Корупція як соціально-політичне явище: особливості проявів і механізми подолання в сучасній Україні: Автореф. дис… канд. політ. наук / Є.В. Невмержи

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IAOe?IIAEUeIA AEAAeAI?ss IAOE OE?A?IE

?INOEOOO AeA?AEAAE ? I?AAA ?i.A.I.EI?AOeUeEIAI

IAI OE?A?IE

IAAIA?AEEOeUeEEE ?AAAI AANEEUeIAE*

OAeE 242.7:316.37

EI?OIOe?ss ssE NIOe?AEUeII-IIE?OE*IA ssAEUA:

INIAEEAINO? I?IssA?A ? IAOAI?CIE IIAeIEAIIss

A NO*ANI?E OE?A?I?

NIAOe?AEUeI?NOUe 23.00.02. — IIE?OE*I? ?INOEOOOE OA I?IOeANE

A A O I ? A O A ? A O

AeENA?OAOe?? IA CAeIAOOOss IAOEIAIAI NOOIAIss

EAIAeEAeAOA IIE?OE*IEO IAOE

E E ? A — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

Aeena?oaoe?y aeeiiaia o a?aeae?e? nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ?inoeoooo

o?einio?? ?i. A.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

Ooeueaeaiei Oaae??
Ieeeiiae/,

canooiiee aee?aeoi?a
c iaoeiai?

?iaioe ?inoeoooo
caeiiiaeaanoaa

Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe — aeieoi? iie?oe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ea?ooiia Ieaen?e
Aaneeueiae/,

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee,
oi?aae?iiy

oa ainiiaea?nueeiai
i?aaa, caa?aeoaa/

eaoaae?e aoiai?oa?ieo
aeenoeeie?i

— eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo
iaoe

Ino?iooia Aieiaeeie?
Aaneeueiae/,

canooiiee ia/aeueieea
oi?aae?iiy

Neoaeae aaciaee Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia i?aai?caoe?y — eaoaae?a iie?oieia?? Oe?a?inueei?
Aeaaeai??

aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy
i?e I?aceaeaioia?

Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny 18 /a?aiy 1999 ?. ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii?
a/aii? ?aaee i?e ?inoeooo? aea?aeaae ? i?aaa i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI
Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252001, i.Ee?a, aoe. O?ueionayoeoaeuenueea,4.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo aea?aeaae
? i?aaa ?i. A.I.Ei?aoeueeiai IAI Oe?a?ie.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee 17 o?aaiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? A/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao iie?oe/ieo iaoe
A.I.Ai?aaoaiei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Noaiiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie ye
iacaeaaeii?, aeaiie?aoe/ii?, nioe?aeueii? oa i?aaiai? aea?aeaae,
oi?ioaaiiy iniia a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa na?aae ia?oi/a?aiaeo
aecia/athoue i?iaeaio aeyaeaiiy oaeoi??a caa?ice i?ia?aneaiei iie?oe/iei
i?ioeanai, c’ynoaaiiy aaiace ? nooiino? iaaaoeaieo nioe?aeueieo yaeu, ui
no?eiothoue oeae i?ioean, oa iiooeo iaoai?ci?a ?o iiaeieaiiy.

A oiiaao neaaeeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo o?aaeeoe?e, iaaeineiiaeino?
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, iaaoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino? aeaaeieo
?inoeooo?a oa iaaeinoaoiueiai ??aiy iie?oeei-i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e
no/aniiai ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa iaeiei ?c iaeiaaacia/i?oeo
iaaaoeaieo yaeu ? ei?oioe?y. Aiia a?aaea? an? noa?e noni?eueiiai aeeooy,
ni?ey? iioe?aiith i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?, noai?th? nioe?aeueio
iai?oao, ii?iaeaeo? o ianaeaiiy iaaiaaiai?noue o caeaoiino? aeaaee
cae?enieoe i?aai?caoe?ei? oa i?aeoe/i? caoiaee uiaei iiaeieaiiy
nenoaiii? e?ece e a?ae?iaeaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Ei?oioe?y caa?iaeo?
iaoe?iiaeuei?e aaciaoe?, ?aaeueii i?ioenoi?oue eiinoeoooe?eiiio ?
noni?eueiiio eaaeo, ? i?e/eiith iaaoaaeiai c?inoaiiy a Oe?a?i?
o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee, i?iieea? o aeaaei? ?inoeoooe??, caeo/ath/e o nai?
n?o? ie?aieo iie?oe/ieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo ae?y/?a.

Aino?ioa caaaeaii? i?iaeaie, iaaeinoaoi? ?acoeueoaoe ai?ioueae
aea?aeaaieo neeiaeo a?aeiinoa c ei?oioe??th iio?aaothoue aeeaieiai
inieneaiiy oeueiai oaiiiaia, a?aeoiaeo a?ae oi?iaeueii-th?eaee/iiai eiai
?icoi?iiy, ine?eueee i?aea?oioy aeaiiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeua aeoiaeeoue
aeaeaei ca iaae? i?aaiaeo aeicaie?a-caai?ii, nyaath/e aeeaeiieo
nioe?aeueieo, iie?oe/ieo oa aeiiii?/ieo i?ioean?a, ui iathoue i?noea a
noni?euenoa?. Naia oiio a aeine?aeaeaii? aeena?oaioii c?iaeaia ni?iaa
i?iaiae?coaaoe ei?oioe?th ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia yaeua o ca’yceo c
noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie, aeie?aieoe aeey aea/aiiy oa inieneaiiy ??
iniiae, nioe?aeueiee i?ino?? iioe?aiiy, ci?no, nooi?noue ? noa’?eoe.

A?aoiaoth/e o?ainiaoe?iiaeueiee oa?aeoa? ei?oioe??, i?aai?ciaai? oi?ie
?? i?iyao, aenieee ??aaiue aeooaeueiino? aeaii? i?iaeaie aeey
i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e oa e?a?i ?icaeiaii? aeaiie?ao??, a oaeiae
iie?oe/i?, i?aaia? oa i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aeoe/i? caoiaee, ui
cae?eniththoueny ieie oa i?aaiaie e onoaiiaaie Oe?a?ie uiaei ai?ioueae c
iath, o aeine?aeaeaii? ii?ooothoueny ieoaiiy ? aecia/athoueny iaoai?cie
oa nenoaia ?inoeooo?a, caeaoieo iaeneiaeueii caoceoe iaae? ? iiaeeeaino?
i?iyao oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeua.

Aeooaeueiei oaeiae ? ieoaiiy cai?iaaaeaeaiiy nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ca
ae?yeuei?noth oaeeo ?inoeooo?a, aeani?noue ?o ?iaioe oa a?aooaaiiy
noni?eueii? aeoiee. Naia c iaoith ia’?eoeaiiai ni?eeiyooy i?ioean?a, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi??, aeyaeaiiy ye iiceoeaieo, oae ?
iaaaoeaieo eiai oaiaeaioe?e iaoeiaa aeine?aeaeaiiy i???ioo?oueny oa
ni?yiiao?oueny, nie?ath/enue ia iie?oieia?/iee aniaeo, ia c’ynoaaiiy
nooiino?, ia’?eoeaieo ? noa’?eoeaieo /eiiee?a ei?oioe??. E?eoe/ia
inieneaiiy o?oaeiiu?a ? noia?a/iinoae ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa,
aaceiii?ii?ni? iaoeia? iiooee oa ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? uiaei iiaeieaiiy
caaaeaiiai yaeua a Oe?a?i? aecia/athoue iaiao?aei?noue i?aai?/iiai
ca’yceo oai?aoe/iiai ni?yioaaiiy ia?aii? oaie c aiae?cii
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? ae?eniino? a iao?e aea?aeaa?.

Noai iaoeiai? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie noni?eueii-iie?oe/iith aeoieith ye
Oe?a?ie, oae ? a?eueoino? e?a?i, ui aeieeee ia oa?aiao eieeoiueiai
N?N?, ne?ae eaae?o?eoaaoe ye iaaeinoaoi?e, ine?eueee ua aeae?eueea ?ie?a
oiio aaaaeaeinue, ui ei?oioe?y ?aaeyinueeiio noni?euenoao ia i?eoaiaiia.
Aeiaaio?eaaea caiia/oaaiiy oaeoe/iiai noaio ei?oiiiaaiino? aeaaeieo
no?oeoo?, i?aaethaaiiy noaoenoe/ieo aeaieo th?eaee/ii? i?aeoeee c iaoith
oi?ioaaiiy o noni?euei?e na?aeiiino? iiceoeaiiai noaaeaiiy aei aea?aeaae
oa ?? aia?aoo a oiiaao oioae?oa?ecio oa a ia?o? ?iee iacaeaaeiino?
Oe?a?ie, iaaecia/ai?noue oeueiai oaiiiaia o a?o/eciyi?e iie?oe/i?e
iaooe? na?ae/aoue i?i a?aenoaaaiiy iaoeiaeo iiooe?a a?ae nioe?aeueiiai
caiiaeaiiy — eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ei?oioe?? ye
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua, aecia/aiiy ae??aeo iaoai?ci?a ??
iiaeieaiiy oa noai?aiiy a?aeiia?aeiiai iie?oeei-i?aaiaiai ? ii?aeueiiai
i?inoi?o aeey ?aae?caoe?? a nioe?aeuei?e i?aeoeoe? aecia/aeueieo
i?eioeei?a aeaiie?aoecio, ia?iaeiiai noaa?ai?oaoo, aa?oiaainoaa i?aaa ?
caeiio. Ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o i’yoe ?ie?a ie?ai? aniaeoe ei?oioe?? a
Oe?a?i? noaee i?aaeiaoii aeeneon?e na?aae th?eno?a oa aeiiii?no?a,
aeei?enoiaothoueny a ai?iouea? ca aeaaeo iie?oeeaie-iiioe?noaie, aea
a?oioiaieo iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie c oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee iiee ui a?aeo?.

Ei?oioe?y ia? aeaai? o?aaeeoe??, c’yaeaoenue ?acii c iiyaith aea?aeaae
oa ?? i?ioan?eiiai oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo, ? e?au? oie iiia?aaei?o aiio
ia iiaee ia iii?oeoe ?? iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane.
Nooi?noue a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae, ieoaiiy
aaeineiiaeaiiy aeaaee oa ?? no?oeoo? c iaoith aa?aiooaaiiy ?
caaacia/aiiy i?e?iaeieo i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie, oi?i i?aae?iiy oa
aea?aeaaiiai ono?ith o??th /e i??ith aeine?aeaeoaaeenue A??noioaeai,
Oeeoea?iiii, I.Iae?aaaee?, A.Ni?iicith, O.Aiaanii, Aeae. Eieeii,
O.Iiioane’?, A.Aaaaeai, O.Oaee?iaii, E.Ia?enii, O.Aiaaeuenii, A.A?aio?,
Ae.*eaeaanueeei, A.E?noyeianueeei, A.Nieiaeiaei, I.Ea?aic?iei oa ?ioeie
ieneeoaeyie ieioeiai.

C’ynoaaiiy i?iaeai nooiino? noni?euenoaa ? eiai ?inoeooo?a, ?ic?iaea
iiaeaeae nioe?aeueii? ceaaiaee ? aaciaee aoee i?aaeiaoii iaoeiaeo
iiooe?a N.I??oianueeiai-?ienieueia, O.Aeoainueeiai, I.Einoiia?iaa,
I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, ?.O?aiea, Ae.Aeiioeiaa, I.Ieoiianueeiai, A.Aeiie/aiea,
I.A?ooaanueeiai oa ?o no/aniee?a o ia??iae iiaaeaiiy ?in?enueeiai
naiiaea?aeaanoaa oa ni?ia iiaoaeiae Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Iaoai?ci aca?iiae?? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa oa i?aaiai? aea?aeaae
aeeaiei aeine?aeaeo?oueny a i?aoeyo A.A.Aioiiaiea, A.Ae.Aaae?ia,
A.TH.Aa?eiaa, I.I.Iieeyea, I.I. Ie?iiaiea, TH.?.?eia?aiea, O.I.?oaee/a,
A.O.N??aiea oa ?i. Iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue i?aoe? A.?.A?eai?’?aa,
A.I.Iaiiaa, A.A.O?e?iiiaa, a yeeo aiae?cothoueny iniaeeaino? iie?oe/ii?
aeaaee, a oaeiae i?aoe? ?.I.Aa/eei, I.I.Eeca?iaa, AE.O.Oiuaiea,
A.I.*o?aaaeca, E.I.THcueeiaa i?enay/ai? aiae?co nooiino? aeaaee oa
oi?ae?iiy.

