Концепції елітизму в контексті процесів демократичної трансформації: Автореф. дис… канд. соціол. наук / О.Ю. Кучеренко, НАН України. Ін-т соціол. —

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OAeE 316.33 (091):32

Iaoe?iiaeueia aeaaeai?y iaoe Oe?a?ie

?inoeooo nioe?ieia??

Eo/a?aiei Ieaen?e TH??eiae/

EIIOeAIOe?? AE?OECIO A EIIOAENO? I?IOeAN?A AeAIIE?AOE*II? O?AINOI?IAOe??

22.00.01 — oai??y oa ?noi??y nioe?ieia??

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoe??

ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a — 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Oai/a? A?eoi?
Aieiaeeie?iae/, ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo
?noi???, oai??? oa iaoiaeieia?? nioe?ieia??.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, Aeii/aiei Ieaia Aiae???aia, ?inoeooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, canooiiee aee?aeoi?a

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe Oii?aoi Ieaenaiae?

Ieaenaiae?iae/, ?inoeooo na?oiai? aeiiii?ee oa i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei
IAI Oe?a?ie, noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee, aieiaiee ?aaeaeoi? aeo?iaeo
“?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae”.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa

?inoeooo o?einio?? IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 29 ” n?/iy 1999 ?ieo i 12
aiaeei? ia can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae01.08.01 a
?inoeooo? nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith:252021, Ee?a 21,
aoe.Oiaeiae/ia, 12

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? ?inoeoooo
nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 252021, Ee?a 21, aoe.Oiaeiae/ia,
12

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “26 “ a?oaeiy 1998 ?ieo

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Nooeaei N.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? i?ioeane, ui
a?aeaoaathoueny a Oe?a?i?, ia’?eoeaii coiiaeththoue i?aeaeuaiiy
iaoeiaiai ? i?aeoe/iiai ?ioa?ano aei aea/aiiy aieiaieo noa’?eo?a
noni?eueiiai aeeooy, nioe?aeueieo nee ? /eiiee?a, ye? aecia/athoue
ia?aa?a oeueiai aeeooy. Ia?aae a/aieie-noni?euenoaiciaaoeyie iinoa?
caaaeaiiy ?icai?oaiiy ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue ci?i
nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa, iiaeaeae ? i?eioeei?a nioe?aeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy, ni?yiiaaiiino? o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a iie?oeoe?, aeiiii?oe?, eoeueoo??. Oai??? nioe?aeueieo
ae?o, iaiae?oenonuee? i?aeoiaee aei aiae?co icia/aieo i?ioean?a
i?iiiiothoue i?ea?iaeuei? ?aea?, i?eioeeie ? aeniiaee, ui iiaeooue
neoaoaaoe iaaiith oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith aacith aeey aeine?aeaeaiue
o oe?e oea?ei?, iaoeiaiio iiyniaiith yaeu nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
aeeooy, ye? c’yaeythoueny o noni?euenoaao ia?ao?aeiiai oeio, cie?aia
oe?a?inueeiio.

Neeaaei?noue ? noia?a/eea?noue nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ui
a?aeaoaa?oueny a Oe?a?i?, coiiaeththoue aaaeeea?noue aea/aiiy iie?oe/ieo
nee, nioe?aeueieo a?oi ? ni?eueiio, ye? aecia/athoue aai iaea?eueo
aieeaathoue ia i?ioeane nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai aeeooy. C oeei iia’ycai?
i?iaeaie aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, oi?ioaaiiy ? iiiaeaiiy
aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, noni?eueiiai eiio?ieth ? ?icaeoeo ?inoeooo?a
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, a??aiiaaaeaiiy a?eie aeaaee oa ?io?
i?iaeaie, eio?? oae /e oae aeioe/i? ieoaiiy: ooi ? c yeei oni?oii
cae?enith? ea??aieoeoai ca no/anieo oiia ?, ye oi?iothoueny,
eaaaoei?cothoueny ? aca?iiae?thoue no?oeoo?e aeaaee? Oea iniaeeai
aaaeeeai a eiioaeno? aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, i?ioean?a
aeaiie?aoecaoe??, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o anueiio na?o?, aecia/aiiy
“i?aaey/eo aa?noa” /e aeii?ioth/eo “a?oi ?ioa?an?a” iia’ycai? c
o?aaeeoe?eiith nioe?ieia?/iith i?iaeaiaoeeith ae?o, yea oae /e oae
iia’ycaia c i?aeaeenoeeie?ia?iith i?iaeaiith ae?oecio a oe?eiio.

Iineeaiiy ?ioa?ano aei ?aeae iaiae?oecio a ieiuei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
i?eioeei?a ae?oecio ? aeaiie?aoecio o na?oia?e nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e
aeoioe? e?ioey OO no., niiioea? caa?iooeny aei inieneaiiy aaiaceno
i?iaeaiaoeee ae?oecio a nioe?ieia??, aei aiae?co ci?noo eiai iniiaieo
iieiaeaiue, eiioeaioe?e i?ia?aeieo oai?aoee?a-ae?oeno?a, aaiethoe?? oa
no/aniiai noaio oe??? oai?aoe/ii? o?aaeeoe??.

A eiioaeno? oaiaeaioe?e iei?oi?o aeaiie?aoe/ieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e
?icaeyaea?oueny e ?ioa i?iaeaia: ye ocaiaeeoe aeii?ioth/o ?ieue iaaieo
ni?eueiio ? aa?noa o i?eeiyoo? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue c
i?eioeeiaie aeaiie?ao??, nioe?aeueii? ??aiino? ? ni?aaaaeeeaino?,
a?iiaaeyinueei? aeoeaiino?? No/ani? oai?aoeee ae?oecio i?aaiooue
a?aoiaiooaaoe, ui iaaaeuei? aeiiae aenieiai i?ioan?iiae?cio,
iai?aeeia?eo ai?iue ? ciaiiy, aoaeoeaiiai e?aea?noaa oiui ia noia?a/aoue
aeaiie?aoe/iei canaaeai noni?eueiiai eaaeo. Aiie i?iiiiothoue nai?
?icoi?iiy ea??aieoeoaa, i?aaenoaaieoeueei? aeaiie?ao??, nioe?aeueii?
??aiino? oa ni?aaaaeeeaino?, iaa?oioiaothoue ?aeath ieth?ae?cio ae?o,
aca?iia??aiiaaaeaiiy ??cieo noni?eueieo nee, eiioeaioe?th eiinainoniino?
nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a ye ia?aaeoiiae ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoecio.

Aeooaeuei?noue oai?aoe/iiai aniaeoo aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/a?oueny oaeeie
/eiieeaie:

— cia/ia e?euee?noue oai?aoe/ieo ?aeae, iieiaeaiue ? eiioeaioe?e
i?eoeeueiee?a ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a aein? ua caeeoathoueny iica oaaaith a?o/eciyieo nioe?ieia?a,
cie?aia, i?aoe? A.Iinea, A.Ia?aoi, A.Eeieinueeiai, ?.I?oaeuena,
I.Ino?iai?nueeiai, I.Aaaa?a oa ?i., ye? i?enay/ai? i?iaeaiaoeoe? ae?o;

— no/ani? ?ic?iaee oai?aoee?a ae?oecio, cie?aia “oai??? aeaiie?aoe/iiai
ae?oecio”, eiioeaioe?? ieth?ae?noe/iino? no/anieo ae?o, “eiinainonii?
?aeiino? ae?o”, iaiei?ii?aoecio iaeia?aeii? iaoei noni?euenoaiciaaoeyi ?
oiio iaeaaeiei /eiii ia aeei?enoiaothoueny aiae?oeeaie;

— a?o/eciyi?e nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? a?aeo? oe?e?noii?
nioe?ieia?/ii? oai??? nioe?aeueieo ae?o, ooiaeaiaioaeueieo ?ic?iaie
oe??? i?iaeaiaoeee, ui caeeoa? i?noea aeey iaiaoeiaeo,
ca?aeaieia?ciaaieo, aee?eaeeieo iiaeyae?a oa ioe?iie;

— iaaaeueiith iio?aaith caeeoa?oueny iaoeiaee aiae?c oa aeoeoia/aiiy
oaiiiaia ae?oecio a noni?eueiiio aeeoo?, aecia/aiiy ?ie? oa ooieoe?e
ae?oieo a?oi a i?ioean? aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, a oi?aae?ii?
noni?eueieie ni?aaaie aeey ?icoi?iiy ia?niaeoea no/aniiai noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo;

Aeooaeuei?noue iaoiaeieia?/iiai aniaeoo aeine?aeaeaiiy coiiaeth?oueny:

— iio?aaith oe?oiai ai?iaaaeaeaiiy aei nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ?icaeyaeo
noni?eueieo i?iaeai nioe?ieia?/ieo ciaiue, aeaieo ? aeniiae?a
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue;

— iaiao?aei?noth caaaa/aiiy a?o/eciyiiai noni?euenoaiciaanoaa ?icia?ooyi
i?aeoiae?a, oai??e, ioe?iie, ui iathoueny a na?oia?e nioe?ieia?/i?e
iaooe?;

— iaaaeuei?noth a?aeiiae a?ae ca?aeaieia?ciaaiii? oia?aaeaeaiiino?,
iaeiia?/iino? i?e ?icaeyae? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo yaeu.

I??a iaoeiaiai ii?aoethaaiiy i?iaeaie. A?o/eciyia nioe?ieia?/ia iaoea
ia?aaeeaa? nai???aeiee ?aianain i?iaeaiaoeee, yea aiae?co? iniiai?
/eiieee nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a, ci?i nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e,
ooieoe?thaaiiy aeaaee, nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. I?e oeueiio
niinoa??aa?oueny aeieaiiy canoa??eeo noa?aioei?a ? oyaeaiue,
aea?eueiaiiy a?ae oeneo ?aeaieia?/ieo aeiai.

