Кочове населення на південному заході України (кінець ІХ — перша половина ХVII ст.): Автореф. дис… канд. іст. наук / І.О. Смирнов, Одес. держ. ун-т

IAeANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE
OI?AA?NEOAO

?I.
?.?.IA*IEEIAA

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NIE?IIA

?ai?
Ieaenaiae?iae/

OAeE 947.02/03/04

EI*IAA IANAEAIIss IA I?AAeAIIIIO CAOIAe?

OE?A?IE

(e?iaoeue ?O —
ia?oa iieiaeia OV?? no.)

Niaoe?aeuei?noue:
07.00.01. — ?noi??y Oe?a?ie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia
caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe

Iaeana — 1999

Aeena?oaoe?y ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? ia?iaeiciaanoaa ? niaoe?aeueieo
?noi?e/ieo aeenoeeie?i Ieeiea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo

Iaoeia? ea??aieee: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

EA?EOEIANUeEEE Iao?i Eineiiae/

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani?,

caneoaeaiee i?aoe?aiee ia?iaeii?
ina?oe Oe?a?ie,

OAAeUeEIA ?aai ?aaiiae/,

caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?ith
ia?iaeiciaanoaa

? niaoe?aeueieo ?noi?e/ieo
aeenoeeie?i

Ieeiea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

iaaeaaia?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? ?noi?e/ieo iaoe, caneoaeaiee

ae?y/ iaoee ? oaoi?ee Oe?a?ie

CA?AIAA Na?a?e Caoa?iae/,

aee?aeoi? oeaio?a iai(yoeiciaanoaa
IAIO

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,
aeioeaio

OIA?NUeEEE Aaaeei Ieoaeeiae/,

canooiiee aeaeaia ?noi?e/iiai
oaeoeueoaoo

IAeO ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeiiaoeueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, eaoaae?a
?noi???

Oe?a?ie

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “6” aeiaoiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 41.051.08. ii caoenoo
eaiaeeaeaonueeeo aeena?oaoe?e a Iaeanueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ca
aae?anith: 270057, i.Iaeana, aoe. Uaie?ia, 12, aoae. ?9.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a Iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? IAeO

(aoe. I?aia?aaeainueea, 24).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “3” aa?aniy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

eaiaeeaeao ?noi?e/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio
Eicianueeee A.E.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. ?noi??y ei/iaee?a ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie a
?? oen. i.a. ua ia iaienaia. Aaaaoi ?? ieoaiue aeyaeeenue aea??eiai
aenay/aieie o ca’yceo c ?noi???th ?ioeo ia?iae?a ? aea?aeaa. Oea ia
aeicaiey? neeanoe oyao i?i caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo ei/iaee?a o ?aa?ii?, aecia/eoe ?o i?noea oa ?ieue a ?noi???
iaoi? aea?aeaae. Iinoaiiaea ? ni?iaa ??oaiiy oeeo ieoaiue ?iaeyoue
?iaioo aeooaeueiith.

Noai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaie iaaeinoaoi?e. Oaiaoe/ia ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/ia
aea/aiiy ei/iaeo i?aaeaaiinoae e?ioey ?O- na?aaeeie OV?? no. ia
i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie cae?enithaaeinue aaoi?ii ia i?ioyc?
inoaiiueiai aeanyoee?ooy. Aaeaeinue ocaaaeueieoe noeoii?noue
e?oa?aoo?ieo oa a?oaieia?/ieo a?aeiiinoae i?i ei/iaee?a ?, ia
?noi??ia?ao?/ii-aeine?aeieoeueeiio oii?, anoaiiaeoe ?aa?iiaeuei?
iniaeeaino? ?icaeoeo ei/iaeo eoeueoo?. Oe? iniaeeaino? aecia/aeeny
oa?aeoa?ii i?iieeiaiiy ei/iaee?a ia cao?ae noaiiaiai I?e/i?iiii?’y oa ?o
aca?iiae??th c in?ei-caiea?ianueeei ianaeaiiyi. Oaea aca?iiae?y coiiaeea
nai???aei?noue ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo onueiai ?aa?iio i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo
iaoi? e?a?ie. I?ioa caeiiii??iino? oeueiai ?icaeoeo caeeoathoueny ia
aeinoaoiuei aena?oeaieie.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeany ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia eiiieaenii? ieaiiai? iaoeiai? oaie
?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Ieeiea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai iaaeaaia?/iiai
?inoeoooo “Iai’yoee ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e Oe?a?ie”, i?e ni?ai?aoe? c
?inoeoooii ?noi??? IAIO, ?inoeoooii a?oaieia?? IAIO, Ieeiea?anueeei
e?a?ciaa/ei ioca?i oa Oeaio?ii iai’yoeiciaanoaa IAIO. Oaia ia?aaoaa? o
?one? caaaeueii? i?ia?aie ii cae?aiith, ocaaaeueiaiith oa caa?aaeaiith
eoeueoo?ii? niaaeueie iaoi? e?a?ie, yea ni?yiiaaia ia i?aeaioiaeo caiaeo
?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/ieo iai’yoie ?aa?iio ye aeaea?aeueii? iniiae ?o
iiaeaeueoiai eiie?aoiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeeiiaiiy oe??? oaie
ia?aaeaa/a? aea/aiiy aoiieoeueoo?ii? ?noi??? i?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo
Oe?a?ie c noa?iaeaai?o /an?a aei nueiaiaeaiiy.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aaaaea?oueny, oaeei /eiii, aeaea?aeueia aaca c
?noi??? ei/iaee?a ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie a e?ioe? ?O — na?aaeei?
OO?? no. Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy aoee aecia/ai? eiai i?aaeiaoii —
iiooeii ?noi?e/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?icaeoeo oa ?nioaaiiy ei/iaiai na?oo
a ?aa?ii?, yeee aea/a?oueny. Aiie ia?aaeaa/aee: 1) anoaiiaeaiiy
caaaeueieo aoai?a ?noi?e/iiai ?nioaaiiy ei/iaee?a ia caoiae?
i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo noai?a c e?ioey ?O no. aei ooai?aiiy Aoaeaeaoeueei?
i?aee a na?aaeei? OV?I no.; 2) ?icaeyae aeeiai?ee oa oa?aeoa?o
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ei/iaiai na?oo a eiioaeoi?e ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i?e
iaeano?, eiai aieea ia ?noi?e/i? i?ioeane o noi?aeieo aea?aeaaao oa
oa?eoi??yo; 3) oa?aeoa?enoeea aca?iia?aeiioaiue ei/iaee?a c
in?ei-caiea?ianueeei ianaeaiiyi. Iaoith ?iaioe ? neeaaeaiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? ia??iaeecaoe?? ?noi??? ei/iaee?a, anoaiiaeaiiy
iniaeeainoae oa caeiiii??iinoae ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ooo ei/iaeo
noni?euenoa.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. A?oaieia?/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy
ei/iaeo i?aaeaaiinoae O-O?V no., aea/aiiy iiaeeeainoae ?o
eoeueoo?ii-oeiieia?/ieo aecia/aiue, aeaooaaiue oa niaoe?aeueiiai
aiae?co, aoei i?iaaaeaii iaoeie iiia?aaeieeaie. A aeai?e ?iaio?
o?iiieia?/i? ?aiee aeine?aeaeaiiy ?icoe?ai? oaea?/? ii?yae ?c aaaaeaiiyi
o iaoeiaee iai?yiie iiaeo ianea?a aeaea?ae, aia?oa aena?oeth?oueny
?noi??y ei/iaee?a c na?aaeeie O?V no. aei na?aaeeie OV?? no. — /ano
ooai?aiiy Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee. Oaeiae aia?oa ?iaeoueny ni?iaa
oaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy ei/iaee?a ?? oen. i.a. ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae?
Oe?a?ie ye iniaeeaiai ?noi?e/iiai yaeua.

Ei/iaa eoeueoo?a aea/a?oueny ae?ao?iii, ca aeiiiiiaith
neio?iiii-i?inoi?iaeo “c??c?a”, ye? ci?iththoueny oa ye? ioiieththoue
?noi?e/ia ioi/aiiy ae?eyiee noaiiai? ciie i?ae ?iaoeueoeai, I?ooii oa
Aeoia?i. Oey oa?eoi??y ?icaeyaea?oueny ? ye iniaeeaee ?aa?ii, ui
?icaeaa?oueny ie?aii, ? ye eiioaeoia ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ia iaeanoue.
Ii/aoeiaee iaoiaeieia?/iee i?eeii — oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ?
aeei?enoaiiy ?noi?e/ieo eaoaai??e “noaae?aeueiee ?aa?ii” oa “eiioaeoia
ciia”.

Cao?aeia /anoeia i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo noai?a ? ?? ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/ia
ioi/aiiy ?icaeyaea?oueny ye nai???aeiee “aeaiia?ao?/iee eioae”, yeee c
e?ioey ?O aei na?aaeeie OV?? no. c ??ciith ?ioaineai?noth caiiaithaaany
ei/iaeeaie a caeaaeiino? a?ae caaaeueii? neooaoe??, yea neeaaeaeany ?
ci?ithaaeany o noaiia?e cii? ?a?ac??. Oaee? ei/iaee?a, ye? oenioee iaeia
iaeio c? noiaeo, ?icaeaaeeny ? ?icieaaee in?ei-caiea?ianueeee aa?’?? ii
e?i?? Ieaeiueiai Aeoiath, Ea?iaonueeeo a?? oa iaae noaio oa e?ninoaio o
iaaee??//? Aei?no?a oa Aei?i?a.

Iaee?eoe/i?oith ae?eyieith aca?iiae?? ooo aeaio na?o?a aoa Ieaei?e
Aeoiae. I?i?aaaoe oeae “caiie”, ei/iaeee iaeaea aac ia?aoeiae iio?aieyee
o eiai aeieeie, a oaeiae ia Aaeeaie, a I?aaeaiia I?eea?iaooy oa a
Iaiii?th. ?ioith e?eoe/iith ae?eueieoeath aoea i?ai?/ia /anoeia
iaaee??//y I?ooo, Aei?no?a oa I?aaeaiiiai Aoao, eoaee ei/iaeee i?aaioee
o ?ac? aeinoaoiuei i?oeiiai “caieo” ia Aeoia? ?, /a?ac Aaeueoeueeee
noai, iaoiaeeee Ea?iaoe c i?aii/?. C? naiai aieo, Ieaei? Iiaei?i?ia’y,
ye iniaeeaa eiioaeoia ciia, ui iaeaea caaaeaee caa??aaea caiea?ianueea
ianaeaiiy, aoei nai???aeiei “eeaiaiii”, yeee /anoi c’yniaoaaa
iaiiaeeea?noue cai?ioii? a?aeei/?aee ia no?ae.

Nooi?iue aeaiia?ao?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy ei/iaiai na?oo o noaiao a?ae
?iaoeueoey aei Aeoiath oa I?ooo coiiaethaaeanue neeith oeneo c? noiaeo,
?c-ca Aei?i?a. Aiia caeaaeaea oaeiae ? a?ae niiniao aaaeaiiy ei/iaiai
ainiiaea?noaa (oaa??iiai /e iai?aei/iaiai). Aiia caeaaeaea ? a?ae neee
cai?ioiiai oeneo in?ei-caiea?ianueeiai na?oo ia no?ae. Inoaii?
coiiaethaaeinue aioo??oi?i noaiii aea?aeaa ? ia?iae?a o
Ea?iaonueei-Aeoiaenueeiio ?aa?ii?, ?o aca?iia?aeiineiaie iaeiiai c ?ioeo
ye eiiiiiaioaie nenoaie aea?aeaa an??? ?a?iie. I??a aeaiia?ao?/ii?
iai?oae o noaiia?e cii? ae?aaeaeanue o ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e aeoeaiino?
ei/iaee?a ? ?o aioo??oi?o noia?a/eao. Oey ii??aiyeueia iai?oaa ?
iniiaith ia??iaeecaoe??.

