Ліберально-демократичний (опозиційний) рух в Україні (середина 60-х — 80-ті роки ХІХ століття): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / В.М. Мойсієнко, Київ

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

IIEN??IEI AANEEUe IEEIEAEIAE*

OAeE 947.084 (477): 342

E?AA?AEUeII-AeAIIE?AOE*IEE (IIICEOe?EIEE) ?OO

A OE?A?I? (NA?AAeEIA 60-o — 80-O? ?IEE O?O NOIE?OOss)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Ee?a – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie *a?eanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe
Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee –aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Eao?aiei Aiae??e
Ieeieaeiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeaaiuei? oa iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea.Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe
-aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? Ai?enaiei Aieiaeeie? Eineiiae/,
caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Iaoe?iiaeueiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa -eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio Nieiaeiaa Oaoyia Ieeiea?aia, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e caaaeueii?
?noi??? Ia?ayneaanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo ?iai?
A.N.Neiai?iaee

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y – Iieoaanueeee aea?aeaaiee iaaeaaia?/iee ?inoeooo
?iai? A.A.Ei?ieaiea, I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a ?noi???
Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “18” aeiaoiy 1999 ?ieo i 10 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.001.20 a Ee?anueeiio oi?aa?neoao?
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i. Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie?nueea, 60, aoae.
349).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (252033, i. Ee?a, aoe.
Aieiaeeie?nueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “6” aa?aniy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee, eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo
iaoe, aeioeaio

I.?.Aiaeei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA AeENA?OAOe??

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe?? iaoiiaeaia iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Aiia neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, /ioe?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeanyoe
i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae oa aeiaeaoe?a.
Caaaeueiee ianya aeena?oaoe?? — 210 noi??iie, a oiio /ene?: nienie
aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (19 noi??iie, 313 iaeiaioaaiue), aeiaeaoe?a (12
noi??iie, 14 iaca).

Anooi. Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeaia iniaeeainoyie iei?oiueiai
aoaio ?icaeoeo a?o/eciyii? ?noi?e/ii? iaoee oa aecia/aeueieie
oaiaeaioe?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa. Aea?aeaaioai?/?
i?ioeane nueiaiaeaiiy aeoea?coaaee aea/aiiy i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo c
inieneaiiyi ?noi?e/iiai aeina?aeo ieioeiai. Iniaeeaiai cia/aiiy ca oiia
?icaoaeiae aea?aeaaiino? iaaoaa? i?iaeaia aiae?co oeo i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaaeeny a noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo? ?in?enueei? ?iia??? a
na?aaeei? 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O no. ? i?ecaaee aei ia?inoaiiy
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo.

O oie /an o aeaiie?aoe/iiio ?on? /?oei ae??ciyeeny aeaa iai?yie –
?aaeeeaeueiee oa e?aa?aeueiee, eiaeiee c yeeo o naith /a?ao iaa oe?ieee
niaeo? na?oiaeyaeieo i???ioe??a. Iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia o/aniee?a
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo oa?aeoa?ecoaaeanue ??ciiiai?oi?noth oa
iaiaeiicia/i?noth ? ai?uoaaea o nia? ??ci? a?aeo?iee noni?eueii? aeoiee
a?ae iii??eiaaii neia’yiio?euenueeeo, aeecueeeo aei eiina?aaoeaieo, ?
aei e?aie?aa?aeueieo ?aeae.

Eiai ae?y/?, caeaaeii a?ae ci?ie ?noi?e/ieo ianoaaei, aiineee ooi/iaiiy
a nai? i?ia?aii? ianoaiiae, ieaie. I?ioa aieiaia a ?oi?o ono?aie?iiyo –
i?aaiaiiy iiaoaeoaaoe a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai. sse?ac i?iiiiiaai?
ieie iiaeae? aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?eueieo a?aeiinei ? oeyoe ?oiuei?
?aae?caoe?? aeeeeeathoue ? a iao /an cia/iee ?ioa?an.

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo a
Oe?a?i? coiiaeaia ua e oei, ui aiia aeeaiei ? eiiieaenii ia aea/aeany
a?o/eciyieie ?noi?eeaie, a oaeiae iayai?noth iaoi/ieo, ?ieiee oeaieo
ioe?iie eiai nooiino? oa iie?oe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? a ?noi??ia?ao??
ieioeiai. Iei? neeaeeny ni?eyoeea? noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? oiiae, uia
aeine?aeeoe ?? iaoia?aaeaeaii, i?aaaeeai.

Ioaea, aeoiaey/e c a?aecia/aiiai aeua, oaia aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy ia? iaoeiaa, caaaeueiiaoiai?oa?ia ? aei iaaii? i??e
iie?oe/ia cia/aiiy, /ei e iaoiiaeth?oueny ?? aeooaeuei?noue.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yiie
aeine?aeaeaiiy ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith iaoeiai? oaie “Aoiinioe?aeuei?
i?ioeane ia Na?aaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’?” (aea?aeaaiee ?a?no?aoe?eiee iiia?
49), yea ?ic?iaey?oueny eaoaae?ith ?noi??? Oe?a?ie *a?eanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo oa Oeaio?ii c aeine?aeaeaiue ?noi???
Na?aaeiueiai Iiaei?i?ia’y ?inoeoooo ?noi??? Oe?a?ie IAI Oe?a?ie.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iiiceoe?eia ae?yeuei?noue
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ii? a?iiaaenueeino? (/anoeie cainueeeo aeanieo ?
nooaeaio?a) Iaaeaei?i?yinueei? Oe?a?ie o na?aaeei? 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O
no.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy noaee: 1) cainuee? onoaiiae Iaaeaei?i?yiueie,
ye? ?icai?ioee oe?ieo ae?yeuei?noue ia iea? i?noeaaiai ainiiaea?noaa,
ioi?iie caei?ia’y ? ina?oe, a /anoeia cainueeeo aeanieo aeyaeea naaa a
iie?oe/i?e noa?? ye aioenaiiaea?aeaaia iiiceoe?y; 2) aeu? iaa/aeuei?
caeeaaee Oe?a?ie, cia/ia e?euee?noue nooaeaionoaa yeeo ai?ieany ca
aeaaeai?/i? i?aaa ? naiaiaee, aenooiaea ye iiiceoe?eia oea?nueeiio
?aaeeio neea.

O?iiieia?/i? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii na?aaeeiith 60-o – 80-ie
?ieaie O?O no., oiaoi /anii a?ae aeieeiaiiy cainueeeo onoaiia, iiyae
oi?aa?neoaonueeiai Noaoooo 1863 ?. aei neanoaaiiy oi?aa?neoaonueei?
aaoiiii?? (1884 ?.) ? i?iaaaeaiiy cainueei? eiio??aoi?ie (1890 ?.). E??i
oiai, a?aeiny aei oaaae e oa, ui o 70-o – 80-o ?ieao O?O no. o
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiio ?on? i?ia?aeio ?ieue a?ae?a?aaaee
?aaeeeaee-aeaiie?aoe (ia?iaeieee), iaeeaaeath/e cia/iee a?aeaeoie ia
noni?eueio aeoieo, e?aa?aeueii-iiiceoe?eiee ?oo.

Oa?eoi??aeuei? iaae? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaoiiaeai? oaeoii iie?oe/ii?
?ic/eaiiaaiino? oe?a?inueeeo caiaeue o oie /an. Cainueeee
e?aa?aeueii-iiiceoe?eiee ?oo ?icaeyiooi a iaaeao oa?eoi??? Oe?a?ie, ui
aoiaeeea aei neeaaeo ?in?enueei? ?iia??? (ca aeiyoeii I?aaiaa?aaeii?
Oe?a?ie, aea cainueea naiia?yaeoaaiiy cai?iaaaeaeaii o?eueee a 1911 ?.).

Nooaeaionueeee ?oo aeine?aeaeaii a Ee?anueeiio, Oa?e?anueeiio ?
Iiai?in?enueeiio (Iaeanueeiio) oi?aa?neoaoao, ui aoiaeeee aei neeaaeo
o?ueio iaa/aeueieo ie?oa?a (Ee?anueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai e Iaeanueeiai),
oa aeayeeo aeueo niaoe?aeueieo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao.

Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ia’?eoeaiee aiae?c aeoie?a,
aaiethoe??, ?aeaieia?/ieo canaae, iie?oe/ii? ni?yiiaaiino? oa eiie?aoieo
aeya?a e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai (iiiceoe?eiiai) ?ooo a na?aaeei? 60-o
– 80-o? ?iee O?O no.

Aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— aecia/eoe i?ia?aei? oaiaeaioe?? o aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe?
naiiaea?aeaanoaa a 60-80-o? ?iee OIO no., ui aeyaeeeny o noaaeaii? uiaei
cainueeeo onoaiia oa aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe nioe?aeueiee neeaae o/aniee?a cainueeiai e?aa?aeueiiai
oa aeaaeai?/iiai nooaeaionueeiai ?oo?a;

— aeyaeoe iaeiioe?ai?o? oi?ie iiiceoe?eiino? cainueeeo e?aa?ae?a oa
aeaiie?aoe/ii iaeaooiaaiiai nooaeaionoaa;

— aena?oeeoe ieoaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycee i?ae e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iith
? ?aaeeeaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iith oa/?yie o noni?eueiiio ?on? a
ii?aoi?iaiee ia??iae;

— c?iaeoe iaoeia? aeniiaee i?i ni?yiiaai?noue, oa?aeoa?, ci?no oa
iane?aeee ae?yeueiino? i?aaenoaaiee?a e?aa?aeueieo e?e o na?aaeei? 60-o
– 80-o? ?iee O?O no.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeaiiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? i?eioeeie
ia’?eoeaiino?, ?noi?ecio, anaa?/iino? e eia?/iino?. O oiae? iaienaiiy
aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaoaaeenue i?iaeaiii-o?iiieia?/iee, noaoenoe/iee,
iieniaee oa ii??aiyeueii-?noi?e/iee iaoiaee. Eiiieaenia canoinoaaiiy
??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a iiooeo caaacia/eei iiaeeea?noue iioeiaeueii
aeei?enoaoe iia? a?o?ai? iaoa??aee ? aaea iioae?eiaai? aeaea?aea,
noaoenoe/i? iaoa??aee, iaoeia? i?aoe? oiui.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui a i?e aia?oa o
a?o/eciyi?e ?noi?e/i?e iaooe? c?iaeaii ni?iao eiiieaeniiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo a Iaaeaei?i?yinuee?e
Oe?a?i? o na?aaeei? 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O no. ia iniia? anaa?/iiai
aiae?co ??ciiiai?oieo oaeoe/ieo a?aeiiinoae ? oeyoii caeo/aiiy iiaeo
a?o?aieo aeaea?ae oi/i?oa aecia/aii ?icnoaiiaeo eeaniaeo ? iie?oe/ieo
nee, ie?aneaii ?ica?aeiino? i?ae e?aa?aeueiith oa ?aaeeeaeueiith
oa/?yie. Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeyaeeany ? a aiae?c? aieiaieo i?iaeai
aeine?aeaeoaaii? oaie ia i?aenoaa? ?aeaeii oa oai?aoe/ii
iacaaiaaaeiaaieo canaae, i?eioeei?a ? iaoiae?a iaoeiaiai i?ciaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? a oiio, ui ?? iaoa??aee oa
iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey iiaeaeueoeo iaoeiaeo
iiooe?a o aea/aii? aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo OIO no. a Oe?a?i?, i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? eo?n?a eaeoe?e, i?ae?o/iee?a, i?e i?iaaaeaii? nai?ia?nueeeo
caiyoue, o?ie?a aeeeaaea/aie aeueo ? na?aaei?o iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a.
Iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aeiiiiiaoe
iie?oeeai, a?iiaaenueeei ae?y/ai ooi/ieoe iai?yiee ni?ai?aoe? aea?aeaae
oa i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, aecia/eoe oeyoe oieeiaiiy aino?eo
noni?eueieo noia?a/iinoae, eiinie?aeaoe?? aeaiie?aoe/ieo nee Oe?a?ie.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeeny ia eaoaae??
aeaaiuei? oa iiai? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana
Oaa/aiea ? eaoaae?? ?noi??? Oe?a?ie *a?eanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Aiaaeaia Oiaeueieoeueeiai.