A i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii aeei?enoai? i?aoe? c i?iaeai aaiace
i?aaiai? aea?aeaae oa a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, cie?aia
N.N.Aeaen??aa, A.Ae.Aaae?ia, O.A.Ao?eaoeueeiai, A.A.Aa?eaae?ia,
Ae.?.Aeae??ia, E.N.Aaaeaee?aa, E.A.Aoaa?nueeiai, A.?.Eanueyia,
A.A.E?aiaiy, A.A.Eii?e/eeiaa, A.?.Eioethaeinueeiai, I.?.Iaiioe,
I.?.Ieoaeue/aiea, I.I.Iieeyea, TH.?.?eia?aiea, A.A.Noieueeiaa,
?.A.Oeoiiiai?, TH.N.Oaioo/aiea, A.I.Uaae?iaa, A.?.Oeiea?oea,
O.I.Ooeueaeaiea.

Aaciina?aaeiueiio inieneaiith ei?oioe?? ye iie?oe/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai oa
i?aaiaiai yaeua i?enay/ai? ?iaioe a?aeiieo a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo
a/aieo — E.Aaae??aa, A.Aa?aea, I.Aa?oioeia, A.Aooaiea, A.Aieiao?aa,
A.Ao?iaa, I.Aeoaea?iaa, A.Eae?i?ia, A.Eii?na?iaa, I.Eociaoeiai?,
A.Eaiaieiaa, A.Iaeeiaa, I.Iaeueieea, I.Iaeethaeiaa, A.Iiaeue/aiea,
N.Ae.Ioiaeay, E.Iaooa?a, E.No?eiaa, ?.Oaiiiaa, TH.Oeoiie?iaa,
I.Aeaea?ae?, N.??ei, Ae.Aeuea?i?, I.Eaa?ia, Aeae.Ia?o?ia, ?.?iaeaea?na,
E.?icia?a, E.Nia?ana, I.Aiaeaeaeiaa oa ?i.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoaii oaeiae ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco aeayeeo
aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?i oa i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e. Aiaeii/an aaoi?ii
aiae?coaaeinue a?o/eciyia caeiiiaeaanoai, ui ?aaoeth? ae?yeuei?noue c
ieoaiue ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th, a oaeiae eiai a?aeiia?aei?noue aeiiaai
aeieoiaio?a I?aai?caoe?? Ia’?aeiaieo Iaoe?e, ?aaee ?a?iie oa ??oaiiyi
eiioa?aioe?e ? neiiic?oi?a c i?iaeai ei?oioe?? a No?anao?c?, Ia?eae?,
I?ac?, E?i?, Eiiaeii? oa Ee?a?.

Aii??e/io aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue iaoa??aee aiae?co iie?oe/ii?,
nioe?aeueii? oa aeiiii?/ii? noa?, noaio oa ?icaeoeo aaeocae
iaoa??aeueiiai ? aeooiaiiai ae?iaieoeoaa, i?aaicanoinia/i? i?aeoeee
noaeiaeo ? i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, ?acoeueoaoe aea/aiiy oa ocaaaeueiaiiy
noaio ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th a ?yae? ?aa?ii?a (i?noao Ee?a? oa Iaean?,
Aeiiaoeuee?e, ??aiainuee?e, Ee?anuee?e Eoaainuee?e, Euea?anuee?e,
Iaeanuee?e, *a?eanuee?e, *a?i?aaoeuee?e, Oa?uee?anuee?e iaeanoyo,
Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?ee E?ei) oa a aea?aeaa? a oe?eiio, cae?eniai?
aeena?oaioii.

Ia’?eoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? ei?oioe?y ye
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia yaeua, ?? nooi?noue oa ci?no.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaiacen ei?oioe??, ?? oaiaeaioe??, oi?ie
iioe?aiiy ? i?iyao a noni?euenoa?, oa?aeoa? ? aeeaeia aieeao ia
iie?oe/i? i?ioeane.

Aieiaiith iaoith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? inieneaiiy ei?oioe?? ia iniia?
iie?oieia?/iiai oai?aoeei-aii??e/iiai aiae?co ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
yaeua, c’ynoaaiiy eiai i?e?iaee, nioe?aeueii? aace aeieeiaiiy oa
iioe?aiiy; iaoeiai iaa?oioiaaia ?ic?iaea iaoai?ci?a iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe??
ye oiiae oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae ?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Aecia/aia iaoa aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeea iinoaiiaeo oa ?ica’ycaiiy
ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— eiiieaenii aeine?aeeoe noai no/aniiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai i?inoi?o
oa i?ioean?a, ui iathoue i?noea o iueiio, aeyaeoe oiiae ? /eiieee, ye?
ni?eythoue ?? aeieeiaiith ? iioe?aiith;

— c’ynoaaoe nioe?aeueio i?e?iaeo ? nooi?noue ei?oioe??, ?? ci?no ?
iciaee, aecia/eoe ?? iiiyooy;

— i?iaiae?coaaoe noai ei?oioe??, ?? iniaeeaino? oa oaiaeaioe??,
c’ynoaaoe oi?ie i?iyao;

— aecia/eoe noa’?eoe ei?oioe?eieo i?iya?a;

— ?ice?eoe ca’ycie ei?oioe?? c ?ioeie iaaaoeaieie nioe?aeueieie yaeuaie:
i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth ? iao??th ye oaeoi?aie caa?ice nioe?aeuei?e
aaciaoe? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa;

— cae?enieoe eiiieaeniee, ii??aiyeueiee oa nenoaiiee aiae?c aieea?a
ei?oioe?? ia i?ioeane ui a?aeaoaathoueny a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio
i?inoi??;

— ocaaaeueieoe aii??e/iee iaoa??ae ae?yeueiino? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a
ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th ? ciaioaiiy ?? iaaaoeaiiai aieeao ia i?ia?aneai?
nioe?aeuei? i?ioeane;

— aecia/eoe oai?eoe/i? canaaee iie?oe/iiai oa i?aaiaiai iiaeaethaaiiy
iai?yi?a, oeyo?a oa iaoai?ci?a iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i?.

Iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieeaaeai? i?eioeeie oa iniiai? eaoaai??? ae?aeaeoe/iiai i?ciaiiy
nioe?aeueieo yaeu ? i?ioean?a, a oaeiae iioieia?/iee, aen?ieia?/iee,
nenoaiiee, ?iaeoeoeaiee, aeaaeoeoeaiee, ooieoe?iiaeueiee,
ii??aiyeueii-aii??e/iee oa ?io? oai?aoe/i? iaoiaee ye o?einionueeiai,
caaaeueiiiaoeiaiai, oae ? eiie?aoii-iaoeiaiai oa?aeoa?o.

Cae?enithth/e aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeena?oaio aeei?enoiaoaaa iie?oieia?/i?
i?eioeeie, ui ?iiiaaoe?eii canoiniaothoueny iia?oiueith noni?eueiith
iaoeith ? ni?yiiaai?, ia?o ca ana, ia ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/ieo canaae, ia
yeeo a?oioothoueny iaoeia? ?ic?iaee uiaei c’ynoaaiiy nooiino? i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae, a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a oa
i?ioean?a, iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, aa?aiooaaiiy e caaacia/aiiy i?aa ?
naiaiae ethaeeie ? a?iiaaeyieia a nioe?oi?. Cacia/aiee i?aeo?ae, a
oaeiae aeania aa/aiiy ia?aii? aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie aeaee
aeena?oaioo ciiao ae?iaeoe iaoiaeieia?th oai?aoeei-i?eeeaaeiiai aiae?co
ei?oioe?? ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua ? ae??oeoe iinoaaeai? a
iaoeia?e ?iaio? caaaeaiiy.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia iniia? cai?iiiiiaaiiai
aaoi?ii iaoiaeieia?/iiai i?aeoiaeo noai?aia oe?e?nia iie?oe/ia
eiioeaioe?y aa/aiiy ei?oioe??, a ?aieao yei? io?eiai? iia? oai?aoe/i?
?acoeueoaoe ? aeniiaee, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.

— O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? aecia/a?oueny, ui ei?oioe?y — oea
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia yaeua, ci?noii yeiai ? iaoiiaeaia iie?oe/ieie,
aeiiii?/ieie, nioe?aeueieie ? ineoieia?/ieie oaeoi?aie nenoaia
iaaaoeaieo iiaeyae?a, ia?aeiiaiue, onoaiiaie ? ae?yiue ie?aieo
a?iiaaeyi, iinaaeiaeo in?a aeaaeieo ?inoeooo?a, aea?aeaaieo ?
iaaea?aeaaieo i?aai?caoe?e, iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, ni?yiiaaieo ia caaeiaieaiiy iniaenoeo ei?eneeaeo, a?oiiaeo
aai ei?ii?aoeaieo ?ioa?an?a oeyoii i?aeeoio, oaaa?ieoeoaa, ceiaaeeaaiiy
aeaaeith, iaaeaiiy i?euea ? ia?aaaa anoia?a/ noni?eueiei ?ioa?anai.

-Aeiaaaeaii, ui ei?oioe?y i?iaeoeo?oueny a nioe?aeueiiio i?inoi??, yeee
ioiieth? iie?oe/io, aeiiii?/io ? nioe?aeueio noa?e no/aniiai
noni?euenoaa, a ?? aeaoa?i?iaioaie ?:

iie?oe/ia ianoaa?euei?noue ? iano?oeoo?iaai?noue noni?euenoaa, e?eca
iie?oe/ii? aeaaee ? i?ioenoiyiiy ?? a?eie, neaae?noue aeaiie?aoe/ieo
o?aaeeoe?e, iaiaaeai?noue ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa,
a?aenooi?noue iie?oe/ii? aie? aea?aeaaieo ae?y/?a ? iaaeineiiae?noue
?inoeoooo iie?oe/ii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

aeeaiea aeiiii?/ia e?eca noni?euenoaa, iaaecia/ai?noue ia?niaeoea
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, iaoai?ci?a caaacia/aiiy ? aa?aiooaaiiy an?o oi?i
aeaniino?, ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei, iaaeineiiae?noue iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie,
iaaei??ia ?aaeaiaioaoe?y ii?yaeeo noai?aiiy ? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?iaie/eo
? i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?, i?aaaethaaiiy o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee iaae
eaaaeueiith, cia/ia c?inoaiiy o?iueiaiai eai?oaeo, e?eca aaie?anueei?
nenoaie, niaae ae?iaieoeoaa;

nioe?aeueia ianoaa?euei?noue ? iai?oaeai?noue o noni?euenoa?, cia/ia
ciaioaiiy caeiyoino? ? c?inoaiiy aac?ia?ooy, ??cea aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
aeioiae?a ? iaeiiaiai noaio oa iaaeineiiae?noue iaoai?ci?a nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy iacaoeuaieo aa?noa ianaeaiiy;

iaaeineiiae?noue caeiiiaeaanoaa, ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue, iaei?aeoia, aeia?eueia oeoia/aiiy
i?eioeeio Aeicaieaii ana, ui ia caai?iiaii caeiiii, iaocaiaeaeai?noue
? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue iaoe?iiaeueiiai

caeiiiaeaanoaa ii?iai i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa, ui ?aaeaiaioothoue ai?ioueao
c ei?oioe??th;

a?aenooi?noue /?oeiai caeiiiaeaa/iai aecia/aiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ?
ooieoe?e aeaaeieo i?aai?a aea?aeaae oa ?o iinaaeiaeo in?a, a oaeiae
?inoeooo?a nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth iaae iie?oe/iith aeaaeith;

?oeioaaiiy ii?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, iaaeinoaoi?e ??aaiue
iie?oe/ii? oa i?aaiai? eoeueoo?e noni?euenoaa.