?aa?ii, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ae?ao?iiii-neio?iiii?
iaoiaeeee ? iaei??th c aaaeeeaeo eiioaeoieo ae?eyiie aca?iiae?? aeaio
na?o?a — in?ei-caiea?ianueeiai oa ei/iaiai, caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeiai oa
ac?aonueeiai — c ??cieie caaaeueieie oa aioo??oiueioi?iaoe?eieie
caeiiii??iinoyie, ono?i?i iie?oe/iiai oa nioe?aeueiiai aeeooy,
?aeaieia??th, c ??cieie noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieie ono?iyie. Iniiai?
iniaeeaino? oa caeiiii??iino? oe??? aca?iiae?? c e?ioey ?O aei na?aaeeie
OV?? no. anoaiiaeththoueny oa aeine?aeaeothoueny o aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a. Oai?aoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aeey aea/aiiy ei/iaee?a I?ai?/iiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y a ?io? aiioe, a oaeiae aeey ?ioeo ?aa?ii?a. I?aeoe/ia
cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o aeei?enoaii? ?? ?acoeueoao?a i?e
i?aeaioiaoe? ocaaaeueithth/eo iiiia?ao?/ieo ?ia?o c ?noi??? I?aaeaiii?
Oe?a?ie a na?aaei? a?ee, a oaeiae i?e /eoaii? eo?n?a eaeoe?e c
?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/ii? iaae??a?noeee I?e/i?iiii?’y, c ?noi??? Oe?a?ie oa
a e?a?ciaa/?e ?iaio?.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. Caeiaoaa/ i?ioyaii iaeaea aeaio aeanyoe??/
caeiaany cae?aiiyi, ocaaaeueiaiiyi, ia?iaeith oa ioae?eaoe??th
?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/ieo iaoa??ae?a, ca’ycaieo c na?aaeiueia?/ieie
iai’yoeaie ei/iaeo ia?iae?a I?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo Oe?a?ie oa
aeine?aeaeoaaa i?iaeaie iiiaaeecio. Ia oeueiio oeyoo aoee naiino?eii
ia?iaeai? a?o?ai? oa a?oaieia?/i? iaoa??aee ? c?a?aia ae/a?iia ca??ea
aeaea?ae ii oai?. Aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia ? cai?iiiiiaaia ia??iaeecaoe?y
?noi??? ei/iaee?a a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/a?iiii?’?, oaeiae aia?oa aei
eiea ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue caeo/ai? iia? iaoa??aee
cieioii?aeeinueei? aeiae a ?aa?ii? ? c ?noi??? iiaaenueeeo i?ae.
Caeiaoaa/ aia?oa ?iaeoue ni?iao oaiaoe/iiai aea/aiiy ei/iaee?a 2
oeny/ie?ooy ia caoiae? i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo noai?a. A ni?eueieo
ioae?eaoe?yo aianie ni?aaaoi??a ia?eoaoiee.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeena?oaoe??. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe??
aeiiia?aeaeenue a na??? aeieeaae?a ia i?aeia?iaeieo, anaoe?a?inueeeo oa
?aa?iiaeueieo eiioa?aioe?yo, neiiic?oiao, iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo nai?ia?ao a
Ee?a?, Iaean?, Ieeiea?a?, Oa?nii?, Caii??aeae?, Aeiiaoeueeo oa ?ioeo.
Ie?ai? ?icae?ee aeine?aeaeaiiy aeiiia?aeaeenue ia naeoi??
neia’yii-iieaeaanueei? a?oaieia?? ?inoeoooo a?oaieia?? oa noa?iaeaaiuei?
?noi??? AI Iieaeiae, naeoi?? a?oaieia?? neia’yi ?inoeoooo ?noi???
iaoa??aeueii? eoeueoo?e ?AI (Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a), ia eiioa?aioe?yo
Neia’yinueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo (Ieeiea?a), nai?ia?ao oi?aa?neoao?a,
iaaeaoc?a ? ioca?a Oe?a?ie, ui ciaeoei a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ioae?eaoe?yo.
An? a?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea ?ioa?i?aoiaai? oa iioae?eiaai?.

Ioae?eaoe??. I?eioeeiia? ?aea?, aeniiaee e oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, ui
i?noyoueny o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?, aeeeaaeaii o 23-o
ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a caaaeuei?i ianyaii 5 ae?oeiaaieo a?eoo?a, cie?aia a
6-oe ocaaaeueithth/eo noaooyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Caaaeueiee oaeno neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a – 174 noi??iie iaoeiiieno, nieneo e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaea?ae (405 iaeiaioaaiue) – 33 noi??iee, a oaeiae aeiaeaoe?a o
aeaeyae? 26 ?noi?e/ieo ea?o oa ?ethno?iaaieo oaaeeoeue c iienii – 31
noi??iea. Caaaeii — 238 noi??iee.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeathoueny ?noi?eei-eiioeaiooaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae
?ic?iaee oaie. Ae?oaee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aeine?aeaeaiith
aeiiiiaieuenueeiai /ano, o?ao?e -–cieioii?aeeinueeiai /ano. *aoaa?oee
?icae?e i?enay/aiee aea/aiith iiaaeoe?a ? Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee. O
i’yoiio ?icae?e? cai?iiiiiao?oueny ?aa?iiaeueia ia??iaeecaoe?y ?noi???
ei/iaee?a. ?icae?ee aeena?oaoe?? iiae?eai? ia oaiaoe/i? i?ae?icae?ee,
ye? ni?aa?aeiinyoueny c ?ic?iaeaiith ia??iaeecaoe??th.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeENA?OAOe??

O Anooi? c’yniao?oueny i?noea oaie, ui ?ic?iaeth?oueny, o a?oaieia?/i?e
oa caaaeueii?noi?e/i?e i?iaeaiaoeoe?. Oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeaea?aeiciaa/?
ia?aoeiaee, oeyoe ? niiniae ?o ae??oaiiy, iiaeeeaino? iiaoaeiae iiaeae?
?noi??? ei/iaee?a o ?aa?ii? ca aeiiiiiaith a?oaieia?/ieo iaoiaeee, ?o
ia?aaaae ? iaaeineiiae?noue.

Ia?oee ?icae?e “?noi?eei-eiioeaiooaeuei? ia?aaeoiiae ?ic?iaee oaie”
neeaaea?oueny c aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a. A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e?
“I?inoi?iai-?noi?e/ia oa?aeoa?enoeea I?aaeaiiiai caoiaeo Oe?a?ie”
iaaea?oueny caaaeueia eaiaeoaooii-aaia?ao?/ia neooaoe?y o noaiia?e cii?
i?ae ?iaoeueoeai ? Aeoia?i, ui ?icaeyaea?oueny ye oe?e?ni?noue o
?icoi?ii? i?e?iaeieo oiia ? a aniaeo? eoeueoo?e ?? ianaeaiiy. Aiia ae ?
eiiiiiaioii i?e?iaeiiai ioi/aiiy e?ninoaiiaeo, noaiiaeo ? a??nueeeo
ianea?a, ciiith eiioaeo?a a?eueoino? ieaiai, ia?iae?a ? aea?aeaa c
??cieie noni?eueieie oa ainiiaea?nueeeie ono?iyie.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? “I?iaeaia aea/aiiy na?aaeiueia?/iiai iiiaaeecio
o no?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo noaiao oa I?e/i?iiii?’?” anoaiiaeth?oueny, ui
oi?ie eiioaeo?a ei/iaee?a ? caiea?ia?a a ia?a?iaeueieo aaia?ao?/ieo
?aeiiao caeaaeaoue a?ae i?e?iaeieo iiaeeeainoae oa?eoi??? aei niieo/aiiy
neioa?noaa ? oe?ai?ianoaa, a oaeiae a?ae ??aiy ? noaae??
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ni?eueiinoae, ye? anooiathoue o
eiioaeo. Ei/ia? i?aee ? ia’?aeiaiiy, ye? aeeaaeenue o noaiiaa
I?e/i?iiii?’y, a?ae??ciyeenue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iith cano?ei?noth oa
eiina?aaoeciii, ye? coiiaeai? iaiaaeaieie iiaeeeainoyie ?o
ainiiaea?noaa, ui ciaoiaeeeinue o o?ni?e caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia noai?a.
Ia cao?ae i?e/i?iiii?nueeeo noai?a aiie iio?aieyee o ii/aoeiaiio
oaa??iiio noai? i?aeaeuaii? aeoeaiino? oa aa?an??. Oiio ?o ?noi??y ooo —
oea eaaeaa /e ia aacia?a?ai? a?eie, iia?aaoaaiiy non?ae?a, aioo??oi?
eiioe?eoe oa caaithaaiiy. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ono??e ei/iaee?a
iaeaea ia ci?ithaaany ? caeeoaany iao??a?oaeueii-?iaeeiiei /e ia yeeenue
noaae?? ia?aoiaeo a?ae iueiai aei eeaniaiai. “Aeaiia?ao?/iee eioae” o
I?ai?/ii-cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?, yeee ia??iaee/ii caiiaithaaany
ei/iaeeaie, ia?aieaiee in?ei-caiea?ianueeei aa?’??ii, noai?thaaa
iiaeeeaino? aeey oe?ieiai niaeo?o eiia?iaoe?e ? iiaeeo?eaoe?e
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ono?i?a ? iie?oe/ieo ia’?aeiaiue — a?ae iiaiiai
neia?ico ? ?ioaa?aoe?? aei e?aeiuei? ianoi?niino? aca?iiae?th/eo
noni?eueii-?noi?e/ieo i?aai?ci?a.

??ci? aa??aioe ? oeie ei/iaiai neioa?noaa o noaiao I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y a?aeia?aceee aaaaoi/enaeuei? ? ??ciiiai?oi? eiia?iaoe??
noni?eueii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo?, ci?ia yeeo aeaeaei ia o an?o aeiaaeeao
aeaeyaea? caeiiii??ii. An? oeie ? nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? iiaeae? — a?ae
oaa??iiai aei iai?ain?eiai — caeaaeaee ye a?ae niiniao ei/oaaiiy i?ae oa
ni?eueiinoae, ye? nthaee ao?o/aeeny, oae ? a?ae oiia ?o aaeaioaoe?? o
ia?a?iaeuei?e ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/i?e iaeano?.