Iniiai? eiai iieiaeaiiy aaoi?ii aeeeaaeaii ia i?aeaoc?anuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? iieiaeeo aeeeaaea/?a oa ani??aio?a
“?ioaa?aoe?y iaoee o nenoaio i?aeaioiaee a/eoae?a” (*a?eane, 1995), VII
Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe?? “?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i?:
o?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue” (Ee?a-*a?eane, 1995), i?aeaoc?anuee?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie aea?aeaaiino? a ?noi??? noni?eueii? aeoiee”
(Iaeana, 1995), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-iaoiaee/i?e eiioa?aioe??
“Canaeaiiy I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa eoeueoo?iiai
?icaeoeo” (Oa?nii, 1997), VIII Anaoe?a?inuee?e iaoeia?e eiioa?aioe??
“?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai ? eoeueoo?a” (Oa?e?a, 1997), Anaoe?a?inueeiio
neiiic?oi? “Oe?a?inueea aea?aeaaia ?aeay: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue”
(Ee?a-*a?eane, 1998), i?aeia?iaei?e eiioa?aioe?? “Aoiinioe?aeuei?
i?ioeane ia Na?aaeiueiio Iiaei?i?ia’?: ieioea ? no/ani?noue” (*a?eane,
1999).

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

Ia?oee ?icae?e “Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie oa ?? aeaea?aeueia aaca”
i?enay/aii ?ice?eooth ??aiy ?noi??ia?ao?/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy oaie,
ie?aneaiith ?? aeaea?aeueii? aace.

Ae?yeuei?noue e?aa?aeueii? a?iiaaenueeino? o 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O no.
o/aieie (ca aeiyoeii A.E.Aieiuaiei ) aein? eiiieaenii ia aea/aeany.
Aeine?aeieee, ye i?aaeei, ie?aii aea/aee cainueeee oa nooaeaionueeee
?ooe, iacaaaeath/e ia ?oith nii??aeiai?noue ca ni?yiiaai?noth oa
?aeaieia?/ieie i?aeaaeeiaie. A?aoiaoth/e oea, aaoi? oiiaii ?icae?eea
i?aoe? c i?iaeaie ia aea? a?oie: 1) aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/ai? o?yaeia?e
iie?oeoe? o noa?? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa cainueeiio e?aa?aeueiiio
?ooo; 2) ?ica?aeee, a yeeo i?iaiae?ciaaii aeaaeai?/ii-iiiceoe?eiee
nooaeaionueeee ?oo.

Iaoeia? i?aoe? c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee o?iiieia?/ii iiaeia oiiaii a?aeianoe
aei o?ueio aoai?a. Ia?oee c ieo ?icii/aany c 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. ?
caaa?oeany c anoaiiaeaiiyi ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Iio?i aea/aiiy
cainueeiai e?aa?ae?cio i?ecoieieeiny ia o?eaaeee /an. Ae?oaee ?icii/aany
iai?ee?ioe? 50-o ?ie?a OO no. ? o?eaaa aei ?iciaaeo N?N?, iaae?iiy
oioae?oa?ii? nenoaie. C ooai?aiiyi iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae Oe?a?ie oa
?ioeo naiino?eieo aea?aeaa ia iino?aaeyinueeiio i?inoi?? (c ii/aoeo
1990-o ?ie?a) ?icii/aany a?aee?e o?aoueiai aoaio. Ia eiaeiiio c ieo aoee
nai? iniaeeaino? o iiaeeeainoyo aeei?enoaiiy aeaea?aeueii? aace ?
ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeieoeueei? ?iaioe, a ?aeaieia?/ieo
onoaiiaeao uiaei oa?aeoa?o aena?oeaiiy e ioe?iie.

?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae i?aoeue aei?aaiethoe?eieo, ?aaeyinueeeo, a
oaeiae ca?oa?aeieo aaoi??a cae?enieee a iaoeiaeo ?ica?aeeao
A.A.Aa?i?ca , ?.A.Ei?i?eia , I.I.Ooi?eia . Iaeiae, aiie caeeoeee iica
oaaaith ?yae aeine?aeaeaiue.

Aea/aiiy cainueeiai e?aa?ae?cio caii/aoeoaaee e?aa?aeuei? ?noi?eee,
ioae?oeenoe oa ?noi?eee i?aaa, na?aae ieo: ?.I.A?eieiinueeee,
A.A.Aanaeianueeee, A.N.Aieoa?a, I.?.?i?aeainueeee, A.I.E?noye?anueeee,
I.I.Ei?i?eia, A.TH.Neaeii, Ae.?.Oao?anueeee, I.Ae.A?aaeianueeee,
A.I.*e/a??i, I.?.Aaneeue/eeia oa ?io?.

Iniaeeaa i?noea a ?noi??ia?ao?? cainueeiai iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo caeiathoue
aeine?aeaeaiiy A.A.Aanaeianueeiai . A?i aeacoaaa ia aeai?yinueeee
oa?aeoa? ?ooo, i?aeoe/io caeaaei?noue “o?aoueiai aeaiaioa” a?ae eeaniaeo
?ioa?an?a aeai?ieo aeanieo, neaioe/ii noaaeany aei o.ca. “cainueeiai
aeueo?o?cio”, iia’ycaa i?aeianaiiy aeoeaiino? caioe?a-e?aa?ae?a
iai?ee?ioe? 70-o – ia ii/aoeo 80-o ??. O?O no. c ia?inoaiiyi
ia?iaeieoeueeiai ?ooo.

Aeoiaey/e, caaaeii, ?c e?aa?aeueii? eiioeaioe?? aecaieueiiai ?ooo,
?.I.A?eieiinueeee  aeaui ia?aa?eueoea ?ieue o iueiio caioe?a, a a
cainoa?, o naith /a?ao, – ?ieue “o?aoueiai aeaiaioa”. Neoaeaiaoe?a
cainueeeo onoaiia, ye? ni?aaae? aaaaoi ? ie?aeii i?aoethaaee ia iea?
ina?oe e icaei?iaeaiiy ia?iaeo, oa ??cii/einueeo ?ioae?aaioe?th, ui
iiiiaithaaea ?yaee ?aaiethoe?iia??a, a?i oeaii a?aei?n aei aaeaio?a
e?aa?aeueiiai ?ooo.

I.?.?i?aeainueeee o i?aoe? “Caineee eeaa?aeeci”  a?aecia/aa, ui
“cainueeee iiiceoe?eiee ?oo o oiio aeaeyae?, a yeiio a?i c’yaeany ia
?in?enuee?e noni?euei?e noeai? i?ney ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy
a 1864 ?., a oe?eiio aeieeaaa ?c e?aa?aeueiiai aeai?yinueeiai ?ooo
aei?aoi?iaii? aiioe”.

Aaaeeeaa i?noea a ?noi??ia?ao?? cainueeiai e?aa?aeueiiai ?ooo caeia?
i?aoey aeaeaoiiai oe?a?inueeiai a/aiiai oa a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a
I.I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa “Eeaa?aeeci e cainoai a ?innee”. Aacoth/enue ia
/eneaiieo oaeoao, a?i aeiaiaeea eiai caeiiii??i?noue oa eiinoeoooe?eiee
oa?aeoa?.

Iaaaoeaiee aieea ia oa?aeoa? ? ?iciao aea/aiiy cainueeiai iiiceoe?eiiai
?ooo iaea caeaa?eueoiai iai?eoeeueia ioe?iea eiai o i?aoeyo A.?.Eai?ia,
cie?aia “Aiieoae? cainoaa ? aii?aaee e?aa?ae?cio” . A?i ia aaa/aa o
cainoa? naiino?eiiai oaeoi?a iie?oe/ii? ai?ioueae.

O ?aaeyinuee?e ?noi??ia?ao?? aeine?aeaeaiiyie ?noi??? cainueeeo onoaiia
i?aeoe/ii ia caeiaeeny aei na?aaeeie 1950-o ?ie?a. O oeueiio aeyaeeiny
iaaaoeaia noaaeaiiy aei e?aa?ae?cio, ui a?oiooaaeiny ia a?eueoiaeoeueeeo
?aeaieia?/ieo aeiaiao.

O iiiia?ao?yo A.A.Aa?i?ce , I.A.Caeii/eianueeiai  oa E.A.Caoa?iai? 
aieiaio oaaao neiioeaio?iaaii ia aiae?c? ae?yeueiino? aeueo aea?aeaaieo
onoaiia, oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo ia i?noeyo oa iie?oeoe? o?yaeo a aaeoc?
i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy.

O 1970-o ?ieao cainueeee ?oo ?icii/aee aea/aoe oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee
A.E.Aieiuaiei, A.I.Eao?aiei , E.ss.Ei?i?e/oe. Aiie ia cia/i?e
aeaea?aeuei?e aac? aena?oeeee aca?iica’ycee i?ae ?aaeeeaeueiei
ia?iaeieoeueeei oa cainueeei e?aa?aeueiei ?ooaie.

?c aaaeeeaeo eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaieo o i?aoeyo
I.I.I??oiiai?  oa O.I.Iao?iaa  ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ii-ia?oa,
iaa?oiooaaiiy eeaniaiai ni?yioaaiiy ?ooo cainueeeo e?aa?ae?a, ii-ae?oaa,
aecia/aiiy eiai ia??iaeecaoe??, ii-o?ao?, anoaiiaeaiiy ?ie? oa i?noey
cainueeeo neoaeaiaoe?a a e?aa?aeueiiio ?on?.

Inoaii?i /anii a Oe?a?i? aeoea?coaaeiny aea/aiiy cainueei? ae?yeueiino?
a ??cieo noa?ao noni?eueiiai aeeooy, ia?aaeon?i o
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i?e oa eoeueoo?ii-ina?oi?e.

Ia caeeoathoue iica oaaaith cainueeee ?oo o oea?nuee?e ?in?? ca?oa?aei?
aeine?aeieee. Na?aae ?oi?o i?aoeue ne?ae aeae?eeoe iiiia?ao?th ?noi?ee?a
Eaia??aeaenueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo O.Aiiiina e N.Ao/ei?/a. O?yaeia?e
iie?oeoe? a aaeoc? i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy i?enayoeee aeine?aeaeaiiy
O.I??nii, A.E?ieieuei, O.A/enei.