— Aeiaaaeaii iaiaaeai?noue ? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue nioe?aeuei?e i?aeoeoe?
aecia/aiiai oai?aoe/iith iaoeiaith ? th?eaee/iith i?aeoeeith iiiyooy
noa’?eoa ei?oioe?? ye iniaeeaiai ?iaeo noni?eueieo a?aeiinei.
Iaa?oioiaaii, ui oaeei noa’?eoii ? o?ce/ia iniaa, yea aiane?aeie nai?o
neoaeaiaeo iaia’yce?a cae?enith? ooieoe?? i?aaenoaaieea iaei??? c a?eie
aeaaee, i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, e?aea?a iie?oe/ii? ia?o?? /e
a?iiaaenueei? i?aai?caoe??, aai aeeiio? i?aai?caoe?eii-?icii?yae/? /e
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-ainiiaea?/? ooieoe?? a aaieao, ia i?aei?e?inoaao, a
i?aai?caoe?yo, onoaiiaao ? iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeao iacaeaaeii a?ae oi?i
aeaniino?, ae?yiiy aai a/eiee yei? ca iaaio aeiaai?iaeo iathoue
eiie?aoi? i?ioei?aai?, aii?aeuei? oa noni?eueii iaaacia/i? iane?aeee, a
oaeiae th?eaee/i? oa o?ce/i? iniae, ye? oeyoii i?aeeoio iinaaeiaeo in?a
i?ioei?aaii iaea?aeothoue i?eueae, ia?aaaae oa ?io? aeaaa.

— Iaa?oioiaaii, ui oi?iaie i?iyao ei?oioe?? ?: oaaa?ieoeoai; aoa?e c
o?iainaie ? i?eoiaoaaiiy aaethoii? ae?o/ee; ?ice?aaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
aai eieaeoeaiiai iaeia; ooeeaiiy a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a; ceiaaeeaaiiy
aeaaeith aai neoaeaiaei noaiiaeuai; neoaeaiaee i?aeeia; aeiiaaoaeuenoai;
aieea ia iie?oe/i? i?ioeane oeyoii caaacia/aiiy ia?aiiae o aeai?ao aei
i?aai?a i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaiie?ao?? i?aaenoaaiee?a cei/eiieo
oa?oiiaaiue ? eo?oioe?iia??a; aeei?enoaiiy ?nioth/eo oa noai?aiiy
niaoe?aeueieo a?oi oeneo, eia?thaaiiy aea?aeieo ??oaiue ? i?eeiyooy
iaaieo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a.

— Anoaiiaeaii, ui ei?oioe?y o?nii iia’ycaia c i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth oa iao??th, ye? noeioeththoue ?? ?nioaaiiy ? iioe?aiiy,
i?aeo?eiothoue iaoa??aeueii, ?aae?cothoue /a?ac a?eieii??oeaaeo
ei?oiiiaaieo /eiiaiee?a na?e cei/eiiee ?ioa?an, oei??iththoue ca ?o
aeiiiiiaith a i?aaie iie?oe/ii? oa aea?aeaaii? aeaaee nai?o
i?aaenoaaiee?a aeey caaacia/aiiy i?ioei?aaii? ae?yeueiino?, iniaenoiai
aieeao ia nioe?aeuei?, iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? i?ioeane.

— Iaa?oioiaaii, ui aoaeoeai?noue coneeue uiaei iiaeieaiiy
iaaaoeaiiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua, yea aeine?aeaeo?oueny,
cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae cae?eniaiiy iie?oe/ii?, a oaeiae
aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie oa ?? neeaaeiaeo: aaei?i?no?aoeaii?,
ia?eaiaionueei?, ioi?oeeiaeueii? oa noaeiai-i?aaiai? ?aoi?ie; /?oeiai
i?aaiaiai aecia/aiiy iiaiiaaaeaiue ? ooieoe?e iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a oa
?o iinaaeiaeo in?a; cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo i?eioeei?a oi?aae?iiy
noni?eueieie ni?aaaie, noai?aiiy oiia anaa?/iiai ?icaeoeo no?oeoo?
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ao?eaiiy ae??aiai iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai
eiio?ieth ca aeaaeieie ?inoeoooe?yie.

— Aeiaaaeaii iaaeineiiae?noue th?eaee/ieo i?eien?a-caai?ii ?
iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee iiaeo ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a, ui
?aaeaiaioothoue ai?ioueao c ei?oioe??th, eiioeaiooaeueiith iniiaith yeeo
iiaeiii aooe ia aeieoiaiooaaiiy iane?aee?a oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua, a noai?aiiy oiia, ui aeeeth/athoue
iiaeeea?noue ei?oioe?eieo i?iya?a, aa?aiooaaiiy ? caaacia/aiiy i?aaa
a?iiaaeyi ia ia’?aeiaiiy o iie?oe/i? ia?o?? oa a?iiaaenuee? i?aai?caoe??
aeey caoenoo nai?o i?aa ? naiaiae oa caaeiaieaiiy aeanieo ?ioa?an?a.

— Iaa?oioiaaii iaiao?aei?noue i?aaiaiai iaiaaeaiiy aea?aeaae ia ei?enoue
?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, eaaae?caoe?? ? caeiiiaeaa/iai
a?aaoethaaiiy an?o noi??i nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a: eia?cio,
o?iainoaaiiy iie?oe/ii? ae?yeueiino?, noai?aiiy oa aeiiii?/ii?
i?aeo?eiee cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??, i?ici?ino? iie?oe/ii?
ae?yeueiino?, aaeineiiaeaiiy aeai?/i? nenoaie ye ia?aaeoiia ?icaeoeo
iaoa??aeueieo ? aeooiaieo aeaiaio?a iie?oe/ii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa.

Oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa?
a oiio, ui ?icaeyioo? a iueiio iieiaeaiiy iaaoaathoue aaaeeeaiai
cia/aiiy a eiioaeno? o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/aniiai oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, aaeaea ei?oioe?y ? iaaeoi iaaacia/iith caa?icith
nioe?aeuei?e, iie?oe/i?e ? aeiiii?/i?e noa?ai, aeooiaiei oe?iiinoyi
noni?euenoaa, noa? iaeiei c iniiaieo oaeoi??a ianoaa?eueiino? a
aea?aeaa?, caa?iaeoth/e a?iiaaeyinueeiio noni?euenoao. ?acoeueoaoe
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai
aeaaaeaieo, iioeiaeueieo iaoai?ci?a iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe??, i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?iaioe iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a.

Aiie oaeoe/ii onoaathoue iayai? a iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo iaeiia?/i?, ni?iuai?
iiaeyaee ia nooi?noue ei?oioe?? ye /enoi e?ei?iaeueia aai
aaei?i?no?aoeaia yaeua, ?? neiii?i?caoe?th c? cei/eii?noth neoaeaiaith.

Aeniiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey ?ic?iaee iiaiai
aioeei?oioe?eiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, cie?aia i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaiaeo iniia
ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th; cae?eniaiiy aaei?i?no?aoeaii?, ia?eaiaionueei?,
ioi?oeeiaeueii? ? noaeiai-i?aaiai? ?aoi?i, aecia/aiiy nenoaie,
no?oeoo?e, iiaiiaaaeaiue ? ooieoe?e iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a noni?euenoaa,
neeiaeo no?oeoo? aea?aeaae, iieeeeaieo caaacia/eoe aa?oiaainoai i?aaa ?
caeiio, iie?oe/i?, nioe?aeuei?, aeiiii?/i? oa iniaeno? i?aaa a?iiaaeyi.
Aiie iathoue iaoiaeieia?/ia cia/aiiy aeey nioe?aeueiiai oa iie?oe/iiai
i?ciaiiy nooiino? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ? i?aaiai? aea?aeaae,
c’ynoaaiiy i?iaeai, ui oiaiiaeeeaeththoue aai no?eiothoue i?ioean ?o
iiaoaeiae, aeey aecia/aiiy oeyo?a ? iaoai?ci?a ae??oaiiy caaaeaieo
i?iaeai. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeooue aooe
aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? oai??? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a ? iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a, a oaeiae /eoaii? eo?n?a Iie?oieia?y oa Nioe?aeueia o?einio?y.

Ai?iaaoe?y iieiaeaiue ? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? aeniiaee oa
iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? i?noyoueny a iaoeiaeo ioae?eaoe?yo.
Eiioeaiooaeuei? iai?aoethaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia
can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo nioe?aeueii? o?einio?? ?inoeoooo o?einio?? ?i.
A.Neiai?iaee IAI Oe?a?ie a 1995-1998 ??. Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy
c o/anoth aeena?oaioa i?aeaioiaeaii ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iaoa??aee, ye? iiaeaii
I?aceaeaioo Oe?a?ie (I?i o?ae aeeiiaiiy Iaoe?iiaeueii? i?ia?aie
ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th a Oe?a?i?) oa Aieia? eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai eii?oaoo
ii ai?iouea? c ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth i?e
I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie (I?i aeeiiaiiy caeii?a Oe?a?ie I?i ai?ioueao c
ei?oioe??th oa I?i aea?aeaaio neoaeao I?i?noa?noaaie ? Aea?aeaaieie
Eii?oaoaie Oe?a?ie). Aiaeii/an cae?eniaii aeiiii?/iee ? e?ei?iieia?/iee
aiae?ce ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i? oa ?ic?iaeaii i?iiiceoe?? uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a ?? iiaeieaiiy, ye? oaeiae iiaeai? ia ?icaeyae
Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai eii?oaoo.

E??i oiai, ca ?acoeueoaoaie aea/aiiy c aaciina?aaeiueith o/anoth aaoi?a
noaio ei?oioe?? ? i?e/ei ?? c?inoaiiy a iaea?eueoeo ?aa?iiao e?a?ie
(Aaoiiiii?e ?anioae?oe? E?ei, Aeiiaoeuee?e, Aei?i?iiao?ianuee?e,
Eoaainuee?e, Iaeanuee?e, Oa?e?anuee?e ? *a?i?aaoeuee?e iaeanoyo)
i?aeaioiaeai? a?aeiia?aei? aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee, ye? ?icaeyioo? ia
?icoe?aieo can?aeaiiyo Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai eii?oaoo ca o/anoth I?aceaeaioa
Oe?a?ie, aeaa iaeaea?aeaaei?i?no?aoe?e, ea??aiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo
a?aeiinoa aea?aeaae o ethoiio 1998 ?. o i.Ee?a? oa a eenoiiaae? 1998 ?.
o i.Oa?eia?.

Ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi?ii i?aeaioiaeaii i?iaeo Caeiio Oe?a?ie I?i
aianaiiy ci?i ? aeiiiaiaiue aei Caeiio Oe?a?ie I?i ai?ioueao c
ei?oioe??th oa i?iiiceoe?? Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie uiaei
aaeineiiaeaiiy Eiioeaioe?? ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th a Oe?a?i?.

?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo iiooe?a aaoi?a c iacaaii? i?iaeaie aena?oethaaeenue
o eiai aenooi? ia i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? I?iaeaie
aa?iii?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii, i?iaaaeai?e
?inoeoooii caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie a aeiaoi? 1998 ?. ia
nai?ia?ao c i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeei neeaaeii Ee?anueeiai
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai Oi?aa?neoaoo.

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe coiiaeaia ?? iaoith oa caaaeaiiyie ? neeaaea?oueny c?
anooio, aeaio ?icae?e?a, ui iathoue o?noue i?ae?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae.

Ci?no aeena?oaoe??. O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue aea?aii?
oaie, i?iaiae?ciaaii nooi?iue ?? ?ic?iaee a iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo??,
aecia/athoueny iaoa, caaaeaiiy, ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai
iaoiaeieia?/ia iniiaa oa iaoeia? aeaea?aea, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa oa
aii??e/ia aace, ?ice?eaathoueny iaoeiaa iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa
i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?iaioe, oi?ie ai?iaaoe?? ?? ?acoeueoao?a.