Ae?oaee ?icae?e “Aeiiiiaieuenueeee /an ia caoiae? noaiiaiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y (e?iaoeue ?O — ia?oa iieiaeia O??? no.) neeaaea?oueny c
i’yoe i?ae?icae?e?a. A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? iaaea?oueny caaaeueia
ioe?iea i?iaeaiaoeee. A ?noi?eei-iie?oe/iiio eiioaeno? iieiaeaiiy
?aa?iio, yeee aea/a?oueny, aei e?ioey ?O no. aecia/aeinue
caaaeueii?a?iiaenueeei oiiii. No?aeiee ei?aeii ?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaa,
ye? anooieee o oaiaeaeueio oi?iaoe?th, i?ioiaeea, ?icn?eath/e eiioeiaio,
c i?aii/? ia i?aaeaiue ii Aeuea?, aa?o?a’yi Aeoiath, Aaeeaiai ?,
iinooiiai ae??aithth/enue, iiaoi?thaaa ia?en o?aaeeoe?eiiai ?einueeiai
e?iano. E?nia? iaeano? ia no?ae ? i?ai?/ a?ae iueiai ianaeyee neia’yie,
a oe?ieee eeei noai?a, yeee caoaeoaaany iinooiiai a?ae Aieae aei
Aeoiath, neoaeea i?inoi?ei i?ioiaeii, ii yeiio oaeey ca oaeeath o na?oea
eiioeiaioo aoi?aaeeny ei/ia? i?aee — aaa?e, aieaa?e, oai?oe?, ia/ai?ae.
Ia ?oiueiio oeyoo aoee neia’yinuee? ieaiaia o?aa?oe?a oa oee/?a, ye?
canaeyee Ieaei? Iiaei?no?ia’y. Ia?oa Aieaa?nueea oea?noai, yea
ooai?eeinue o Iiaeoiaa’?, aoei o noai? a?eie c A?caio?enueeith
?iia???th, yea iaeaea ia i?eieiyeanue, ui i?ecaaei aei eiai
?icae?iaeaiiy ? caaeaae?. Oe? nai? iaeano? aoee ei?eaei?ii ?in?enueeeo
iioiae?a i?ioe A?caio?? oa Aieaa???. Ia/ai?ae, ye? aoi?aaeeny nthaee
iai?ee?ioe? ?O no., aeineoue oaeaeei aeo?niythoue oai?oe?a ? caeiathoue
oae caaio Aoaeueeoco — noaie i?ae Aei?i?ii ? Na?aoii. C oeueiai /ano
aeiiiiaieuenueea aiioa a oe?eiio oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iinooiiaei ooai?aiiyi
a Aoaeueeoc? ii??aiyii iaeii??aeiiai eiiaeiia?aoo ei/iaeo ni?eueiinoae
ia ia/ai?cueei-oi?/anueeee aoiieoeueoo?i?e iniia?. Ia?aaaaeaea oaa??ia
noaae?y ei/oaaiiy. I?ioeae?y cao?aeiiai na?oo oo?eio? ei/iaee?a ia
Ieaeiueiio Aeoia? ? a iaaeao I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y c eieeaaiiyie a
caeaaeiino? a?ae aeaiia?ao?/ii? neooaoe??, yea ooo neeaaea?oueny.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca oeeie eieeaaiiyie aeicaiey? aeae?eeoe /ioe?e iniiaieo
ia??iaee a ?noi??? ei/iaee?a aeiiiiaieuenueeiai /ano.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? iaaea?oueny ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iee eiiaioa? 1-ai
ia??iaeo (e?iaoeue ?O — ia?oa iieiaeia O? no.).Ia?aaaaa aioneieo
iaeeie/ieo iioiaaiue ei/iaee?a O no. aeicaiey? i?eioneaoe, ui ia/ai?ae
ciaoiaeeeenue ia?aaaaeii ia oaa??i?e noaae?? ei/oaaiiy. Iaaee ?o
cao?aeiiai ?iciianthaeaeaiiy — aeieeia I?ooo, c ia??iaee/ieie
i?iieeiaiiyie o aeieeie E?aiaa?aaeaey Aeoiath. Aei e?ioey O no. —
ii/aoeo O? no. aei iaaee??//y I?ooo ? Na?aoo “aeo?niythoueny” iai‘yoee
caiea?ianueeeo eoeueoo? — Ae?eaeo (aaeeaii-aeoiaenueea) ? ?aaeoeaiai?.
Iai(yoieee neia’yinueeiai aeaeyaeo o iaaee??//? I?ooo oa I?aaeaiiiai
Aoao “a?aenooiathoue” aei i?aii/? a?ae Aaeueoenueeiai noaio. Ia i?ioyc?
O no. ia/ai?ae iino?eii i?iieeathoue o I?eoenny. Ia Aeoia? ?o iaoiai
iaea?eueo neeueiee, a?i oo?eio?oueny Aieaa???th. Aeaiia?ao?/iee oeaio?
Aoaeueeoce niinoa??aa?oueny ia E?aiaa?aaeae? Ieaeiueiai Aei?no?a.

Ia i?ioyc? O no. aeaiia?ao?/ia iai?oaa “eioea” o ca’yceo c ia?aaoaaiiyi
o iueiio ia/ai?a?a iii??ii ae?inoa?. Iio?nieaoe neia’yi aei i?ai?/iiai
caoiaeo oa onooieaoe I?aaiaa?aaeaey Aeoiath aieaa?ai, ia/ai?ae
caeiathoue i?ino?? i?ae Aeoia?i oa Aei?i?ii. Oea icia/a?, ui ia/ai?a?a a
oeueiio noaiiaiio i?inoi?? aoei aaaaoi, aea aiie ia a?ae/oaaee oeneo c?
noiaeo. Oiio ?o a?aeiioaiiy c ?onnth oa A?caio??th iinyoue, o oe?eiio,
ie?iee oa?aeoa?. Ei/?a’y ia/ai?a?a caeiathoue aeieeie I?ooo oa
Aaeueoeueeee noai, ai?ciaee/ii aeieaneoth/enue ia cao?ae oa i?ai?/.
Noaa?euei?noue ii?ooo?oueny o ca’yceo c iiyaith oi?e?a.

A o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny 2 ia??iae (na?aaeeia — e?iaoeue
O? no.). Ca a?oaieia?/ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie aeaiia?ao?/iee oeaio?
ei/iai? Aoaeueeoce ci?uo?oueny ?c Ieaeiueiai Iiaei?no?ia’y ia
e?aiaa?aaeaey Ieaeiueiai Aeoiath. Iioiaaeuei? iai‘yoee ei/iaee?a
c’yaeythoueny ii an?e i?eaeoiaenuee?e ??aiei?. Oea aeeeeeaii iiyaith
?c-ca Aei?i?a oi?e?a, ye? noai?ththoue ??ceo iai?oao oaa??i?e aeiiii?oe?
ia/ai?a?a. Oene ei/iaee?a ia caoiae? iineeth?oueny, a ?oiueiio
na?aaeiaeu? niieioa? nioe?aeueia ai?iaeia/a. Cieuaiiy o oeae /an
a?caio?eoeyie iacaeaaeii? Aieaa???, yea neoaeeea aeoiaenueeei “caieii”
a?ae ei/iaee?a, noai?eei ooo i?noea aeey ei/iaiai “aeeeaeo”. Oaee?
ia/ai?a?a oa oi?e?a aeieanioee o aeieeio Aeoiath ? ia Aaeeaie, ooai?eaoe
ooo ianoaaeie oaioe/iino?. Iiyaa c? noiaeo iieiaoe?a ua a?eueoa iineeeea
iai?oao ? oain. C 1026 ?. aei ii/aoeo O?? no. ei/ia? “aeeeaee” o aeieeio
Aeoiath aeieeathoue iino?eii c eoeuei?iaoe?yie a 1048, 1064 ? 1091 ??.
?ica?ii ia/ai?a?a i?e Eaaoi?ii? a?caio?eoeyie ? iieiaoeyie, iia?eueiee
a?aenooi inoaii?o ca Aei?i?i, o iaae? Aeaoo-?-Eei/aeo, ? caa?aaeaiiy o
noaiao Aoaeueeoce caeeoe?a ia/ai?cueei-oi?/anueeeo ei/iaee?a ni?eyei
a?aeiini?e noaa?e?caoe?? aeaiia?ao?/ii? ianoaiiaee aei e?ioey O? no.

*aoaa?oee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aiee oa?aeoa?enoeoe? 3 ia??iaeo (e?iaoeue
O? — 60-o? ??. O?? no.). Iieiaaoeuee? ?ene ia?yaeiino? o iioiaaeueieo
iai‘yoeao ei/iaee?a ia cao?ae a?ae ?iaoeueoey iaeaea ia
i?ine?aeeiaothoueny. Oea iiaea icia/aoe a?aenooi?noue ooo iino?eieo
iieiaaoeueeeo ei/oaaiue. Iiaeia anoaiiaeoe, ui ia?oa iieiaeia O?? no.
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iinooiiaei a?aenooiii iieiaoe?a ?c Aoaeueeoce o iaae?
Aeaoo-?-Eei/aea. Iniiaio /anoeio Aoaeueeoce i?iaeiaaeoaaei caeiaoe
ia/ai?cueei-oi?/anueea ianaeaiiy. O iaaee??//? I?ooo ? Aei?no?a oa a
Iiaeoiaa’? c’yaeythoueny a?iaeieee, a ia i?aii/? — “aeee? iieiaoe?”.
Ia?ao?ae aei iai?ain?eino? a?oaieia?/ii iiee ia cao?eniaaii.
Ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ia aeoeai?noue ei/iaee?a niaaea?. Iai‘yoee
neia‘yinueeiai aeaeyaeo ciiao caeiathoue e?ninoaiiao oeaio?aeueio
/anoeio I?ooi-Aei?no?ianueeiai iaaee??//y — oe? oa?eoi??? aoiaeyoue aei
neeaaeo Aaeeoeueei? ?on?.

A i’yoiio i?ae?icae?e?, ui oa?aeoa?eco? 4 ia??iae (e?iaoeue O?? — ia?oa
iieiaeia O??? no.), ?icaeyaeathoueny ei/iaeee o noai? “noaa?eueii?
ianoaa?eueiino?”. Ca?eueoaiiy /enea oni?oieo iioiae?a ?on? o iaaeao
Aeaoo-?-Eei/aea o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?? no. aeeeeeaei aeoea?caoe?th
iieiaaoeueeeo ia’?aeiaiue, yea a?aeaeeanue o ?o iioiaeao ia cao?ae. Oea,
a naith /a?ao, ii?ooeei ??aiiaaao, yea neeaeany o noaiao
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y. Ia??iae aeae?ey?oueny noaae?aeueiith
noiae?noth c iieiaaoeueeith aeoeai?noth ia ?on?, i?ae-oi ci?uaiith ii
oac? ia 10-15 ?ie?a. E?euee?noue naiino?eieo iioiae?a ??cieo i?ae oa
ia’?aeiaiue ei/iaee?a ca Aeoiae ? ia Aaeeaie aei e?ioey O?? no.
ca?eueoo?oueny. Aeanoaa?e?caoe?y, yea ii/aeanue, aoea iaoiiaeaia, oaeei
/eiii, caaaeueiei iineaaeaiiyi Aeaoo-?-Eei/aea, oni?oaie ?in?enueeeo
iioiae?a i?ioe iieiaoe?a, a?aeoiaeii /anoeie iieiaoe?a ia cao?ae.

Ia ii/aoeo O??? no. aeaiia?ao?/ia iai?oaa ?noi?e/ii? Aoaeueeoce
iineeth?oueny c caoiaeo, caaaeyee no?aei?e ciai?oiueiiie?oe/i?e
aeoeaiino? Oai?ueie, a oaeiae aieinuee?e ? neia’yinueeee eieii?caoe?? ia
cao?ae a?ae Ea?iao ? ia i?aii/? I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y — nai???aeia
aieinueei-neia’yinueea “?aeiie?noa”. O oeae ia??iae “noaa?eueii?
ianoaa?eueiino?” aeineoue /?oei aeae?ey?oueny niaoeeo?/iee “aeeeae”
aoiinioe?aeueiiai i?iaeoeoo eiioaeoii? ciie: ?c in?ei-caiea?ianueeeo
iaeanoae oea a?iaeieee /e aeaiioe?, a ?c noaio — aeee? iieiaoe?.