Icia/aia i?iaeaiaoeea aoea a oeaio?? oaaae ooiaeaoi??a oe?a?inueei?
nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee: I.Ae?aaiiaiiaa, I.A?ooaanueeiai, I.Oaiiaaea, a
uiaei i?aoeue A.Eeieinueeiai, oi ? an? i?aenoaae caeo/eoe ?o aei eeaneee
ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo a nioe?ieia?/iiio ieneaii?. C 90-o ?ie?a,
a?ae?iaeaeaiiy aaaaoia?aiiino? nioe?aeueiiai aiae?co, iciaeiieaiiy, oi/a
ana ua ia aeinoaoiueiai ? ia iiaiiai, ?c na?oiaei iaaeaaiiyi
nioe?ieia?/iiai, nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai, nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai
ciaiiy o oe?e oea?ei? a iaoeiaee ia?a noaee aeieo/aoeny oai???,
eiioeaioe??, ?aea? oaeeo i?ia?aeieo oai?aoee?a ye A.Ia?aoi, A.Iinea,
?.I?oaeuen, I.Ino?iai?nueeee, E.Ooiiaoa?, E.Iaiaaei, E.Iiiia?,
A.Aioeaeia?, *.-?.I?eec oa ?ioeo. A?eueo aeaoaeueia ? anaa?/ia
iciaeiieaiiy c nioe?ieia?/iith eeaneeith, yea aeioe/ia aeine?aeaeoaaii?
i?iaeaie, ana ua caeeoa?oueny caaaeaiiyi a?o/eciyiiai
noni?euenoaiciaanoaa.

Oea oaeiae ni?aaaaeeeai a?aeiinii no/anieo ca?oa?aeieo oao?aoe?a, ui
i?aoeththoue iaae oe??th oaiaoeeith. Na?aae ieo iiaeia iacaaoe a?aeiieo
nioe?ieia?a A.A?aeaeaina, N.-I.E?inaoa, ?.A?iia, O.Aiooiii?a,
A.Eanoaeea, Aeae.Eaine?, A.Aaeeia?a.

Ie?aii ne?ae aeae?eeoe oai?aoee?a oaeeo eiioeaiooaeueieo iai?yie?a, ye
aeieo?eia “nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ieth?ae?cio”. (?.Aeaeue, I.Aao?ao,
?.Oiee?iaa?, ?.Eaiaeaa?a, A.?ioc, Aeae.Na?oi??…), eiioeaioe??
“ei?ii?aoecio” (O.Oi?ooa?, N.?ieeai, A.-TH.Ioea, A.Eaanii), oa, a?aoo?,
oai??? “aeaiie?aoe/iiai ae?oecio” — Aeae.O?eae, Aeae.O?ae?,
?.Aooe?ii?-Oaee?, A.Ea?eoii, O.Oaioa?, Ae.Ia?eon, ?.Aeaa?n, E.A?ioieo,
I.Aa?oii, O.Oioiaii-Eaiaa, N.Eaeea?, oa ?i. Naia iacaai? oai?aoeee
caaacia/eee “iiaa?iaiiy” aei ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo ia iiaiio
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio a?oio?, ia no/aniiio aoai? noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo, cai?iiiioaaee iia? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iieiaeaiue ae?oenonueei?
ia?aaeeaie, i?iaiae?coaaee no/aniee eiioaeno ? ia?niaeoeae canoinoaaiiy
eiioeaioe?e iaiae?oecio.

A inoaii?e /an aeieeea oae caaia “iiaa ia?aaeeaia ae?oe”, aaoi?e yei?
iaiaaathoueny a nai?o ae?oenonueeeo iiaoaeiaao a?aooaaoe iane?aeee
ao?oeeaeo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo iiae?e a Oeaio?aeuei?e oa No?aei?e
?a?ii?. A oeueiio iai?yieo i?aoeththoue iei? — aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a ?c
??cieo e?a?i: Ae.O?aeiai, A.Aanieianueeee, *.Eaaeoo?i, ss.Aaneeaanueeee,
?.Iooiai, ?.Oaeaia?, ss.Iaeoeuenueeee, I.?.Oea?aoai, A.A.?aaea?a
?.A.Oa?on?ia oa ?i.

?c ?ia?o, ye? aeeoee inoaii?i /anii a Oe?a?i? ? aoee i?enay/ai?
?ic?iaoe? i?iaeai a?o/eciyieo ae?o, o?aaa ae??cieoe i?aoe? i?ae
ea??aieoeoaii I.I.Ooeueae, oai??yie nioe?aeueiiai ae?oecio caeiathoueny
oaeiae A.Iacaiie, A.?o/ea, A.Oai/a?, ?.Aieiaaoa, I.Iai?ia, A.Inianueeee,
E.Aaacaiei, A.Naoiiiaa, oa ?i.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. A aeena?oaoe?? ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo
ocaaaeueiaiue ?iaeoueny ni?iaa inieneaiiy ae?oenonueei? ia?aaeeaie a
nioe?ieia??. A ca’yceo c oeei iinoa? caaaeaiiy c’ynoaaoe oiiae iniiaieo
/eiiee?a ooieoe?thaaiiy aeaaee, a?iiaaeyinueeeo ?inoeoooe?e,
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy, ia?niaeoea ocaiaeaeaiiy i?eioeei?a
ea??aieoeoaa noni?eueii-iie?oe/iei aeeooyi c ?aeaaeaie aeaiie?aoecio;
iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ieo canaae aca?iica’yceo ? a??aiiaaaeaiiy
?ioa?an?a ??cieo naaiaio?a noni?euenoaa; iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeieo oiia
iioei?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo aca?iei, noni?eueiiai eiinainono a i?ioean?
i?eeiyooy iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue. ?aae?caoe?y oe??? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
ia?aaeaa/a? ?ica’ycaiiy ianooiieo caaaeaiue:

— cae?enieoe ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c aeieeiaiiy, oi?ioethaaiiy
iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ae?oecio oa ?o iaaii? aaiethoe?? a nioe?ieia?/i?e
aeoioe? O?O — OO no.;

— i?ine?aeeoaaoe iniiai? aoaie aec??aaiiy ?aeae ae?oecio, aeae?eeoe
aieiai? eiioeaiooaeuei? iieiaeaiiy, cai?iiiioaaoe nenoaiaoeciaaiee
aeeeaae no/anieo eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio a nioe?ieia?/i?e oai???;

— iaa?oiooaaoe iayai?noue aeaio niinia?a ?icaeyaeo ae?oecio o ye
oe?e?nii? i?iaeaie: no?aoeo?eaoe?eiiai oa ?inoeoooe?aeueiiai, anoaiiaeoe
?o ci?noiai? a?aei?iiino?;

— aecia/eoe ?ieue oa ooieoe?? ae?o a noni?eueiiio nea?oaaii?,
iniaeeaino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy ae?o aeey noni?euenoa, ui ia?aaeeaathoue
o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae;

— aeiaanoe ianoia?a/eea?noue iaiae?oenonueeeo oa aeaiie?aoe/ieo canaae
uiaei oi?aae?iiy nioe?aeueiei aeeooyi;

— ?ice?eoe i?noea ? cia/aiiy eiioeaioe?e ieth?ae?caoe?? ae?o, i?eioeei?a
iaiei?ii?aoecio ? aca?iia??aiiaaaeaiiy ??cieo nioe?aeueieo nee a
i?ioean? aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? no/aniiai noni?euenoaa.

Ia’?eo ? i?aaeiao aeine?aeaeaiiy. Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? eeane/i? oa
no/ani? oaenoe c ?noi??? nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee, oai?aoe/ii? nioe?ieia??
oa iie?oieia??, a ye?e aeeeaaeai? oai??? iniiaiiieiaeiee?a ae?oecio,
eiioeaioe?? iaiae?oecio, e?aa?ae?cio, aeaiie?aoecio, iaiei?ii?aoecio, a
oaeiae c ocaaaeueiaiiy i?ioean?a aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??
noni?euenoa, ui ia?aaeeaathoue ia?ao?ae aei noaa?eueii? aeaiie?ao?? oa
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee.

I?aaeiaoii aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aaiacen oa aaiethoe?y
ae?oenonueeeo ?aeae a nioe?ieia?/i?e aeoioe?, ?o ao?eaiiy a no/anieo
eiioeaioe?yo aeaiie?aoe/iiai ae?oecio, ieth?ae?cio ? ei?ii?aoecio, ?ieue
? ooieoe?? ae?o a eiioaeno? i?ioean?a aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny o noni?euenoaao, ui ci?iththoue na?e iie?oe/iee ono??e ?
oei aeiiii?/ii? i?aai?caoe??.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. A iniiao aeine?aeaeaiiy
iieeaaeaii ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c i?aoeue aieiaieo oai?aoee?a
ae?oecio, aiae?oe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy no/anieo i?eoeeueiee?a oeueiai
iai?yio a nioe?ieia?/i?e oa nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i?e aeoioe?. Oe?iea
canoinoaaiiy ciaeoee caaaeueiiiaoeia? iaoiaee c’ynoaaiiy ?noi?e/iiai
aaiaceno oa aaiethoe?? eiioeaiooaeueieo ?aeae ae?oecio;
ii??aiyeueii-?ao?iniaeoeaiiai ?o ?icaeyaeo; nenoaiiee oa
no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiee i?aeo?ae aei noni?eueieo ae?o; ocaaaeueiaiiy
yaeu, ui aeieeathoue a c’yceo c ?ieueth ? ooieoe?yie ae?o a eiioaeno?
aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Aeena?oaioii noai?aia
eiiiaeoia aiae?oe/ia noaia, yea aeicaiey? cae?enieoe eiiieaeniee aiae?c
ci?noo eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio, ui iathoue i?noea a eeane/i?e oa no/ani?e
nioe?ieia?/i?e ? iie?oieia?/i?e aeoioe?; c’ynoaaoe oa?aeoa? ?
ni?yiiaai?noue ?o no/anieo iiaeeo?eaoe?e; aecia/eoe iiaeeeaino? oa
iaiaaeaiiy ya?enoe/iiai iioaioe?aeo eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio uiaei
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ?aae?e nueiaiaeaiiy. A ?aieao ?aae?caoe?? oe???
aiae?oe/ii? noaie aoee io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe oa aeniiaee, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iaaiith iaoeiaith iiaeciith.

