaioa nioeeaeueiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee n
aiciiaeiinoueth aa i?eiaiaiey a oe?aeineie yeiiiieea; ?ac?aaioaia
aeeiaie/aneay iiaeaeue eniieueciaaiey o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia a oneiaeyo
i?iaaaeaiey ?uii/iuo i?aia?aciaaiee nioeeaeueiie noa?u n oeaeueth
i?aiaeieaiey aac?aaioeoeu; ?ac?aaioaia eiioeaioeey iaiaaeaeiaioa iaeiai
e n?aaeiaai aeciana eae n?aaenoaa iiauoaiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aeey nicaeaiey iiauo ?aai/eo iano.

?ac?aaioai e i?aaeeiaeai aeai?eoi i?iaiica aeeiaieee /eneaiiinoe e
no?oeoo?u caiyouo a yeiiiieea.

I?aaeeiaeai aaeaioeaiue iiaeoiae e niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
Oe?aeiu n o/aoii iiuoa O?A.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: nioeeaeueiay noa?a, nioeeaeueiue iaiaaeaeiaio,
nioeeaeueiia iaania/aiea, aaeaioeaiue iiaeoiae, ainoaea?noaaiiia
?aaoee?iaaiea, ?uiie o?oaea, iaineiiiia iaania/aiea.

SUMMARY

Vlasova T.V. Management in the social sphere of economic systems. –
Manuscript.

The dissertation for candidate degree in economics by specialty 08.06.02
– Management, entrepreneurship and marketing.

Ministry of Education of Ukraine, Donetsk State University, Donetsk,
1999.

The dissertation touches upon the social management problems of economic
systems. The nearest step of Ukraine’s integration into the EU belongs
to the social sphere. GDP per capita is at the level of under developed
countries average monthly salary in dollars amounts only to 84,4 USD in
1997, and Ukraine has become the country with the one of highest poverty
level in Europe. Modern institutions for unemployment management,
pension insurance and health protection are not formed yet.

That’s why the topic of these thesis is pivotal for the transformation
period of Ukrainians economics.

Tendencies of the german social sphere as well as specific peculiarities
of Ukraine’s one have been analyzed and proposed measures for the
improving of these problems.

1. On solving the problems of a socially orientated state – to develop
and gradually implement the ukrainian model of a socially oriented
state the best experiences of other countries should be used and at the
same time, the historical, national and other features of Ukraine, have
to be taken into account in order to realize the main idea of a socially
oriented economy creating – welfare for everybody.

2. The aspect of taxation system – tax policy of income regulation,
should be built in such way that tax rates would be close to minimum
that is accepted in the EU countries and progressively or stepwise
increase above this level.

3. The aspect of solving the poverty problem – to transform the social
security system by highlighting three key elements:

a)to introduce a social minimum income level guaranteed by the state;

b)social insurance funds with proportional contributions by employees
and

companies;

c)adoptation of a national programme of poverty fighting by
centralising the

social payments financing.

The model of social sphere financing has been created in dissertation.

4. The aspect of solving the unemployment prolems – to base the
employment policy on different unemployment features that are adequate
to the period of radical restructuring of the Ukrainian macroeconomic
system. The dynamic model of employment regulation imminent to the
unemployment nature in Ukraine has been proposed.

5. The aspect of reforming the pension system – social insurance for
the elderly should consist of three main elements:

legal pension;

company or employer based insurance;

self insurance.

The goal of pension system is to provide an adequate living standard of
the elderly that is around 60% of the living standard in the active age;
to provide opportunities for activity of governmental and private and
pension funds on financial and stock markets as institutional investors;
to provide the formation and use of pension funds on the basis of
insurance mechanism.

Key words: Social sphere, social management, social providing, adaptive
approach, state regulation, labour market, pension insurance.

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