Ia?o? ai?ciaee/i? iaa?ae oaoa?i-iiiaieuenueeeo caaii?a o eiioaeno?
o?eaaei? ianoaa?eueiino? a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? iaeaea ia
aoee iii?/ai? no/anieeaie.

O?ao?e ?icae?e “Cieioii?aeeinueeee /an (ae?oaa iieiaeia O??? —
O?V no.)” neeaaea?oueny c i’yoe i?ae?icae?e?a. A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e?
iaaea?oueny caaaeueia ioe?iea i?iaeaiaoeee. Ieoaiiy ia??iaeecaoe??
cieioii?aeeinueeiai aieiaea?thaaiiy ia caoiae? noaiiaiai I?e/i?iiii?’y
ia ae??oai?, ?o ?noi??ia?ao?y a?aeia oa noia?a/ia. Iano?eueee ae
noia?a/i? oa ?icae??aiai?, oi/a ? aaaaoi/enaeuei?, ienueiia? aeaea?aea c
oaie. ?o ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y aeioe?eueia o eiioaeno? c iiaeie a?oaieia?/ieie
oa ioi?ciaoe/ieie a?aeiiinoyie.

Ia a?eueo, i?ae noi??/iiio i?ioyc? /ano o Ieaeiueiio Iiaoaeae?,
Iiaei?no?ia’? oa Iiaeoiaa’? aeieeathoue ??ci? eiia?iaoe?? ei/iai?,
iai?aei/iai? oa iai?ain?ei? aeiiii?ee; i?aee oa ieaiaia ia oe?e
oa?eoi??? ??ci? o aoiiaaiaoe/iiio a?aeiioaii?, aea iiae?ai?
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii. Oeiieia?/iee ??ciiaeae iioiaaeueieo eiiieaen?a ii/eia?
iaaoaaoe ae?aciee nioe?aeueiee ci?no. Ca oeiieia?/ieie niinoa?aaeaiiyie
aeii?ioth/a aoi?/ia i?aeiniiaa ei/iaee?a o ?aa?ii? —
ia/ai?cueei-oi?/anueea.

Ia Aeoia?, o Iii?ooo?, a oaeiae o aa?o?a’yo Aei?no?a oa I?aaeaiiiai Aoao
?aea iino?eia ai?ioueaa oa ni?a?nioaaiiy ei/iaee?a c? ana a?eueoa
aeoeaiei aieaa?nueeei, oai?nueeei, aieinueei-neia’yinueeei
aoiieoeueoo?iei aa?’??ii, yeee aaea ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai? i?ioeae??
cieioii?aeeinueeiio aieeao. Oey i?ioeae?y i?ecaiaeeoue o ae?oa?e
iieiaei? O?V no. aei iaeaea iiaiiai cieuaiiy ei/iaee?a o noaiao ia
cao?ae a?ae Aei?i?a. Oeueiio oaeiae ni?eya ? ?iciaae Cieioi? I?aee, yeee
iineeeany i?ney nia?o? Ocaaea ? Aeaeai?aaea. Caie? a?ae I?ooo aei
Aei?i?a, ye? aoee caeiyo? o oie /an Iieaeiaith oa Eeoaith, aeyaeeenue
ieie aeiiii?/ii ia canai?ieie. Aeaea?aeiciaa/a oa noai?aia ia ?? a?oio?
?noi?e/ia neooaoe?y aeicaiey? ?icae?eeoe aiioo cieioii?aeeinueeiai
ia?aaoaaiiy o ?aa?ii?, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny, ia /ioe?e ia??iaee.

Ae?oaee i?ae?icae?e oa?aeoa?eco? 1 ia??iae (40-60-o? ??. O??? no.).
A?oaieia?/i? iai‘yoee oeueiai /ano neiioeaio?iaai? o ?aeii? Ieaeiueiai
Aei?no?a, o Eaiainueeiio iiaeeueieeo ia Na?aaeiueiio Aei?no??; aiie
nii?aaee/ii cono??/athoueny ia E?aiaa?aaeae? Aeoiath, o oeaio?aeuei?e
/anoei? I?ooi-Aei?no?ianueeiai oa Aoai-Aei?no?ianueeiai iaaee??//y. Ca
oeiieia?/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oe? iioiaaiiy iathoue ci?oai? ?ene, aiie
aeecuee? aeeeei iieiaoeyi oa /i?iei eeiaoeai. Ca a?oaieia?/ieie
a?aeiiinoyie ia ii/aoeo cieioii?aeeinueeiai caaithaaiiy noai?a
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y niinoa??aa?oueny ci?uaiiy /anoeie
/i?ieo eeiaoe?a c Ii?inny aei Iiaei?no?ia’y oa Iiaoaeaey, aea aiie,
ci?oaaoenue c aeeeeie iieiaoeyie, aoee ciooai? ci?ieoe ia?o?ooe nai?o
ei/oaaiue. Iaaooue, neeaie naia oeeo ei/iaeo i?ae oa ia’?aeiaiue, ui
iio?aieee o caeaaei?noue, cae?enithaaeanue a?enueeiaa aeniain?y Cieioi?
I?aee i?ioe Aaeeoeueei-Aieeinueei? ?on?.

Ia??iae oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeoeaiei noaiiaeaiiyi Cieioi? I?aee o
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?. ?o aieiaia iaoa — iie?oe/ia
i?aeei?aiiy aieiaieo ian ei/iaiai ianaeaiiy ? ?aaoethaaiiy ?o ei/oaaiue
i?ae nai?th aeaaeith. Oaoa?i-iiiaiee, ye iiaeia aa/eoe, ia ia?oeo ii?ao
ia iineeeee aeaiia?ao?/io iai?oao o ?aa?ii?, ?o aeoeai?noue iineea,
ia?aaaaeii, a?enueeiaee oa?aeoa?. I?aeei?aiiy noi?iaiaeaeoaaeinue ceaiii
noa?i? ieai?iii? oa ?iaeiai? no?oeoo?e ? i?ecaaei aei
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ai?oo ? coaiae?iiy i?aeaeaaeieo ei/iaee?a.
Cai?ioiith noi?iiith oeueiai i?ioeano aeey Cieioi? I?aee aoei oei/aniaa
ia?aaaaeaiiy oeaio? ia?aeii? oaiaeaioe??, yea i?ecaaea aei ooai?aiiy
i?aee ? oeono Iiaay.

A o?aueiio i?ae?icae?e? ?icaeyaea?oueny 2 ia??iae (na?aaeeia 60-o ??.
O??? no. — ii/aoie O?V no.), c’aycaiee c i?aeaeuaiiyi oa e?aoii Iiaay.
Aea/aiiy iioiaaeueieo iai‘yoie ia Ieaeiueiio Aeoia? o ni?aa?aeiioaii? c?
niinoa?aaeaiiyie ca ?iciianthaeaeaiiyi iiiao o ?aa?ii? oa /anii
oacaa?aoe?? nea?a?a ia i?ci?oa ?oaaaeo O??? oa O?V no. aeicaieythoue
a?aeianoe ?o aei ia??iaeo aieiaea?thaaiiy Iiaay. A?oaieia?/ia
ea?oia?aooaaiiy aea? i?aenoaao ie?aneeoe cao?aei? iaae? iino?eieo
ei/oaaiue oaiieea aeieeiaie Na?aoo, Ieaeiueiai Aeoiath oa Aeia?oaeaeae,
oi/a eiai ciai?oiueiiie?oe/iee aieea aoa cia/ii oe?oei. Oeaio?e
ei/oaaiue Iiaay eieae?cothoueny nii/aoeo ia I?aaiaa?aaeae? Aeoiath, o
?aeii? nueiaiaeaiii? ?nae/?, a iio?i ci?uothoueny ia no?ae, i?ae
Ae?yaith oa Aei?no?ii. Oae? nai? aeai? aa??o?eothoueny ? ienueiiaeie
aeaea?aeaie.

Iiaeia i?eionoeoe, ui c 70-o ??. O??? no. ia Aeoia? ooai?th?oueny
iie?oe/iee oeaio? cieioii?aeeinueeeo ei/iaee?a. Aeaiia?ao?/ia oa
a?enueeiaa aeoeai?noue ei/iaee?a o oeae ia??iae aeaui i?aeaeuo?oueny, ui
a?oaieia?/ii niinoa??aa?oueny ii a?aenooio no?aeii-neia’yinueeiai
caiea?ianueeiai ? aieinueeiai a?a/a?nueeiai ianaeaiiy o ia?aaea??’?
Ea?iao. Ei?aeii c Aieaa???th, yea ciaoiaeeeanue o aanaeuei?e caeaaeiino?
a?ae Iiaay i?ney i?eaeooaiiy c eiai aeiiiiiaith iianoaiiy ?aaeea
1277-1280 ??., i?ioiaeeea aeaui i?aaeaii?oa Aeoiath. Oeae ?iioeuen
aeaiia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino? aoa iiaeeiaiee i?aeoniaiith a?eiith o Cieio?e
I?ae?. Ia ii/aoeo O?V no., i?ney caaeaae? Iiaay a aeoa? a?ey Eoaaieeea,
oeaio?e ei/iaeu ia?ai?noeeeny ia E?aiaa?aaeaey Ieaeiueiai Aei?no?a.

*aoaa?oee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aii ?icaeyaeo 3 ia??iaea (ii/aoie —
60-o? ??. O?V no.). Oacaa?aoe?y nea?a?a o e?ioe? O??? no. o
I?ooi-Aei?no?ia(? ? eiioeaio?aoe?y ia e?aiaa?aaeae? Ieaeiueiai Aei?no?a
iioiaaeueieo iai‘yoie ei/iaee?a, aeaoiaaia ii/aoeii ? ia?oith /aa?oth
O?V no., ca’yco?oueny c oei/aniaei a?aenooiii cieioii?aeeioe?a ia no?ae.
I?e oai? Ocaaoe? iaaee??//y Aei?no?a ? Eo/o?aaia ia?aoai?th?oueny ia
ieaoeaea?i aeey ianooiiiai ianooio Cieioi? I?aee aei Iiaeoiaa’y ?
I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y /a?ac ia?ai?aao a?ey nueiaiaeaiieo Aaiaea?.
I?ine?aeeoe ia??iaee/i?noue iiae?aieo ia?ai?uaiue ei/oaaiue i?aeeioe?a
aeicaieythoue aeaoiaai? iiiaoaie iioiaaiiy aaeueiiae — i?aeeo?aaii?, c
ie?aieie yiaie aeey eiiy. Oe? iai‘yoee noathoue ia?e??oth/eie aeey
ooi/iaiiy iie?oe/ieo aoai?a aieiaea?thaaiiy oaoa?i-iiiaie?a o
I?aie/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? ? ia??iaee/ieo ci?ithaaiue cao?aeieo
ei?aeii?a Cieioi? I?aee.