· A aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii? i?iaiaeeoueny
iiiyo?eii-oa?i?iieia?/ia ?ic??ciaiiy i?ae “ae?oa?eciii” ? “ae?oeciii”. C
“ae?oa?eciii” iia’yco?oueny ?nioaaiiy a?oie in?a, ye? aieiae?thoue
iaeaeueie oaeaioaie, cae?aiinoyie, eaae?o?eaoe??th, iai?eeeaae, a
oea?ei? iie?oeee, ui oeoia/eoueny ye i?aenoaaa aeey caiyooy yei?nue
aeaaeii? iinaaee /e io?eioaaiiy yeiainue i?ea?eath. Iaoii?noue c
“ae?oeciii” iia’yco?oueny oaeo ?nioaaiiy a eiaei?e i?aai?caoe?ei?e
no?oeoo?? iaaii? ea??aii? a?oie, yea caeaoia iaa’ycoaaoe naith aieth
?ioei. (n. 31-32)

· Ia iniia? aiae?co aaiaceno ? aaiethoe?? ae?oenonueeeo ?aeae a
nioe?ieia?/i?e oa iie?oe/i?e aeoioe? ae??ciythoueny aea? ??ci?
ia?niaeoeae ?icoi?iiy ae?o: no?aoeo?eaoe?eia oa ?inoeoooe?eia.
No?aoeo?eaoe?eia ia?niaeoeaa, aei yei? iaeaaeaoue eiioeaioe?? A.Iinea,
A.Ia?aoi, A. Eeieinueeiai oa ?i., a?aeiia?aea? “ae?oa?enonueeiio”
oeoia/aiith ae?o, a ?inoeoooe?eia, yeo i?acaioothoue eiioeaioe??
I.Ino?iai?nueeiai, I.Aaaa?a, ?.I?oaeuena oa ?i., — “ae?oenonueeiio”.
(n.76-79)

· C’yniaaii, ui a no/anieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ae?o ia?aaaaa a?aeaea?oueny
?inoeoooe?ei?e ia?niaeoea?, eio?a ne?aeii ca Aaaa?ii ? I?oaeuenii,
aaa/a? ei?ai? eiaeii? ae?oe a ath?ie?aoe/i?e i?aai?caoe??. A oeueiio
aeiaaeeo ae?oa ia ?aeaioeo?eo?oueny c a?oiith in?a, ye? iathoue iniaeea?
oa?aeoa?enoeee, ui aeathoue ?i i?aenoaao i?aoaiaeoaaoe ia ea??aieoeoai
ianaie. A no/ani?e ae?oenonuee?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? iie?oe/ia ae?oa,
iai?eeeaae, ?icaeyaea?oueny ia?aaaaeii ye niaoeeo?/ia i?ioan?eia a?oia,
/eaie yei? caeiathoue aeu? iinaaee a iie?oe/ieo ?inoeoooao ?
i?aai?caoe?yo, aeeiiothoue iniaeea? ?ie?, ye? cae??ieai? ca oeeie
iinaaeaie, ? iathoue aieea ia cae?eniaiiy aeaaee (oeaio?aeueii?,
?aa?iiaeueii?, i?noeaai?). (n. 86-87)

· Iieacaii, ui iiaeeo?eaoe?y eeane/ieo eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio
a?aeaoaa?oueny i?ae aieeaii iioe?aiiy aeaiie?aoecaoe?? no/anieo
noni?euenoa. A iaiae?oenonueeeo eiioeaioe?yo aeiaiaeeoueny
ianoia?a/eea?noue ?ie? oa ooieoe?e ae?o aeaiie?aoe/iei canaaeai
oi?aae?iiy noni?eueiei aeeooyi. ?nioaaiiy ae?o ye oaeeo acaaae? ia
ae??oo? aeaiie?aoe/iee /e iaaeaiie?aoe/iee oa?aeoa? noni?euenoaa.
I?iaeaia ?aaeoa iieyaa? a niinia? ?ae?ooaoe?? ae?o, a oaeiae a ?o
noni?eueii ei?enii? ?ioaoe??. A oe?eiio ae?oe ? iane ?
aca?iiaeiiiaithth/eie oai?oeyie noni?eueiiai aeeooy, eio?? ia o?eueee
ni?a?niothoue, aea e aca?iiiaoiiaeththoue iaeei iaeiiai, aeeiioth/e
ooieoe??, ye? aeiiiaiththoue iaeia iaeio a no/anieo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo nenoaiao. (n.93, 103-105)

· Anoaiiaeaii, ui a noni?euenoaao, ye? ia?aaeeaathoue aeaiie?aoe/io
o?ainoi?iaoe?th, ia?ao?ae aei noaa?eueii? aeaiie?ao?? oa ?eieiai?
aeiiii?ee, iie?oe/i? ae?oe iiaeooue aooe ca?oiiaai? a aeae?eueea oei?a:
?aeaieia?/ii ?aeei? ae?oe, eiinainonii ia’?aeiai? ae?oe, ?icae?eai?
ae?oe (a?iioaca Ae.O?aee, I.Aa?oiia, Ae.O?eaea). I?e oeueiio ia?oiio
oeio a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?oe, ye? cao?oiaai?, oi?o?eiaai?, noeaiaioiaai?
ia aac? yei?nue ?aeaieia??, ae??ciythoueny aenieith noaa?euei?noth.
Ae?oaiio oeio a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?oe, ye? ca nai?i oa?aeoa?ii
ieth?ae?noe/i?, aea eiinainonii ia’?aeiai?, aiie oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
caiaeith uiaei ooiaeaiaioaeueieo i?eioeei?a ? oe?iiinoae aeaiie?aoecio.
O?aoueiio oeio a?aeiia?aeathoue ae?oe, ye? ?icae?eai?, aeac?ioaa?iaai?,
?o ??ci? o?aeoe?? aaaeooue aacei?i?ii?nio ai?ioueao iaeia c iaeiith.
(n.101,139-141)

· ?noi?e/iee aeina?ae inoaii?o aeenyoe??/ na?ae/eoue, ui aeaiie?aoe/ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?y i?ioiaeeoue oni?oii a oeo e?a?iao, aea iaoe?iiaeuei?
ae?oe aeinyaathoue ii?icoi?iiy i?ae niaith, oiaoi eiee iaoe?iiaeuei?
ae?oe noathoue eiinainonii ?aeeiith ae?oith. Oiio ii?icoi?iiy ae?o
?icaeyaea?oueny ia o?eueee a yeino? aaaeeeaiai /eiieea oi?ioaaiiy
noaa?eueii? aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie, aea e ye iioeiaeueiee oeyo
eiino?othaaiiy ieth?ae?noe/ii? ae?oe a no/anieo oiiaao. (130-133.)

I?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a iieyaa? o iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy
?ic?iaie ca?oa?aeieo nioe?ieia?a ye oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? iniiae oa
aeo?aeieo aeine?aeieoeueeeo iiaeaeae aeey i?iaaaeaiiy a?o/eciyieo
nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue nioe?aeueieo ae?o, c’ynoaaiiy ?oi?o
aieiaieo oa?aeoa?enoee, ooieoe?e, oeiieia?caoe?? oe?a?inueeeo ae?oieo
aa?noa, oiia ? /eiiee?a ?o ooai?aiiy oa aca?iiae?? oiui.

— iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? oa ae?oeiaai? i?aoe? aeena?oaioa iiaeooue
neoaoaaoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo
nioe?ieia?/ieo ? iie?oieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?ioean?a aeaiie?aoe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? a Oe?a?i?, aeaaeieo no?oeoo? ? a?aeiinei, nioe?aeueiiai
oi?aae?iiy oiui.

— aeniiaee ? a?aoiaioaoe?y aaoi?a iiaeooue ciaeoe canoinoaaiiy i?e
aenia?oieo ioe?ieao ci?i no/anii? nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, aoaeoeaiino? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ea?oaaiiy, iaoeiai?
iie?oeee o?yaeo ? o.i.

— ?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/i? ?ica?aeee aaoi?a, nenoeiaoeciaaiee iaeyae
no/anieo nioe?ieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e, iia’ycaiee c aeena?oaoe?eiei
aeine?aeaeaiiyi, iiaeooue iineoaoaaoe i?e aeeeaaeaii? a?aeiia?aeieo
iaa/aeueieo eo?n?a c ?noi??? nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee, nioe?ieia??
oi?aae?iiy, nioe?aeueieo no?oeoo? oa ?ioeo aeenoeeie?i.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. Ia?aiee iai?yi
iaoeiai? ?ica?aeee iia’ycaiee c ieaiiaith oaiaoeeith aeine?aeaeaiue
a?aeae?eo “?noi??? oa oai??? nioe?ieia??”, ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie c i?iaeai noni?eueieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aiae?oe/i? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue aaoi?ii ia
iaoeiae?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?inueea iie?oeea nueiaiaei?: oa?aeoa?enoeee,
i???ioe?e, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy no?aoaa?? ? oaeoeee”. Oe?a?inueei? aeaaeai??
iie?oe/ieo iaoe (Ee?a, 1998), ia “e?oaeiio noie?” “Oe?a?inueeee
ia?eaiaio 1998: aeina?ae, i?iaeaie, ia?niaeoeae” (Ee?a, 1998), a ?iaio?
eii?oao?a Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie.

Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia can?aeaii? a?aeae?eo “?noi??? oa oai???
nioe?ieia??” ?inoeoooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, io?eiaea iiceoeaio
ioe?ieo ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aei caoenoo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, aeaio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae. Iiaiee ianya
aeena?oaoe?? — 156 noi??iie, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae -109
iaeiaioaaiue, a?i caeia? 8 noi??iie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? ?ice?eaa?oueny nooi?noue ? noai i?iaeaie aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Iaa?oioiao?oueny aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe, ??
o?iiieia?/i? iaae? oa no?oeoo?a, aena?oeth?oueny iaoeiaa iiaecia,
aecia/athoueny i?aaeiao ? ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy, iniiai? oe?e? e
caaaeaiiy, aeeeaaeathoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee, iieaco?oueny
oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/ou?noue ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy,
oi?ioeththoueny iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, eio?? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
iaaiaeyoueny caaaeuei? aeai? i?i ai?iaaoe?th ?iaioe oiui.

Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icii/eia?oueny c aiae?co aaiaceno
eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio a ?noi??? nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee. O ia?oiio ?icae?e?
“Iniiai? eiioeaioe?? ae?oecio a iie?oe/i?e nioe?ieia??” ?icaeyaeathoueny
ci?no oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue iniiaiiieiaeiee?a ae?oecio, ii/eiath/e a?ae
na?aaeiueia?/iiai iiia?aaeieea iie?oieia?/ii? iaoee I.Iae?aaaee? oa
a?aeiieo nioe?ieia?a e?ioey O?O no.- A.Iinea, A.Ia?aoi, oe?a?inueeiai
eeaneea nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? aeoiee A.Eeieinueeiai, oa eiioeaioe??
eeanee?a ae?oecio OO no. I.Ino?iai?nueeiai, ?.I?oaeuena, I.Aaaa?a. A
ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? aeine?aeaeothoueny no?aoeo?eaoe?ei? eiioeaioe??
ae?oecio.