Ia?oee ?icae?e — “Oai?aoe/i? ieoaiiy aiae?co nooiino? ei?oioe??“ ?
oai?aoe/iith iniiaith aeena?oaoe??. O eiai ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? —
“Iiiyooy, nooi?noue oa ci?no ei?oioe??” — aiae?co?oueny
?noi?eei-iie?oieia?/iee aniaeo oeueiai yaeua ia iniia? aiae?co
oeiieia?? aea?aeaae oa ?? ?inoeooo?a, a oaeiae c o?aooaaiiyi i?e?iaee,
?en ? aeanoeainoae ethaeae, caeiyoeo i?ioan?eiith oi?aae?inueeith
ae?yeuei?noth, c’yniao?oueny nooi?noue ? ci?no ei?oioe??, ye neeaaeiiai
? noia?a/eeaiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai oaiiiaia, ui ?nio? a aea?aeaa?
oaeoe/ii c /ano ?? aeieeiaiiy oa oi?ioaaiiy i?ioan?eiiai oi?aae?inueeiai
aia?aoo, iaae?eaiiai aeaaeii-?icii?yae/eie ooieoe?yie. Aaoi? aiae?co?
no/ani? iiaeyaee ia oea iiiyooy, iiae?eyth/e ?o ia o?e a?oie.

Ia?oa — oea iiaeyaee, ye? ? a ??oaiiyo ? ?aciethoe?yo i?aeia?iaeieo
i?aai?caoe?e. ?o ocaaaeueithth/a nooue iieyaa? a oiio, ui oea neeaaeia,
aaaaoianiaeoia yaeua, yea aeyaey?oueny ia o?eueee a eiie?aoieo ae?yiiyo,
a e o a?aeoeeai? iiaaae?iee iinaaeiaeo in?a a?ae nioe?aeueieo ?
eoeueoo?ieo oe?iiinoae noni?euenoaa.

Aaoi?e ae?oai? a?oie iiaeyae?a ?icaeyaeathoue ei?oioe?th ye /enoi
cei/eiio ae?yeuei?noue o noa?? iie?oeee aai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy, a
ie?ai? c ieo oaeoe/ii ioioiaeiththoue ?? c oaaa?ieoeoaii.

Aeena?oaio e?eoe/ii aiae?co? oa ioe?ith? oae? iiaeyaee ia nooi?noue ?
ci?no ei?oioe?? ?, iiae?eyth/e iiaeyaee o?aouei? a?oie a/aieo, a?oioiaii
aeiaiaeeoue, ui ni?iaa aoeniooe ei?oioe?th a ?aiee aeeeth/ii
e?ei?iaeueieo i?iya?a ? iaeiei ?c iaeiiieeeia?oeo oeoia/aiue. A?i
aaaaea?, ui ei?oioe?y ye neeaaeia nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia yaeua ? cia/ii
neeaaei?oei ooai?aiiyi, i?ae noeoii?noue /enoi e?ei?iaeueieo i?iya?a.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny oi/ea ci?o, ca?aeii c yeith ei?oioe?y — oea, a ia?oo
/a?ao, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia yaeua, eiai aieiaiith iniaeea?noth ?
aeei?enoaiiy iinaaeiaeie iniaaie caeiiiaeaa/i?, aeeiiaa/i? oa noaeiai?
aeaaee, a oaeiae a?iiaaenueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e
ainiiaea?nueeiai oi?aae?iiy an?o oi?i aeaniino? naiai neoaeaiaiai
noaiiaeua aeey iaea?aeaiiy iaoa??aeueieo oe?iiinoae, iineoa /e i?euea
aeey naaa aai o?ao?o in?a.

A iniia? ei?oioe?? eaaeaoue oae? a?eia? o?aaeeoe?? aca?iia?aeiinei o
noni?euenoa?, ye “Iineoaa ca iineoao”, “Oe iai? — y oia?” ? o.?. Oiio
oea i?ioei?aaia ae?yiiy, ye i?aaeei, ia ni?e/eith? nea?a, ine?eueee
noi?iie iaea?aeothoue aca?iio aeaiaeo. Eaoaioi?noue — ?? iniiaia
iniaeea?noue, ui cia/ii oneeaaeith? ai?ioueao c iath.

Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an ia? aecia/aiiy a aeena?oaoe?? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
iiiyoue “ei?oioe?y” ? “iao?y”. Na?aae cia/ii? /anoeie aeine?aeiee?a
oaiiiaia ei?oioe?? iiaooo? aeoiea i?i oa, ui oe? aeaa iiiyooy — iaeia ?
oa ae yaeua. Aeena?oaio iiae?ey? oi/eo ci?o aaaaoueio caei?aeiiieo
a/aieo (Ae.Aeuea?i?, ?.?iaeaea?na), ca?aeii c yeith i?aea ia ?nio?
?aeeii?, oeaio?ae?ciaaii? a iaoe?iiaeueiiio ianooaa? cei/eiii?
i?aai?caoe??, yeo iaceaathoue “iao?y”. Oea nei??oa aecia/aiiy iaoiaeo
cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?. Eaeaoueny, ui oi/a iao?y ? aeei?enoiao? ca’ycee
c ei?oiiiaaiei aea?aeaaiei aia?aoii, aea ?? cei/eiiee a?cian
?ic?aoiaaiee, ianaiia?aae, ia aeani? neee ? caniae. Iao?? ia aeanoeaa
?ioaineaia aenieoaoaoe?y aea?aeaaieo no?oeoo? c iaoith caaaa/aiiy, ui
i?eoaiaiia ei?oioe??.

Aaaeeeaei o oai?aoe/iiio ? i?aeoe/iiio ieai? ? aena?oeaiiy ieoaiiy i?i
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy ei?oioe?? oa i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?, ine?eueee aiii
ni?ey? iaoiaee/iiio caaacia/aiith oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeueii? no?aoaa??
i?ioeae?? eiaeiiio c oeeo nioe?aeueieo yaeu. Aaoi? aeio?eio?oueny oi/ee
ci?o, ca?aeii c yeith ei?oioe?y ? iaeiei ?c iniiaieo aeaiaio?a
i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino?. Ca’ycie i?ae ei?oiiiaaieie aea?aeaaieie
neoaeaiaoeyie oa i?aai?ciaaieie cei/eiieie oa?oiiaaiiyie cae?enith?oueny
/a?ac a?aeiineie, iia’ycai? c iaaeaiiyi ??ciiiai?oieo eaio, e?oeaic?e,
aeicaie?a, e?aaeeo?a, caiaeueieo ae?eyiie, noaneae?e, i?eeiyooyi
iio??aieo ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a, eia?thaaiiyi aeanieo ?ioa?an?a a i?aaiao
oi?aae?iiy ? aeaaee. A?i i?iyaey?oueny , ia?o ca ana. o oi?i? caoenoo
cei/eiieo oa?oiiaaiue a?ae nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth oeyoii i?aeeoio
iinaaeiaeo in?a i?aai?a aea?aeaaii? aeaaee, oi?aae?iiy, eiio?ieth,
i?aaiioi?iiieo i?aai?a, oeyoii ?iciiae?eo noa? aieeao oiui.

Aaoi? ?icaeyaea? ei?oioe?th, ?iaey/e aeoeaio a iniiaiiio ia o?ueio ??
aniaeoao:

iie?oe/iiio, yeee ae?aaea?oueny a i?iieeiaii? in?a e?ei?iaeueii?
i?e?ioaoe?? a no?oeoo?e iie?oe/ii? aeaaee ? aeei?enoaii? ?o iiaeeeainoae
aeey caaeiaieaiiy nai?o cei/eiieo iio?aa;

nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio, ui iieyaa? o niioai?aii? (aee?eaeaii?)
ei?oiiiaaiei aea?aeaia?aoii nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ??oaiue aea?aeaae,
a oaeiae /eneaiiei aeiaaeeai aeiioneo e?ei?iaeueieo aeaiaio?a aei
aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a oi?aae?iiy, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey no/anii? Oe?a?ie;

i?aaiaiio, aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?ia eia?thaaiiy ?ioa?an?a, aaeueioaaiiy
i?eeiyooy iaiao?aeieo caeii?a ? ??oaiue aai i?eeiyooy oaeeo, ui aeathoue
iiaeeea?noue ?o iaiaiaaeaiiai oeoia/aiiy ? aeei?enoaiiy c e?ei?iaeueiith
iaoith.

Oaeei /eiii, ei?oioe?y ia caaaeaee i?iyaey?oueny iaeiaeiai ? ia?
iaeiaeia? iane?aeee oa iioeaaoe?th. Aea eiee ? aea a aiia ia
i?iyaeyeanue, (iacaeaaeii a?ae ??aiy ?icaeoeo e?a?ie), — aiia caaaeaee
oe?aeeeaa ye c iie?oe/ii?, nioe?aeueii?, oae ? c aeiiii?/ii? oi/ee ci?o,
ine?eueee aaaeeea? ??oaiiy i?eeiathoueny ia i?aenoaa? i?eoiaaieo
iioea?a, anoia?a/ noni?eueiei ?ioa?anai. O oeueiio i?ae?icae?e?
aeena?oaoe?? aea?oueny iiaa aecia/aiiy nooiino? oa ci?noo ei?oioe?? a
Oe?a?i?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiai ?icae?eo — “Aeaoa?i?iaioe ei?oioe?? oa
nioe?aeueii — iie?oe/iee i?ino?? ?? ?ai?iaeoeoaaiiy a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?”
— aeine?aeaeothoueny i?e/eie oa oiiae aeieeiaiiy ? noa?a iioe?aiiy
ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i?. Aeine?aeaeo?oueny aieea iie?oe/iiai, nioe?aeueiiai
oa aeiiii?/iiai oaeoi??a ia ??aaiue ei?oioe??, aiae?cothoueny iaaeie?ee
a ooieoe?iioaaii? iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, o noa?? aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?/iith, o?iainiaith oa aaie?anueeith nenoaiaie.