?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae aeine?aeaeaiue, i?enay/aieo nooaeaionueeiio
?ooia? a ?in?enuee?e ?iia???, ne?ae ?icii/aoe ?c oai??a
A.ss.Aiao/a?nueeiai , A.A.Aeeinueeiai , N.A.Naao?eiaa. Oe? aeine?aeieee
aaaaeaee, ui ia?oii?e/eiith c?inoaiiy nooaeaionueeeo aenooi?a aoea
iaaeaeaeiaeyaeia iie?oeea oea?nueeiai o?yaeo o noa?? ina?oe, yea
oiaiiaeeeaeea “ie?iee ?aoi?iaoi?nueeee ?icaeoie e?a?ie”, ui , yeae ia
naaa?euei?, aei?noie? iaoiaee, aaeeaai? iei uiaei nooaeaio?a, ?oi?e ?oo
ia aeoiaeea ae ca iaae? aeaaeai?/ieo aeiia. Ne?ae cacia/eoe, ui
i?aaenoaaieee e?aa?aeueii? ?noi??ia?ao?? nenoaiaoecoaaee cia/i? oaeoe/i?
iaoa??aee, c?iaeee aaaeeea? niinoa?aaeaiiy c ??cieo ieoaiue ai?ioueae
nooaeaionueei? iieiae?. I?ioa aeey ?oi?o ?ica?aeie oa?aeoa?ieie ? oae?
iaaeie?ee: iaoi/i?noue a ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? aeaea?ae, iaaeinoaoi?noue
ocaaaeueiaiue, aocuee?noue oaiaoeee.

O 20 – 30-o? ?iee OO no. ?aaeyinuee? ?noi?eee (I.I.Iie?ianueeee,
A.?.Iaanueeee oa ?i.), aiae?coth/e o? /e ?io? iiae?? a ?in??, iia’ycai?
c nooaeaionueeei ?ooii 60 – 80-o ?ie?a OIO no., aeacoaaee ia eiai
ca’ycie c oiiaaie oiai/aniiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy oa c
ia?iaeieoeueeei ?ooii.

Ie?ai? ieoaiiy nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo aena?oeaii a eieaeoeaieo i?aoeyo
1950-o – 1960-o ?ie?a. I?ioa ?oi? aaoi?e ?ieiee iaiaaeoaaeeny o?eueee
ia?ae?eii cia/ieo nooaeaionueeeo caai?ooaiue, a yeui e nieiyeeny ia
aeayeeo ?c ieo, oi ioe?ithaaee ?o eeoa ye oaeo aeyao iaaaeiaieaiiy
nooaeaionoaa, aac aeeaieiai aiae?co ? iica ca’yceii c ?ioeie
eiiiiiaioaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai ?ooo.

O?yaeia?e iie?oeoe? a oi?aa?neoaonueeiio ieoaii?, ?noi??? nooaeaionueeeo
aenooi?a o Ee?anueeiio, Iaeanueeiio oa Oa?e?anueeiio oi?aa?neoaoao
i?enay/aii aeena?oaoe?? A.Anoaoiaa, ?.Aa?aaeiiai, A.Uao?i?ii?. Iaeiae
aiie oi?eaeeny ai?ioueae nooaeaio?a caeaa?eueoiai 90-o ?ie?a OIO no. oa
ia ii/aoeo OO no., a ioe?iee iiaeaaaeeny a aeon? oiai/anieo
?aeaieia?/ieo ianoaiia.

Iaaiith iiceoeaiith a?oith o aeine?aeaeaii? nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo 70 –
80-o ?ie?a OIO no. noaee i?aoe? A.E.Aieiuaiei, A.I.Eao?aiea,
I.I.?oaeueea, I.N.Oea/aiea  oa ?i. O ieo aena?oeaii ie?ai? ieoaiiy
nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? oa eiai ca’ycie c
?aaiethoe?eii-ia?iaeieoeueeei ?ooii, aaaaeaii o iaoeiaee ia?a iia?
a?o?ai? iaoa??aee.

Iie?oeoe? naiiaea?aeaanoaa a aaeoc? ina?oe, caeaa?eueoiai ii/aoeiai?,
i?enay/aii ci?noiai? i?aoe? A.E.Ai?enaiea, N.I.Noaeueiaoa, I.A.Oei.

Oaeei /eiii, o 1970 – 1980-o ?ieao o/ai? c?iaeee iaaiee aianie o
aeine?aeaeaiiy nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo. O oeae /an aeyaeaii,
nenoaiaoeciaaii /eiaei oaeoe/ieo aeaieo, iaienaii iiiia?ao??, noaoo?.
Inoaii?i aea /anii c’yaey?oueny iaei aeine?aeaeaiue oe?a?inueeeo
?noi?ee?a, i?enay/aieo nooaeaionueeei aenooiai. Na?aae ieo iiaeia
aeae?eeoe o?aa ui ca??iee aeieoiaio?a ? iaoa??ae?a c ?noi??? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo  oa ?ica?aeeo I.Eaaeoeueei?.

Ioaea, ye na?ae/eoue oeae ei?ioeee ?noi??ia?ao?/iee iaeyae, c ??cieo
i?e/ei ?noi?eee aein? ia noai?eee oe?e?nii? caaa?oaii? i?aoe? i?i
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i? o na?aaeei? 60-o – 80-o? ?iee
O?O no.

?ica’ycaiiy iinoaaeaieo o aeena?oaoe?? caaaeaiue aeiaaa? a?aeiia?aeiiai
aeaea?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy. Iniaeeaa i?noea na?aae aeaea?ae, ui
a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeea?noue i?ine?aeeoaaoe ae?yeuei?noue e?aa?aeueii?
a?iiaaenueeino? o aeacai? ?iee, caeiathoue aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee
oiiae?a oeaio?aeueieo oa i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee e oi?aae?iiy,
aeaiaea?inueeeo oa noaeiaeo onoaiia eieeoiuei? ?in?enueei? ?iia???.
Oaia? aiie caa??aathoueny o oeaio?aeueieo a?o?aao Oe?a?ie ? ?in?enueei?
Oaaea?aoe??.

O Oeaio?aeueiiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? Oe?a?ie a Ee?a? (aeae?
– OeAe?A Oe?a?ie) oe? aeieoiaioe i?noyoueny o oaeeo oiiaeao: Eaioeaey??y
ee?anueeiai, iiae?euenueeiai ? aieeinueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a (o.442);
Oi?aae?iiy oei/aniaiai Oa?e?anueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a (o.1191);
Iaeanueeee oei/aniaee aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi? (o.335); Ee?anueea aoaa?inueea
aeaiaea?inueea oi?aae?iiy (o.274); Oa?e?anueea aoaa?inueea
aeaiaea?inueea oi?aae?iiy (o.336); I?ieo?i? Ee?anueei? noaeiai? iaeaoe
(o.317); I?ieo?i? Iaeanueei? noaeiai? iaeaoe (o.419); Oi?aae?iiy
Ee?anueeiai iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao (o.707); Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao (o.708)
oa ?i.

O ?in?enueeiio aea?aeaaiiio ?noi?e/iiio a?o?a? a i. Naieo-Iaoa?ao?c?
(aeae? – ?Ae?A) iniiaieie oiiaeaie aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a, ui
noinothoueny ?icaeyaeoaaii? a aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaeaie,
? oae?: Eaioeaey??y i?i?no?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa (o.1282); Aeaia?oaiaio
caaaeueieo ni?aa IAN (o.1284); Cainueeee a?aeae?e IAN (o.1291); Ia?oee
aeaia?oaiaio Naiaoo (o.1341); I?i?noa?noai thnoeoe?? (o.1405); Eieaeoe?y
?a/iaeo aeieac?a ?c ni?aa I?i?noa?noaa thnoeoe?? (o.1410); Iniaeeaa
eaioeaey??y i?i?no?a ia?iaeii? ina?oe (o.733) oa ?i.

O Aea?aeaiiio a?o?a? ?in?enueei? Oaaea?aoe?? a i. Iinea? (aeae? –
AeA?O) aeei?enoaii aeieoiaioaeuei? iaoa??aee oaeeo oiiae?a: ???
a?aeae?eaiiy aeanii? eiai ?iia?aoi?nueei? aaee/iino? eaioeaey??? (o.109,
3-y aeniaaeeoe?y); Aeaia?oaiaio iie?oe?? (o.102, 3-?, 5-?, 7-?
ae?eiaiaenoaa); Iniaeeaa i?enoonoa?? i?aaey/iai Naiaoo (o.112).

*anoeia aeieoiaioaeueieo iaoa??ae?a i?i e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo
i?noeoueny a ie?aieo oiiaeao, ui caa??aathoueny a aea?aeaaieo a?o?aao
Ee?anueei?, Iaeanueei?, Oa?e?anueei?, Iieoaanueei?, *a?i?a?anueei?
iaeanoae oa i.Ee?aa. Aaoi? aeei?enoaa oiiaee Aea?aeaaiiai a?o?ao
Iaeanueei? iaeano? (aeae? – AeAII): Oi?aae?iiy Iiai?in?enueeiai ?
Aanna?aanueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a (o.1); Oi?aae?iiy oei/aniaiai
Iaeanueeiai aaia?ae-aoaa?iaoi?a (o.5); Iiia/eoaeue Iaeanueeiai
iaa/aeueiiai ie?oao (o.42); Iiai?in?enueeee oi?aa?neoao (o.45); I.I.
Ai?caiea (o.161); I. I. Caeaiiai (o.162).

O aeacaieo aeua oiiaeao neiioeaio?iaaii caeaa?eueoiai ae?eiaiaei?
aeieoiaioe aeueo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee ? oi?aae?iiy, ye? ieeueii
noiyee ia noi?iae? ?ioa?an?a naiiaea?aeaanoaa. Oiio ci?no ?o i?inyeiooee
ai?iae?noth aei aoaeue-yeeo i?iya?a iiiceoe?eiino?, oaiaeaioe?eiee o
aeniiaeao.

Iniaeeao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaee ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe, ye? aeiiiiiaee
aaoi?o i?iaiae?coaaoe iniiai? iai?yiee o?yaeiai? iie?oeee o noa??
cainueeiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa aeui? oeiee. A?eueo?noue c oeeo
ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a iioae?eiaai? a “Iieiii nia?aiee caeiiia ?inneeneie
eiia?ee” (INC?). Na?aae ieo: iieiaeaiiy (“Iieiaeaiiy i?i aoaa?inuee? ?
iia?oia? cainuee? onoaiiae” (1864 ?.); “Iieiaeaiiy i?i cainuee? onoaiiae
oa aoaa?inuee? c cainueeeo ? i?nueeeo ni?aa i?enoonoa?y” (1890 ?.) oa
?i.), caeiie ( “I?i anoaiiaeaiiy oeaico?e aeey cainueeeo aeaeaiue” a?ae
13 /a?aiy 1867?.; “I?i cainueeeo ae?eueie/ieo ia/aeueiee?a” a?ae 12
eeiiy 1889 ?. oa ?i.), oi?aa?neoaonuee? Noaoooe 1804, 1835, 1863, 1884
??.

O i?ioean? ii?aoethaaiiy caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a aaoi? a?aoiaoaaa ??ci?
oee?eoey?e, ?ino?oeoe??, i?aaeea, ye? i?eeiaeeny a ii?yaeeo ?ic’yniaiiy
i?aeoeee canoinoaaiiy caeii?a. Oe? aeieoiaioe aeei?enoiaoaaeenue o?yaeii
ye can?a iaiaaeaiiy oeo i?aaiaeo ii?i, ye? aoee i?eeiyo? ?ai?oa. Aiie ?
aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey oi/i?oi? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ni?aaaeiuei?
ni?yiiaaiino? caeiiiaeaanoaa.