A oeaio?? oaaae i?aoeue Iae?aaaee? aoee i?iaeaie aeaaee oa iaoai?ci?a ??
canoinoaaiiy. A?i aia?oa c oaeith iiaiioith iieacaa, ui ethaee ?
i?aeaeaoeeaei iaoa??aeii aeey ?aae?caoe?? ?ioa?an?a oeo, ooi ciiaea
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?o i?e?iaei? iaoeee, ii/oooy, caaiaiie e iaea?/i?
ono?aie?iiy, ui aea?aia iaio?noue caaaeaee aoaea iaioaaoe iaae iaoiaiii,
iacaeaoiei aei inyaiaiiy ae?enieo aaaeae?a noni?eueiiai aeeooy.
Nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie c oi/ee ci?o caniiaieea eaoeinueei?
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? ae?oecio ? i?iaeoeoii noni?eueii?
aa?o?aee, yea ea?o? aea?aeaaith, oea?eiith, aea ?iaeea?aee ai?thoueny ca
aeii?iaoe?th ? aaaeae? aeaaee. ?iaeoueny aeniiaie, ui nioe?aeueiee
aeine?aeiee iiaeiai aaci?eno?anii aiae?coaaoe aieiai? ?ene ? iioyae
ethaenueei? iaoo?e, ?ice?eaaoe caniae iiaoaeiae aeaaeii? nenoaie ?
eiio?ieth iaae a?iiaaeyiaie.

Iae?aaaee? iinoaaea caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy iaoee oi?aae?iiy ethaenueeeie
ianaie, yea a aoaeoaaeanue ia aeyaeaii? iniiaieo iioea?a ethaenueeeo
ae?e, ui aeieeaathoue c ?oiuei? i?e?iaee, caeeaa ia?o? i?aeio?ee
eiino?oeoe?e ae?oecio. Eiio iaeaaeeoue a?aenoithaaiiy i?eioeeio
?icae?eaiiy, ??aiiaaae aeaaee, aca?iiae?? nioe?aeueieo nee ye
iaiao?aeieo oiia naiaiaee, ?icoi?iiy noni?eueieo aca?iei, ye?
anoaiiaeththoueny /a?ac ae?? oa ai?ioueao nioe?aeueieo a?oi, iaea?/io
eiioe?eoi?noue oa ci?ii?noue iaioth/eo aa?noa. Nioe?ieia?ci Iae?aaaee?
aeyaeyany ye i?aaiaiiy iiaeieaoe eeoeai??noai nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy ?
ooii?ci ieneaiiy, ye caeeee aeine?aeaeoaaoe ???aoe?iiaeuei? /eiieee, ye?
ae?enii ?ooathoue ethaenueeeie a/eieaie, c’yniaoaaoe ?aaeuei? ianoaaeie,
eio?? ooai?ththoue ?noi?e/io oeaieio nioe?aeueieo yaeu, aee?eaaoe on?ye?
?ethci?i? oyaeaiiy i?i noni?eueia aeeooy. Eiai aiae?c
nioe?i-ineoieia?/ieo aniaeo?a oaoiieia?? aeaaea?thaaiiy, yeinoae
e?aea?noaa, i?eeiie iai?ioethaaiiy ianiaith na?aeii?noth, i?eioeeie
iie?oe/iiai ?aae?cio oiui aoee aeei?enoai? caiaeii oai?aoeeaie ae?oecio
aeey ?icaoaeiae oeueiai iai?yieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ii? aiae?oeee.

A.Ia?aoi iaa?oiooaaa nioe?ieia?/i? ia?aiao?e iiiyooy ae?oa, coi?ioethaaa
oai??th oee?eoeyoe?? ae?o. Aeo?aeia aen?iia ia?ao?anueei? nioe?ieia?/ii?
aeoiee, ui ?icae?eaiiy ethaenueeeo ni?eueiinoae ia ae?oio iaioeio oa
ianeaio iano ? i?e?iaei?i ? iaoieeiaiiei noaiii noni?euenoaa. Iiiyooy
“ae?oa” a eiai o?aeooaaii? ia ia? aeiaeieo ii?aeueieo eiiaoaoe?e, oiaoi
ia ia? ia oaac? i?/iai ?ioiai, a icia/a? “eean ethaeae, ye? iathoue aeu?
aeinyaiaiiy o nai?e noa?? ae?yeueiino?”. A?i ae??ciy? “ae?oo, ui
i?aaeoue” oa “ae?oo, ui ia i?aaeoue”, aai ?aooo ae?oe. Aaaeeeai
iaaieineoe, ui aeoeoia/aiiy ae?oe Ia?aoi ia? ae?acia no?aoeo?eaoe?eia
coiiaeaiiy: /eaiaie ae?oe ? o?, ooi caeia? ae?oa?i? iiceoe?? caaaeyee
nai?i iniaenoei aeaiei, a oaeiae iioiaeaeaiith ? nioe?aeueiei ca’yceii.
Naia aeaaeia iiceoe?y, “e??nei” ?iaeyoue, ca eia?eith Ia?aoi, iniao
/eaiii ae?oe, ? oea aecia/a? noia?a/eeaee oeyo oi?ioaaiiy inoaiiuei?.
Aieiaiei aeyaey?oueny no?aoeo?eaoe?eiee /eiiee. Ae?oa?i?noue
aeaoa?i?io?oueny iniaeeaith aeaaeiith iiceoe??th o noni?euenoa?. Oeae
iiiaio ia??aeiee aeey ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo a nioe?aeuei?e aeoioe? ia
?oaaae? a?e?a.

Ae?oenonueea oai??y oeeee?/ieo nioe?aeueieo ci?i, ia?ao?anueea
eiioeaioe?y nioe?aeueii? aaiethoe?? a?ae?a?aea ?ieue iaaii?
aeueoa?iaaoeae ia?enenonueei? oai??? noni?eueiiai i?ia?ano, iaaieiooaaea
ia aecia/aeuei?e ?ie? ae?o a ?noi??? oa aeeeth/aea aoaeue-yeo
eiino?oeoeaio ?ieue ian a noni?eueiiio i?ioean?. ?noi??y
cia?aaeoaaeanue, ye ?noi??y niaaeei?iiino? iaioth/eo ae?o, ye? aaaeooue
ai?ioueao ca caa?oi?noue, aeinyaathoue aeaaee, iaiothoue, i?eoiaeyoue
aei caiaiaaeo oa cieeathoue c a?aie noni?eueiiai aeeooy. Eiioeaiooaeuei?
ia?iaee ?oae?enueeiai nioe?ieiaa i?iaeiaaeothoue iaaeeoaoe no/anieo
aeine?aeiee?a. Eiai aeoeoia/aiiy ooieoe?e aeueo no?ao a aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aae?ii? oa iaaea?aeaaieo no?oeoo?ao, aeaea?ae oa /eiiee?a oi?ioaaiiy
oaeeo no?ao, aeeiai?ee ?o ci?i aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy aea?aeaaii?
ath?ie?ao??, oaoiie?ao??, i?e?oa?ieo aa?o?aie oiui caa??aathoue
ei?eni?noue aeey iiooeo a?aeiia?aeae ia aeooaeuei? ieoaiiy noni?eueieo
o?ainoi?iaoe?e.

Iii?oiee aianie o ?icaeoie ae?oenonueeiai iai?yieo a nioe?ieia??
iaeaaeeoue A.Iinea. Eiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai iie?oe/ii? aeaaee, ??
coa’?eo?a oa iaoai?ci?a ooieoe?thaaiiy, i?ea?iaeueia eiioeaioe?y “eeano,
ui i?aaeoue”, aiae?c aca?iei ae?oa-iane, iaioaaiiy — i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy
oa ?io? ?aea? noaee i?aeaaeeiaie no/anii? nioe?ieia?? iie?oe/ieo yaeu.

Iinea aia?oa ca oaeith iai/i?noth iieacaa, ui ?aaeuei? i?ioeane
noni?eueiiai aeeooy iaee?aua ?ice?eaathoueny /a?ac aiae?c ai?ioueae
iie?oe/ieo ?ioa?an?a oa cania?a oi?aae?iiy a?iiaaeyinueeeie
ni?eueiinoyie, /a?ac ?icaeyae aca?iei nioe?aeueieo a?oi, ia?o?e, eean?a
o noia?ieoeoa? ca aeaaeo. Oeaio?aeueia i?noea a eiai oai?aoe/iiio
iaaeaaii? iin?aea? eiioeaioe?y “eeano, ui i?aaeoue”, eiai nooiino? oa
aeaea?aea oi?ioaaiiy, iiiyooy “iie?oe/iiai eeano”, caaaeueia oai??y
iie?oe/iiai oi?aae?iiy a ?one? ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo. A oiae?
ii??aiyeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue oa aiae?co no/anieo eiio iie?oe/ieo
i?ioean?a a?i aeae?eea canaaeie/? ?ene, i?eoaiaii? i?aaey/?e ae?o?,
aieiaia c yeeo ia?aaaaa iaae ioi/oth/eie ethaeueie, aaoi?eoao, aeciaiiy,
iioe?ioaaiiy.

?oae?enueeee nioe?ieia a?aoiaiooaaa iieiaeaiiy i?i ci?ii?noue niinia?a
oi?ioaaiiy eeano, ui i?aaeoue, aeiia aei iueiai, ao?aoo cia/ou?noue
iaeieo ?en, iaoii?noue c?inoaiiy cia/aiiy ?ioeo, oiaoi caia?a/oaaa
ye?nue iaci?ii?, oi?aa?naeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ae?oe, ye? iane?aeothoue a
?noi??? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. Iiiaeaiiy, iaaia ?ioaoe?y eeano, ui
i?aaeoue, ca eiai eia?eith, caeiiii??ia o iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?, iniaeeai
oeo, ui ia?aaeeaathoue ci?ie.