Aaoi? ia iiae?ey? oi/eo ci?o oao?aoe?a, ye? aaaaeathoue, ui ei??iiy
ei?oioe?? a ?? ?aaeyinueeiio ieioeiio. A oioae?oa?iiio ?aaeei?
eieeoiueiai N?N? ei?oioe?y, aacoiiaii, iaea i?noea, ui acaaae?
oa?aeoa?ii aeey aioeaeaiie?aoe/iiai ?aaeeio, aea ?? iayai?noue aeaaeith
io?oe?eii ia aeciaaaeanue c iaoith oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeii? th?eaee/ii?
noaoenoeee, iaa?oiooaaiiy ia?aaaa nioe?ae?noe/iiai niiniao aeeooy,
oi?ioaaiiy iiceoeaii? noni?eueii? aeoiee i?i nioe?ae?noe/i? oe?iiino? ?
aeaaeo. Nueiaiaei? aeaea?aei ei?oioe?? ia a aei?noeino? nenoaie, a a ??
iaaecia/aiino?. Ia?ao?aeiiio aoaio a?aeo? ye caeiiiino?, oae ?
?inoeoooe?eii? neee, ui ? ?acoeueoaoii neaaeino? ? ia?icaeiaiino?
aeaiie?aoe/ieo, iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a oa aaei?i?no?aoeaieo no?oeoo?. Ia
aieiae?th/e aeeaieeie ciaiiyie i?i ?eieia? i?ioeane, iie?oe/ia aeaaea
ia coi?ea noi?ioaaoe iaeaaei? iie?oe/i?, aeiiii?/i? ? nioe?aeuei?
oiiae, ye? aeeeth/aee a iiaeeea?noue ei?oioe??.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeey nioe?aeueii? ia?aaoaeiae ia?ao?aeieo
noni?euenoa oa?aeoa?iei ? ?oeioaaiiy nenoai nioe?aeueieo oe?iiinoae, a
aaeooi, ui ooai?th?oueny ia ?o i?noe?, caiiaith?oueny iiaeie iiaeyaeaie,
ia?aeiiaiiyie ? cae/eaie, ye? a oiiaao no??ieiai ?icaeoeo noni?eueieo
a?aeiinei, aeiiii?/ieo iaaa?acae?a ? nioe?aeueii? iai?oae ia caaaeaee
ca?aathoueny c ?ioa?anaie noni?euenoaa, oeiaey/e eiio. Ia?ao?aeia
noni?euenoai ia? aeoaea neaae? aeaiie?aoe/i? o?aaeeoe??, o iueiio
a?aenooi?e nioe?aeueiee eiio?ieue ca ?inoeoooe?yie aeaaee, iie?oe/ieie
ia?o?yie, ?ooaie, aeiiii?/ieie i?ioeanaie, ui oaae ni?ey? iaaaoeaiei
i?iyaai, o oiio /ene? ei?oioe??.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? iniiai? i?e/eie e?ei?iae?caoe?? iie?oe/ii? oa
aeiiii?/ii? noa?, aecia/a? no?aoaa?/i?, ia eiai iiaeyae, i?i?aooiee a
iie?oe/iiio i?iaiicoaaii? ?aoi?i, ?aoi?ioaaii? aeiiii?ee, ?iaeoue
aeniiaie, ui oeae i?ioean cae?enith?oueny aac aeeaieeo iaoeiaeo
?ic?iaie, i?iaiic?a, nioe?aeueieo ? aeiiii?/ieo ?ic?aooie?a, a oea, a
naith /a?ao, noia?a/eoue i?eioeeiai ?aoi?i. O ?acoeueoao? a?eueo?noue
noa’?eo?a i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? ni?yioaaee nai? coneeey ia o
ae?iaie/ee naeoi?, a o noa?o iina?aaeieoeoaa, oi?a?ae? ? caooo.
Oi?ioaaiiy nioe?aeueieo a?oi aeaniee?a ? i?aei?e?ioe?a a?aeaoaaeiny ia
iniia? ia?a?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a oa aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?, a ia ia aac?
ca?eueoaiiy noni?eueiiai i?iaeoeoo ye ?acoeueoaoo i?aei?e?iieoeueei?
aeoeaiino?. Aea?aeaaa ia aaeeea aoaeue-yeeo na?eicieo ? aoaeoeaieo
caoiae?a uiaei noeioethaaiiy ae?iaie/iai i?aei?e?iieoeoaa. Iaaiaee
iaoai?ci noai?aiiy, ?a?no?aoe??, iiiaeaoeoaaiiy iiaeo noa’?eo?a
ainiiaea?thaaiiy i?aeooiaooaaa ( ? i?iaeiaaeo? i?aeooiaooaaoe)
i?aei?e?ioe?a oa a?cianiai?a aei anyeiai ?iaeo niaeoeyoeaieo iia?aoe?e.

Oaeei /eiii, aeiee ia?aaeien o ?eieia?e o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa:
i?aei?e?iieoeoai, yea a ?icaeiaieo e?a?iao ? aieiaiei ?oo??i
aeiiii?/iiai i?ia?ano, a Oe?a?i? noaei iai?iaeoeoeaiith ? iaa?oue
?oei?aiith neeith, yea eeoa iia??oo? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua
oe?ieeo aa?noa ianaeaiiy ? ? aieiaiei na?aaeiaeuai ei?oioe??.

Cia/ia i?noea a aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaaaeaia iaoeiaiio aiae?co “o?iueiai?”
aeiiii?ee ye aeiiii?/iiai yae?a ei?oioe??. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui oey
aeiiii?ea ye noano?ao ei?oioe??, ?oeio? aeiiii?/io nenoaio aea?aeaae,
aeaoi?io? na?aeii?noue, iiaeeaeth? e?eciaee noai noni?euenoaa. O
aeine?aeaeaii? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui neooaoe?y, yea neeaeany a
e?aaeeoii-aaie?anuee?e nenoai?, noaea oeaio?aeueiith eaieith o
oaoiieia?/iiio eaioethc? ii “a?aeieaaiith” eai?oae?a, caeiaooeo
cei/eiiei oeyoii.

Aiae?coth/e noai ni?aa o aaie?anuee?e nenoai?, aaoi? aeioiaeeoue
aeniiaeo, ui iei?oiy a?ioiai-e?aaeeoia iie?oeea ia a?oioo?oueny ia iiaeo
?eieiaeo iaoiaeao a?ioiai-e?aaeeoiiai ? aaie?anueeiai ianeoaiaoaaiiy, a
?aii?o? ?ioa?ane ae?iaiee?a, ia a?aoiao? neeaaeieo iaoai?ci?a a?ioiaiai
ia?ao, ia aeei?enoiao? ?eieiaeo niinia?a aeeth/aiiy a?ioae a ia?a. C
o?aooaaiiyi i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo, iiaeyae?a o/aieo, oao?aoe?a
aeena?oaio aiineoue ?yae i?iiiceoe?e uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy aaie?anueei?
nenoaie a Oe?a?ie.

O aeena?oaoe?? oe?iei aena?oeththoueny i?iaeaie i?eaaoecaoe??, ye
iaeiiai c iniiaieo “e?aea??a-/eiiee?a” ei?oioe?? ia no/aniiio aoai?
?icaeoeo e?a?ie. I?eaaoecaoe?y, iaiaaeoth/e aeaaeo oa naiaiaeo ae?e
aea?aeaaieo /eiiaiee?a ? iineethth/e eiieo?aioi?noue oa a?aee?eo?noue, ?
neeueiei aioeei?oioe?eiei aaaeaeai. I?ioa a Oe?a?i? aiia noaea iniiaiei
na?aaeiaeuai ei?oioe??. O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny i?e/eie oaeiai
noaio ni?aa. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui aeey ?aoi?ioaaiiy ?inoeoooo
aeaniino? a Oe?a?i?, i?iaaaeaiiy ia oe?e iniia? aeiiii?/ieo ?aoi?i
iaiao?aeii cae?enieoe ?yae i?aai?caoe?eieo ? iie?oe/ieo caoiae?a uiaei
caaacia/aiiy i?ici?ino? oeueiai i?ioeano, nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ca
iei c aieo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e oa ?oo?a. C
oe??th iaoith, ia aeoieo aaoi?a, iaiao?aeii i?eeiyoe iiiaae 50
caeiiiaeaa/eo ? ii?iaoeaieo aeo?a.

O o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Noa’?eoe ei?oioe??” — e??cue i?ecio aiae?co
a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai aeina?aeo ?ice?eaa?oueny cia/aiiy naiiai
iiiyooy noa’?eoa ei?oioe?? ? eiea noa’?eo?a ei?oioe?eieo ae?yiue, aac
/iai i?aeoe/ii iaiiaeeeai aanoe aoaeoeaio ai?ioueao c oeei iaaaoeaiei
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iei yaeuai.

Aaoi? aeiaiaeeoue, ui a oe?a?inueeiio caeiiiaeaanoa? noa?a canoinoaaiiy
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ei?oioe?th iaaei?aaaeaii caoaeaia. Iaiaaeaia
oeoia/aiiy iiiyooy aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey aaaea aei iaiaa?oioiaaiiai
ciaioaiiy noa?e canoinoaaiiy e?ei?iaeueiiai oa aaei?i?no?aoeaiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa, onoaa? iiaeeea?noue eiai aeei?enoaiiy aeey i?eieiaiiy
iinaaeiaeo ceiaaeeaaiue o oaeeo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo aeey aeiiii?ee
aaeocyo, ye aaie?anueea oa o?iainiaa nenoaie, iai?iiia i?iieneia?noue,
o?ainii?o, ca’ycie, iaeeaii-aia?aaoe/iee eiiieaen, aea iacaeiii? ae??
ea??aiee?a iiaeooue ni?e/eieoe cia/ieo caeoe?a ?ioa?anai aea?aeaae ?
a?iiaaeyi.

Eiinoaoo?oueny, ui aeaaaeaiiy ca iaae? eiea noa’?eo?a ei?oioe?eieo
ae?yiue ea??aiee?a i?aei?e?inoa, onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e oa ?o
no?oeoo?ieo i?ae?icae?e?a, ye? ia ? aea?aeaaieie neoaeaiaoeyie, oaeoe/ii
caiaeeoue iai?aaoeue ai?ioueao c ei?oioe??th a aeiiii?oe? ? nioe?aeuei?e
noa??. Iaeii/anii i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui a ?icaeiaieo aeaiie?aoe/ieo
e?a?iao iniaeeaa cia/aiiy iaaea?oueny ai?iouea? c ei?oioe??th na?aae
e?aea??a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, i?ioni?eeiaeo oa ?ioeo a?iiaaenueeeo
i?aai?caoe?e, oiae? ye a oe?a?inueeiio aioeei?oioe?eiiio caeiiiaeaanoa?
oe? iniae iaa?oue ia caaaeothoueny.

Aiae?cothoueny iiaeyaee ia aeaio i?iaeaio i?ia?aeieo a/aieo
(I.O.Eoci?oeiai?, I.?.Iaeueieea, A.?.Iiiiaa, ?io.), aeieoiaioe c
oeueiai i?eaiaeo i?aeia?iaeieo i?aai?caoe?e (I?aeaia?eeainueea
eiiaaioe?y i?ioe ei?oioe??, Eiiaaioe?y ?aaee ?a?iie i?i a?aeieaaiiy,
aeyaeaiiy oa aeeo/aiiy aeioiae?a a?ae cei/eiii? ae?yeueiino?),
a?aeiia?aeia caeiiiaeaanoai NOA, O?aioe??, Oaaeoea???, ?in??, a yeeo ?
naia iiiyooy noa’?eoa ei?oioe??, ? eiei noa’?eo?a ei?oioe?eieo ae?yiue
?icaeyaeathoueny cia/ii oe?oa, i?ae o /eiiiio oe?a?inueeiio
caeiiiaeaanoa? oa no/aniith iie?oe/iith iaoeith.

O aeena?oaoe?? aea?oueny aecia/aiiy noa’?eoa ei?oioe??, aeiaaaeaii
iaiaaeai?noue ? iaa?aeiia?aei?noue nioe?aeuei?e i?aeoeoe? anoaiiaeaiiai
/eiiei caeiiiaeaanoaii eiea noa’?eo?a ei?oioe?eieo ae?yiue,
i?iiiio?oueny a?aeianoe aei ?o /enea, e??i cacia/aieo, o caeii? I?i
ai?ioueao c ei?oioe??th, oaeiae i?aoe?aiee?a i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa,
i?ieo?aoo?e, NAO, ieoii? neoaeae, a?enueeia? iinaaeia? iniae; noaeae?a,
i?aoe?aiee?a eiio?iethth/eo oa iaaeyaeiaeo i?aai?a; in?a, ye? ia?ai? aei
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy; ea??aiee?a aaie?a, i?aei?e?inoa,
onoaiia ? i?aai?caoe?e aea?aeaaii? oa ci?oaii? oi?i aeaniino?; in?a, ye?
iino?eii aai oei/aniai aeeiiothoue aea?aeaai? ooieoe?? ia a?iiaaenueeeo
canaaeao; e?aea??a iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.
?icaeyaea?oueny ?aeay aeeth/aiiy aei eiea noa’?eo?a ei?oioe?eieo
ae?yiue th?eaee/ieo in?a.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? — “Iie?oeei-i?aaia? ieoaiiy iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? a
Oe?a?i?” — aeine?aeaeo?oueny ae?th/a nenoaia iaoai?ci?a uiaei ae??oaiiy
oe??? i?iaeaie oa i?iiiiothoueny iiaeae? ?? aaeineiiaeaiiy. O eiai
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Nenoaia oa aoaeoeai?noue aioeei?oioe?eieo
iaoai?ci?a a iino?aaeyinuee?e Oe?a?i?” — aiae?cothoueny iiaiiaaaeaiiy,
ooieoe?? oa ae?yeuei?noue iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a, a oaeiae i?aai?a ia ye?
aea?aeaaa iieeaaea? iaia’ycee ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th. Cacia/ai? i?aaie
aeena?oaio aiae?co? ia /ioe?ueio ??aiyo, a?aeiiny/e aei ia?oiai —
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, Eii?aeeiaoe?eiee eii?oao ii ai?iouea? c ei?oioe??th
? i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth i?e I?aceaeaioia? Oe?a?ie, Aa?oiaio ?aaeo
Oe?a?ie, Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, Aa?oiaiee Noae Oe?a?ie, Aeuee
A?a?o?aaeiee Noae Oe?a?ie, I?ieo?aoo?o Oe?a?ie; aei ae?oaiai —
i?i?noa?noaa, aea?aeaai? eii?oaoe oa ?io? oeaio?aeuei? a?aeiinoaa
Oe?a?ie; aei o?aoueiai — iaeani? oa i?e??aiyi? aei ieo aea?aeaai?
aaei?i?no?aoe??, ?aaea i?i?no??a Aaoiiiiii? ?anioae?ee E?ei,
a?aeiia?aei? ?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a; aei /aoaa?oiai — aeeiieiie
i?nueeeo ?aae, ?aeiii? aea?aeaai? aaei?i?no?aoe??, i?nuee? oa ?aeii?
?aaee ia?iaeieo aeaiooao?a.