Aeoaea aaaeeeao a?oio aeaea?ae neeaee ae?oeiaai? aeo?iaee i?ioieie?a
can?aeaiue aoaa?inueeeo ? iia?oiaeo cainueeeo cai??a, o yeeo
ioae?eoaaeeny iiai?noth ? nei?i/aii aeiiia?ae? oa iinoaiiae /a?aiaeo oa
iica/a?aiaeo cainueeeo c?a?aiue. Aiie aeathoue ciiao noaeeoe i?i aieiai?
iai?yiee cainueei? ae?yeueiino? e i?iiiceoe?? aeanieo i?e ae??oaii?
ieoaiue, ye? ?icaeyaeaei cainoai.

Aaaeeeaei aeaea?aeii aeey iaienaia aeena?oaoe?? noaee iaoa??aee
cainueeeo ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue, ye? a ??ci? ?iee ae?oeoaaee cainoaa
Oe?a?ie. Cainueea i?ana a aeine?aeaeoaaiee ia??iae aoea i?aaenoaaeaia
oaeeie aeaeaiiyie: “Nai?iee Oa?niineiai cainoaa” (aeaeaaaany c 1868
?ieo),”*a?ieaianeee caineee nai?iee” (aeaeaaaany c 1870 ?ieo), “Caineee
iaci? Iieoaaneiai aoaa?ineiai cainoaa” (aeaeaaaany c 1870 ?ieo). E??i
oiai, aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaa iaoa??aee caaaeueiicainueeiai i?aaio –
aacaoe “Cainoai” (aeaeaaaeanue c 1880 ?ieo).

Iaoa??aee, ui aaciina?aaeiuei aai iiina?aaeeiaaii noinoaaeenue
ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo e?aa?ae?a o 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O no. oa
nooaeaionueeeo aenooi?a ae?oeoaaee e ?io? ia??iaee/i? aeaeaiiy: “?onneee
aanoiee”, “?onneay iuneue” “?onneea aaaeiiinoe”, “Aanoiee Ia?iaeiie
aiee”, “Aiein ieioaoaai”, “Ca noi e?o” oa ?i.

Na?aae aeaea?ae ne?ae aeae?eeoe oaeiae iaioa?i? oai?e (niiaaaee,
uiaeaiieee) oa i?eaaoia eenooaaiiy. Aaoi? aeei?enoaa iaioa?e, ye? ca
nioe?aeueii-i?ioan?eiei ? noni?eueiei noaoonii ?oi?o aaoi??a iiaeia
?icae?eeoe ia oae? a?oie: 1) iaioa?e aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a (I.I.Aaeo?aa,
N.TH.A?ooa, Ae.I.I?etho?ia, A.A.Ia?aooea, I.I.Iieiaoeaaa); 2) iaioa?e
ae?y/?a cainueeiai e?aa?aeueiiai ?ooo (?.I.A?eieiinueeiai,
?.?.Iao?oieaae/a, A.I.Oeaeiyeiaa); 3) iaioa?e ia?iaeiee?a
(A.ss.Aiao/a?nueeiai, A.E.Aeaaaai??y-Iie???ae/a); 4) iaioa?e
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo oi?aa?neoao?a (Ae.?.Aaaae?y,
I.O.E?noye?anueeiai, ?.A.Eeiie/aiea).

Aiae?c iaioa?ieo oai??a na?ae/eoue, ui ia an? aiie ??aiioe?ii?. Na?aae
ieo /eiaei oaeeo, ui i?noyoue aaeeeo e?euee?noue aaaeeeaeo ? oi/ieo
oaeoe/ieo aeaieo, aeeaie? ?icaeoie, iaa?oioiaai? aeniiaee. *anoeia
iaioa??a i?eaa?oa? oaaao eeoa eiie?aoieie nthaeaoaie /e caaaeueieie
i??eoaaiiyie, caeiaaaeaie, aeac?aeaie. I?ioa an? aiie caneoaiaothoue ia
oaaao, ai a?aee?eaathoue iiaeeea?noue iiai?oa, anaa?/i?oa aena?oethaaoe
??ciiieaiiao ae?yeuei?noue e?aa?aeueii? a?iiaaenueeino?.

Oaeei /eiii, o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeyaeaii oa aeei?enoaii
??ciiiai?oi? ca aeaeiaith iaeaaei?noth oa ci?noii aeaea?aea, iaiao?aei?
aeey ?ica’ycaiiy iniiaieo caaaeaiue, aecia/aieo o aeena?oaoe??.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “O?yaeiaa iie?oeea a noa?? cainueeiai
naiia?yaeoaaiiy oa aeui? oeiee” i?iaiae?ciaaii oaiaeaioe?? o iie?oeoe?
naiiaea?aeaanoaa ye o aeiao ?aoi?ioaaiiy 60 – 70-o ?ie?a O?O no., oae ?
i?ae /an eiio??aoi?i.

Noaaeaiiy o?yaeo aei cainoaa caaaeaee aoei iia’ycaia ?c caaaeueiei
iai?yieii aioo??oiuei? iie?oeee, a ye?e i?ioyaii ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O
no. ao?aeoaci? ia?aoai?aiiy ia?aie?oaeeny c ?aoeeaeeaaie
oaiaeaeueii-e??iinieoeueei? ?aaeoe??, ui a?aee?eoi /e i?eoiaaii
aeyaeyeeny o ??cieo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao. Ona oea iaoiiaethaaeiny naiei
oa?aeoa?ii ao?aeoacieo ia?aoai?aiue oiai /ano, iaiine?aeiai?noth,
iieiaei/ano?noth caoiae?a; oea iiynithaaeinue naiei oa?aeoa?ii
oaiaeaeueii? iiia?o??, ui c?iaeea e?ie aei ao?aeoacii? iiia?o??, aea
e?ie ia?oee, iaiaaiee, ca yeei ae?oaee noaany eeoa iaeaea /a?ac
i?anoie?ooy.

Ciooaiee ??cieie ianoaaeiaie (ia’?eoeaieie ? noa’?eoeaieie) aei iie?oeee
iaiaa?oaaiiy, oea?eci aa?a /oaeee aeey naiiaea?aeaaii-ath?ie?aoe/ii?
nenoaie ?inoeooo: i?aaie i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy – cainuee?
onoaiiae.

Cainueea ?aoi?ia aoea aeeeeeaia iaiao?aei?noth i?enoinoaaoe
naiiaea?aeaaiee eaae aei iio?aa ao?aeoaciiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie.
?icaeaath/enue o iiaeo aeiiii?/ieo oiiaao, ainiiaea?noai e?a?ie aeiaaaei
aio/e?oeo oi?i oi?aae?iiy; iio?aaoaaei ?ioeo oi?i oi?aae?iiy ? i?noeaaa
ainiiaea?noai. Caioe? iaee ?aoe?th, eiee noaa?aeaeoaaee, ui “aac
cainueei? ?iaioe nai o?yae ia iiaea ia?eoenue”. Cainoai aoei iio??aia
naiiaea?aeaanoao ? a iie?oe/ieo oe?eyo: /a?ac cainuee? onoaiiae aiii
iaiaaaeiny ci?oeieoe iiceoe?? aeai?yinoaa – nai?? nioe?aeueii? iii?e,
iineaaeoe aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo.

?c naiiai ii/aoeo naiai ?nioaaiiy cainoaa aoee ianoi?nieie c
naiiaea?aeaanoaii. N.TH. A?ooa c i?eaiaeo oeueiai ienaa: “O
naiiaea?aeaaiiio ono?i? aea?aeaae c iaieio/ei o iueiio ath?ie?aoe/iei
oeaio?ii cainoai – iai?eaeaoiee can?a oi?aae?iiy”.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o ?ie?a O?O no. aeae?eueea cainueeeo c?a?aiue ia
ia?oeo nai?o nan?yo aeyaeee i?aaiaiiy ?icoe?eoe ? cae??ieoe cainueea
naiia?yaeoaaiiy, iaaiai?eoe ieoaiiy i?i cai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiai ia ??ai?
aieino?, i?i ?icoe?aiiy i?aa cainueeeo aeanieo oa i?i iiaeeea?noue
ca’yce?a i?ae non?aei?ie cainoaaie aeey ae?iaeaiiy ?aeeii? iie?oeee a
cainuee?e noa?? oiui. Aea o?yae oa i?noeaaa ath?ie?ao?y a?ae?aco ae
?icii/aee noaaeoe ia?aoeiaee oeei iaiaaaiiyi.

Oi?iaeiaae 60-o – 70-o ?ie?a O?O no. iniiaiith oaiaeaioe??th o
aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe? naiiaea?aeaanoaa aoa iino?eiee ianooi ath?ie?ao??
ia i?aaa cainoa. Oaea /a?ac aeaa ?iee i?ney cainueei? ?aoi?ie caeiiii
a?ae 21 eenoiiaaea 1866 ?. caaaeaii oaea? ii aeaea?aeai cainueeiai
athaeaeaoo – cia/ii iaiaaeaii i?aaa cainoa iaeeaaeaoe cai?aie
oi?aiaaeuei? e i?iieneia? onoaiiae. Caeii a?ae 13 eeiiy 1867 ?.
i?aeii?yaeeoaaa /aniiene oa ?io? aeaeaiiy cainoa aoaa?inuee?e oeaico??
oa cia/ii ?icoe?ea i?aaa aie?a cainueeeo c?a?aiue. Iieiaeaiiyi i?i
ia?iaei? o/eeeua (1874 ?.) aoee iaiaaeaii i?aaa cainoa o aaeoc?
ia?iaeii? ina?oe.

I?ioa, iacaaaeath/e ia an? ia?aoeiaee, cainoaa noaee aeeoo?caeaoiith
nenoaiith ? a?ae?aco ae caeiyeenue ae??oaiiyi oeo ieoaiue, yeei ia
iaaeaaaa iaeaaeii? oaaae oea?nueeee o?yae: ia?iaeia ina?oa, ioi?iia
caei?ia’y, i?noeaaa ainiiaea?noai, noaoenoeea oiui.

O 80-o? ?iee O?O no. ia?inoathoue ?aaeoe?ei? oaiaeaioe?? a o?yaeia?e
iie?oeoe?, ye? ni?e/eieee iiaeaeueoa iaiaaeaiiy eiiiaoaioe?? cainueeeo
onoaiia. I?ioa an? oe? caoiaee, ye ? a oe?eiio eiio??aoi?ia 1890 ?.,
aeiei??iii ia iiaee ci?ieoe aeoo cainoaa, a iueiio ? iaaeae?
caa??aaeenue i?ia?aneai? e?aa?aeuei? oaiaeaioe??.

Oaeei /eiii, i?aeaiaey/e i?aenoiie, ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui c iiiaioo
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy cainoaa aoee ianoi?nieie c naiiaea?aeaaiith oi?iith
i?aae?iiy, ath?ie?aoe/iith nenoaiith. Cainuee? onoaiiae ia noaee ? ia
iiaee noaoe i?aai?/iith /anoeiith aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo. Oa ana ae
cainoaa noaee ina?aaeeaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?
e?aa?aeueiiai aeai?yinoaa.