Caa??aathoue aeooaeuei?noue i??eoaaiiy Iinee a?aeiinii ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
ae?oecio ? aeaiie?ao??, eiai ianoithaaiiy “aeaiie?aoe/ieo ae?o” ye
caniao aeieaiiy oea i?aaenoaaieoeueeeo aeaiie?aoe/ieo ?aaeei?a. Ca?aeii
eiai aeieac?a, noni?euenoai, iaa?oue oa, ui aaaaea?oueny aeaiie?aoe/iei
ca oi?iith ono?ith, iaiaei?iii ?icae?eeoueny ia ae?oo oa iano. I?iaeaia
eeoa a oiio, ye ia?aoeiaeeoe aeinooio a ae?oio aa?o?aeo oei, ooi ia ?
aeinoieiei, ooi i?inoi i?ieiyoee aeaaeiaith aeaaee. ?ieue oa ooieoe??
ae?o cae??ieththoueny o “iie?oe/i?e oi?ioe?” (aeii?ioth/?e ?aeaieia??).
Aiia iiaea iaoe ?ae?a?eiee /e na?onueeee oa?aeoa?, aieiaia ??
i?ecia/aiiy iieyaa? o caaacia/aii? eaa?oeiiino? oe??? ?ie?. Aieiai?
?aea? Iinee aeeaaeathoueny o no?aoeo?eaoe?eio oaiaeaioe?th ?icaeoeo
ae?oecio a noni?euenoaiciaa/?e aeoioe?. Aiie, ia ao?a/ath/e naiai
cia/aiiy, o?ainoi?ioaaeeny a no/ani? aa?n?? ae?oecio.

I?ea?iaeueii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?aea? ae?oecio ciaeoee a oai?/ino?
oe?a?inueeiai aeine?aeieea ? a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a A.Eeieinueeiai. A?i
a?aenoithaaa eiina?aaoeaii-iiia?o?/i? iieiaeaiiy, canaaee ae?oecio
iaiaaaany i?eeeanoe aei aiae?co noni?eueieo i?ioean?a a Oe?a?i?.
I?ia?aeiith neeith ?noi?e/ieo ia?aoai?aiue a?i aaaaeaa ae?oo ia /ie?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aea?aeaae. Cia/io oaaao a?i i?eae?eea iaoe?iiaeueiei
?enai, ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iei iniaeeainoyi, iaoe?iiaeuei?e na?aeiiino?
aeoeaieo aa?noa noni?euenoaa, c yeeo neeaeenue ae?oe, oeiai ae?o,
niiniaai i?aai?caoe?? i?aaey/i? aa?o?aee.

Eeieinueeee aeei?enoiaoaaa oa?i?i “i?ia?aeia aa?noaa”,”iaoe?iiaeueia
a?enoie?ao?y”, “i?aaey/a aa?noaa” aeey ie?aneaiiy o??? neee, ui acyea a
ia naaa caaaeaiiy noai?aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae,
iiaanoe ca niaith iane, ia’?aeiaoe “a?ao?a-oe?ai?ia?a” iaaeiei
aea?aeaaiiai neiaieo — aaoueiaia. Aeii?iaioe iie?oe/iiai ieneaiiy
Eeieinueeiai aoee a ??/eu? ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo oeo /an?a, ?c
caeo/aiiyi iniiaieo iiiyoue oeueiai i?aeoiaeo: aiey, aeaaea, i?aaey/a
aa?o?aea, neea, ai?ioueaa. AEeooy ia caie?, ca iei, ioiieaia ia?aeiieie
???aoe?iiaeueieie aaaeaiiyie ? neeaie, ui a?aeoai?ththoueny a aeeoo?
iaoe?iiaeueieo ni?eueiinoae, eoeueoo??, o?aaeeoe?yo ? oi?iao
nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy. Iie?oe/iee e?aea? ia? aooe aiethioa?enoii,
i?ieiyoeny iae?aaaee?anueeith “aieath aei aeaaee”, a ia iieeaaeaoenue ia
“?noi?e/i? caeiie”. Ae?oe oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaiia aieiaieie ?enaie —
neeith ? aaoi?eoaoii. Neea “i?ia?aeii? aa?noae” a?oioo?oueny ia
noeo?eiiio, ???aoe?iiaeueiiio oio?ii?, aea oaeiae nie?a?oueny ? ia
?aoe?iiaeuei? iciaee — ai?iiy ? aieiae?iiy caniaaie i?aai?caoe??
ae?iaieoeoaa, iaaieie ciaiiyie. Neea ioneoue nie?aoeny ? ia ii?aeueiee
aaoi?eoao.

Oe?a?inueeee nioe?ieia cai?iiiioaaa eiioeaioe?th “eeanie?ao??”, aea
???aoe?iiaeueii-a?oae?noe/i? onoaiiaee eiai na?oiaeyaeo ii?aeioaaeeny c
aeiiii?/ii-aeaoa?i?i?nonueeeie iiaeyaeaie ia noni?eueia oi?aae?iiy,
aeaaeo, iaioaaiiy. ?aae?caoe?th oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? a?i
aaa/aa o oi?i? oae caaiiai “eeanie?aoe/iiai” ae?oa?ii-ei?ii?aoeaiiai
noni?eueiiai ono?ith, eio?ee i?ioenoaaeyany
ioeie?aoe/ii-aea?aeaaieoeueeiio oeio. Ca Eeieinueeei, naia i?ia?aeia
aa?noaa”, “iaoe?iiaeueia a?enoie?ao?y”, i?ae yeith a?i ?icoi?a iaee?aueo
i?aaenoaaiee?a iaoe?? aac iaeyaeo ia ?o iioiaeaeaiiy ? noai, caeaoia
noai?eoe i?aenoaae oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino? ? caaacia/eoe
iaoe?iiaeueio ?ioaa?aoe?th. Oe? ethaee aecia/athoue oai?aiiy
eoeueoo?ieo, ii?aeueieo ? oeea?e?caoe?eieo oe?iiinoae, ?o aaoi?eoao
aenooia? iniiaith caeiiiino? aeaaee. Ae?oa ae??ciy?oueny a?ae iane
caeaoi?noth ona?aeiieoe iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane, aei aea?aeaaioai?/eo
oi?i, aei ia?aoai?aiiy ???aoe?iiaeueieo oio?iue a ?aeaieia?th, —
i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo oe?a?inueeee oai?aoee.

I?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe?th ?a?iiaenueei? ae?oenonueei? nioe?ieia?/ii?
aeoiee, A.Eeieinueeee i?ea’ycaa ?? aei iie?oe/ieo ?aaeueiinoae /ano ia
oa?aiao Oe?a?ie, cai?iiiioaaa ieceo aeanieo ?aeae oa iiaeyae?a ia
ia?niaeoeae iaoe?iiaeueiiai aea?aeaaioai?aiiy, ye? caa??aathoue
aeooaeuei?noue a iao? aei?.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiai ?icae?eo aeine?aeaeothoueny
?inoeoooe?ei? eiioeaioe?? ae?oecio.

I?ea?iaeueiei aeine?aeieeii i?iaeai ae?oecio, nioe?aeueieo ooieoe?e
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, ia?eaiaionueei? aeaiie?ao??, nioe?aeueii?
i?aai?caoe?? oa oi?aae?iiy iinoa? iaeia?aeiiee ua ?in?enueeee oai?aoee
iie?oe/ii? nioe?ieia?? I.ss.Ino?iai?nueeee. A?i aea/a? iaoai?cie
ooieoe?thaaiiy iie?oe/ieo nenoai, ae?yeuei?noue e?aea??a iie?oe/ieo
oa?oioaaiue. Iii?oia i?noea a eiai i?aoeyo caeia? ?icaeyae c?inoath/iai
i?ioe??//y i?ae aieeaii ian ia iie?oe/ia aeeooy ? iecueeei ??aiai
?oiuei? iie?oe/ii? eoeueoo?e, i??eoaaiiy iaae aeieath aeaiie?aoe/iiai
ono?ith ? ?ieeth ae?oa?ieo a?oi a noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo i?ioeanao. C
?inoeooae?caoe??th iie?oe/ieo nee aeieea? iio?aaa o noai?aii?
i?aai?caoe?eieo oeaio??a, iaaeiei yeeo ia’?aeioaaeenue iioaioe?ei?
aeai?oe?, aaeanue iie?oe/ia ?iaioa. Oaea i?aai?caoe?eia yae?i iie?oe/ieo
?oo?a ? ni?eueiio io?eiaei iacao eieono.

Eiioeaioe?y eieono Ino?iai?nueeiai, oiia eiai oi?ioaaiiy ? ooieoe?e
i?eaianee iia? a?aoiaioe a ?icaeoie ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo. Oae?
ooai?aiiy ?icaeyaeaeeny ye iina?aaeieoeueea eaiea i?ae aeaaeiith ae?oith
oa ianaie, eii?aeeiaoe?eiee oeaio?, ye eiinie?aeaoi?a iie?oe/ieo
ono?aie?iue ? iia?e?coth/a ia/aei. Oeae oaiiiai icia/aa ii/aoie
ath?ie?aoecaoe?? e oeaio?ae?caoe?? aeaaee a i?aai?caoe?? ia?o?eii?
ae?yeueiino?, oae caaiiai “iie?oe/iiai iaoei?cio”. Ino?iai?nueeee aia?oa
ocaaaeueiea i?iyae ? /eiieee oeueiai oaiiiaio, nooi?noue yeiai o
naiiaeinoaoiino? iie?oe/ii? iaoeia???, o a?aenoi?iiaiiino? iie?oe/ieo
ooieoe?iia??a a?ae nioe?aeueieo ?aae?e. Oe? i?ioeane noaaeyoue i?ae
noii?a i?eioeeie aeaiie?ao??, iaoai?cie ?? cae?eniaiiy. A/aiee aeacoaaa
ia ?? ooiaeaiaioaeueiee iaaeie?e — a?ae/oaeaii? noni?euenoaa a?ae
oi?aae?iiy, a?ae canaaeie/eo ??oaiue, ia caa?ice ?ic?eao i?ae iie?oeeith
? ii?aeeth. E?eoeeoth/e e?aa?aeueii-ao?aeoacio aeaiie?ao?th c
ae?oenonueeeo iiceoe?e, nioe?ieia noaa?aeaeoaaa, ui a?ae/oaeaiiy oe?ieeo
aa?noa a?ae iie?oe/iiai aeeooy ne?ae aeieaoe /a?ac noai?aiiy a?eueieo
noni?eueieo anioe?aoe?e, ?oo?a, nithc?a, ye? a?aee?eo? aeey ?i?oe?aoeae,
noeioeththoueny a?ae/oooyie a?iiaaenueei? a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? e ii?ae?,
/a?ac a?aenoithaaiiy ia?aaaa ae?eniiai e?aea?noaa, a?aeiiaeaiiy
aaoi?eoaoo ae?oa?ieo a?oi, ui aeoeneothoueny iie?oe/iei iao?i?ciii, ye
caaaeaiiy ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa ca oiia
aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Iiaeaeueoa aaiethoe?y ae?oenonueeeo iiaeyae?a i?inoaaeo?oueny a oai???
iie?oe/ii? ae?oe ?.I?oaeuena. Eiai “nioe?ieia?y ia?o?eii? ni?aae”,
iieiaeaiiy “cae?ciiai caeiio ie?aa?o??” aoee nooo?aei aeiiiaiaiiyi
ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo, eiina?aaoeaii? e?eoeee aeaiie?ao??. Cie?aia
a?i aeacoaaa, ui naia aeaiie?ao?? ye aeaae? ia?iaeo i?eoaiaii? yaeua
i?ioaiaoe??, ooo/iiai “?iaeaiiy aeai?o”, eiee iane i?aeaeathoueny
ia?iaoe?, a ?acoeueoao? yei? aeoe aieaaeyaeaiiy iaaeoi oiiai?. Iaioaaiiy
oeo, eiai iae?athoue, iaae oeie, ooi iae?a?, ii?iaeaeo? /eneaii?
noia?a/iino? aeaiie?aoe/iiai ono?ith. Oaeiio ?ethci?iiio aeaiie?aoecio
a?i i?ioenoaaey? “i?e?iaei?e ae?oeci”, aino?i e?eoeeoaaa a?eueoiaeoeueeo
“aeeeoaoo?o i?ieaoa??aoo” ye aioeiiae aeaiie?ao??.

