Інтегральні формувачі потужних наносекундних імпульсів і радіоелектронні пристрої на їх основі: Автореф. дис… д-ра техн. наук / Л.М. Смеркло, Держ.

Aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea»

Aeey neoaeaiaiai ei?enooaaiiy

I?ei.N ______

Nia?eei Ethaiie? Ieoaeeiae/

OAeE 621.396.6.049.76/.77:

:621.382:681.3.

Iioaa?aeueii oi?ioaa/i iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo

iiioeuenia i ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiii i?eno?i? ia ?o iniiai

05.12.13 — I?eno?i? ?aaeiioaoiiee oa caniaia oaeaeiioiieaoeie

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoii/ieo iaoe

Eueaia 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Eueaianueeiio iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiio ?aaeiioaoii/iiio
iinoeoooi

(Iiiinoa?noai i?iieneiai? iieioeee Oe?a?ie)

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aio?a Caiii TH?eiae/

(AeO «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea», i.Eueaia, caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e)

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: /eai-ei?aniiiaeaio IAI Oe?a?ie,

aeieoi? oiceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Eeoia/aiei Aieiaeeie? A?eai?iae/

(Iinoeooo oiceee iaiiai?iaiaeieeia IAI Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a, caaiaeoaa/
aiaeaeieo)

aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ae?oaeeiii Aiaoieie Ieaenaiae?iae/

(AeO «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea», i.Eueaia, i?ioani? eaoaae?e)

aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Iieioainueeee Eaiiiae O?aioeiae/

(AAO «A?aa?oii», i.*a?iiaoei, aieiaa i?aae?iiy;

*a?iiaaoeueeee Aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao ii. TH.Oaaeueeiae/a, caaiaeoaa/
eaoaae?e)

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?inoeooo «Eaaio»

Iiiinoa?noaa i?iieneiai? iieioeee Oe?a?ie, i.Ee?a

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny «16» /a?aiy 1999 ?. i 15 aiaeeii ia caniaeaiii
niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.052.10 a Aea?aeaaiiio oiiaa?neoaoi
«Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea» ca aae?anith: 290013, Eueaia, aoe.No.Aaiaea?e,
12.

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o aiaeiioaoei Aea?aeaaiiai
oiiaa?neoaoo «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea» (290013, Eueaia,
aoe.I?ioani?nueea, 1)

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee «30» ea?oiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee ?iiaieoei TH.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue ?iaioe. I?ioyaii inoaiiueiai aeanyoe?i//y i?iaiaeii
oi?ie naioo a iaeanoi ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiiee i?iyaeythoue aeoeaiee iioa?an
aei oaoiiee iieiiao?iaiai aeiaiaciio oaeeue (IIAeO). Oea iaoiiaeaii
oeieith ieceith aiaeiieo ia?aaaa ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo nenoai (?AN) oeueiai
aeiaiaciio ia?aae nenoaiaie iioeo ?aaeiiaeiaiaciiia, cie?aia,
iaaeaeniei/anoioiiai (IA*) i iioe/iiai aeiaiaciio. Ia nueiaiaeiioiie
aeaiue aaea aecia/eeenue ia?niaeoeaii iaeanoi canoinoaaiiy oaoiiee IIAeO
aeey no/anieo ?aaeiieieaoeieieo nenoai (?EN) ?iciiiaiioiiai
o?ainii?oiiai aacoaaiiy, iiaenoiooieeiaiai ?aaeiica’yceo, nenoai
aeeaeiueiai iioaeiiai ca’yceo, eaca?ii? i iaaee/ii? oaoiiee, caniaia
iaaiioiaeaeo?iiiee oa iioi.

Iaeiei ic ia?niaeoeaieo iai?yieia a ?icaeoeo i?eno?i?a ?aaeiioaoiiee
oeueiai aeiaiaciio ? iiioeuenii iiaeoeyoi?e aeey iiaeoeyoei?
?aaeiiiiioeuenieo neaiaeia aaia?aoi?ia niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN IIAeO, yei
aeiaaathoue ?ic?iaee niaoeiaeueieo oi?ioaa/ia (aeaea?ae) iiooaeieo
iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia. ?o ?ic?iaea cia/iith ii?ith aecia/a?oueny
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie no/anii? aeaiaioii? aace.

Inoaiiii /anii ?ic?iaea i aeione i?iieneiainoth ?yaeo ei?ionieo i
aacei?ionieo iiioeuenieo o?aicenoi?ia i aeiiaeia na?aaeiuei? i aaeeei?
iiooaeiinoi aeicaieeee noai?eoe oi?ioaa/i iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo
iiioeuenia (OIINI), yei aacoaaeenue ia aeene?aoieo ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo
eiiiiiaioao c aeei?enoaiiyi aia?eaeii? oaoiieiai? iie?iaeaeo?iiiee. Ia
ia?oiio aoaii inai?iiy oaoiiee IIAeO, oei OIINI caaeiaieueiyee aeiiae ii
oaoii/iei i aenieoaoaoeieiei ia?aiao?ai oa iiiiaoth?ecaoei? iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia.