Ioi?iii? canaaee iie?oeee naiiaea?aeaanoaa a aaeoc? aeui? ina?oe –
i?aaiaiiy caa?aaoe aac ci?i noaiiaee i?eioeei eiiieaeooaaiiy nooaeaioaie
aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaae?a ye aa?’?? a?ae i?iieeiaiiy a ?oi? no?ie
aioeo?yaeiai? i?iiaaaiaee – anooieee a 60-o – 80-o ??. O?O no. o ??cea
i?ioe??//y c ia’?eoeaieie iio?aaaie e?a?ie a eaae?o?eiaaieo ? ina?/aieo
eaae?ao.

?c c?inoaiiyi iio?aae a ina?/aieo eaae?ao ca?eueooaaeany e?euee?noue
nooaeaio?a. Oi?aa?neoaonueea ina?oa, caeiaoooy yei? aeiaaaei cia/ieo
o?iainiaeo aeo?ao, ii noo? caeeoaeany i?ea?ea?i iai?aieo aa?noa. I?ioa o
ni?aa?aeiioaii? ??cieo noaiiaeo a?oi o nooaeaionoa? ana ae a?aeaoeeny
aeaye? ci?ie, oa?aeoa?i? aeey ao?aeoaciiai noni?euenoaa: a neeaae? eiai
nei?i/oaaeany e?euee?noue aeo?aeoe?a ?c aeai?yinoaa ? c?inoaa i?ioa?ie
??cii/eioe?a. Ca 20 ?ie?a (c 1865 ?. aei 1885 ?.) na?aaeiy
/enaeuei?noue nooaeaio?a ?c aeai?yi neeaaeaea 54,6%, i?e/iio yeui a 1865
?. ?o iae?/oaaeiny –71,2%, oi a 1885 ?. nei?ioeeiny aei 41,2%.
Iaeii/anii cia/ii c?inea e?euee?noue ??cii/eioe?a oa i?uai. O 1865 ?. ?o
aoei 4,6%, a a 1885 ?. – 27,6%.

Anoia?a/ o?yaeia?e iie?oeoe?, ci???ioiaai?e ia i?ea?eaeiaaia
aeai?yinoai, iaooeeueii c?inoaa aeaiie?aoe/iee i?ioa?ie o
nooaeaionueeiio na?aaeiaeu?. Aac?acoeueoaoieie aeyaeeenue ? iinoaiiaa
1867 ?. i?i ?aaoethaaiiy e?eueeino? a?eueieo neooa/?a, ? aeac?aea
iniaeeai? ia?aaee i?i?no??a i?ae aieiaoaaiiyi I.Aaeo?aa 1874 ?.
“coieiyoe, ii iiaeeeaino?, iaieea o/i?a, iaeii?aeaioiaeaieo o iaoeiaiio
a?aeiioaii? ? i?e oeueiio iacaaacia/aieo iaoa??aeueii”.

O ca’yceo c ia?inoaiiyi nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo iai?ee?ioe? 60-o — 70-o ?.
O?O no., o?yae aaeea ?yae caoiae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia ia?aaeyae
oi?aa?neoaonueeiai Noaoooo 1863 ?ieo. Aecia/aeueia i?noea na?aae ieo
caeiyei i?eeiyooy “Oei/aniai? ?ino?oeoe?? aeey oi?aa?neoaonueei?
?iniaeoe??” oa “I?aaee aeey nooaeaio?a” (1879 ?.), ye? noaee i?ci?oa
neeaaeiaeie /anoeiaie Noaoooo 1884 ?ieo. Inoaii?e e?ea?aeoaaa aaoiiii?th
oi?aa?neoao?a, ia?aoai?ea iaa/aeuei? caeeaaee a /anoeio aea?aeaaiiai
ath?ie?aoe/iiai i?aai?cio.

Oi?iaeiaae 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. o?yae iaiaaaany an?ia caniaaie
“caniiei?oe” oi?aa?neoaoe, i?aeii?yaeeoaaoe anth nenoaio
oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe iaei?e iao?: aiooaaoe niaoe?ae?no?a o ??cieo
aaeocyo ciaiue, a?aeaeaieo i?anoieo, oiaoi ?aea? naiiaea?aeaanoaa,
i?e/iio iaa/aeueia ? iaoeiaa noi?iia oi?aa?neoaonueeiai aeeooy
a?aenoaaeany ia ae?oaee ieai. Aea/iai o oeueiio iai?yi? o?yaeo aaeaeiny
aeinyaiooe. I?ioa, aeiei??iii ci?ieoe nenoaio oi?aa?neoaonueei? ina?oe,
ia?aoai?eoe i?ioano?o a neooiyieo /eiiaiee?a, ci?ieoe neeaae
nooaeaionoaa ? aaaioaaoe eiai, e?ea?aeoaaoe nooaeaionuee? oaeethaaiiy a
oi?aa?neoaoao a?i ia ci?a.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “Cainueeee e?aa?aeueiee ?oo” aecia/aii aeoiee
cainueeiai e?aa?ae?cio, ?icaeyiooi oaeoeeo oa oi?ie iiiceoe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? cainueeeo ae?y/?a o na?aaeei? 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O no.

Cainueeee iiiceoe?eiee ?oo o oiio aeaeyae?, a yeiio a?i c’yaeany ia
noni?euei?e a?ai? i?ney ?aoi?ioaaiiy i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy a 1864 ?.,
aeieeaaa ?c aeai?yinueeiai e?aa?ae?cio aei?aoi?iaii? aiioe. Iaae?iiy
e??iiniiai i?aaa oa i?iaaaeaiiy cainueei? ?aoi?ie iineeeee aia?a?th
e?aa?aeueii iaeaooiaaiiai aeai?yinoaa, yea oaia? iiaei aeei?enoiaoaaoe
o?eaoio cainoa aeey iiioey?ecaoe?? nai?o ?aeae.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeai?yinueeiai e?aa?ae?cio aoei noi?ioeueiaaii ua a
aei?aoi?iaiee ia??iae, aea ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a aeeooy ao?aeoacieo ?aoi?i,
ui ci?ithaaee nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/i? ? /anoeiai iie?oe/i? ianoaaeie, ia
iiaei ia a?aeia?aceoenue ia oaeoe/ieo ? i?ia?aiieo canaaeao e?aa?ae?a.
Oea aeyaeeiny a ??cieo aaeocyo: 1) oai?aoe/i?e – oea, ia?aaeon?i,
?icaeoie i?i oi?io i?aae?iiy a aea?aeaa?, i?i ii?aeiaiiy
naiiaea?aeaanoaa c aeaoeaio?ae?caoe??th i?noeaaiai oi?aae?iiy /e
a?aeiiniith naiino?ei?noth naiia?yaeoaaiiy ia i?noeyo; 2) iie?oe/i?e –
aeciaiiy iaiao?aeiino? ?yaeo iie?oe/ieo ?aoi?i (aa?aiooaaiiy naiaiaee
neiaa, aeaniino?, neanoaaiiy nenoaie o?eanieo iiea?aiue, e?ea?aeaoe?y
iie?oeaenueeiai aeeeoaoo, iineaaeaiiy oeaico?ieo ooene?a oiui),
iaiaaeaiiy i?aaey/i? ath?ie?ao?? ananoaiiaei i?aaenoaaieoeoaii o
i?noeaaiio naiia?yaeoaaii?; 3) aeiiii?/i?e – caaacia/aiiy naiaiaee oeo
aeae?a ae?yeueiino?, ye? ni?eyoeiooue ia?iuoaaiith ia’?eo?a i?eaaoii?
aeaniino?, ae??oaiiy aa?a?iiai ieoaiiy, noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey
i?eaaoiiai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa, i?aeo?eiea on?o aeae?a nioe?aeueii
ci???ioiaaieo i?aei?e?inoa, oaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie.

On? aeacai? aeiiae (a ?o iii??eiaaiiio aa??aio?, aeneiaethaaeeny
a?eueo?noth e?aa?aeueii-aeai?yinueei? iiiceoe??, a a a?eueo
?aaeeeaeueiiio – ia/enaeueiith a?oiith e?aie?aa?aeueieo cainueeeo
ae?y/?a) caeeaaeaee oie oai?aoe/iee, iie?oe/iee ? aeiiii?/iee
ooiaeaiaio, ia yeiio aeaoaeiaoaaeanue i?ia?aia cainueeiai
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo.

Aiae?c ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeeo e?aa?aeueieo caioe?a iieacaa, ui aiia
cia/ii a?ae??ciyeany a?ae ae?yeueiino? ?oi?o eieaa a ?ioeo aoaa?i?yo
?in?enueei? ?iia???. Aeey e?aa?aeueieo caioe?a Oe?a?ie aoee aeanoea?:
?aaeeeae?ci ? iaoe?iiaeueii-oe?a?inuee? ii/oooy, ui caeaaia iaioaaee
na?aae /anoeie iaaeaei?i?yinueeiai aeai?yinoaa.

Ne?ae a?aecia/eoe, ui caeaa?eueoiai i?aaenoaaieee oe?a?inueeeo cainoa
iaaiee /an noiyee ia /ie? caaaeueii?iia?nueeiai cainueeiai
e?aa?aeueii-iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo, aoee eiai e?aea?aie. A?ey eiai aeoie?a
noiya /a?i?a?anueeee iii?uee ?.?.Iao?oieaae/ (1844 – 1928), yeiai
“ni?aaaaeeeai aaaaeaee aaoueeii eiinoeoooe?eiiai ?ooo, ui ?icii/aany a
aiioo aaeeeeo ?aoi?i”. A?i o a?ioo?? “I/a?aaeiua caaea/e cainoaa” (1879
?.) noi?ioethaaa i?ia?aio iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? cainueeiai
iiiceoe?eiiai ?ooo, a ye?e ia?aaeaa/aeinue cai?iaaaeeoe a?iiaaeyinuee?
i?aaa ? naiaiaee oa neeeeaoe i?aaenoaaieoeueeee i?aai, ui iaa noaoe
aa?aioii i?iaaaeaiiy iie?oe/ii? ?aoi?ie.

Aaoi? aeine?aeea aeoiee cainueei? iiiceoe?eiino?, ye? ei?aieeenue ia a
ii?yaeeo oi?ioaaiiy cainoa ? aeoaea caoaeai?e eiiiaoaioe?? ?o, a a
ci?iao nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia oiai/anii? ae?eniino?. Ia aeoieo
aia?eeainueeiai aeine?aeieea *.O?iaa?eaeea, cainueeo iiiceoe?th
oi?ioaaei iaaaeiaieaiiy aeai?yinoaa aea?aeaaiith aeiiii?/iith
iie?oeeith. Cainoaa iiaee caa?iooeny aei iie?oeee eeoa oiae?, eiee
i?ia?aeia eiai neea – aeai?yinoai a?ae/oaaei iayaio caa?ico nai?i
?ioa?anai, /e ciooaii aoei i?ioanooaaoe i?ioe naaa?eey.

Cainuee? e?aa?aee ia ni?eeiaee ye naiiaea?aeaaiiai oea?nueeiai ?aaeeio,
oae ? ?aaiethoe?eieo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae, ui i?ioenoaaeyeenue eiio. O
60-o – na?aaeei? 70-o ?ie?a O?O no. aiie aaeaaaeenue o?eueee aei
eoeueoo?ii-i?ina?oieoeueei? oa ainiiaea?nueei? ae?yeueiino?. A?aeiiee
cainueeee ae?y/ ?.?.Iao?oieaae/ ? eiai iaeiiaeoioe? oiae? ue?ina?aeii
a??eee o iiaeeea?noue ie?iiai ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?in?enueei? ?iia??? oeyoii
i?ina?oe ia?iaeo.