O ia?o?e /aa?o? O?V no. a Aei?no?ianueei-Ea?iaonueeeo caieyo
niinoa??aathoueny o?e aoiiiie?oe/i? ciie — oiiaii “?onueea”, aieaa?nueea
? “oai?nueea”. Ia?o? aea? c ieo, a??ia?aeii, caeaaeaee aeaieiith a?ae
Cieioi? I?aee. Ei/iaeee, ye? cae??ieeeny ia E?aiaa?aaeae? Ieaeiueiai
Aei?no?a ana a?eueoa aeoea?cothoueny o ca’yceo c cae?i/aiiyi oniaeoe? ?
caaaeueiei oe??ieaiiyi i?oeiino? cieioii?aeeinueeiai aieiaea?thaaiiy i?e
Ocaaoe?. Aieaa??y ciiao iie?oe/ii aeo?niy?oueny ?c I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y ca
Aeoiae. Iioiaaeuei? iai‘yoee ei/iaee?a oeueiai /ano ia caoiaeo a?ae
Aei?no?a iaeeie/i?. O Aoaeaeaenueeeo noaiao cieioii?aeeioe?
eiio?ieththoue oi?aiaee oeyo a?ae Aaiaea?nueei? ia?ai?aae ia Aei?no??
aei ia?ai?aae a?ey ?nae/? ia Aeoia?. Ia oea aeacothoue aeaoiaai? 30-ie
?ieaie O?V no. “ia?e??oth/?” iioiaaeuei? iai‘yoee. C e?ioey 30-o ??.
oaoa?i-iiiaieuenuee? caaiie iinooiiai aeo?niythoueny ?c Ieaeiueiai
Iiaeoiaa’y. I?e oai? Aeaeai?aaoe? o oeaio?aeuei?e /anoei?
I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y ? ia Ieaeiueiio Aei?no?? aeieeathoue cieioii?aeeinuee?
i?noa. Ioi?ciaoe/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy aeicaieythoue ia?aaeaa/eoe, ui oe?
i?noa aoee caniiaai? iiaiecueeeie a?aeaioeyie a?ae /oiii? iaiaeai??, yea
niaeaoioea o 1346 ?. I?aeeinuee? ia?anaeaioe? iieieeenue o /oaeiio
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiio na?aaeiaeu?, ?o i?noa caiaiaee aei e?ioey
1350-o ?ie?a.

4 ia??iae, yeee ioiieth? 60-90-o? ??. O?V no., oa?aeoa?eco?oueny a
i’yoiio i?ae?icae?e?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iie?oe/ieo nee o ?aa?ii? aoei
iaoiiaeaia ai?ioueaith ca I?ooi-Aei?no?ianueea oa
Aei?no?ianueei-Aoanueea iaaee??//y i?ae Oai?ueiith, Iieueuath, Eeoaith,
Iieaeiaith oa Cieioith I?aeith.

I?ney ?ica?iio oaoa?i-iiiaie?a Eeoaith a?ey Nei?o Aiae o 1363 ?., ?o
caeeoee /anoeiai iia?aee aei ae?e?a Aeoiath, a oaeiae aoee iinaeai?
eiycai Ieueaa?aeii o Ii?inn?. O oie naiee /an i?aea oaia Aaaeoeaoa
ia?aei/oaaea o I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y. C oeei iia’ycaiee iiaee ei?ioei/aniee
iieane aeeooy ia cieioii?aeeinueeeo i?noao o na?aaeei? 1360-o ??. Iio?i
oe? i?noa aeiooue i?ae oaea?aie eeoianueeeo oa iieaeaanueeeo a?enuee.
Caeeoee ei/iaee?a ooo niinoa??aathoueny ca caaaeeaie o ienueiiaeo
aeaea?aeao aei 1390-o ??.

Ai?ioueaa ca caie? i?ae I?ooii oa I?aaeaiiei Aoaii Oai?ueie, Iieaeiae oa
Eeoae, aeieeaea, o ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?, ca ?aooiie caaaeueiiai
iaae?iiy Cieioi? I?aee, yea caciaea ii?acee aei oiai ae oniaeoeath, yea
o?eaaea. Ei/iaa ianaeaiiy aeineoue oaeaeei ca?eueieei oe? oa?eoi??? ?
aiie ia?aoai?eeenue ia “aeeea iiea” — iia? caaieiaieee ia coi?ee ?o
inai?oe. Caieyie i?ae Aei?i?ii oa Aei?no?ii, ye? i?eeyaaee aei *i?iiai
ii?y, iaieiae?ei Eeoianueea eiyc?anoai. I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y a?ae?eoei aei
Iieaeiae, a oa?eoi??? i?aaeiy a?ae Aeoiath a e?ioe? O?V — ia ii/aoeo OV
no. iieieeenue caaa?aaieie Iniainueeith ?iia???th.

*aoaa?oee ?icae?e “I?neyi?aeeinueeee /an (OV — ia?oa iieiaeia OV?? no.)”
neeaaea?oueny c o?ueio i?ae?icae?e?a. A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? iaaea?oueny
a?oaieiai-aeaea?aeiciaa/a aeniiceoe?y ?aa?iio. ?noi??y ei/iaee?a
I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y o OV — a ia?o?e iieiaei? OV?? no. ia
aea/aia. Ienueiia? a?aeiiino? ?ic??ciai? ? ia nenoaiaoeciaai?, a
a?oaieia?/i? aeaea?aea a?aeii? ia aoee. A?aee?eo? a inoaii? ?iee
iiaeeueieee ei/iaee?a o Aoaeaeaoeueeiio oa Aaeueoeueeiio noaio
aeyaeeenue aeaoiaaieie OV? -OV?? no. ?o ni?aa?aeiioaiiy c aiaeia?/ieie
iiaeeueieeaie Iiaoaeaey, E?eio oa I?eacia’y aeicaiey? ca’ycoaaoe oe?
iai‘yoee c iauaaeeaie “iaeeo iiaa?a”, ye? ia?anaeeeenue ?c Iiaieaey ia
cao?ae a e?ioe? OV no. Iaiaeii?aciai iiiiaithth/enue oaeeyie ei/iaee?a
c? noiaeo, aiie ooai?eee o ae?oa?e iieiaei? OV? no. o i?aaeaii?e /anoei?
I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y Aoaeaeaoeueeo i?aeo. Oey i?aea, ye ? ?io? i?aee
iiaaeoe?a o I?e/i?iiii?’?, aoea iie?oe/ii i?aeei?aia Oo?a//ei? oa
E?einueeiio oainoao.

I?neyi?aeeinueeee /an o I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiyaith ? iinooiiaith ei??i?caoe??th iiaiai ei/iaiai
eiiaeiia?aoo — iiaaenueeiai, yeee ooai?eany c ?iciaaeii Cieioi? I?aee.
Ei/iaa ia’?aeiaiiy, yea ooai?eeinue o ai?oeaio?? eiioaeoii? ciie, ui
aeae?ey?oueny — Aoaeaeaoeueea i?aea — noaei iniiaiei aeanoaa?e?coth/ei
oaeoi?ii a ?aa?ii?. Oeae oaeoi? aoa aaaeeeaei eiiiiiaioii
ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ii? oa eieii?aeueii? aeoeaiino? Oo?a//eie oa E?eio ii
a?aeiioaiith aei Oe?a?ie, Iieaeiae, Iieueu?, ?in?? ? caaacia/oaaa
i?oei?noue ?o iiceoe?e o I?ai?/iiio I?e/i?iiii?’?. A?i aoa cieuaiee eeoa
o i?ioeai?noa? ?in?enueei? oa Iniainueei? ?iia??e.

Oeae /an ?icae?eaii iaie ia o?e ia??iaee o caeaaeiino? a?ae
aeaiia?ao?/ii? aeoeaiino? iiaaenueeeo ei/iaee?a.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?eo ?icaeyaeathoueny 1 ? 2 ia??iaee (ii/aoie OV no.
— 70-??. OV? no.). I?ney aeaiaiiy cieioii?aeeioe?a, o noaiao ia caoiae?
a?ae Aei?i?a ooai?th?oueny aeaiia?ao?/iee “aaeooi” ei/iaee?a. Ia oeueiio
oii? aeieeathoue neeaaei? iie?oe/i? ia?aoai?thaaiiy: aeoeniaiiy oai?oe?a
?c I?ooi-Aei?no?ia’y Iieaeiaith; ianooiia i?aeei?aiiy oa iaeaea iiaia
iiiaaieaiiy Iieaeiae Iniainueeith ?iia???th; caaa?aaiiy oo?eaie
i?aaeaiieo noaiiaeo oa?eoi??e i?ae Aei?no?ii oa Aei?i?ii; ooai?aiiy ia
noiae? a?ae Aei?i?a oa ia i?aino?ia? E?einueeiai oainoaa. Noaiia?
i?inoi?e i?ae Aeoia?i oa Aei?i?ii aoee ?icae?eai? iie?oe/ii, aea ia aoee
canaeai? ? inai?ii? aeiiii?/ii. Eeoa i?noa, oi?oaoe? oa oi?aiaaeuei?
oeyoe i?iaeiaaeoaaee aeeiioaaoe nai? ooieoe?? o i?aeia?iaei?e oi?a?ae?.
O oie aea /an, a ?acoeueoao? iane?i/aiiiai ooai?aiiy iiaeo i?ae o
I?eo?aee? ? o Iiaieae?, /anoeia ei/iaee?a Iiaaenueei? i?aee — “iae?
iiaa?” — ia?anaey?oueny o I?eacia’? ? I?eneaaooy, ia oa?eoi???
E?einueeiai oainoaa.

C na?aaeeie 80-o ?ie?a OV no. ii/eia?oueny ?ioaineaia i?iieeiaiiy
iiaaenueeeo ieaiai ?c I?eacia’y oa I?eneaaooy o Iiaeoiaa’y oa Ieaei?
Iiaei?no?ia’y. Iiaaae?iea ia?oi? oaee? iiaaeoe?a, ye? i?eeoee nthaee c
a?enueeaie e?einueeiai oaia Iaiae?-A??ay aeey o/ano? o caaa?aaii?
oo?eaie Aea?iainueei? oa E?e?enueei? oi?oaoeue, iaei aeaeyae ye oeiiaa
oaa??ia iaaaea, yea noi?iaiaeaeoaaeany aacia?a?aieie iia?aaoaaiiyie
i?noeaaiai in?eiai ianaeaiiy. Iaeiae, iiaaeoe?, ui ?icnaeeeenue o
Aoaeaeaoe?, iinooiiai ia?aoiaeyoue aei iai?aei/oaaiiy ? iaa?oue aei
iai?ain?eino?. ?o a?oaieia?/i? iai’yoieee — iaeaea aac?iaaioa?i?
iaeeie/i? iioiaaiiy oa iiaeeueieee. Aeieea? ? iinooiiaa o?aaoethaaiiy
i?noeue ei/oaaiiy — oea caie? i?ae ?aeaie (oo?aoeueeeie
aaei?i?no?aoeaieie ie?oaaie), ye? iie?oe/ii i?aeei?ai? E?eio. Oo?aoeuee?
oa e?einuee? aeaaee ia??iaee/ii ni?eythoue ia?anaeaiith nthaee iiaeo
ei/iaee?a.