Iaeiae, iiaeaeueoi iio?aae ?icoe?aiiy ooieoeiiiaeueieo iiaeeeainoae
iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia oa iie?auaiiy ?o oaoii/ieo i aenieoaoaoeieieo
oa?aeoa?enoee, aeiiae aei ?o aaaaoieaiaeueiinoi i aaaa?eoii-aaaiaeo
iieacieeia, ui oa?aeoa?ii aeey ai?oiaeo niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN IIAeO,
?icei caieueoeee eieueeinoue aeene?aoieo ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo eiiiiiaioia i
iie?iieao, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo aia?eaeieo iiaeoeia. A oea, a naith
/a?ao, i?eaaei aei caieueoaiiy aaaa?eoia i aaae iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia, cieaeaiiy ?o iaaeieiinoi, oaoiieiai/iinoi,
aiaeoai?thaaiiinoi ia?aiao?ia, noaaieueiinoi ooieoeiiioaaiiy a aei?noeeo
oiiaao aenieoaoaoei? (iiaeaeuaii? aei? eeiiaoe/ieo i iaoaii/ieo
/eiieeia), caieueoeei niaiaa?oinoue.

Aeoiaey/e c oeueiai, aeey caaacia/aiiy no/anieo aeiia aei iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia i a?aoiaoth/e aenieo nooiiiue iioaa?aoei? iioeo oeeo?iaeo i
aiaeiaiaeo ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a, ui aoiaeyoue aei neeaaeo
niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN IIAeO, aeieeea neeaaeia aeooaeueia i?iaeaia
iie?iiiiiaoth?ecaoei? iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia ia ?iaii oaa?aeioieueii?
iioaa?aoei?. I?e oeueiio ?? ae?ioaiiy iaiaaeoaaeiny noia?a/eeaeie
aeiiaaie iaeii/aniiai caaacia/aiiy aaeeeeo iiioeuenieo iiooaeiinoae oa
aeniei? oaeaeeiaei?. Oey noia?a/iinoue iiaea aooe ?ica’ycaia oieueee i?e
canoinoaaiii i?eioeeiiai iiaiai eiiieaeniiai nenoaiiiai iiaeoiaeo aei
i?iaeooaaiiy iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia. Iaiaoiaeii aoei noai?eoe iiao
iiooaeio oa oaeaeeiaeith/o iioaa?aeueio aeaiaioio aaco, a ia ?? iniiai
iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai iioaa?aeueii noaie — oi?ioaa/i iiooaeieo
iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia (IN OIINI). Oaeee iiaeoiae aeicaiey? aeeiiaoe
?ic?iaeo i aeaioiaeoe ii eiiaiiiaaiie aia?eaeiie i iioaa?aeueiie
oaoiieiai?, ?yae iaeiaaaa?eoieo aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia (AII)
iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeuaii? iiooaeiinoi aeey niaoeiaeiciaaieo
?AN IIAeO, yei aenieoaoothoueny a oiiaao aei? aei?noeeo eeiiaoe/ieo i
iaoaii/ieo /eiieeia.

Oaeei /eiii, ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo iieiaeaiue oa i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoaoia
ii noai?aiith iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia ia iioaa?aeueiie oaa?aeioieueiie
iniiai aeey oaoiiee IIAeO ? iiaei iai?yieii ?icaeoeo i?eno?i?a
?aaeiioaoiiee. Oei ieoaiiy iieeaaeaii a iniiao aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe, a
yeie ae?ioo?oueny iaoeiai-oaoii/ia i?iaeaia noai?aiiy ye?nii iiaeo
?iioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi??a aeey niaoe?ae?ciaaieo ?AN IIAeO c iie?auaieie
oaeoeei-oaoii/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie, ui ia? aaaeeeaa
ia?iaeii-ainiiaea?nueea cia/aiiy.

Iaoa ?iaioe. ?ic?iaea oiceei-oaoiieiai/ieo, noaiioaoii/ieo i
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo iniia noai?aiiy iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN OIINI
(iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia) ia iiaeo iiooaeieo oaeaeeiaeith/eo
iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo aeaiaioao (iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo n-p-n
o?aicenoi?ao, IAeI o?aicenoi?ao i aeiiaeao c aa?’??ii Oiooei) oa
?ic?iaea ia oeie aaci ?yaeo iaeiaaaa?eoieo AII iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia,
iiaeaeuaii? iiooaeiinoi, aeey aaia?aoi?ia no/anieo ai?oiaeo
niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN IIAeO i?e ?o aenieoaoaoei? a aei?noeeo oiiaao
iiaeaeuaii? aei? eeiiaoe/ieo i iaoaii/ieo /eiieeia, i yei iiaee a
canoiniaoaaoeny a iioeo iaeanoyo oaoiiee aeiaiaciio EA* (30…300 AAoe).