I?oaeuen i?aeaiaeeoue aei aeniiaeo, ui nioe?ieia?/iee aiae?c ?aaeueieo
aeaaeieo a?aeiinei iaaea? /eiaei aeieac?a e?eoeeai aeaiie?ao??, aeaco?
ia iaiiaeeea?noue ?nioaaiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai ethaenoaa aac iaioth/iai
“iie?oe/iiai eeano”, yeee ?aeeii ?ooa? ?noi??th. Ea?oaaiiy noni?euenoaii
caaaeaee ? ni?aaith i?aai?ciaaii? iaioino?, yea iaa’yco? noni?euenoao
iaaiee ii?yaeie. Aeaaea aoaea iaa?aeai?ioii cina?aaeaeoaaoeny o ?oeao
ie?aa?o??. Iino?eiee e?oaiia?a ae?o ia a?aei?iy?, a eeoa aeiiiaith?
oeoia/aiiy oeueiai caeiio. Ca I?oaeuenii, ia?o?y ye i?aai?caoe?y, iaoeia
cian?i ia oioiaeiy ia?o?ei?e ian?, eeania?. Aiia iiaea aooe
naiioe?eueiith, ia?ane?aeoaaoe iniaeno? ?ioa?ane, a?aeaeaeai? a?ae
?ioa?an?a ni?eueiioe, yeo i?aaenoaaey?, a ?aaeueia aeaaea iaeaaeaoeia
ie?aa?o?/i?e aa?o?aoe?, oiaoi o??? ae oaee ae?o?.

Aeooaeuei?noue eiioeaioe?? ?.I?oaeuena iaoiiaeth?oueny oei, ui a?i
aena?oeth? iaai? oi?aa?naeuei? iaoai?cie aca?iiae?? ni?eueiio,
i?aai?caoe?? ? oi?aae?iiy, ye? ae?acii aeyaeythoueny ?
i?aeoaa?aeaeothoueny i?e noni?eueieo o?ainoi?iaoe?yo. Eiai iiaeyaee
ciaiaioaaee ia?ao?ae a?ae no?aoeo?eaoe?eieo aei ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo oac
ae?oecio, aea ae?yeuei?noue nioe?aeueieo nee oi?ioe?coaaeanue /a?ac
iie?oe/i? ia?o?? ? ?icaeyaeaeanue ye ooieoe?iiaeueii iaiao?aeia,
iaoieeiaiii ie?aa?o?/ia.

Caaa?oaiiy aaiethoe?? a?ae no?aoeo?eaoe?eieo aei ooieoe?iiaeueieo
o?aeooaaiue ae?oecio ciaeoei o oai?/ino? I.Aaaa?a. Aeaeaoiee nioe?ieia
iaa?oioiaoaaa /eiieee, ye? i?eaaee aei oi?ioaaiiy no/aniiai cao?aeiiai
noni?euenoaa, ia?aaeon?i i?ioean ?aoe?iiae?caoe??. C inoaii?i a?i
iia’ycoaaa nai? ?icoi?iiy i?e?iaee aea?aeaaii? aeaaee ? iie?oeee,
aena?oeaiiy i?iaeai eaa?oei?caoe?? aeaaee ? ia?eaiaioa?ecio. Ca?aeii
eiai i??eoaaiue, yaeua ?aoe?iiae?caoe?? i?aaa, ath?ie?aoecaoe?? e
i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy i?ecaiaeyoue aei a?aeae?eaiiy
“cania?a oi?aae?iiy” a?ae i?eaaoieo in?a, ?icaeoeo niaoe?ae?ciaaieo
aaei?i?no?aoe?eieo ai?iue oa i?ioeano “iie?oe/ii? naeaeoe??”, a ioaea —
aei iie?oeee ye i?ioan??.

Aaaa? ciaethaaa oa?aeoa?enoeee oa oiiae oi?ioaaiiy “iie?oee?a ca
iieeeeaiiyi”, iaa?oiooaaa iaiao?aei? yeino? aeey oeueiai: aeaaeaiiy,
ii/oooy a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?, ii/oooy i?iii?oe??, noi?ioethaaa aeiiae aei
ia?eaiaionueei? aeaiie?ao??. A?i e?eoe/ii noaaeany ia o?eueee aei
ianiaeo ia?o?e, aea e aei aeaeoi?aeueii? aeaiie?ao??. Aaeaea e ca oiia
inoaiiuei? noni?euenoai ?icae?eaii ia iaaaeeeo a?oio iie?oe/ii aeoeaieo
a?iiaaeyi ? ianeaio iano, ?e aeicaieaii eeoa a?aeaeaaaoe nai? aieine, ia
aiia ii?iaeaeo? e?aea?a, a iie?oe/iee e?aea? ?ae?aoo? i?ea?/iee?a ?
caaieiao? iano caaaeyee aeaiaaaa?? ? o.ae. Aiaeii/an, ca eiai aeoieith,
o?eueee ia?eaiaio ? oei i?noeai, aea iiaea noi?ioaaoenue ni?aaaei?e
i?ioan?eiee iie?oee, naia oai oi?iothoueny yeino? “iie?oeea ca
iieeeeaiiyi”, neeaaea?oueny iaiao?aeia “aoeea ia?aeiiaiiy” ? “aoeea
a?aeiia?aeaeueiino?”. Eiai eiioeaioe?? “oa?eciaoe/iiai e?aea?a”,
ieaa?noeeoa?ii? aeaiie?ao??” — noaee eeane/ieie a
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio ciaii?. Cia/ia i?noea a ieo caeiathoue iiaeyaee
e aeniiaee ae?oenonueeiai aaooieo.

?acii c oei, Aaaa? aoa ooiaeaoi?ii ?ioi? ia?niaeoeae ?icoi?iiy
i?iaeaiaoeee ae?o, i?ae o?aaeeoe?eii ?ai?acaioiaaiith
iinea-ia?ao?anueeith aeoieith. Ia a?aei?io a?ae oe??? o?aaeeoe?eii?
no?aoeo?eaoe?eii? ?ioa?i?aoaoe??, aaaa??anueea ?inoeoooe?iiaeueia
cina?aaeaeo?oueny ia ia ?enao ? nioe?aeueiiio noai? ae?oieo ooai?aiue, a
ia ooieoe?thaaii? ?inoeooo?a aeaaee ? iie?oe/ieo i?aai?caoe?yo, ia oeo
?iaeea?aeao, ui ianeoaiaothoue oe? ?inoeoooe ? i?aai?caoe??, ia
i?eoaiaii?e iei ia’?aeioth/?e ooieoe?iiaeuei?e yeino? — ?ieyo
i?ioan?eiiai iie?oeea. Aieiaiee aeniiaie, ui aeo?ea? c iiaeo aeoeaio?a
ae?oecio, aiai?eoue, ui a ??cieo ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo ii?yaeeao
iaeaaeeoue ae??ciyoe niaoeeo?/i? ae?oe: iie?oe/io, ainiiaea?/o, iaoeiao,
a?enueeiao ? o.i., ui i?ioean aaoiiii?caoe?? ae?o i?eoaiaiiee no/ani?e
oeea?e?caoe??.

A no/ani?e nioe?ieia?? no?aoeo?eaoe?eia ia?niaeoeaa ciaoiaeeoue nai?
canoinoaaiiy a aeine?aeaeaiiyo neeaaeo ae?o, ?oiueiai iioiaeaeaiiy,
ea?’??e, a?oiiai? cao?oiaaiino? oiui, oiaoi aeathoue iiaeeea?noue
noai?eoe “ii?o?ao” o??? /e o??? ae?oe. Iaoii?noue ?inoeoooe?iiaeueia
ia?niaeoeaa oa?aeoa?eco?oueny i?aaiaiiyi aeine?aeeoe ae?? ae?o oa ?o
iane?aeee. Oea iniaeeai aeooaeueii a neooaoe?yo nioe?aeueieo
ia?aoai?aiue, aeeaeiieo o?ainoi?iaoe?e, ui niinoa??aathoueny iei?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “Aeaiie?aoe/ia o?ainoi?iaoe?y ? eiioeaioe??
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ae?oecio” ?icaeyiooi eiioeaiooaeuei? i?iaeaie, iia’ycai?
c noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieie ci?iaie e?ioey OO no., ia?aoiaeii a?ae
oioae?oa?iiai aei aeaiie?aoe/iiai eaaeo, ?icaeoeo ?inoeoooe?e
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, aecia/aii oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i?
canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy ooieoe?thaaiiy aeaaeieo no?oeoo?, ?ie? ? i?noey
ae?oieo aa?noa a nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiio aeeoo?.

A na?oe? i?ioean?a aeaiie?aoecaoe?? noni?eueiiai aeeooy coi?ioaaeany
iiaa ia?aaeeaia ae?oecio — iaiae?oeci.