Ooai?aiith Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee i?enay/ai o?ao?e i?ae?icae?e, yeee
ni?aa?aeiineoueny c 3-i ia??iaeii (e?iaoeue OV? — ia?oa iieiaeia OV??
no.). C 70-o ?ie?a OV? no. aeieea? ooai?aiiy i?aeei?aieo Iniainueei?
?iia??? oa E?einueeiio oainoao iiaaenueeeo i?ae o I?ai?/iiio
I?e/i?iiii?’? — Aoaeaeaoeueei?, ?ae?nainueei? oa ?ioeo. A?oaieia?/ii
oeiaiith aeinoaiaiii aeyaeeanue aeiee eeoa Aoaeaeaoeueea. Aeine?aeaeai?
iaie iiaeeueieee o iaaee??//? Aei?no?a oa Aeoiath aoee caeeoai? o e?ioe?
OV? — ia?o?e iieiaei? ? na?aaeei? OV?? no. “i?eaa?aaeieie”
aoaeaeaoeueeeie “oaoa?aie” ? iienai? no/anieeaie. A?oaieia?/ia oa
aio?iiieia?/ia aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeeo iai’yoiee?a, aeeiiaia ia iaoa??aeao
aoaeaeaoeueeeo noai?a, ?iaeyoue ?o aoaeiiaie aeey iiaeaeueoiai aea/aiiy
oaiaoeee. O oaia??oi?e /an oeiieia?/ii noiae? iiaeeueieee iaeaea ui??/ii
a?aee?eaathoueny oaeiae o Iiaoaeae?, Ii?iaoee?, Iiaei?i?ia’? ? o aeieei?
Aeoiath. Aiie ua /aeathoue naiai ?noi?eei-a?oaieia?/iiai iiyniaiiy.

O ienaiieo aeaea?aeao ai?uothoueny aaaaoi/eneaii? a?aeiiino? i?i iiaoo,
cae/a?, ainiiaea?nueeee oa nioe?aeueiee ono??e aoaeaeaoeueeeo oa ?ioeo
iiaaeoe?a a I?e/i?iiii?’? (A.Aiieai, I.Oaaae’?, Aae?y *aeaa? oa ?i.). ?
iiene noiyiie aoaeaeae?a, aeai? i?i oa?aeoa? ?o i?aeei?aiiino?
Oo?a//ei? oa E?eio. Aeaiia?ao?/ia iai?oaeai?noue o na?aaeiaeua
?ae?nainueeeo oa aoaeaeaoeueeeo ei/iaee?a iineeth?oueny o 1630-o? ?iee o
ca’yceo c iiaith oaeeath iiaaeoe?a c? noiaeo. Aiia aeeeaa?oueny o
ia?iaiaioio i?aeoniaeoeth ?oi?o i?ae, ia?aieaio iie?oe/ieie ?ioa?anaie
E?einueeiai oainoaa oa Iniainueei? ?iia??? ? i?iaeiaaeo?oueny ia i?ioyc?
onueiai OV?? no. O oaeiio noai? “iai?aaea?aeaaiino?”, “aeaci?aai?ciaaii?
i?aai?caoe??” iiaaenuee? i?aee ia?aaoaaee aei e?ioey OV?? — ii/aoeo
OV??? no. ia caoiae? noaiiaiai I?e/i?iiii?’y.

A i’yoiio ?icae?e “Ia??iaeecaoe?y ? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo ei/iaiai
na?oo ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie a O-OV?? no.” iaa?oioiao?oueny
?aeay naiino?eiiai ?aa?iiaeueiiai ?noi?e/iiai aea/aiiy eiioaeoii? ciie
noai?a I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai I?e/i?iiii?’y oa ?o ?noi?eei-aaia?ao?/iiai
ioi/aiiy. Oe? i?eioeeie a?aeia?aaeai? o iiaoaeia? ?iaioe. O?e ??
?icae?ee i?enay/ai? iniiaiei a?oai ?noi??? ei/iaee?a o ?aa?ii? —
aeiiiiaieuenuee?e, i?aeeinuee?e oa i?neyi?aeeinuee?e; eiaeia c ieo
?icaeoa ia ia??iaee, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue nooiaiue iane/aiino?
aeaiia?ao?/iiai ei/iaiai “eioea”. Oa?aeoa?enoeee eiaeiiai oaeiai
ia??iaeo yaeythoue niaith yeae neio?iiii-?noi?e/i? “c??ce”.

Ia??iaeecaoe?y iiaoaeiaaia ia noeeo ae?ao?ii?/iiai ? neio?ii?/iiai
iaoiae?a; aiia ? eiie?aoiith ni?iaith aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa eiaeiiai c
ieo. C iaei??? noi?iie — oea ae?ao?ii?/iee, iiaoaiiee aeeeaae ?noi???
ei/iaee?a ca /an ?o ia?aaoaaiiy o ?aa?ii?, a c ?ioi? — ?ice?eooy
caaaeueii?noi?e/iiai oa aeaea?aeiciaa/iai eiioaenoo aeey eiaeiiai aoaio
ae?ao?ii?/iiai ?icaeoeo, yeee aecia/aa ianooi iiaiai aoaio oa eiai
?noi?e/i? iniaeeaino?.

I?e oaeiio i?aeoiae? iiaeia aa/eoe, ui a eiaeiee eiie?aoiee iiiaio
noaiiaeua ei/iaee?a o ?aa?ii?, yeee aea/a?oueny, ia? aeaeyae noaoe/iiai
— ana a?aeiia i?i oea noaiiaeua, aae aei iaeaaae/a oyaeaieo aeaoaeae,
ciaoiaeeoueny o iaai?e ei?aeyoe?? c aeaiei noaiii ioi/aiiy. Aoaeue-yea
ci?ia aeaoi?io? noaoe/ia noaiiaeua, aea oaeiae ? ae??aith?oueny
cai?ioiith aca?iiae??th on??? nenoaie eiioaeoii? ciie. Ia i?aeoeoe? oea
aeaeyaea? ye oeoeooaoe?y, oiaoi oae caaia eiiiainaoe?y ci?i cai?ioieie,
i?ioeeaaeii ni?yiiaaieie.

Oae, ei/iaee oene ia Aeoiae iino?eii “eiiiainoaaany” aeoeai?noth ?
iii?ii Aieaa???, A?caio??, a o Iii?ooo? oa Iiaei?no?ia’? — iii?ii
Aaeeoeueei? ?on?, Oai?ueie, Iieaeiae, Eeoae oa o.?., yeee , ?iiae?,
ia?aoai?thaaany ia ianooi. ?ioeie neiaaie, o eiaeiee eiie?aoiee iiiaio
?noi??? ei/iaee?a o eiioaeoi?e cii?, yeee ?icaeyaea?oueny, ia? aeaeyae
?ooiii? ??aiiaaae, i?e ye?e aiie?ooaea eieeaaiue, o oe?eiio, iaiaaeaia.
Iaeiae, ?noi?e/ia ea?oeia aeyaey?oueny ooo ia o?eueee ye ?iaa??aioia ?
ia neeaaea?oueny eeoa c? ci?i, ye? eiiiainothoueny ia eieeoiueiio ??ai?.
?icaeyae ae?ao?ii?/iiai ?icaeoeo ?aa?iio aeicaiey? i?ine?aeeoe, ye
na?aae eieeaath/eo, cai?ioieo oa eiiiainoth/eo ci?i, iaeiie/othoueny
iacai?ioi?. I?i?ea ia/ai?aaie oa oi?eaie Aeoiath o ae?oa?e iieiaei? O?
no. aoa eiiiainiaaiee a?caio?eoeyie, aea oea iaaeeceei e?ioeaaee
caiaiaae ?iia???. Oea oaeiae aecia/eei noaa?e?caoe?th ei/iaiai na?oo a
Aoaeueeoc? oa a Iieiaaoeueeiio noaio, eiai iiaeaeueoa ineaaeaiiy ?
?oeioaaiiy ?in?yiaie oa oaoa?i-iiiaieaie. Cieioa I?aea i?e Ocaaoe?
eiiiainoaaea ci?ie o eiioaeoi?e cii?, cae?eniai? no?aeiith aeoeai?noth
Aieaa??? oa Oai?ueie. Iaeiae, o ?acoeueoao? ?iciaaeo I?aee, a oaeiae
aoiiiie?oe/ieo i?ioean?a o caiea?ianueeiio na?aaeiaeu?, iaeiie/eeenue
ci?ie iacai?ioiiai oa?aeoa?o, ? cieioii?aeeioe? aoee aeaiai? ca iaae?
?aa?iio.

Ei/iaeee iiaa?ioeeny nthaee /a?ac noi ?ie?a aaea a ?io?e yeino? — ia
caoiieai? oo?eaie oa?eoi???. Caeiiii??iino? iiaaae?iee ooo
Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee aoee i?yii aecia/ai? iie?oeeith oo?aoeueeiai oa
e?einueeiai aieiaea?thaaiiy, ye? “ocaeiieee” aeanoaa?e?caoe?th ?aa?iio.
Naia Aoaeaeaoeueea i?aea ye ei/iaee nioe?aeueiee i?aai?ci aoea
i?iaeoeoii ?iciaaeo ei/iaiai na?oo, eiioeaio?aoe??th o i?i?aoth?? eiai
iacai?ioieo ?noi?e/ieo ci?i. Aiia ?nioaaea ooo/ii ? cieeea ?noi?e/ii
iaeaea aac ne?ae?a. Ia aeeaey/enue ia o?iiieia?/iee ?ic?ea a ?noi???
ei/iaiai na?oo ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie o ?? oen. noia?a/iino?,
ye? ?icaee?aee oeth i?aeo, aoee a iac?icoi?e? aac aea/aiiy iiia?aaeiuei?
?noi??? ei/iaee?a, yea iieacaea noai?aiiy ?noi?e/ieo oiia aeey oeeo
noia?a/iinoae.

AENIIAEE

O aeniiaeao anoaiiaeth?oueny, ui iniaeeaino? ? aoaie ?noi?e/iiai
?nioaaiiy ei/iaee?a ia caoiae? noaiiaiai I?e/i?iiii?’y aecia/aeenue, o
ia?aaaaei?e a?eueoino?, aeaiia?ao?/ieie i?ioeanaie; ei/iaee can?a
ae?iaieoeoaa aeinoaoiuei i/aaeaeii ?aaoethaaany iaoai?ciii “aeiooaii?
ai?a?aoe??” (Ia?en E.).

Caaaeueiee ??aaiue ?icaeoeo caiea?ianueeeo a?iiaae o ?? oen., c yeeie
anooiaee o eiioaeo ei/iaeee a?ae ia/ai?a?a aei iiaaeoe?a, iaooeeueii
c?inoaa ii??aiyii c aeaaieiith. No?oeoo?a ae ei/iaeo a?iiaae caeeoaeanue
iaeiioeiiith aae aei iiaiai /ano o ?a?ii?. O noaiao I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeiiai
I?e/i?iiii?’y ainiiaea?nueei-eoeueoo?iee oei ei/iaee?a ca an?ia
iciaeaie, ye? aecia/athoueny, i?i?nioaaa aei naii? nai?? caaeaae?.
Iiaeeo?eaoe?? ia ci?ieee eiai noo? ? ?iiiaaoe?yi i?aeaeaeeny eeoa
ae?oai?yaei? aeaoae?.