Eiaeai c oeeo noa’?eo?a iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i? ca oiia
iaiaeaaeii? aca?iiae??, a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, i?aeii?yaeeiaaiino? ?
ia/?oei? aecia/aiino? ooieoe?e oa iaia’yce?a i?aoeth? nueiaiaei?
iaaoaeoeaii. Oea, ianaiia?aae, noino?oueny ia?oiai ??aiy i?aai?a, ye?
aecia/athoue aea?aeaaio iie?oeeo, cae?eniththoue caeiiiaeaa/a,
ii?iaoeaia, i?aai?caoe?eia ? iaoa??aeueia caaacia/aiiy aioeei?oioe?eii?
ae?yeueiino? an?o aea?aeaaieo ? i?noeaaeo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy.

Aa?oiaia ?aaea Oe?a?ie a 1991-1998 ??. 23 ?ace ?icaeyaeaea ieoaiiy
iineeaiiy ai?ioueae c? cei/eii?noth. Ca oeae no?ie I?aceaeaioii Oe?a?ie
aoei aeaeaii 16 oeac?a ? ?icii?yaeaeaiue c ieoaiue ai?ioueae c?
cei/eii?coth, a oiio /ene? ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth,
caoaa?aeaeaii ?yae i?ia?ai, o oiio /ene? Iaoe?iiaeueio i?ia?aio
ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th a Oe?a?i?. Ia iaioa i?ae aea?/? ia ??e aeai?
ieoaiiy ?icaeyaeathoueny ia can?aeaiiyo Eii?aeeiaoe?eiiai eii?oaoo ii
ai?iouea? c ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth i?e I?aceaeaioia?
Oe?a?ie, i?eeiathoueny a?aeiia?aei? ??oaiiy.

Eaa?iao I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie, a naith /a?ao, oaeiae ui??/ii, a oi e aea?/?
ia ??e i?eeia? iinoaiiae oa ??oaiiy ?c cacia/aieo ieoaiue. I?ioa,
iaeaaeieo ?acoeueoao?a, ye a?aeiii, iaia?. I?e/eie oeueiai
iaiaeiicia/i?, aea, ianaiia?aae i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia?. Oaeoe/ii a
aea?aeaa? c?iaeaii ni?iao aanoe ai?ioueao c ei?oioe??th
aaei?i?no?aoeaieie caoiaeaie, i?aei?ieoe caeiiiaeaa/a iiea aeaeaiiyi
/eneaiieo oeac?a ? iinoaiia, ye? ia iathoue ? ia iiaeooue iaoe neee oa
aaoi?eoaoo caeiio ? iiaeii? aeaeaaaoenue o?eueee a ii?yaeeo ?aae?caoe??
eiai aeiia.

Aiaeii/an /eiia caeiiiaeaa/a aaca ia caaacia/o? aoaeoeaii? ae?yeueiino?
an?o caoe?eaaeaieo i?aai?a aeaaee oa oi?aae?iiy uiaei aeei??iaiiy
ei?oioe?? o noni?eueiiio aeeoo?. I?eeiyo? Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie
caeiie, iniaeeai I?i aea?aeaaio neoaeao, I?i ai?ioueao c ei?oioe??th,
iano?eueee iaaeineiiae? ? ia a?aeiia?aeathoue i?aeia?iaeiei noaiaea?oai,
ui oaeoe/ii noaee aaeueiii i?e ae??oaii? oe??? i?iaeaie, oi?iaeueii
?i?ooth/e aeaeei?noue i?eeiyooy aioeei?oioe?eieo caeii?a. Iaaei?aaaeaii
caoyaioany i?ioean i?eeiyooy Aa?oiaiith ?aaeith Oe?a?ie E?ei?iaeueiiai,
Oeea?eueiiai, Ainiiaea?nueeiai oa i?ioeanoaeueieo eiaeaen?a, a oaeiae
na??? aioeei?oioe?eieo aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a.

Aiae?co?oueny aoaeoeai?noue /eiiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa c aeaiiai ieoaiiy,
e?eoe/ii ioe?iththoueny ii?iaoeaii-i?aaia? aeoe, cie?aia Caeii Oe?a?ie
“I?i ai?ioueao c ei?oioe??th”, yeee caeeoea iica iaaeaie ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th eiio?iethth/? oa iaaeyaeia? i?aaie, iaiaaeea iiaeeea?noue
o/ano? a oeueiio i?ioean? iie?oe/ieo ? a?iiaaenueeeo i?aai?caoe?e.

A?aecia/a?oueny iniaeeai iaaaoeaiee aieea ia aoaeoeai?noue ?iaioe
niaoei?ae?icae?e?a ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th oa i?aai?ciaaiith
cei/eii?noth aianaieo o ethoiio 1994 ?. iii?aaie aei Caeiio “I?i
i?aai?caoe?eii-i?aaia? iniiae ai?ioueae c i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth“,
yeeie cacia/ai? i?ae?icae?ee ciiao aoee i?aeii?yaeeiaai? ea??aieeai
?aa?iiaeueieo oi?aae?iue i?aai?a aioo??oi?o ni?aa. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui
aae?oaa iieieaoenue o caeaaeiino? a?ae i?aai?a i?noeaai? aeaaee, aiie
ia iiaeooue aoaeoeaii ai?ioeny c ei?oiiiaai?noth oe??? naii? aeaaee.

O aeena?oaoe?? anaa?/ii aiae?co?oueny aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino?
I?i?noa?noaa aioo??oi?o ni?aa, Neoaeae aaciaee ? i?ieo?aoo?e Oe?a?ie, ia
ye? aaciina?aaeiuei iieeaaeaii ooieoe?? ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th, a
oaeiae noaeiai? nenoaie.

Eaeaoueny, ui c i?eeiyooyi Caeiio “I?i noaoon noaeae?a” aoei c?iaeaii
aaaeeeaee e?ie ii oeyoo noai?aiiy aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai? aea?aeaae.
I?ioa noaiiaeaiiy oaeiai noaeo a Oe?a?i? iaaei?aaaeaii caoyaioeiny.
Noaeiaa a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ia noaea no?eioth/ei oaeoi?ii aeey
cei/eiiiai na?oo. Oaaa?ieee, ?ice?aaea/? ana /ano?oa a?aeiia?aeathoue
ia?aae caeiiii /enoi neiaie?/ii, ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy /iai iaaiaeyoueny
aiae?oe/i? aeai?.

Aeena?oaioii noaaeoueny ieoaiiy i?i aeioe?euei?noue aeia?/iiai ia?aiiy
noaeae?a, yea a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae ? ia?aae/aniei, ine?eueee cai?noue
iacaeaaeiino? a?ae noi?iiiueiai aieeao ia i?aainoaeaey ii?iaeaeo?
iacaeaaei?noue a?ae caeiio. Iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue i?eeiyooy,
i?eiaeii?, 15 caeii?a, iia’ycaieo c noaeiai-i?aaiaith ?aoi?iith, a ia?oo
/a?ao caeiio “I?i noaeiono??e”.

Oaeei /eiii, ae?th/a nenoaia niaoe?aeueieo i?aai?a ii ai?iouea? c
ei?oioe??th ia caaacia/o? na?eiciiai iie?auaiiy neooaoe?? a aea?aeaa?.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ae?oaiai ?icae?eo — “Iaoai?cie ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th a e?a?iao ?icaeiaii? aeaiie?ao??” aeine?aeaeothoueny
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? oa i?aaia? aniaeoe iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? a ie?aieo
aeaiie?aoe/ieo e?a?iao. I/aaeaeia aaaeaiiy Oe?a?ie noaoe ??aiii?aaiei
/eaiii i?aeia?iaeiiai ni?aoiaa?enoaa, oi?ioaaiiy iniia i?aaiai?,
nioe?aeueii? ? aeaiie?aoe/ii? aea?aeaae aeiaaa? caaacia/aiiy
a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy i?aaiii?yaeeo, ui, a naith /a?ao, ?iaeoue
iaiao?aeiei na?eicia aea/aiiy ? ao?eaiiy a aeeooy caei?aeiiiiai
aeina?aeo ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ae?th/eo o oeeo
e?a?iao iie?oe/ieo, aeiiii?/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, i?aaiaeo iaoai?ci?a uiaei
iiaeieaiiy i?aai?ciaaii? cei/eiiino? oa ei?oioe?? ye ?? ??ciiaeaeo.

Oaeee aeina?ae ??ciiiai?oiee, caeaaeeoue a?ae cia/ii? e?eueeino?
aca?iiiia’ycaieo oaeoi??a ? a?aoiao? nioe?aeuei? oiiae, ??aaiue
aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy.
?acii c oei ? ? caaaeuei? aeey e?a?i aecia/aeuei? i?eioeeie ?
i?aeoiaee. A ia?oo /a?ao, oea ?icoi?iiy iaaaoeaieo iane?aee?a ei?oioe??,
?? iaaacia/iiai aieeao ia i?ioeane ?icaeoeo oa anaa?/ia caaacia/aiiy
iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo ? aeiiii?/ieo i?aa ethaeeie.

A?aecia/a?oueny aaeeea cia/aiiy aeey iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa
oi?ioaaiiy nenoaie i?aai?a ii ai?iouea? c ei?oioe??th ? ?icaeoeo
iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa, aea/aiiy aeina?aeo iino?eii ae?th/eo
?inoeooo?a i?e i?aceaeaioao, o?yaeao, ia?eaiaioao, ye? noai?ai? a ?yae?
e?a?i.

Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?aeia?iaeii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a oa aeina?aeo ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th a ie?aieo e?a?iao aeicaieythoue aecia/eoe iniiai? aaaeae?
i?eaaaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueiiai caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie o a?aeiia?aei?noue ?c
ii?iaie i?aeia?iaeiiai i?aaa. O oeueiio ca’yceo a aeena?oaoe??
iaaieioo?oueny ia iniaeea?e aaaeeeaino? ?aaeueiiai caaacia/aiiy
iacaeaaeiino? ne?ae/i? ? noaeiai? ooieoe?e a?ae noi?iiiueiai aieeao,
aiae?co?oueny i?aeoeea ?aae?caoe?? oeueiai i?eioeeio a ?oae??, O?aioe??,
I?ia//ei?, NOA. Iiaeeaeaii aiae?co?oueny oaeiae aeina?ae ?yaeo
?a?iiaenueeeo e?a?i ? NOA uiaei ieoaiue ai?ioueae c o?iueiaith
aeiiii?eith ? “a?aeieaaiiyi” iacaeiiii iaea?aeaieo eioo?a.

O?ao?e i?ae?icae?e ae?oaiai ?icae?eo — “Ia?niaeoeae iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe??
a Oe?a?i? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa”
i?enay/aiee aieiaiei /eiii oai?aoe/iiio inieneaiith iaoai?ci?a
iiaeieaiiy oeueiai iaaaoeaiiai noni?eueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua ?
aecia/aiith aeayeeo iniiaiiieiaeieo i?eeeaaeieo ieoaiue.