Iaoeiaiio aiae?cia? i?aeaeai? iia? aa?n?? oa ?ioa?i?aoaoe?? eeane/ieo
ae?oenonueeeo iieiaeaiue, eiioeaioe?e ? i?aeoiae?a. Ca a?aoiaioaoe??th
no/anieo i?eoeeueiee?a ae?oecio, a nioe?aeuei?e i?aai?caoe??
oi?iothoueny niaoe?ae?ciaai? aa?noae ? ath?ie?ao?y, ye? iathoue a?eueo?
iiaeeeaino? aieeao, i?ae ?io? /eaie ni?eueiioe, neeaaea?oueny
oi?aae?inueea ae?oa, a ca?aene — ?icae?eaiiy noni?euenoaa ia
aeaaea?th/eo ? i?aeaeaaeieo o ooieoe?iiaeueieo a?aeiineiao. Aiaeii/an
aeaiie?aoe/i? i?eioeeie ae?noathoue iiaeeea?noue ?aae?coaaoeny caaaeyee
iie?oe/i?e noaa?eueiino?, ?icaeoeo ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa, /a?ac ceaaiaeo noia?a/eeaeo ?ioa?an?a ca aeiiiiiaith
oao?aoe?a noni?eueiiai oi?aae?iiy, aeaaeieo ae?o. Eiinainoni?noue
noni?euenoaa — oea i?iaeoeo iaiieaaeeaeo coneeue oeo, ooi ia? aaoi?eoao,
aieea ? a?aeiia?aei? ai?iiy. A oeueiio ?icoi?ii? ae?oeci oi?aae?inueei?
ae?oe ia? ao?ethaaoeny o aeeiiaii? aaaeeeaeo ooieoe?e, o aeaeyae? iaaieo
ciaia’ycaiue ia?aae a?iiaaeith, o a?aeiia?aeaeueiino? ca ae?iaeaiiy
iioeiaeueieo ??oaiue. Ana oea iieeaaea?oueny ia “na?aeiii cao?oiaaio
ae?oo”, oa?aeoa?enoeee yei? nenoaiaoecothoueny a no/anieo nioe?ieia?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiiyo.

Iiiaeaiee ae?oeci iaaieioo? ia nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ooieoe?yo ae?o, ia
no?aoaa?/ieo iiceoe?yo o a?aeiia?aeii no?oeoo?iaaieo i?aai?caoe?yo, a
eeth/iaeo noni?eueieo ?inoeoooe?yo ? ia’?aeiaiiyo, ia aoaeoeaiino? in?a,
ye? ciaoiaeyoueny ia aenieeo aeaaeieo iiceoe?yo neeaaeiiai
aaaaoinaeoi?iiai noni?euenoaa.

No/ani? oai?aoeee ae?oecio (Aeae.O?ae?, Aeae.O?eae, E.A?ioieo, A.Ea?eoii
oa ?io?) aeine?aeaeothoue ? ii??aiththoue nea?iaoth/? ooieoe?? ae?o,
?oi? i?noea a oi?aae?ii? noni?eueieie ni?aaaie, ?icaeyaeathoue
ni?aa?aeiineie ae?o c ia-ae?oaie, i??o nie?aiiy ia inoaii?o,
caeaaei?noue a?ae ??aiy nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo. Aiae?co?oueny
ni?anoaaeaiiy iaiae?oecio c aeii?ioth/eie ?aeaieia?yie OO no. —
e?aa?ae?ciii ? ia?eneciii, aea?oueny ae?oenonueea e?eoeea ?o cie?aia
uiaei iie?oe/ii? i?e?iaee ethaenueeiai noni?euenoaa nioe?aeueii?
ni?aaaaeeeaino?, ?ica’ycaiiy eiioe?eo?a, ?aaoeueiaaiiai eiinainono,
i?iaeai ?aaeueii? iie?oeee ? aano?aeoieo ?aeaae?a. Aiie i?iiiiothoue
nai? ?ica’ycaiiy ae?eai naiaiaee ? ??aiino?, aoaeoeaii? nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee ? aeaiie?ao??, i?ioan?eii? eiiiaoaioe?? oa oe?ieiai
aieaaeyaeaiiy.

No/ani? i?ea?/ieee ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo i?ieeaiothoue a?aeo?ae a?ae
?aeaieia?/ii? caaiaaaeiaaiino?, i?eo?eiaiiy oe?iiinoii-ia’?eoea?nonueei?
iiceoe??, i?aaiaoeci ia iae?inioe?ieia?/iiio ??ai?. Aeey e?auiai
a?aei?aaeaiiy nai?o ooieoe?e ae?oi? a?oie iathoue aooe oiacaeaaeiai?,
aooe eiiiaoaioiei a?a?o?ii o noia?ieoeoa? ??cieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo
nee. Oaeee iaae?aeaieia?/iee, iicaoe?iiinoiee, oaoiaee i?aeo?ae
i?aaiaoe/ieo e?aea??a, ye? caeaoi? noaoe iaae i?ieeaeie i?ioe??//yie ?
eiioe?eoaie, caeoioethaaoe ethaenueeo ioae??noue ? neoaoaaoe
?aae?noe/iiio oi?aae?iith noni?eueieie i?ioeanaie, ca eia?eith
iaiae?oenonueeeo oai?aoee?a, ia noia?a/eoeia aeooia? aiioe e?ioey OO
no., eiai iiaei noaiaea?oai.

Ie?aii aiae?co?oueny ?aeay iaiei?ii?aoecio ye iaeei c iai?yie?a
canoinoaaiiy ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo. Ia?oueny ia oaac? oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy nenoaie ?ai?acaioaoe?? ?ioa?an?a aaeeeeo naaiaio?a
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ?aea? “nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa”,
ooieoe?iiaeueii? aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? ? ocaiaeaeaiiy ei?ii?aoeaieo
iae?ino?oeoo? oa oi?i eiio?ieth c aieo aeaaee iaae oeeie no?oeoo?aie.
Oai?aoe/i? canaaee ei?ii?aoecio, ye? ao?eai? a i?aoeyo eiai ?aeaieia?a
(O.Oi?ooa?, A.Eaanii, O.Eiaae?e oa ?i.), iiaeooue noaoe ae?eiaei
?ino?oiaioii ae??oaiiy aeieeath/eo nioe?aeueieo i?iaeai, iai?oaeaiue,
eiioe?eo?a, a?aoo?, — i?aea?oiooyi aeaiie?aoe/ii? eiinie?aeaoe??.
I?aeaiaeeoueny ocaaaeueiaiiy, ui aea/aiiy eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue
ei?ii?aoecio, i?aeoiae?a aei no/anieo nioe?aeueieo yaeu, cania?a
ocaiaeaeaiiy ??cieo ?ioa?an?a, canoinoaaiiy i?e aiae?c? ?aae?e
nueiaiaei?oiuei? Oe?a?ie — ni?eyoeia eiino?oeoeaiiio ae??oaiith
aaaaoueio i?iaeai, iiaoaeiae “nioe?aeueii i???ioiaaii?” aea?aeaae.

Ia caaa?oaiiy aeine?aeaeo?oueny ca’ycie i?ioean?a aeaiie?aoe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? c oi?ioaaiiyi iieiaeaiue eiioeaioe?e aeaiie?aoe/iiai
ae?oecio.

I?ae aieeaii /eiiee?a ?icaeoeo aeaiie?aoe/ii? nenoaie oi?aae?iiy:
?ai?acaioaoeaiiai ia?eaiaioa?ecio, ?icae?eaiiy a?eie aeaaee, ianiaeo
iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? e
aca?iia??aiiaaaeaiiy aeaaeieo no?oeoo? oiui — ci?ia?oueny i?ioenoaaeaiiy
ae?oecio ? aeaiie?aoecio, no/ani? aeine?aeieee nioe?aeueiiai ae?oecio —
N.Eaeea?, Ae.Ia?eon, A.Ea?eoii, Aeae.Oaeoi?ae, I.Ia?aa?,
?.Aooe?ii?-Oaeea? oa ?io? — a ?ioaa?aoe?eiiio aeeeaae? i?aaenoaaeythoue
“aeaiie?aoe/io oai??th ae?o”. Aiae?c iniiaieo iieiaeaiue oe??? oai???,
oiia ? oaeoi??a ciyooy noia?a/iino? i?ae i?eioeeiaie iaiae?oecio ?
aeaiie?aoecio, i?ioenoaaeaiiy ?ioa?an?a ae?oe ? iane aeicaiey?
i?aaenoaaeoe iiaeyaee aieeaiaeo nioe?aeueieo aiae?oee?a o
nenoaiaoeciaaiiio, ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae?.

Nioe?aeuei? ae?oe a oaeiio ?aeo?n? aa/aoueny ye noni?eueii cia/ei?
oa?oioaaiiy, aoaeoeai? ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?, ia ye? iieeaaeai? caaaeaiiy
aeinyaiaiiy aieiaieo noni?eueieo oe?eae ? a?aeiia?aeaeuei?noue ca
nioe?aeueiee ii?yaeie ? ?icaeoie. I?aee?aneth?oueny ooieoe?y “neoae?iiy
noni?euenoao” oa ?? a?aeiia?aeia caaacia/aiiy, a?aenoith?oueny aeoiea,
ui ca no/anieo oiia aeooae?co?oueny oaiaeaioe?y i?inoaaiiy a?ae
aeii?iaoe?? aeaaee ie?aieo in?a aei ?inoeooae?ciaaii? aeaaee
ieth?ae?noe/ieo ae?o, a?aeiia?aeii eaa?oei?ciaaieo, eiio?ieueiaaieo ?
aca?iia??aiiaaaeaieo.