Aeoea?caoe?y iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? cainoa a?aeaoeany a 1878 – 1879
??. O oeae ia??iae caioe? caa?ioeeny ye aei eaaaeueieo (iaaeneeaiiy
aae?an?a, iaoeoe?e, eeiiioaiue), oae ? aei iaeaaaeueieo (i?aai?caoe?y
oa?iieo c’?cae?a, ia?aae) oi?i iiiceoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?.

O aeena?oaoe?? i?iaiae?ciaaii “aae?anio eaiiai?th”, aeeeeeaio
caa?iaiiyie o?yaeo a na?ii? oa eenoiiaae? 1878 ?. aei a?iiaaenueeino? ca
i?aeo?eieith o ai?iouea? c ?ooii ?aaiethoe?eieo ia?iaeiee?a.

Ne?ae i?aee?aneeoe, ui ??aaiue iiiceoe?eiino? cainueeeo aae?an?a aoa
??ciei. Ia?aaaaeia a?eueo?noue aoaa?inueeeo ? iia?oiaeo cainoa aeneiaeee
o ieo naith eiyeuei?noue aei o?yaeo ? cayaeee i?i aioiai?noue ai?ioeny c
?aaiethoe?eiei ?ooii. Ie?ai? cainoaa a aae?anao ii?yae c aeneiaeaiiyi
a??iii?aeaeaieo ii/ooo?a iaoyeaee ia aaaeai?noue aaaaeaiiy o e?a?i?
eiinoeoooe??, neeeeaiiy ia?iaeiiai i?aaenoaaieoeoaa ?c caeiiiaeaa/eie
ooieoe?yie, caeo/aiiy caioe?a aei iaaiai?aiiy caeiiii?iaeo?a.

Aeena?oaio aeine?aeea aae?ane Iieoaanueeiai, Oa?e?anueeiai,
*a?i?a?anueeiai cainoa, ye? a?aecia/aeeny a?eueoith ni?eea?noth ?
iine?aeiai?noth i?ae aae?ane ?in?enueeeo cainoa. Iniaeeao oaaao
i?eae?eaii aae?ano *a?i?a?anueeiai cainoaa (n?/aiue 1879 ?.), aaoi?e
yeiai a?aeiiaeeenue i?aeo?eioaaoe oea?eci o ai?iouea? c ?aaiethoe?eiei
?ooii, caaaeath/e ia a?aenooi?noue naiaiaee neiaa, ae?oeo, caa?oaee
oaaao ia iaaaoeaio i?aeoeeo o?yaeiaeo ?ai?an?e o aeu?e oeie?.

O ae?oa?e iieiaeie 70-o – ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. aeaye?
?aaeeeaeueii iaeaooiaai? i?aaenoaaieee cainoa ii?yae c aeei?enoaiiyi
o?aaeeoe?eieo niinia?a aieeao ia naiiaea?aeaanoai caa?ioeenue aei
iaeaaaeueii? iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?. C?icoi?ei, ui oey ae?yeuei?noue ia
iaea i?/iai ni?eueiiai c ?aaiethoe?eiith ai?ioueaith ? iineea
aeiiii?aeiee oa?aeoa?. Caioe?-eiinoeoooe?iiae?noe iaiaaeeeenue
neeeeaiiyi oa?iieo ia?aae ? c’?cae?a, ia yeeo aiie iaiaaaeeny ia’?aeiaoe
?ic??ciaii? neee e?aa?aeueii? iiiceoe??, eiinie?aeoaaoe iaoeoe?eio
eiiiai?th e ?io? eaaaeuei? caniae aieeao ia o?yae. Iaea?eueoa
e?euee?noue iaeaaaeueieo aenooi?a i?eiaea ia 1878 – 1879 ??. ? aoea
iia’ycaia c iineeaiiyi o?yaeiai? ?aaeoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeaii o?ae ia?aae caioe?a ?c i?aaenoaaieeaie
oe?a?inueei? e?aa?aeueii? ?ioae?aaioe?? a Ee?a? (aeiaoaiue 1878 ?.) oa
Oa?eia? (eenoiiaae 1878 ?.). Cia/io oaaao i?eae?eaii c’?caeo, ui
a?aeaoany a Iinea? (aa?acaiue 1879 ?.). Ia iueiio iaaiai?thaaeenue
ieoaiiy i?i ooai?aiiy caaaeueiicainueei? i?aai?caoe?? ? i?iaaaeaiiy
?aaoey?ieo c’?cae?a. O ?acoeueoao? ii??aiyiiy niiaaae?a o/aniee?a oeeo
ia?aae oa c’?caeo aaeaeiny anoaiiaeoe, ui aiie ia i?eaaee aei ooai?aiiy
caaaeueiicainueeiai iie?oe/iiai oeaio?o.

Iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aeey aecia/aiiy i?noey cainueeiai ?ooo a noni?eueiiio
?on? iathoue ni?iae anoaiiaeaiiy aca?iica’yce?a i?ae
?aaiethoe?iia?aie-ia?iaeieeaie ? cainueeeie e?aa?aeaie. Iaeni?eyoeea?oee
iiiaio aeey aaaeaiiy ia?aaiai??a i?ae ieie i?i ni?eueio iie?oe/io
ae?yeuei?noue neeaany iai?ee?ioe? 1878 ?. – ii/aoeo 1879 ?., eiee
?aaiethoe?ei? ia?iaeieee aaea ia?aeoee aei ai?ioueae ca iie?oe/i?
naiaiaee, a e?aa?aeueia a?iiaaenuee?noue ua ia aoea iaeyeaia caiaoii ia
?iia?aoi?a.

Ii??aiyiiy aeaieo iaioa?ii? e?oa?aoo?e c a?aeiiinoyie iaoa??ae?a
aeaiaea?inueeeo ae?ciaiue aeiiiiiaei anoaiiaeoe, ui iai?ee?ioe? 1878 ?.
– ii/aoeo 1879 ?. ia?aaiai?e i?ae ?aaeeeaeueii-aeaiie?aoe/ieie oa
e?aa?aeueieie eieaie aaeenue o?e/?. I?ioa oe? ia?aaee cae?i/eeenue
aac?acoeueoaoii.

Oaeei /eiii, noni?eueiee ?oo ia iaae? 1870-o – 1880-o ?ie?a ia aeeeany a
ni?eueiee iaoene i?ioe naiiaea?aeaanoaa on?o iiiceoe?eieo nee.
?aaiethoe?iia?e ia aaaeaee neeaaeaoe ca?ith ? ia /aeaee a?ae e?aa?ae?a
naiino?eieo ae?e. O naith /a?ao, iaa?oue iae?aaeeeaeuei?oa iano?i?i?
cainuee? e?aa?aee ?icaeyaeaee iaeaaaeueio ae?yeuei?noue ye oei/aniaee,
aeiooaiee oa aeiiii?aeiee can?a ? ia oio?ee noiaeeoe c o??? caeiiii?
iniiae, yeo, ia ?oith aeoieo, i?aaenoaaeyee nai? ii nia? cainuee?
onoaiiae.

Oa?aeoa?iith ?enith cainueeiai e?aa?aeueiiai ?ooo ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O
no. aoei i?aaiaiiy eiai o/aniee?a iaeneiaeueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeey
nai?o iie?oe/ieo aenooi?a: cainuee? c?a?aiiy, noi??iee i?ane,
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? caienee ia aae?ano o?yaeo.

O 1883 – 1886 ??. a cainuee?e ae?yeueiino? ianooieei caoeooy, aea
i?eoiaaii iaae?aei neeo aeeeth/ii aaaeeeaa aeey e?aa?ae?cio yaeua –
ao?ooaaiiy iaaeiei cainoa “o?aoueiai aeaiaioa” (cainueeeo e?ea??a,
o/eoae?a, aa?iiii?a, noaoenoee?a). Aeania c i?eoiaeii iiaeo nee ?
iie?oe/iith ia?ai???ioaoe??th aeai?yinoaa e?aa?ae?ci iaae?a? iiai?
yeino?, yea aeeeeeaea eiai aaiethoe?th a?ae iii??eiaaii? iiiceoe??
iai?ee?ioe? O?O no. aei iaoeneo ia aeaaei? no?oeoo?e a 1904 – 1905 ??.

O /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? “Nooaeaionueeee ?oo” c’yniaaii i?e/eie, oa?aeoa?,
iniaeeaino? nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo oa eiai o?ae o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o –
80-o ?ieao O?O no. O oeae ia??iae i?e/eie nooaeaionueeeo aenooi?a aoee
iae??ciiiai?oi?o?: aieea caaaeueiiai iacaaeiaieaiiy ?nioth/ei
naiiaea?aeaaiei eaaeii, aaci?aaia noaiiaeaiiy nooaeaio?a, iaoa??aeueia
iacaaacia/ai?noue /anoeie c ieo, iecueeee iaoeiaee ??aaiue ie?aieo
aeeeaaea/?a, ?oiy aaeaeoae?noue aei iio?aa nooaeaionoaa. Iaei??th c
i?e/ei i?aeianaiiy nooaeaionueei? ai?iouea? iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ?ie?a O?O
no. aoei oaeiae caaaeueia ia?inoaiiy ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo.

A?eueoa /anoeia nooaeaio?a ai?ieanue ca aeaaeai?/i? naiaiaee,
a?aenoithaaea aeani? ei?ii?aoeai? ?ioa?ane. Aenooie nooaeaio?a aoee
aeyaaie iaaaeiaieaiiy ia?aaeiai? iieiae?
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ath?ie?aoe/ieie ii?yaeeaie o oea?nuee?e ?in??.
Noni?eueii-iie?oe/i? ono?aie?iiy iniiaii? /anoeie nooaeaionoaa ia
aeoiaeeee ca iaae? ?aeaae?a e?aa?aeueieo e?e.

O ae?oa?e iieiaei? 60-o – a na?aaeei? 70-o ?ie?a O?O no. iniiaieie
aeyaaie iiiceoe?eiino? nooaeaio?a aoee: i?aai?caoe?y ao?oe?a, a?oi,
caieyoeoa; iaaeneeaiiy eeiiioaiue oi?aa?neoaonueeiio ea??aieoeoao i?i
aeica?e ia noai?aiiy ean aca?iiaeiiiiiae, eooi?noa?nueeeo, ?aeaeaiue;
?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaeaaaeueii? e?oa?aoo?e, aeaeaiiy ?oeiienieo
aeo?iae?a; i?iaaaeaiiy noiaeie, aeoe?e i?ioanoo i?ioe ?aaeoe?eieo
i?ioani??a, aoee/ieo iai?oanoaoe?e.

I?ia?aneaii iano?i?ia nooaeaionueea iieiaeue, ia caaeiaieueiyth/enue
aocueeeie ?aieaie aeaaeai?/ieo aeiia, iaiaaaeanue ?icoe?eoe ?aiee ?ooo,
iaaeaoe eiio iie?oe/iee oa?aeoa?. Ia ii/aoeo 70-o ?ie?a O?O no. aeieeee
ao?oee ? a?oie naiiina?oe, ye? i/iethaaee I.Aenaeue?iae,
A.Aeaaaai??e-Iie???ae/, A.AEaeyaia, ?.Eiaaeuenueea oa ?io? caiaeii
a?aeii? ae?y/? ?aaiethoe?eiiai ia?iaeieoeoaa. Eacaiia iaoea ia
caaeiaieueiyea ia?aaeiao iieiaeue, yea aeyaeyea ?ioa?an aei
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?aaioea naiino?eii c’ynoaaoe nioe?aeuei?
ieoaiiy.