O “aeiiiaaenueeee” /an aoaeue-ye? ??ciiaeaee ei/iaeo eoeueoo?
aeinoaoiuei cae/aeii aaeaiooaaeenue aei iaei??? i?noeaaino? noiaeei
/eiii. Iaaiaee, o aiioo oo?aoeueei-e?einueeiai aieiaea?thaaiiy oaea
aaeaioaoe?y noeioethaaeany ooo/ii — iie?oe/ii oa aaei?i?no?aoeaii:
ei/iaee niin?a aeeooy iiaaenueeeo i?ae caa??any ? aeei?enoiaoaaany a
yeino? a?eneiai-iie?oe/iiai oaeoi?a. Ao?aoa oe??? “caoenii? iaieiiee” o
iiaeo ?noi?e/ieo oiiaao c?aeea ei/ia? i?aee ia caaeaaeue. ?ao?iniaeoeaia
aea/aiiy ?noi??? ei/iaee?a o ?? oen. ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie
i?aeoaa?aeeei canoeaeee oa ooieeiaee a oe?eiio oa?aeoa? ?o ?icaeoeo,
iaoiiaeaiee iniaeeainoyie aenoaineaiiai ainiiaea?noaa, a?aenooi?noth
aeinoaoi?o iiaeeeainoae aeey aioo??oiueiai ?icaeoeo, a oaeiae
iiaeeea?noue iaa?iaiino? nioe?aeueieo i?ioean?a.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeai? o

oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo aaoi?a:

1. V? A?oaieiae/aneee nuacae a Iaeanna //Iaiyoieee ae?aaiae enoi?ee
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey. Nai?iee iao/iuo o?oaeia. — E., 1985.
— N.92-96 (0,3 ae?. a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

2. Iiaaeoeu I?eaciauey e I?e/a?iiii?uey a OV-OVI aaeao //I?aaiecaoeey
a?oaieiae/aneeo yeniaaeeoeee n o/anoeai oeieueieeia. Oacenu aeieeaaeia
naieia?a. — Aeiiaoee, 1988. — N.34-38 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,2 ae?. a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

3. Iaoa?eaeu e enoi?ee ecaiaiey iiaaeneeo ei/aaieeia ec I?e/a?iiii?uey e
I?eaciauey (eiiaoe OVIII — ia/aei OIO aa.) //Oacenu aeieeaaeia
iao/ii-i?aeoe/aneiai naieia?a ii i?iaeaiai io?aiu e eniieueciaaiey
iaiyoieeia a?oaieiaee a Aeiiaanna. — Aeiiaoee, 1989. — N.173-175 (o
ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,15 ae?. a?e.).- Iiaa — ?in.

4. Iiaaeoe? Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey a OV — OVII noie?ooyo //Oace
aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ?V ?anioae?eainueei? eiioa?aioe?? c
?noi?e/iiai e?a?ciaanoaa. — E., 1989. — N.647-648 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,1 ae?.a?e.).

5. Ei/iaa ianaeaiiy Ieaeiueiai Iiaoaeaey a ?V-OV?? noie?ooyo //Ioi?iia,
aeei?enoaiiy oa i?iiaaaiaea iai’yoie ?noi??? oa eoeueoo?e a Oe?a?inuee?e
?N?. Ca??iee iaoiaee/ieo iaoa??ae?a a 6 /anoeiao. *anoeia oinoa. — E.,
1989. — N.69-76 (0,4 ae?.a?e.).

6. E aii?ino eco/aiey n?aaeiaaaeiaiai iiiaaeecia a Naaa?iii
I?e/a?iiii?uea (ei/aaieee e caieaaeaeueoeu: i?iaeaiu eiioaeoa)
//Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua nayce a n?aaeiaaaeiaie Aa?iia. Oacenu iao/iuo
aeieeaaeia e niiauaiee Ananithciiai iao/iiai naieia?a. — Caii?iaeuea,
1991. — N.3-4 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,1 ae?.a?e.). —
Iiaa — ?in.

7. I?aaeaiiee cao?ae Oe?a?ie ye iniaeeaee ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iee ?aa?ii
//Oai??y, iaoiaeeea ? i?aeoeea aeeeaaeaiiy ?noi??? oa aaia?ao?? Oe?a?ie
(Aoiin. Oa?eoi??y. Aea?aeaai?noue). Iaoa??aee aeiiia?aeae oa aenooi?a ia
iaeani?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? Iaeanueeiai ?inoeoooo
oaeineiiaeaiiy a/eoae?a. — Iaeana, 1993. — N.26-32 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,4 ae?.a?e.).

8. Aeieeiaiiy oa caaeaaeue oeona Iiaay //Oace aeiiia?aeae ?
iia?aeiieaiue iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 80-??//th
Ieeiea?anueeiai iaaeaaia?/iiai ?inoeoooo (a oinoe /anoeiao). *anoeia 6.
?noi?e/iee oaeoeueoao. — Ieeiea?a, 1994. — N.30-31 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c
A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,1 ae?.a?e.).

9. Cieioii?aeeinueea aeiaa a I?aaeaiii-Cao?aeiiio I?e/i?iiii?’? //Oace
aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ?-i? Ieeiea?anueei? e?a?ciaa/i?
eiioa?aioe??, iinay/aii? 50-??//th Aaeeei? Ia?aiiae. — Ieeiea?a, 1995. —
N.73-74 (0,1 ae?.a?e.).

10. Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia I?e/a?iiii?uea a cieioii?aeuineia a?aiy (iauay
ioeaiea i?iaeaiaoeee) //Oace aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ?-i?
Ieeiea?anueei? e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??, iinay/aii? 50-??//th Aaeeei?
Ia?aiiae. — Ieeiea?a, 1995. — N.30-35 (0,4 ae?.a?e.). Iiaa — ?in.

11. Oi?ee e iieiaoeu a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii I?e/a?iiii?uea ai aoi?ie
iieiaeia O? aaea //Oace ia?oi? iaeanii? iaoeiai? e?a?ciaa/i?
eiioa?aioe?? “?noi??y. Aoiia?ao?y. Eoeueoo?a. Iia? aeine?aeaeaiiy”. —
Ieeiea?a, 1995. — N.82-83 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,1
ae?. a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

12. Canaeaiea iiaaeoeaie Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey //Oace ia?oi?
iaeanii? iaoeiai? e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe?? “?noi??y. Aoiia?ao?y.
Eoeueoo?a. Iia? aeine?aeaeaiiy”. — Ieeiea?a, 1995. — N.83-86 (0,2 ae?.
a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

13. Eiiaoe cieioii?aeuineiai aeaaeu/anoaa a Naaa?i-Caiaaeiii
I?e/a?iiii?uea //Ae?aaiaa I?e/a?iiii?uea. ??? *oaiey iaiyoe i?ioanni?a
I.I.Ea?uoeianeiai. Oacenu aeieeaaeia thaeeaeiie eiioa?aioeee. — Iaeanna,
1996. — N.42-43 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0.1 ae?.
a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

14. Ainoi/iua neaayia e ia/aiaae a ?O-O? aa. //Neia’yinueea eoeueoo?ia
niaaeueia: i?iaeaie oai?aoe/iiai inieneaiiy. Ia?o?
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieia?/i? neia’yiiciaa/e /eoaiiy o i.Ieeiea?a?. —
Ieeiea?a, 1996. — N.12-15 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei —
0,2 ae?.a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

15. ?inneenei-iiaaeneea ioiioaiey a OVIII aaea //Oace ? iaoa??aee
aeiiia?aeae ? iia?aeiieaiue ??-i? Ieeiea?anueei? iaeanii?
?noi?eei-e?a?ciaa/i? eiioa?aioe??, i?enay/aii? 130-??//th c aeiy
ia?iaeaeaiiy I.N.A?ooaanueeiai. — Ieeiea?a, 1996. — N.40-43 (0,15 ae?.
a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

16. Aoi?ia Aieaa?neia oea?noai e Cieioay I?aea ai aoi?ie iieiaeia O??? —
ia?aie iieiaeia O?V aa. //Neia’yinueea eoeueoo?ia niaaeueia a na?oiaiio,
caaaeueiioe?a?inueeiio oa ?aa?iiaeueiiio iie?oeei-eoeueoo?iiio
i?inoi??. Ae?oa? ?noi?eei-eoeueoo?ieia?/i? neia’yiiciaa/? /eoaiiy o i.
Ieeiea?a?. — Ieeiea?a, 1997. — N.123-130 (0,5 ae?. a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

17. Ooai?aiiy Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee (ae?oaa iieiaeia OV? — ia?oa iieiaeia
OV?? no.) //Canaeaiiy I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie: i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai oa
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. Iaoeia? aeiiia?ae?. I?aeia?iaeia
iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ia eiioa?aioe?y. *anoeia ia?oa. — Oa?nii, 1997. —
N.89-90 (o ni?aaaoi?noa? c A.I.Aeia?iethanueeei — 0,1 ae?. a?e.).

18. Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia I?e/a?iiii?uea a O — ia?aie iieiaeia O??? a.
//Iaoa??aee ??-i? Ieeiea?anueei? iaeanii? e?a?ciaa/i? iaoeiai?
eiioa?aioe?? “?noi??y. Aoiia?ao?y. Eoeueoo?a. Iia? aeine?aeaeaiiy”. —
O.??. ?noi??y ? eoeueoo?a. — Ieeiea?a, 1997. — N.47-53 (0.5 ae?. a?e.).
— Iiaa — ?in.

19. Ia?eiaeecaoeey e caeiiiia?iinoe enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ei/aaieeia
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/a?iiii?uey a O-OVIII aa.// I?aaeaiia Oe?a?ia:
i?iaeaie ?noi?e/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. —
Ieeiea?a, 1999 (o ae?oeo, 0,5 ae?. a?e.) — Iiaa — ?in.

20. Naaa?i-Caiaaeiia I?e/a?iiii?uea a cieioii?aeuineia a?aiy: i?iaeaiu
coaaeeaeueiie ia?eiaeecaoeee //?noi??y I?aaeiy Oe?a?ie a?ae iaeaeaai?oeo
/an?a aei no/aniino?: i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueiiai, iie?oe/iiai,
nioe?aeueiiai, aeiiii?/iiai, oaoi?/iiai, i?aaiaiai, ?ae?a?eiiai oa
eoeueoo?iiai ?icaeoeo. Ca??iee iaoeiaeo i?aoeue. *anoeia ?. –
Ieeiea?a-Iaeana, 1999. – N.61-65 (0,3 ae?.a?e.). — Iiaa — ?in.

21. I?iaeaia aea/aiiy na?aaeiueia?/iiai iiiaaeecio a noaiao ?a?ac?? oa
I?e/i?iiii?‘y //Caienee ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo IAeO. Aei. 8. — Iaeana,
1999. – N.76-85 (0,5 ae?. a?e).

22. Aeieeiaiiy oa ooai?aiiy Aoaeaeaoeueei? i?aee a XVI-XVII no.
//Caienee ?noi?e/iiai oaeoeueoaoo IAeO. Aui. 9. — Iaeanna, 1999 (o
ae?oeo, 0,5 ae?. a?e).

23. Iieiaaoeueeee aieea ia I?ai?/ii-Cao?aeia I?e/i?iiii?‘? o O?? no.
//Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao “Ee?ai-Iiaeeyinueea Aeaaeai?y”, IO. Iaoeia?
i?aoe?. O.??. ?noi?e/i? iaoee. — Ieeiea?a, 1999. – N.6-10 (0,5 ae?.
a?e.).