A?aecia/a?oueny, ui i?e ?ic?iaoe? aea?aeaaii? aioeei?oioe?eii? no?aoaa??
? a?aeiia?aeieo iaoai?ci?a uiaei iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? ia i?eeiyoi aei
oaaae, ui oea neeaaeia yaeua, i?e/eie yeiai ia no?eueee a
iaaeineiiaeino? iiaaae?iee ethaeeie, ne?eueee a i?aai?caoe?? aeaaeieo
iaoai?ci?a, a ia?oo /a?ao a noa?? aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith,
a oioaeueiiio o?yaeiaiio eiio?ie? ? ?aaoethaaii? aea?aeaaith a?eueoino?
noi??i nioe?aeueiiai oa aeiiii?/iiai aeeooy, a ?nioaaii? /enaeueiiai
aea?aeaaiiai aia?aoo, a iaioaaii? ooieoe?? ?iciiae?eo. Aaoi? i?eoiaeeoue
aei aeniiaeo, ui, ine?eueee ei?oioe?y — neeaaeia nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia
yaeua, eiai iiaeieaiiy iiaeeeaa eeoa ca oiiae o?aooaaiiy a oe?e
?iaio?, e??i i?aaiaeo, oaeiae iie?oe/ieo, nioe?aeueieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
i?aai?caoe?eieo, oi?aae?inueeeo ? iaa?oue eoeueoo?ieo /eiiee?a.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeiaiaeeoueny, ui aioeei?oioe?eiee ci?no iiaeiai iaoe
eiaeai aeiiii?/iee caeii. Aeey i?aeaioiaee oaeeo caeii?a o
a?aeiia?aeiino? c? na?oiaei aeina?aeii i?iiiio?oueny noai?eoe ia’?aeiaio
i?aea?aeii/o eii?n?th o neeaae? aeaiooao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie,
ea??aiee?a oeaio?aeueieo i?aaiioi?iiieo oa aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinoa,
iaoeiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ia yeo iieeanoe ooieoe??:
eii?aeeiaoe?? caeiiii?iaeoii? ae?yeueiino? a aea?aeaa?, i?ioeae?? i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? caeii?a ei?ii?aoeaiei ? aaeocaaei ?ioa?anai; caaacia/aiiy
aioeei?oioe?eii? ni?yiiaaiino? oeeo caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a; ?icaeyaeo
caeiiiaeaa/eo ?i?oe?aoea ? a?aei?aoethaaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e uiaei
i?aai?caoe?? ?iaioe iaae caeiiii?iaeoaie oa ae??oaiiy ieoaiiy ?o
i??i?eoaoiino?; i?aeaioiaee i?iiiceoe?e ii oi?ioaaiith aeie?a
caeiiii?iaeo?a, ye? noiae? ca i?aaeiaoii a?aaoethaaiiy, a oiio /ene?
ni?yiiaaieo ia iineeaiiy ai?ioueae c i?aai?ciaaiith cei/eii?noth ?
ei?oioe??th; i?aai?caoe?? aenia?oece caeiiii?iaeo?a oiui.

O aeena?oaoe?? anaa?/ii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ieoaiiy caaacia/aiiy
aeia?i/aniino? aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a. O ca’yceo c oeei
i?aee?aneth?oueny iniaeeaa cia/aiiy aaeineiiaeaiiy /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa uiaei aeaeea?oaaiiy ?o aeioiae?a oa aoanooaaiiy, ?ic?iaee
Eiaeaeno /ano? aea?aeaaiiai neoaeaiaoey, yeee ia?aaeaa/aa ae aioo??oi?
iaoai?cie aeyaeaiiy ? iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe??.

Aeae? a aeaiiio i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeo?oueny i?iaeaia aeaiooaonueeiai
? noaeae?anueeiai ?ioi?oaoo, i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui aeaiooao Aa?oiaii?
?aaee Oe?a?ie ? noaeaey iathoue aooe caoeuai? a?ae naaa?eey. I?eoyaiaiiy
eiai aei e?ei?iaeueii? /e aaei?i?no?aoeaii? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? iiaeiii
iaoe iaai? iaae?, ine?eueee aoyaiaiiy iie?oee?a o noaeia? i?ioeane
i?eaaoiiai oa?aeoa?o noia?a/eoue noni?eueiei ?ioa?anai. I?ioa aaaeeeaei
? oi/ia aecia/aiiy ?ioi?oaoo ? i?ea?ea?a, ine?eueee aiie caiaeyoue
iai?aaoeue i?eioeei ??aiino? ia?aae caeiiii, i?ae?eaath/e ii?ie i?aaa.
Aoaeue-ye? ?ioi?oaoe oa i?ea?ea? ia iiaeii? ni?eyoe iinaaeia?e inia?
aooe iaaeinyaeiith aeey i?aainoaeaey i?e a/eiaii? ei?oioe?eieo ae?yiue.

Aeena?oaio aiae?co? ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie o O?aioe??,
Aaeeeia?eoai??, ?oae??, NOA, ssiii??, ? aeoiaey/e c aeina?aeo aeaieo
aea?aeaa, iaa?oioiao? iaiao?aei?noue aianaiiy ci?i aei /eiiiai
caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie. Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, ne?ae/? i?aaie iiaeii?
caaaeaee iaoe i?aai ?icne?aeoaaoe nei?ia ia?iaeiei aeaiooaoii Oe?a?ie
i?ioei?aaia ae?yiiy, ? eeoa aeey ia?aaea/? e?ei?iaeueii? ni?aae aei
noaeo iaiao?aeia caiaea Aa?oiaii? ?aaee.

Aeine?aeaeo?oueny ieoaiiy a?eueo /?oeiai aecia/aiiy noaoono neoaeaiaoe?a
i?aai?a i?noeaaiai naiia?yaeoaaiiy, ye? nueiaiaei? oi?iaeueii ia ?
aea?aeaaieie neoaeaiaoeyie. Oaeee ooo/iee ?iciiae?e neoaeaiaoe?a ia
aea?aeaaieo oa iaaea?aeaaieo iaaaoeaii aieeaa? ia noai ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th.

O i?ae?icae?e? anaa?/ii ?icaeyaeathoueny ieoaiiy i?ioeae?? ei?oioe?? a
i?aaiioi?iiieo ? eiio?iethth/eo i?aaiao, ine?eueee i?aai?ciaaia
cei/eii?noue aeoeaii ooea? ei?oiiiaaieo iinaaeiaeo in?a na?aae
ni?a?ia?oiee?a i?aaiioi?iiieo, ieoieo, iiaeaoeiaeo, ?ioeo eiio?iethth/eo
i?aai?a, ye? a caoeuaee ?? ?ioa?ane o noa?? o?iueiai? aeiiii?ee oa
a?aeieaaiiy iacaeiiii caeiaooeo eioo?a.

Aaaiia i?noea o aeei??iaii? ei?oioe?? a aea?aeaaiiio aia?ao? aaoi?
a?aeaiaeeoue iineeaiith aioo??oiueiai eiio?ieth ? ia?niiaeueii?
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ea??aiee?a oeaio?aeueieo a?aeiinoa aea?aeaae. Eiaeai
c ieo iiaeiai ianoe a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca noai ii?yaeeo ? caeiiiino?
ye aaciina?aaeiuei a oeaio?aeueiiio aia?ao?, oae ? a i?aeeaaeeo eiio
no?oeoo?ao. O oeueiio ca’yceo a aeena?oaoe?? aena?oeth?oueny aeina?ae
?ioeo e?a?i c aeaiiai ieoaiiy, cie?aia ooieoe?iioaaiiy ?inoeoooo
iiaoaeniaia a Oaaoe??. Aaaeeeaeie oiiaaie ae??oaiiy i?iaeaie
ei?oioe?eieo i?iya?a iiaeii? noaoe ?icaeoie aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?inoeooo?a
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, anoaiiaeaiiy anaa?/iiai nioe?aeueiiai
eiio?ieth ca ae?yeuei?noth aeaaeieo no?oeoo?.

O aeniiaeao aaoi? oi?ioeth? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ocaaaeueith? i?iiiceoe?? uiaei aaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?ci?a
iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i?, ie?aneth? iniiai? iai?yiee oe???
?iaioe. Ia iniia? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaeoueny aaaeeeaee
aeniiaie i?i oa, ui ei?oioe?y i?iaeoeo?oueny a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio
i?inoi?? no/anii? Oe?a?ie, a ?? aieiaieie aeaoa?i?iaioaie ?: iie?oe/ia
oa aeiiii?/ia e?eca, nioe?aeueia ianoaa?euei?noue, iaaeineiiae?noue
caeiiiaeaa/iai ? ii?iaoeaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy noni?eueieo a?aeiinei, a
oaeiae iiaiiaaaeaiue ? ooieoe?e aeaaeieo i?aai?a aea?aeaae,
a?aenooi?noue nenoaie ?inoeooo?a nioe?aeueiiai eiio?ieth ca iie?oe/ieie
? nioe?aeueieie i?ioeanaie, ye? a?aeaoaathoueny a e?a?i?. C?inoaiiy
ei?oioe?? o no/anieo oiiaao aaciina?aaeiuei iia’ycaia c
aeaci?aai?caoe??th oi?aae?iiy, iineaaeaiiyi caeiiiino? a on?o noa?ao
aeiiii?/iiai ? nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy, eiio?ieueieo ? iaaeyaeiaeo ooieoe?e
aea?aeaae oa i?/ei ia iaa?oioiaaiith ia?aioe?ieith iiaeeeainoae ?
iaoai?ci?a ?eieiaiai naiia?aaoethaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.

Aeey ae??oaiiy oe??? i?iaeaie i?iiiio?oueny ?yae i?aeoe/ieo
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e, cie?aia iaa?oioiao?oueny aino?a iaiao?aei?noue
caeiiiaeaa/iai ?icoe?aiiy eiea noa’?eo?a ei?oioe?? oa nenoaie i?aai?a,
ia ye? aea?aeaaa iieeaaea? ooieoe?? ai?ioueae c ei?oioe??th.
I?aee?aneth?oueny aaaeeeaa ?ieue o iiaeieaii? aeaiiai iaaaoeaiiai yaeua
eiio?iethth/eo i?aai?a, a ia?oo /a?ao Iaoe?iiaeueiiai aaieo Oe?a?ie,
Eiio?ieueii-?aa?c?eii? neoaeae, Aea?aeaaii? iiaeaoeiai? aaei?i?no?aoe??,
aeeth/aiiy a oeth ?iaioo ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui
aoaeoeai?noue oaeeo coneeue cia/iith i??ith caeaaeeoue a?ae cae?eniaiiy
iie?oe/ii?, aeiiii?/ii? oa aea?aeaaii-i?aaiai? ?aoi?i.

Iaaieioo?oueny, ui aieiaiee i?i?aooiie, aeiiouaiee iiaith aeaaeith
uiaei i?aai?caoe?? ai?ioueae c e?ei?iae?caoe??th noni?euenoaa, iieyaaa
a noaaoe? o?eueee ia i?aaiioi?iii? i?aaie, a ia ia ooai?aiiy iiai?
nenoaie ?inoeoooe?e ai?ioueae c iyoith aeaaeith, yea a eiiieaenii
ioiiethaaea an? noa?e ?? ae?yeueiino?. O ai?iouea? c oe??th aeaaeith
iathoue a?aoe o/anoue i?aeoe/ii an? ?inoeoooe?? aea?aeaae, a ia o?eueee
i?aaie i?aaiii?yaeeo. Aiaeii/an aeaco?oueny ia nooo?a? aaaee a
i?aaiioi?iii?e nenoai?. No/anii i?aai?ciaai? i?aaie i?aaiii?yaeeo ca
oiia aoaeue-yei? iie?oe/ii? iia?e?caoe?? iani?iiiaei? ia?aiiaoe
e?ei?iae?caoe?th naii? aea?aeaae. ?o no?oeoo?a, oi?ie oa iaoiaee
ae?yeueiino? ia ii?yaeie a?aenoaee a?ae ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ?
caeeoeeeny oaeeie, yeeie aoee a nioe?ae?noe/i?e aea?aeaa?. Iaiao?aeia ia
?ai?aai?caoe?y ?nioth/eo i?aaiioi?iiieo nenoai, a ooai?aiiy iiaeo,
niaoe?aeueii i?aai?ciaaieo aeey oaeiai ?iaeo ae?yeueiino? ?inoeoooe?e.
Aeooae?co?oueny i?iaeaia noai?aiiy oiia i?ici?ino? a ae?yeueiino?
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?inueeiai aia?aoo oa anoaiiaeaiiy eiio?ieth ca iei c
aieo a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, iacaeaaeieo, aeaiie?aoe/ieo cania?a
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? o oaeeo iaoeiaeo
ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A.,Eaieee I.?. Ei?oioe?y a Oe?a?i?. — E.:
Oiaa?enoai “Ciaiiy”, 1998. — 11,7 ae?oe.a?e.

2. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A. I?aeia?iaeii-i?aaia? aniaeoe ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th. //Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
“I?iaeaie aa?iii?caoe?? caeiiiaeaanoaa Oe?a?ie c i?aeia?iaeiei i?aaii”.
— E.: ?i-o caeiiiaeaanoaa Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie; E, 1998, 0,3
ae?oe.a?e.

3. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A. Oe?a?inueea aioeei?oioe?eia caeiiiaeaanoai aei
i?aeia?iaeieo noaiaea?o?a //Iie?oeea ? /an. 1998 , ?11. 0,7 ae?oe.a?e.

4. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A., Eaieee I.?. ?eiiii?ei-e?ei?iaeia?/ia
oa?aeoa?enoeea ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i? //Caeii ? a?cian. — 1998. — 18
eenoiiaaea. 0,5 ae?.a?e.

5. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A., Oa?eiiae/ A.I. Eiai caoeua? aeaiooaonueeee
?ioi?oao? // O?yaeiaee eo?’??. — 1995., 19 aa?aniy. — 0,3 ae?oe.a?e.

6. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A., Oeiaeueneee I.?. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
niaa?oaiiia i?aaiia?ooaiea aeieaeia auoue iaioa?aoeiie. Ii/aio o ian ia
oae ? // Aiein Oe?a?ie. 1995. — 11 ieoya?y. 0,4 ae?oe.a?e.

7. Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A.,Eaieee I.?. Aei ieoaiiy
aeiiii?ei-e?ei?iaeia?/ii? oa?aeoa?enoeee ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i? //Ai?ioueaa
c eiio?aaaiaeith: i?iaeaie oa oeyoe ?o ae??oaiiy. — Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee
?inoeooo ”I?iaeai ethaeeie”. Iaoeiaa aeaeaiiy O.10. E., 1998. — 0,9
ae?oe.a?e.

8. Iaaia?aeeoeeee A.A. Iiuo ?anneaaeiaaiey aeieaeiinoiuo e oicyenoaaiiuo
i?anooieaiee. //Aiai?yo eo/oea neaaeiaaoaee IAAe NNN?. Iaoa?eaeu Ia?aie
ananithciie iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneie eiioa?aioeee eo/oeo neaaeiaaoaeae IAAe
NNN?. — Aieaia?aae: Ec-ai Auno. neaaenoaaiiie oeieu IAAe NNN? 1979.
0,5 ia/.e.

AIIOAOe?ss

Iaaia?aeeoeueeee ?.A. Ei?oioe?y ye nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ia yaeua:
iniaeeaino? i?iya?a ? iaoai?cie iiaeieaiiy a no/ani?e Oe?a?i?.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa iie?oe/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 23.00.02. — iie?oe/i? ?inoeoooe oa iie?oe/i?
i?ioeane. ?oeiien.

?iaioa i?enay/aia eiiieaeniiio aiae?co ei?oioe?? ye
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai yaeua.

?acoeueoaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aeniiaie i?i oa, ui
iiaeieaiiy ei?oioe?? a Oe?a?i? iiaeeeaa eeoa c o?aooaaiiyi no/aniiai
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeoeo e?a?ie, e?ece iniiaieo eiai iie?oe/ieo
oa aeiiii?/ieo aeaiaio?a, aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, anueiai i?ioeano ia?aoiaeo
a?ae ieaiiai? aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiai? .

Iaeii/anii c o?aooaaiiyi i?aeia?iaeiiai aeina?aeo aiae?cothoueny iniiai?
i?aeoe/i? aaaeae? oa iaoai?cie i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ai?ioueae c
ei?oioe??th, ?ieue o oeueiio ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ei?oioe?y, i?aai?ciaaia cei/eii?noue, iie?oeea,
nioe?aeueia noa?a, aeiiii?ea, nioe?aeueiee i?ino??, iie?oe/iee i?ioean,
a?iiaaeyinueea noni?euenoai, i?aaiaa aea?aeaaa, iie?oe/ia aiey,
caeiii?noue, i?aai, aea?aeaaia neoaeaa, aeaiooaonueeee ?ioi?oao,
aeiiii?/ia cei/eii?noue, eiaeaen iiaaae?iee.

AIIIOAOeEss

Iaaia?aeeoeeee A.A. Ei??oioeey a nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeia eae
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneia yaeaiea: iniaaiiinoe i?iyaeaiey e iaoaieciu
i?aiaeieaiey a nia?aiaiiie Oe?aeia.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa iieeoe/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 23.00.02. — iieeoe/aneea einoeooou e iieeoe/aneea
i?ioeannu. ?oeiienue.

?aaioa iinayuaia eiiieaeniiio aiaeeco ei??oioeee eae
nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneiai yaeaiey. A aeooaeueiinoue iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi
a oneiaeyo iaaeinoaoi/ii ?acaeouo aeaiie?aoe/aneeo o?aaeeoeee, ieceiai
o?iaiy iieeoeei-i?aaiaie eoeueoo?u iauanoaa, ianiaa?oainoaa
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, iayooaeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe aeanoiuo einoeoooia,
neiaeiinoe ia?aoiaeiiai yoaia ?acaeoey no?aiu, naycaiiiai, a iniiaiii,
ni niaiie oi?i nianoaaiiinoe e iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeeia, — ei??oioeey noaea
?aaeueiie oa?icie iino?iaieth a Oe?aeia a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa e
i?aaiaiai ainoaea?noaa. Iia ii?aceea aieueoeinoai noa? iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, nicaeaao a no?aia nioeeaeueioth iai?yaeaiiinoue e oi?iiceo
noaiiaeaiea ?uii/iie yeiiiieee.

Enneaaeiaaiea iinayuaii iao/iiio iniuneaieth yoiai oaiiiaia, anao aai
ninoaaiuo /anoae e aniaeoia, i?aaeaea anaai iieeoe/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo,
yeiiiie/aneeo e i?aaiauo. Aeai enoi?eei-iieeoieiae/aneee aiaeec yoiai
yaeaiey, aai niaea?aeaiey e nouiinoe, aiaeece?oaony niioiioaiea
ei??oioeee e i?aaieciaaiiie i?anooiiinoe, ei??oioeee e iaoee.

Oai?aoe/aneia e i?aeoe/aneia cia/aiea eiaao naeaeaiiue a aeenna?oaoeee
aiaeec iniiaiuo aeaoa?ieiaioia ei?oioeee, Aeieacaii, /oi ei?oioeey
i?iaeooee?oaony a nioeeaeueiii i?ino?ainoaa, eioi?ia ioaaouaaao
iieeoe/aneoth, yeiiiie/aneoth e nioeeaeueioth noa?o nia?aiaiiiai
iauanoaa, a a. aeaoa?ieiaioaie noaee: iieeoe/aneee e aeiiiie/aneee
e?ecen, ia?aie/aiiinoue einoeoooia a?aaeaeaineiai iauanoaa,
ianiaa?oainoai einoeoooa iieeoe/aneie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue ia?niaeoea yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai ?acaeoey
no?aiu, /?acia?iay ?aaeaiaioaoeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiauo yeiiiie/aneeo
no?oeoo? e ia yoie aaca aic?inoaiea oaiaaie yeiiiieee, a oaeaea
i?iaeieaeathuaany iaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa.

N o/aoii ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeee e iiuoa ?acaeouo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai,
?ane?uaaaony nouiinoue iiiyoey noaaeoa ei??oioeee, aeaaony aai
ii?aaeaeaiea, iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue nouanoaaiiiai ?anoe?aiey
e?oaa oaeeo aeieaeiinoiuo eeoe, i?aaeaea anaai, ca n/ao aeeth/aiey a
iaai ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee, o/?aaeaeaiee e i?aaiecaoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe, ?oeiaiaeeoaeae iieeoe/aneeo ia?oee
e iauanoaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Enneaaeoaony yooaeoeaiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey a Oe?aeia aeaenoaothueo
iieeoe/aneeo einoeoooia e ae?oaeo aioeei??oioeeiiiuo iaoaieciia,
iainiiauaaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue eo nouanoaaiiiai oniaa?oainoaiaaiey e
nicaeaiey iiauo. A nayce n yoei aiaeece?othony iaoaieciu
i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey e enei?aiaiey ei??oioeee a no?aiao ?acaeoie
aeaiie?aoee, a oaeaea iaaeaeoia?iaeii-i?aaiaua aeou ii yoie i?iaeaia,
/oi iicaieeei aeenna?oaioo iaicia/eoue iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou ii
i?eaaaeaieth iaoeeiiaeueiiai aioeei??oioeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a
niioaaonoaea n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie noaiaea?oaie.

Cia/eoaeueiia aieiaiea oaeaeaii ia?niaeoeaai enei?aiaiey ei??oioeee a
Oe?aeia, iooyi ?aoaiey yoie i?iaeaiu. Ananoi?iiia enneaaeothony aii?inu
niaa?oainoaiaaiey eae niaoeeaeueiiai, oae e yeiiiie/aneiai, aaieianeiai
aioeei??oioeeiiiiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, nenoaiu ainoaea?noaaiiiai
eiio?iey, aii?inu iaania/aiey aeia?i/anoiinoe ainoaea?noaaiiuo
neoaeaueo, eo aooanoaoeee, aeaeea?e?iaaiey aeioiaeia, ?ac?aaioee
Eiaeaena eo iiaaaeaiey, aeaiooaoneiai e noaeaeneiai eiioieoaoa.

Oaeoaeaiii aiaeece?othony iaoaieciu i?ioeaiaeaenoaey i?iieeiiaaieth
ei??oioeee a i?aaiio?aieoaeueiua e eiio?iee?othuea i?aaiu, a ae?oaea
no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaaiiiai aiia?aoa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ei??oioeey, i?aaieciaaiiay i?anooiiinoue, iieeoeea,
iieeoe/aneay aiey, nioeeaeueiay noa?a, iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann,
a?aaeaeaineia iauanoai, nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai, yeiiiieea, i?aai,
ainoaea?noaaiiay neoaeaa, i?aaiaia ainoaea?noai, aeaiooaoneee eiioieoao,
yeiiiie/aneay i?anooiiinoue, Eiaeaen iiaaaeaiey.

ANNOTATION

E.V.Nevmergitsku. Corruption as a social political
phenomenon: features of displays and mechanims of overcjming in moqern
Ukraine .

The thesis is for the masters degree by 23.00.02.
field-political institutions and processes. Typescript.

The work is devoted to the all — round analysis of
corruption as an social political phenomenon.

The issue of investigation during writing of the thesis is a
conclusion that the eradication ob corruption in Ukraine is possible
only takinq into account the fact of modern social political development
of the state, the crisis of their principal political and economic
elements: the branches of the power, all processes of the transition
from planned economics to the market economics .

At the same time in this investigation were used data of
international experience were analised the main practical levers and
mechanisms for rise effectiveness of this work.

The main terms: corruption, organized crime, social area, political
process, economics, law, state, deputy’s immunity, economic crime, the
code of conduct.

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