O ao?oeao naiiina?oe nooaeaioe i?aaioee ?icoe?eoe na?e e?oaic??,
ae?iaeoe na?oiaeyaei? i???ioe?e. Ia ?oi?o can?aeaiiyo aiie aea/aee
i?aoe? cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo ? ?in?enueeeo nioe?ieia?a, aeiiii?no?a,
o?einio?a. I?e ina?aaeeao noai?thaaeeny iaeaaaeuei? a?ae?ioaee.
Ao?oe?aoe? aeaeaaaee ?oeiieni? aeo?iaee, aiooaaee ? ca/eooaaee ?aoa?aoe
ia iaoeia? oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i? oaie, i?iaiaeeee aeeneon?? c ??cieo
ieoaiue.

Iai?ee?ioe? 70-o – ia ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaaeeny
aenooie oa iania? caai?ooaiiy nooaeaio?a o Ee?anueeiio, Oa?e?anueeiio oa
Iiai?in?enueeiio oi?aa?neoaoao. O oeae /an iineeeee na?e aieea ia
nooaeaionueeo iieiaeue ?aaiethoe?iia?e-ia?iaeieee. Aiie an?eyei
i?aeo?eioaaee aenooie nooaeaio?a, iaiaaaeenue aeaanoe ?o ca ?aiee aeiia
aeaaeai?/ieo naiaiae. ? oi/a ia?iaeieeai ia aaeaeiny iaaeaoe
nooaeaionueeiio ?ooo oa?aeoa?o a?aee?eoeo iie?oe/ieo aenooi?a i?ioe
naiiaea?aeaanoaa, ?oiy ae?yeuei?noue na?aae nooaeaio?a aoea oni?oiith,
ia?iaeieoeuee? ?aea? ciaoiaeeee oe?ieee a?aeaoe na?aae /anoeie c ieo.

I?ae aieeaii ?aaiethoe?eiiai ?ooo ? o a?aeiia?aeue ia ?aaeoe?ei? caoiaee
oea?nueeiai o?yaeo uiaei aeui? oeiee oaeey nooaeaionueeeo aenooi?a
iii?oii i?aeianeanue o 1882 – 1884 ??. O oeae /an aeaye? iania?
nooaeaionuee? caai?ooaiiy aei iaaii? i??e iaa?aee iie?oe/iiai
caaa?aeaiiy.

O oe?eiio ae nooaeaionueeee ?oo o 80-o? ?iee O?O no. iaa
e?aa?aeueii-iiiceoe?eiee oa?aeoa?. Aenooie nooaeaio?a aeieeaee c
i?eaiaeo iaaa?acae?a oi?aa?neoaonueeiai aeeooy, aoee aeeeeeai?
ei?ii?aoeaieie ?ioa?anaie ? ia aeoiaeeee ca iaae? aeiia aea?oaaiiy oeo
aai ?ioeo aeaaeai?/ieo i?aa.

I?ioa a i??o iineeaiiy noni?eueieo noia?a/iinoae, o nooaeaionueeiio
na?aaeiaeu? a?aeaoaaeiny iia?eueia ?iciaaeoaaiiy i?ae ?aaiethoe?eiei
aeaiie?aoeciii ? e?aa?ae?ciii. Ai?ioueaa nooaeaio?a aeaui a?ae??ciyeany
a?ae iiiceoe?? cainueeeo e?aa?ae?a. Aiia aoea a?eueo a?aee?eoith,
??oo/ith, iinooiiai iaae?aea iie?oe/iiai caaa?aeaiiy.

O aeniiaeao i?aeaaaeaii caaaeuei? i?aenoiee aeine?aeaeaiiy, c?iaeaii
ocaaaeueiaiiy an??? noie oaeoe/ieo aeaieo, ye? noinothoueny i?iaeaie.

1. O aioo??oi?e iie?oeoe? naiiaea?aeaanoaa a na?aaeei? 60-o – 80-o? ??.
O?O no. i?inoaaeoaaeiny aea? oaiaeaioe??. Ia?oa iieyaaea a ai?iouea?
oea?ecio i?ioe an?o aeaiaio?a naiino?eiino? a i?noeaaiio
naiia?yaeoaaii?, i?ioe oeo noi??i cainueei? ae?yeueiino?, ye? aeeeeeaee
noni?eueio aeoeai?noue. Ae?oaa – a oiio, ui i? a ainiiaea?nueeiio, i?,
iaa?oue, o iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? oea?eci ia oio?a a?aeiiaeoenue a?ae
cainueeeo onoaiia, e?ea?aeoaaoe ?o, oiio ia??iaee/ii, iniaeeai a e?ecia?
aeey naiiaea?aeaanoaa /ane, a o?yaeia?e iie?oeoe? uiaei ieo aeyaeyeeny
e?aa?aeuei? oaiaeaioe??.

Iie?oeea naiiaea?aeaanoaa a nenoai? ina?oe aoea ni?yiiaaia ia
cae??ieaiiy aeaniiai iiiiiieueiiai i?aaa ia oi?aae?iiy aeueie
iaa/aeueieie caeeaaeaie, ia i?iaaaeaiiy nenoaie caoiae?a aeey i?eieiaiiy
iinyaaiue ia oea i?aai ? iaiaaeaiiy aieeao ia nooaeaio?a ??cieo
iiiceoe?eieo a?iiaaenueeeo ? iie?oe/ieo nee.

2. Iin?yie ?aeae cainueeiai e?aa?ae?cio aoea /anoeia aeai?yi-iii?uee?a,
ye? neeaaeaee 4/5 aeanieo aoaa?inueeeo cainoa. Na?aae cainueeeo aeanieo
aoei /eiaei in?a oai?/i? i?aoe?, ye? aeei?enoiaoaaee ye o?eaoio aeey
ioae?/ieo aenooi?a i?ano, oi?aa?neoaonuee? eaoaae?e ? iaoeia?
oiaa?enoaa.

Iaea?eueoo aeoeai?noue o noni?eueiiio ?on? aeyaeyee nooaeaioe, ui
iioiaeeee ?c na?aaeiuei? ? ae??aii? ao?aeoac??, aeayeeo i?ioa?e?a
naeyinoaa ? a?aeiiai aeooiaainoaa.

3. Aieiai? oi?ie aeyao cainueeiai e?aa?ae?cio o aeacaiee ia??iae –
iiaeaiiy aae?an?a oa eeiiioaiue a?ae ?iai? cainueeeo c?a?aiue, caienee
oa iaoeoe?? aei o?yaeo a?ae ie?aieo cainueeeo ae?y/?a, aeaeaiiy a?ioo?,
iaeaaaeuei? ia?aaee oa c’?caee.

Oi?ie aeyao iiiceoe?eiino? nooaeaionoaa oae?: i?aai?caoe?y ao?oe?a,
a?oi, caieyoeoa; iiaeaiiy eeiiioaiue oi?aa?neoaonueeiio ea??aieoeoao i?i
aeica?e ia noai?aiiy ean aca?iiaeiiiiiae, eooi?noa?nueeeo, ath?i iiooeo
?iaioe; ?iciianthaeaeaiiy iaeaaaeueii? e?oa?aoo?e; i?iaaaeaiiy noiaeie,
aeoe?e i?ioanoo i?ioe aeeeaaea/?a, aaei?i?no?aoe?? oi?aa?neoao?a e
?inoeooo?a, aoee/ieo iai?oanoaoe?e.

4. Ianoi?ni?noue ?aaiethoe?eieo iaoiae?a ai?ioueae i?ioe
naiiaea?aeaanoaa c iie?oe/ieie i?aaiaiiyie cainueeeo e?aa?ae?a c?iaeea
iaiiaeeeaith aoaeue-yeo oi?io ?o aca?iica’yce?a ?c ia?iaeieeaie.

5. E?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo na?aaeeie 60-o – 80-o ??. a Oe?a?i?
aoa eia?/iei i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aeai?yinueeiai e?aa?ae?cio ii/aoeo OIO no.
Iie?oe/ia i?ia?aia eiai o/aniee?a i?noeea ??ci? a?aeo?iee noni?eueii?
aeoiee a?ae iii??eiaaieo aei ?aaeeeaeueieo.

Caeiath/e a e?aa?aeueiiio oaai?? iaea?eueo i?aaa e?eei, cainueeee
aeaiie?aoeci aoa oeaio?ii oyae?iiy ?ioeo e?aa?aeueieo oa/?e, ine?eueee
eiai noni?euei? iiaeeeaino? ?icoe?thaaee aaco ae?yeueiino? e?aa?ae?a.

Nooaeaionueeee ?oo, oi/ ? iaa ciai? caeaa?eueoiai aeaaeai?/ia
ni?yioaaiiy, /anoi aeoiaeea ca iaae? nooi nooaeaionueeeo ?ioa?an?a,
iaaoaaa iie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o e cao/aiiy, a oiio ni?eya oi?ioaaiith o
iieiaeiai iieie?iiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo ia?aeiiaiue.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o ianooiieo
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

A?ioo?a:

1. Aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo a Oe?a?i? 70 – 80-o ??. O?O no. – *a?eane: ?AA
*AeI?, 1994. – 59 n. (ni?aaaoi? A.I.Eao?aiei).

Noaoo?:

2. I.I. ?onia: a?oe aeeooy oa a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino? //
?noi??y a oeieao Oe?a?ie. – 1997. – ?2. – N. 51 – 53 (ni?aaaoi?
A.I.Eao?aiei).

3. Aeoea?caoe?y nooaeaionueeiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? iai?ee?ioe? 70-o – ia
ii/aoeo 80-o ?ie?a O?O no. // A?niee *a?eanueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?i? iaoee. – 1997. – ?2. – N.
39 – 47.

4. I?noeaaa naiia?yaeoaaiiy a Oe?a?i?: ?noi?e/i? aeoiee oa oeyoe
aaiethoe?? a na?aaeiueia?/io ? iiao aeiao. // A?niee *a?eanueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo. Na??y nioe?aeueii-aoiai?oa?i? iaoee. – 1998.
– ?6. – N. 44 – 51.

5. ?aoeaioe?y ?aeae e?aa?ae?cio a noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? Oe?a?ie
ae?oai? iieiaeie O?O- ii/aoeo OO no. // Ethaeeia ? iie?oeea. – 1999. –
?4. – N. 53 – 56.

Oace:

6. A?ao I.I. Aia?einueeee: iaoia?aaeaeaiee iiaeyae ia aeeooy ?
ae?yeuei?noue // Iaoa??aee V?? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe??
“?noi?e/ia e?a?ciaanoai a Oe?a?i?: o?aaeeoe?? ? no/ani?noue. – E.:
??aeiee e?ae, 1995. – *.2. – N. 451 – 453.

7. *a?i?a?anueea cainoai a e?aa?aeueiiio ?on? iai?ee?ioe? 70-o ?ie?a O?O
no. // Iaoa??aee V??? Anaoe?a?inueei? iaoeiai? eiioa?aioe?? “?noi?e/ia
e?a?ciaanoai ? eoeueoo?a”. – E. – Oa?e?a: ??aeiee e?ae, 1997. – *.2. –
N. 78 – 80.

AIIOAOe??