AIIOAOe??:

Nie?iia ?.I. Ei/iaa ianaeaiiy ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie (e?iaoeue
?O – ia?oa iieiaeia OV?? no.) – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa ?noi?e/ieo iaoe
ii niaoe?aeueiino? 07.00.01. – ?noi??y Oe?a?ie. – Iaeanueeee aea?aeaaiee
oi?aa?neoao ?i.?.?.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeana, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? oe?e?nii aeine?aeaeo?oueny ?noi?e/iee oaiiiai iiiaae?cio
ia i?aaeaiiiio caoiae? Oe?a?ie o ae?oaiio oeny/ie?oo? i.a. ia iniia?
eiiieaeniiai aiae?co a?oaieia?/ieo oa ienueiiaeo aeaea?ae.
?icaeyaeathoueny oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie ei/iaiciaanoaa oa ieoaiiy
?aa?iiaeueii? ?noi??? o no/ani?e ?noi??ia?ao??, ?ieue ei/iaee?a ye
?noioiiai oaeoi?o o nenoai? eiioaeoii? ciie i?ae in?ei-caiea?ianueeei oa
ei/iaei na?oaie. Aea/athoueny ia??iaeecaoe?ei? caeiiii??iino? oa
iniaeeaino? ?noi?e/iiai ?icaeoeo ei/iaee?a e?ioey ?O – na?aaeeie OV??
no. – a?ae ia/ai?a?a aei iiaaeoe?a, ?oia i?noea oa ?ieue a ?noi???
Oe?a?ie a aiioo na?aaeiueia?//y.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: iiiaae?ci, ei/iaeee, aca?iiae?y, aeaiia?ao?/ia
iai?oaeai?noue, ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y, ia??iaeecaoe?y, ?noi?e/i? i?ioeane,
iie?oe/i? a?aeiineie, in?ea-caiea?ianueea ianaeaiiy, eiioaeoiee ?aa?ii.

Nie?iia E.A. EI*AAIA IANAEAIEA IA THAI-CAIAAeA OE?AEIU (eiiaoe IO —
na?aaeeia OVII aa.). – ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa enoi?e/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 07.00.01. — enoi?ey Oe?aeiu. — Iaeanneee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E.E.Ia/ieeiaa, Iaeanna, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee oeaeinoii enneaaeoaony enoi?e/aneee oaiiiai iiiaaeecia
ia thai-caiaaea Oe?aeiu ai aoi?ii oun. i.y. ia iniiaa eiiieaeniiai
aiaeeca a?oaieiae/aneeo e ienueiaiiuo enoi/ieeia. ?anniao?eaathony
oai?aoe/aneea i?iaeaiu ei/aaieeiaaaeaiey e aii?inu ?aaeiiaeueiie enoi?ee
a nia?aiaiiie enoi?eia?aoee, ?ieue ei/aaieeia eae nouanoaaiiiai oaeoi?a
a nenoaia eiioaeoiie ciiu iaaeaeo inaaeei-caieaaeaeue/aneei e ei/aaui
ie?aie. Oaeaea aia?aua aeaeaaony iiiuoea oaiaoe/aneiai eco/aiey
ei/aaieeia ?? oun. i.y. ia thai-caiaaea Oe?aeiu eae iniaiai
enoi?e/aneiai yaeaiey. A aeenna?oaoeee eco/aiu ia?eiaeecaoeeiiiua
caeiiiia?iinoe e iniaaiiinoe enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey ei/aaieeia eiioea
IX- na?aaeeiu XVII a. — io ia/aiaaia aei iiaaeoeaa, eo ianoi e ?ieue a
enoi?ee Oe?aeiu a yiioo n?aaeiaaaeiauey.

Ei/aaay eoeueoo?a eco/aaony aeeao?iiii, n iiiiuueth niaiythueony
neio?iiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiuo “n?acia”, eioi?ua ioaaouaatho o/anoie noaiiie
ciiu iaaeaeo Eiaoeueoeii, I?ooii e Aeoiaai. Yoa oa??eoi?ey
?anniao?eaaaony e eae iniaue ?aaeii e eae eiioaeoiay
enoi?eei-aaia?aoe/aneay iaeanoue. Caiaaeiay /anoue i?e/a?iiii?neeo
noaiae ?anniao?eaaaony eae naiaia?aciue “aeaiia?aoe/aneee eioae”,
eioi?ue n eiioea ?O aei na?aaeeiu OV?? a. n ?aciie eioaineaiinoueth
caiieiyeny ei/aaieeaie a caaeneiinoe io iauae neooaoeee a noaiiie ciia
Aa?acee. Aieiu ei/aaieeia, oanieaoea ae?oa ae?oaa n ainoiea,
?acaeaaeenue e ?aciuaaee inaaeei-caieaaeaeue/aneee aa?uea? ii eeiee
Ieaeiaai Aeoiay, Ea?iaoneeo ai? e a?aieoe noaie e eaninoaie a
iaaeaeo?a/uea Aeiano?a e Aeiai?a.

Naiui e?eoe/aneei o/anoeii acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo ie?ia aue Ieaeiee
Aeoiae. I?i?aaa yoio “caiie”, ei/aaieee ii/oe aani?aiyonoaaiii iiiaaeaee
a aai aeieeiu, a oaeaea ia Aaeeaiu, THaeiia I?eea?iaouea e a Iaiiiieth.
Ae?oaei e?eoe/aneei o/anoeii auei iaaeaeo?a/uea I?ooa, Aeiano?a e
THaeiiai Aoaa, eoaea ei/aaieee no?aieeenue a neo/ayo aeinoaoi/ii iiuiiai
“caiea” ia Aeoiaa e iaoiaeeee Ea?iaou n naaa?a. Noaiaiue
aeaiia?aoe/aneiai iai?yaeaiey ei/aaieeia a noaiyo io Eiaoeueoea aei
Aeoiay ii?aaeaeyeanue neeie eo aeaaeaiey n ainoiea, ec-ca Aeiai?a. Iia
caaenaea oaeaea e io niiniaa aaaeaiey ei/aaiai oicyenoaa — oaai?iiai eee
iieoei/aaiai. Iia caaenaea e io neeu ia?aoiiai aeaaeaiey
inaaeei-caieaaeaeue/aneiai ie?a ia ainoie. Oaeia aeaaeaiea
ii?aaeaeyeinue aioo?aiiei iieiaeaieai ainoaea?noa e ia?iaeia
Ea?iaonei-Aeoiaeneiai ?aaeiia, eo acaeiiioiioaieyie eae eiiiiiaioaie
nenoaiu ainoaea?noa anae Aa?iiu. Ia?a aeaiia?aoe/aneiai iai?yaeaiey a
noaiiie ciia au?aaeaeanue ai aiaoiaiieeoe/aneie aeoeaiinoe ei/aaieeia e
eo aioo?aiieo oniaeoeao.

THai-caiaae Oe?aeiu — ?aaeii, ?anniao?eaaaiue n iiiiuueth
aeeao?iiii-neio?iiiie iaoiaeeee, yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo
eiioaeoiuo o/anoeia acaeiiaeaenoaey aeaoo ie?ia —
inaaeei-caieaaeaeue/aneiai e ei/aaiai, iauaaa?iiaeneiai e aceaoneiai —
n ?aciuie iaueie e aioo?eoi?iaoeeiiiuie caeiiiia?iinoyie, ono?ienoaii
iieeoe/aneie e nioeeaeueiie aeecie, eaeaieiaeae, n ?aciuie
iauanoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneeie oeeaaeaie. Iniiaiua iniaaiiinoe e
caeiiiia?iinoe yoiai acaeiiaeaenoaey n eiioea ?O aei na?aaeeiu OV?? a.
auyaeythony e enneaaeothony a aeenna?oaoeeiiiie ?aaioa. A iae
onoaiaaeeaaaony, /oi iniaaiiinoe e yoaiu enoi?e/aneiai nouanoaiaaiey
ei/aaieeia ia caiaaea noaiiiai I?e/i?iiii?uey ii?aaeaeyeenue,
i?aeiouanoaaiii, aeaiia?aoe/aneeie i?ioeannaie; ei/aaie niinia
i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoaoi/ii i/aaeaeii ?aaoee?iaaeny iaoaieciii
“auioaeaeaiiie yiea?aoeee”.

Iauee o?iaaiue ?acaeoey caieaaeaeue/aneeo iauanoa ai ?? oun., n eioi?uie
anooiaee a eiioaeo ei/aaieee io ia/aiaaia aei iiaaeoeaa, iaoeeiiii
aic?anoae ii n?aaiaieth n ae?aaiinoueth. No?oeoo?a aea ei/aauo i?ae e
ia?aciaaiee inoaaaeanue iaeiioeiiie aieioue aei iiaiai a?aiaie a Aa?iia.
A noaiyo Naaa?i-Caiaaeiiai I?e/i?iiii?uey oicyenoaaiii-eoeueoo?iue oei
ei/aaieeia ii anai auaeaeyaiui nouanoaaiiui i?eciaeai i?inouanoaiaae
aei naiie naiae aeaaee. Iiaeeoeeaoeee ia eciaiyee aai nooe e eiiiaaoeeyi
iiaeaa?aaeenue eeoue aoi?inoaiaiiua aeaoaee.

A “aeiiiaaeneia” a?aiy ethaua ?aciiaeaeiinoe ei/aauo eoeueoo? iau/ii
aaeaioe?iaaeenue e iaeiie ianoiinoe noiaeiui ia?acii. Iai?ioea, a
oo?aoeei-e?uineoth yiioo oaeay aaeaioaoeey noeioee?iaaeanue eneonnoaaiii
– iieeoe/anee e aaeieieno?aoeaii: ei/aaee ia?ac aeecie iiaaeneeo i?ae
nio?aiyeny e eniieueciaaeny a ea/anoaa aiaiii-iieeoe/aneiai oaeoi?a.
Oo?aoa yoie “caueoiie iaiei/ee” a iiauo enoi?e/aneeo oneiaeyo ia?aeaea
ei/aaua i?aeu ia aeaaeue. ?ao?iniaeoeaiia eco/aiea enoi?ee ei/aaieeia ai
?? oun. ia thai-caiaaea Oe?aeiu iiaeoaa?aeeei canoieiue e ooieeiaue, a
oeaeii, oa?aeoa? eo ?acaeoey, iaoneiaeaiiue iniaaiiinoyie yenoaineaiiai
oicyenoaa, ionoonoaeai aeinoaoi/iuo aiciiaeiinoae aeey naii?acaeoey, a
oaeaea ia?aoeiinoueth nioeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iiiaaeeci, ei/aaieee, acaeiiaeaenoaea,
aeaiia?aoe/aneay iai?yaeaiiinoue, eioa?i?aoaoeey, ia?eiaeecaoeey,
enoi?e/aneea i?ioeannu, iieeoe/aneea ioiioaiey,
inaaeei-caieaaeaeue/aneia ianaeaiea, eiioaeoiue ?aaeii.

Smirnov I.A. NOMADS IN THE SOUTH-WEST UKRAINE REGION (the end of IX-th
— the middle of XVII-th centuries). –Manuscript.

The thesis for Kandidat in Historical Sciences — speciality 07.00.01. —
History of Ukraine. — Odessa State University, Odessa, 1999.

In the dissertation is wholenessly investigated the historical
phenomenon of the nomadism in a South-West of Ukraine in second thousand
AD on the basis of the complex analysis archaeological and written
sources. There are considered the theoretical problems of the nomadism
and the questions of a regional history in modern historiography, the
role of the nomads as essential factor in system of a contact zone
between agricultural and nomadic worlds. There are studied the
periodical laws and features of historical development of the nomads in
the end of the IX- middle XVII c. — from petchenegs up to nogays, their
place and role in a history of Ukraine in epoch of a middle ages.

Key words: nomadism, nomads, interconnection, demographic intensity,
interpretation, periodization, historical processes, politacal attitude,
settled-agricultural population, contact region.

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