Aeniiaee

Aeniiaee ?iaioe i?noyoue i?aenoiee aiae?co ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo aei
nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a, eiai caeiaooee a no/aniiio iiyniaii?
noni?eueiiai aeeooy. I?inoaaeoth/e ?icaeoie eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio a
?noi??? nioe?ieia?/ii? aeoiee, a?aecia/eii, ui aieiaiith oaiaeaioe??th
?oiuei? aaiethoe?? aoei ci?uaiiy iaaieino c no?aoeo?eaoe?eieo /eiiee?a,
c iieiaeaiue “i?e?iaeiuei? ???a?o?/iino?” on?o ni?eueiio, iaoieeiaiiino?
aeae?eaiiy a nioe?aeuei?e no?oeoo?? “eeano, ui i?aaeoue” aai “i?ia?aeii?
aa?noae” oiui, aei ?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo /eiiee?a, ye? ae?inoathoue c
ooieoe?iiaeueieo oa?aeoa?enoee ae?o, ath?ie?aoecaoe?? ?
i?ioan?iiae?caoe?? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai ea?oaaiiy noni?eueieie
ni?aaaie. ?aea? oa aeno?aei? oace eeanee?a ae?oecio A.Iinea, A Ia?aoi,
A.Eeieinueeiai ?icai?oaeenue ? eiie?aoecoaaeenue a eiioeaioe?yo “eieono”
I.Ino?iai?nueeiai, “cae?ciiai caeiio ie?aa?o??” ?.I?oaeuena,
oi?aae?inueei? ath?ie?ao?? ? “iie?oeee ye i?ioan??” I.Aaaa?a.

A inoaii?e /aa?o? OO no. oe? oaiaeaioe?? ni?e/eieee oi?ioaaiiy oai???
aeaiie?aoe/iiai ae?oecio, ui ii?aeiaea i?iaeoeoeai? ?aea? eeane/ieo
i?aoeue oa nioe?ieia?/i? caeiaooee aiae?co no/anieo noni?eueieo yaeu:
i?eioeeie ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa, ci?i a nioe?aeuei?e
no?oeoo?? oa ?ie? ianiaeo iie?oe/ieo ia?o?e, canaae ei?ii?aoecio ?
ieth?ae?cio, ye i?aea?oiooy aeaiie?aoe/ii? eiinie?aeaoe??.

Aeyaeeeny iia? ia?niaeoeae canoinoaaiiy ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo ca oiia
aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, yea niinoa??aa?oueny ai?iaeiaae inoaii?o
aeanyoee?oue o Cao?aeiiio na?o?. Iaiae?oenonueea iiaeaeue aeoeoia/aiiy
ooieoe?thaaiiy noni?eueieo iaoai?ci?a aeaaee, nioe?aeueiiai oi?aae?iiy,
i?eeiyooy oa ?aae?caoe?? iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue aeoiaeeoue c
eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue, ye? ia noia?a/aoue i?eioeeiai
aeaiie?aoecio, e?aa?aeueieo naiaiae oa nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?.
Iaaiaee, i?aee?aneth?oueny, ui ?icoiii aecia/aia ae?yeuei?noue
iaoe?iiaeueieo ae?o iiaea c?iaeoe aeaiie?aoe/iee eaae a?eueo
aeaiie?aoe/iei.

No/ani? nioe?aeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a aeaiie?aoe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? iieacothoue, ui eiino?oeoeaia aca?iiae?y ae?o noa?
oiiaith noaa?eueiino? iie?oe/ii? nenoaie, a ?oiy aaoiiiii?noue noa?
oiiaith ?icaeoeo aeaiie?ao??. ?icna?aaeaeaiiy eiio?ieth iaae ??cieie
aeaeaie noni?eueieo ?ano?n?a — iaoa??aeueieo, ?ioi?iaoe?eieo, iaoeiaeo,
aaei?i?no?aoeaieo, neiaie?/ieo, ineoi-iniaeno?nieo — aenooiaoeia
caii?oeith i?ioe oco?iaoe?? aeaaee, caiia?aaoeia ceiaaeeaaiiyi ?
ei?oioe?? o aeaaeieo no?oeoo?ao. Aca?iia??aiiaaaeaiiy oa aca?iiae?y
ae?o, eiinainonia ni?euei?noue uiaei e?ioeaaeo oe?eae noni?eueiiai
?icaeoeo aoaea aaaeeeaei /eiieeii ?icaoaeiae a?iiaaeyinueeiai
noni?euenoaa a Oe?a?i?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeia?aaeai?: a 1 a?ioth?? oa 4
noaooyo:

1. Oai/a? A., Ea?anue I., Eo/a?aiei I., Iie?oe/i? ia?o?? oa ?ooe o
na?oe? “neooaoe?? iinoiiaea?io” — E: — Aeaiie?aoe/i? ?i?oe?aoeae, 1997.
— 44 n.

2. Einoeinueea I., Eo/a?aiei I. ?.Ia?oii oa eiai iiaeaeue no?oeoo?iiai
ooieoe?iiae?cio // O?einionueea ? nioe?ieia?/ia aeoiea, 1996. — ? 7-8, —
N.107-119.

3. Eo/a?aiei I. Aei nioe?yeueii-iie?oe/ii? noaa?e?caoe?? /a?ac i?eioeeie
iaiei?ii?aoecio // ?icaoaeiaa aea?aeaae, 1997. — ? 11, — N.37-42.

4. Eo/a?aiei I.TH. A.Iinea — oai?aoee ae?oecio // Nioe?aeuei? aei??e
noni?euenoaa: Ca.iaoe.?ia?o ani??aio?a — ?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI
Oe?a?ie, 1998. — N. 77-86.

5. Oai/a? A., Eo/a?aiei I. ?aea? ae?oecio a eiioaeno? aeaiie?aoe/ii?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa // Nioe?ieia?y: oai??y, iaoiaee, ia?eaoeia,
— 1998. — ? 3, — N.5-16.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. O ioae?eaoe?? ?1 iniaenoi aaoi?ia?
iaeaaeeoue ?icae?e 6 “Iaiei?ii?aoeci ye iniiaa aeaiie?aoe/ii?
eiinie?aeaoe??”, /anoeia ?icae?eo 3 “E?eca iiioe?nonueei? iie?oeee”, a
ioae?eaoe?? ? 2 iieiaeaiiy, ye? noinothoueny caaaeueiiai aiae?co
?ioa?i?aoaoe?? ?.Ia?oiiii nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e, ?? ci?i, aca?iica’yceo
i?ae nioe?aeueiith no?oeoo?ith oa eoeueoo?ith; a ioae?eaoe?? ?5
?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/iee ?icaeyae aaiethoe?? ae?oenonueeeo eiioeaioe?e,
no/anieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e ae?oenonueeiai i?aeoiaeo.

Eo/a?aiei I.TH. Eiioeaioe?? ae?oecio a eiioaeno? i?ioean?a
aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa nioe?ieia?/ieo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 22.00.01 — ?noi??y ? oai??y nioe?ieia??. —
?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, Ee?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aiae?co nioe?ieia?/ieo eiioeaioe?e ae?oecio, ?o
?noi?eei-nioe?ieia?/ieo aeoie?a, aaiethoe??, no/aniiai noaio. Aeae?eaii
aeaa iai?yie oi?ioaaiiy ae?oenonueeeo i?aeoiae?a aei nioe?aeueieo yaeu,
aei i?eioeei?a aeaaea?thaaiiy ? noni?eueiiai oi?aae?iiy:
no?aoeo?eaoe?eiee ? ?inoeoooe?iiaeueiee, nenoaiaoeciaaii iieiaeaiiy
oai??? “aeaiie?aoe/iiai ae?oecio”. Aaoi?ii ?icaeyiooi ? cai?iiiiiaaii
nai? aeoeoia/aiiy aca?iica’yceo iaiae?oecio oa aeaiie?aoecio, ie?aneaia
?ieue no/anieo ae?o a i?ioeanao aeaiie?aoe/ii? o?ainoi?iaoe??.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ae?oeci, iaoe?iiaeuei? ae?oe, aeaiie?aoe/ia
o?ainoi?iaoe?y, aeaaea, nioe?aeueia oi?aae?iiy, ei?ii?aoeci.

Eo/a?aiei A.TH. Eiioeaioeee yeeoecia a eiioaenoa i?ioeania
aeaiie?aoe/aneie o?ainoi?iaoeee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeena?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa nioeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 22.00.01 — enoi?ey e oai?ey nioeeieiaee. —
Einoeooo nioeeieiaee IAI Oe?aeiu, Eeaa, 1998.

Aeena?oaoeey iinayuaia aiaeeco nioeeieiae/aneeo eiioeaioeee yeeoecia,
enoi?eei-nioeeieiae/aneeo enoieia, yaiethoeee, nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey.
Auaeaeaii aeaa iai?aaeaiey oi?ie?iaaiey yeeoenoneeo iiaeoiaeia e
nioeeaeueiui yaeaieyi, e i?eioeeiai ainiiaenoaa e iauanoaaiiiai
oi?aaeaiey: no?aoeoeeaoeeiiiue e einoeoooeeiiaeueiue, nenoaiaoece?iaaiu
iieiaeaiey oai?ee “aeaiie?aoe/aneiai yeeoecia”. Aaoi?ii ?anniio?aii e
i?aaeeiaeaii naia enoieeiaaiea acaeiinayce iaiyeeoecia e aeaiie?aoecia,
i/a?/aia ?ieue nia?aiaiiuo yeeo a i?ioeanao aeaiie?aoe/aneie
o?ainoi?iaoeee.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeeoeci, iaoeeiiaeueiua yeeou, aeaiie?aoe/aneay
o?ainoi?iaoeey, aeanoue, nioeeaeueiia oi?aaeaiea, ei?ii?aoeci.

Kucherenko O.Yu. Conceptions of Elitism in the Context of Democratic
Transformation Processes. — Manuscript.

Thesis competes for an award of Candidate’s Degree in sociology.
Specialization: 22.00.01 — History and Theory of Sociology. — Institute
of Sociology of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Ky?v, 1998.

The Dissertation deals with an analysis of historical and sociological
roots, evolution and present state of sociological concepts of elitism.
Two avenues of development of elitist approachesss to social phenomena,
to State and public administration were selected for analyses:
stratification and institutional. “Democratic elitism” theoretical
propositions were also systematized. An author has reviewed and proposed
his own definition of interrelation between neoelitism and democracy,
as well as outlined a role of contemporary elite in democracy
transformation processes.

Key words: elitism, social elite, democratic transformation, power,
social management, corporatism.

I?aei.aei ae?oeo Oi?iao 60o84/16. Iai?? ion.? Ion.ae?oe.
Aa?i?oo?a “ ”. Oi.-ae?oe.a?e. Oi.oa?ai-a?ae. Iae.-aeae.a?e.
Iaeeaae 100 i?ei. Cai. Aaceiooiaii.

Aeae?oeiaaii ia ae?iaie/i-aeaeaaie/iio eiia?iao? “ “.

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