Iien??iei A.I. E?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee (iiiceoe?eiee) ?oo a Oe?a?i?
(na?aaeeie 60-o – 80-o? ?iee O?O noie?ooy). – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 07.00.01 – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a, 1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii c’ynoaaiith aeoie?a oa aaiethoe??
e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iiai ?ooo a Oe?a?i? na?aaeeie 60-o – 80-o? ?ie?a
O?O noie?ooy. Ia iniia? oe?ieiai eiea aeaea?ae aeine?aeaeaii
?aeaieia?/i? canaaee, oaeoeeo, oi?ie iiiceoe?eiino? cainueeeo aeanieo ?
nooaeaionoaa, aca?iica’ycee i?ae e?aa?aeueiith oa ?aaeeeaeueiith oa/?yie
a noni?eueiiio ?on?.

Ia i?aenoaa? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy ie?aneaii ieceo caeiiii??iinoae
caaaeueiiiie?oe/iiai oa?aeoa?o: i??i?eoaoe o aca?iia?aeiineiao
aea?aeaaii? aeaaee c iiiceoe??th, oeyoe ?aoeaioe?? e?aa?aeueieo ?aeae,
iaoai?cie caaacia/aiiy i?aa ? naiaiae.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: e?aa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/iee ?oo, cainoai, aeu? iaa/aeuei?
caeeaaee, iie?oeea naiiaea?aeaanoaa, E?aiaa?aaeia ? I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia .

Iienaaiei A.I. Eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneia (iiiiceoeeiiiia) aeaeaeaiea
a Oe?aeia (na?aaeeia 60-o – 80-ua aiaeu O?O aaea). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01 – Enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. – Eeaaneee oieaa?neoao
eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ii?aaeaeaieth enoieia e yaiethoeee
eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey a Oe?aeia na?aaeeiu 60-o –
80-ua aiaeu O?O a. Ia iniiaa oe?ieiai e?oaa enoi/ieeia enneaaeiaaiu
eaeaieiae/aneea iniiaaiey, oaeoeea, oi?iu iiiiceoeeiiiinoe caineeo
aeaniuo e nooaeai/anoaa, acaeiinayce iaaeaeo eeaa?aeueiui e
?aaeeeaeueiui oa/aieyie a iauanoaaiiii aeaeaeaiee.

Ia i?ioyaeaiee enneaaeoaiiai ia?eiaea aeaenoaey iauaeoeaiuo caeiiia
iiaiai yeiiiie/aneiai oeeaaea i?eaianee aeoaeiiua eciaiaiey ai ana noa?u
iauanoaaiiie aeecie – yeiiiieeo, ainoaea?noaaiiue iaoaieci, ianoiia
naiioi?aaeaiea, eoeueoo?o e o.ae. Iiae aeeyieai yoiai i?iecioee ia?aiaiu
a iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, /oi niinianoaiaaei aeooiaiiio ?ane?aiiuaieth
ee/iinoe e aaei e ?acaeoeth aeaiie?aoe/aneiai aeaeaeaiey.

A oaeeo oneiaeyo ai aioo?aiiae iieeoeea ?inneeneie eiia?ee a na?aaeeia
60-o – 80-ua aiaeu O?O aaea i?ineaaeeaaeenue aeaa oaiaeaioeee. Ia?aay
caeeth/aeanue a no?aieaiee oea?ecia nio?aieoue a iacuaeaiinoe
iiia?oe/aneoth oi?io i?aaeaiey e i?eniiniaeoue a? e iiaui yeiiiie/aneei
e iauanoaaiiui oneiaeyi. Aoi?ay — a ai?ueaa naiiaea?aeaaey n ?acee/iuie
iiiiceoeeiiiuie aeaeaeaieyie, o/anoieee eioi?uo i?aaeeaaaee iiaua iooe
?acaeoey no?aiu.

A aeaiie?aoe/aneii aeaeaeaiee eco/aaiiai ia?eiaea /?oei auaeaeyeenue
aeaa iai?aaeaiey: eeaa?aeueiia e ?aaeeeaeueiia, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo a
naith i/a?aaeue eiaei oe?ieee niaeo? ie?iaicc?ai/aneeo i?eaioe?ia.
Iniiaiia aieiaiea a aeaiiie ?aaioa oaeaeyaony aunooieaieyi caineeo
eeaa?aeia e nooaeai/anoaa.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?iaiaeece?iaaii cainei-eeaa?aeueiua i?iaeou
?ai?aaiecaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai ono?ienoaa, iauanoaaiii-iieeoe/aneea
acaeyaeu oai?aoeeia caineiai eeaa?aeecia. Enneaaeiaaii oaeoeeo caineeo
eeaa?aeia a ioiioaiee naiiaea?aeaaey eae ia i?ioyaeaiee anaai ia?eiaea
na?aaeeiu 60-o – 80-o aiaeia O?O aaea, oae e ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiao, a
nayce n /ai ?ac?aaioaii ia?eiaeecaoeeth caineiai aeaeaeaiey. A ?aaioa
?anniio?aii ?acee/iua oi?iu i?iyaeaiey caineie iiiiceoeeiiiinoe
(aae?ana, caienee, oiaeaoaenoaa, oaeiua niaauaiey, nuacaeu e o.i.), a
oaeaea aaia?aoeth ?ani?ino?aiaiey eeaa?aeueiuo aunooieaiee.

Iineoaeyie eaeae caineiai eeaa?aeecia auee aeai?yia-iiiaueee,
ninoaaeyaoea 4/5 aeaniuo aoaa?ineeo cainoa. E?anoueyinoai,
i?aaenoaaeaiiia a cainoaa iai?iii?oeeiiaeueii aai oaeaeueiiio aano a
no?aia, ia i?iyaeei iniaie aeoeaiinoe ie a oicyenoaaiii-eoeueoo?iie, ie,
oai aieaa, a iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe cainoa. Ia auea ioaa/aia
eeaa?aeueii-iiiiceoeeiiiui aeaeaeaieai ai?iaeneay oi?aiai-i?iiuoeaiiay
ao?aeoacey.

Eco/aiea cainei-eeaa?aeueiiai aeaeaeaiey a na?aaeeia 60-o – 80-ua aiaeu
O?O a. iicaieeei aieaa oi/ii i?aaenoaaeoue ?annoaiiaeo eeanniauo e
iieeoe/aneeo nee a ?inneeneie eiia?ee e aeoaaea ioeaieoue
i?eioeeieaeueiua ?aciiaeaney iaaeaeo caineei eeaa?aeeciii e
ia?iaeie/aneei ?aaeeeaeeciii.

Ninoaaiie /anoueth eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneiai oa/aiey na?aaeeiu 60-o
– 80-o aiaeia O?O a. auei nooaeai/aneia aeaeaeaiea.
Iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua oneiaey iao/aiey, ionoonoaea yeaiaioa?iuo
a?aaeaeaineeo i?aa oieeaee iieiaeuo ethaeae e ai?ueaa ca naie
ei?ii?aoeaiua eioa?anu. A oiaea nooaeai/aneeo aunooieaiee auaeaeaaeenue
o?aaiaaiey i naiaiaea ia?aciaaiey e?oaeeia, caiey/anoa, noiaeie,
i?aaeuyaeaiey nianoaaiiuo o?aaiaaiee, nicaeaiey eann acaeiiiiiiue, ia
ioiaia nineiaiuo ia?aie/aiee, oaieueiaiee ?aaeoeeiiiuo i?aiiaeaaaoaeae,
ineaaeaiee einiaeoi?neiai iaaeci?a e ae?.

Eiioeaio?aoeey a oieaa?neoaoneeo oeaio?ao iao/iie e iauanoaaiiie yeeou,
?ani?ino?aiaiea ia?aaeiauo aa?iiaeneeo o/aiee niaeaenoaiaaee oneeaieth
iauanoaaiiie aeoeaiinoe nooaeai/anoaa. Iii, iaoieeioaoenue ia
iaiiieiaiea aaeieieno?aoeee eee aea iaaaeaeaaoii aeanoieoth ?aaeoeeth
i?aaeoaeuenoaa, a naieo aunooieaieyo an? /aua auoiaeeei ca i?aaeaeu
/enoi ei?ii?aoeaiuo, aeaaeaie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee.

Nioeeaeueiue ninoaa nooaeaioia, i?eieiaaoeo o/anoea a aunooieaieyo, aue
/?acau/aeii ?aciiia?aciui, ii iaeaieueooth aeoeaiinoue i?iyaeyee
auoiaeoeu ec ?acii/eioeaa, aeooiaainoaa, e?anoueyi.

A eiioea 70-o – ia/aea 80-o aiaeia O?O a. ia nooaeaioia oneeeee
aicaeaenoaea ?aaiethoeeiia?u-ia?iaeieee. Ii ei ia oaeaeinue iai?aaeoue
nooaeai/aneia aeaeaeaiea a iieeoe/aneia ?onei, ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
ia?iaeie/aneea eaeae iieo/eee aeeaie ioeeee n?aaee aeaiie?aoe/anee
iano?iaiiie iieiae?aee.

Iaeeaeaiea aeayoaeueiinoe eeaa?aeia a na?aaeeia 60-o – 80-ua aiaeu O?O
a. naycaii n iauei ianooieaieai ?aaeeeaeueiuo aeaiie?aoia ia
naiiaea?aeaaea. Eiioeeeou e noieeiiaaiey eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneie
iauanoaaiiinoe n i?aaeoaeuenoaii naie ii naaa ia i?aaenoaaeyee
nia?oaeueiie iianiinoe aeey oea?ecia, ii a oneiaeyo ia?anoaiey
?aaiethoeeiiiiai aeaeaeaiey iie an? aea oneeeaaee aioenaiiaea?aeaaiue
eaaa?ue, iaino?yee e?ecen i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie iieeoeee e niaeaenoaiaaee
iai?aeaieth a? ii iooe ?aoi?ie?iaaiey.

Ia iniiaaiee ?acoeueoaoia enneaaeiaaiey auaeaeaii ?yae caeiiiia?iinoae
iauaiieeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a: i?ei?eoaou ai acaeiiioiioaieyo
ainoaea?noaaiiie aeanoe n iiiiceoeeae, iooe ?aoeaioeee eeaa?aeueiuo
eaeae, iaoaieciu iaania/aiey i?aa e naiaiae.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eeaa?aeueii-aeaiie?aoe/aneia aeaeaeaiea, cainoai,
aunoea o/aaiua caaaaeaiey, iieeoeea naiiaea?aeaaey, Eaaiaa?aaeiay e
THaeiay Oe?aeia.

Moiseyenko V.N. Liberal-Democratic (opposition) movement in Ukraine (in
the middle the 60th –80th of XIX century). – Manuscript.

Thesis for a Candidate’s Degree in History by speciality 07.00.01 –
History of Ukraine. – Kyiv named after Taras Shevchenco. Kyiv, 1999.

The Dissertation is dedicated to the definition of the sources and
evolution of liberal-democratic movement in Ukraine in the middle the
60th – 80th of XIX century. On the basis of the wide range of sources
there have been investigated ideological background, tactics, forms of
opposition of zemsky glasnies and students, the connections between
liberal and radical streams in the social movement.

On the background of the results of this investigation there have been
pointed out the regularities of the general political character:
priorities in the correlation between the state power and the
opposition, the ways of reception of liberal ideas, mechanisms of
providing of rights and freedoms.

Key words: liberal-democratic movement, zemstvo, higher educational
institution, autocracy policy, Left-bank and South Ukraine.

Добавить комментарий

Ваш e-mail не будет опубликован. Обязательные поля помечены *