Iniiaii caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy iaoe ae?iooaaeeny oaei
caaea/i:

1.I?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai aiaeico inioth/i? aeaiaioii? aace i oeieiai
?yaeo oai?aoe/ieo i aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aeey noai?aiiy
o?ceei-oaoiieia?/ieo oa eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo iniia ii ?ic?iaoei i
aeaioiaeaiith iiaeo iiooaeieo, oaeaeeiaeith/eo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo
aiiiey?ieo n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia, IAeI o?aicenoi?ia i aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii
Oiooei, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?iai/eie iai?oaaie ia iaioa 50 A, no?oiii
— aei 1 A, /anii ia?aoiaeieo i?ioeania — ia aieueoa 10 in.

2.Aeineiaeaeaiiy oice/ieo iaoaiiciia ooieoeiiioaaiiy iiooaeieo
iioaa?aeueieo o?aicenoi?ieo i aeiiaeieo no?oeoo? i ?ic?iaea iiioeuenieo
iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo i IAeI o?aicenoi?ia, aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei
c iaiaoiaeieie ia?aiao?aie a aeoeaiiio ?aaeeii ?iaioe a neeaaei
iiooaeieo iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN.

3.?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae iiooaeieo iioaa?aeueieo o?aicenoi?ieo
i aeiiaeieo no?oeoo? c a?aooaaiiyi o?ce/ieo aoaeoia ?
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue, yei nooo?ai aieeaathoue ia ?o
aeniei/anoioii i iiioeuenii oa?aeoa?enoeee, aecia/aiiy ?o ?iai/eo
oa?aeoa?enoee, aeai? aeaeo i oeio.

4.?ic?iaea iaoiaeee, i?ia?ai ?ic?aooieia i iioeiicaoei? eiino?oeoeie
iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo o?aicenoi?ieo i aeiiaeieo no?oeoo?.

5.?ic?iaea ? aeaioiaeaiiy iioaa?aeueieo aenieiaieueoieo i
oaeaeeiaeith/eo no?oeoo? n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia, IAeI-o?aicenoi?ia c
iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii i aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei aeey iiaiai eeano IN
OIINI a oaa?aeioieueiiio aeeiiaiii ic caaacia/aiiyi oaieiaiai ?aaeeio ?o
?iaioe a i?ioeani aenieoaoaoei?.

6.?ic?iaea no?oeoo?ieo, ooieoeiiiaeueieo i aeaeo?e/ieo noai iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia.

7.?ic?iaea i ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a na?ieia ae?iaieoeoai eiino?oeoeie,
i?iieneiai? oaoiieia?? aeaioiaeaiiy e?enoaeia IN OIINI i AII iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia ia ?o iniiai.

8.?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ?ic?aooieo iioeiaeueii? eiino?oeoei? oaea?inoieeeo
?acenoi??a i i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aieeao
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo ? aenieoaoaoe?eieo /eiiee?a ia oaea?io
noieeinoue, no?oeoo?o ? oaciaee neeaae oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia ia
iniia? n??aei-iaeaae??aeo, ?ooai??aeo ? ai?eaeieo iano, ui oe?iei
canoiniaothoueny ? na??eii aeaioiaeythoueny, aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy ?o
canoinoaaiiy a AII iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeuaii? iiooaeiinoi
oaea?inoieeeo ?AN.

9.?ic?iaea eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo ?ioaiue ii caieueoaiith
iioeiinoi eiino?oeoeie AII aeey oiia iiaeaeuaieo aeeiaii/ieo aeie i
oeeeei/ieo ciii oaiia?aoo?e.

10.?ic?iaea iiaeo iaoa?iaeia, niiniaia aeaioiaeaiiy aeoeaieo i ianeaieo
aeaiaioia, iie?inoai i iie?icai?ie a oeieiio aeey iiaeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo
i?eaeaoieo, i?iaeoeoeaiinoi i oi/iinoi aeaioiaeaiiy, noaaieueiinoi
ia?aiao?ia iie?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a, caaacia/aiiy ?o i?aoeacaeaoiinoi
a aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei?.

11.?ic?iaea iaaeiaeia iane?iciiai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy AII IAA.

Iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiiy. A ?iaioi aeei?enoaii iaoiaee i iniiaii
iieiaeaiiy oai?ie aeaeo?e/ieo ia?aae, oiceee iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo
i?eno?i?a, aeeoa?aioeieiiai i iioaa?aeueiiai /eneaiiy, iaoaiaoe/iiai i
iaoeiiiai iiaeaethaaiiy, oiceee eaiiey?ieo nee, i?oaeii? aeaoi?iaoei?, a
oaeiae aeaiaioe oai??? iiiaeei, a?ao?a, iio?i?caoe??, ae/enethaaeueii?
iaoaiaoeee, i?ia?aioaaiiy, aenia?eiaioe ia AAI. Iniiaii oai?aoe/ii
?acoeueoaoe iiaeoaa?aeaeaii aenia?eiaioaeueii.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie ieaiaie, oaiaie, i?ia?aiaie. ?iaioa aeeiiaia
o aiaeaeieaiii iie?iaeaeo?iiiee Eueaianueeiai iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiai
?aaeiioaoii/iiai iinoeoooo. Iaoeia? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe i?iaiaeeeeny o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie iinoeoooo ii
IAeAeE? i oeieueiaeo eiiieaenieo iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo i?ia?ai,
caoaa?aeaeaieo Iiiinoa?noaii ?aaeiii?iieneiainoi eieeoiueiai N?N?,
Iiiinoa?noaii iaoeiiaoaeoaaiiy, aienueeiai-i?iieneiaiai eiiieaeno i
eiiaa?ni? Oe?a?ie i Iiiinoa?noaii i?iieneiai? iieioeee Oe?a?ie c 1980 ii
1998 ?. Cie?aia:

-oaia «Aeineiaeaeaiiy oeyoia iie?iiiiiaoth?ecaoei? iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia aeey aaia?aoi?ia ?AN iieiiao?iaiai aeiaiaciio aeiaaeei
oaeeue» (iaeac Iii?aae?ii?iio aiae 30.12.88 ? 759n);

-oaia «?ic?iaea ? aeaioiaeaiiy iai?ai?ia?aeieeiaeo no?oeoo? IN
oi?ioaa/ia iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia» (aeaciaea Iii?aae?ii?iio
aiae 25.12.89 ? 865n);

-oaia «?ic?iaea ? aeaioiaeaiiy iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai? IN oi?ioaa/a
iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia o?aiaoei?aeaeueii? oi?ie c
aeiaieueii ?aaoeueiaaiei iaoeeii aa?oeie iiioeueno» (iaeac
Iii?aae?ii?iio aiae 27.12.89 ? 877n);

-oaie «?ic?iaea ? aeaioiaeaiiy ?yaeo iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia
iiaeaeuaii? iiooaeiinoi aeey aaia?aoi?ia aeiaiaciio EA*»(??
aea?ae?a?no?aoei? UA02002799P, 1992 ?.; 0196U024259, 1996 ?.;
0196U024270, 1996 ?.; 0197U000001O, 1997 ?.; 0197U000008O, 1997 ?.);

-oaie «Aeineiaeaeaiiy noaaieueiinoi oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia,
aeaioiaeaieo ia na?ieieo ianoao i?e aei? ?iciiiaiioieo aeanoaaieicoth/eo
oaeoi?ia» (iaeac Iii?aae?ii?iio a?ae 10.04.84 ? 201n ? aiae 30.12.88 ?
759n, ?? aea?ae?a?no?aoei? UA02002779?, 1992 ?.; UA02002785?, 1992 ?.,
UA02002789?, 1992 ?.; 0196U024262, 1996 ?.).

Iaoeiaa iiaecia. Noeoiiinoue ?acoeueoaoia aeineiaeaeaiue, iaaaaeaieo a
aeaiie aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi, ? iiaee iai?yiie ?icaeoeo i?eno?i?a
?aae?ioaoi?ee, ?iioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi??a ia iia?e oaa?aeio?euei?e
?ioaa?aeuei?e iniia? — noai?aiiy IN-oi?ioaa/ia iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo
iiioeuenia o?aiaoe??aeaeueii? oi?ie c aeia?eueii ?aaoeueiaaiei iaoeeii
aa?oeie eiioeuena ? ia ?o aac? iaeiaaaa?eoieo aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo
iiaeoeia iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia i?aeaeuaii? iiooaeiino? no/anieo
ai?oiaeo ?AN IIAeO, ui i?aoeththoue a aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei?,
iaoeiaa iiaecia yeeo iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa:

1.Aeineiaeaeaii oice/ii iaoaiicie ooieoeiiioaaiiy iiooaeieo
iioaa?aeueieo o?aicenoi?ieo i aeiiaeieo no?oeoo? i i?iaaaeaii
eiiieaeniee aiaeic iiaeeeainoi noai?aiiy iiaiai eeano IN-oi?ioaa/ia
iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia a oaa?aeioieueiiio aeeiiaiii.
Iaa?oioiaaii iiaeeeainoue ?aaeicaoei? aeacaieo noai ia iniiai
?ic?iaeaieo o?ceei-iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae ? eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo
??oaiue iioaa?aeueieo aenieiaieueoieo no?oeoo? n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia,
IAeI-o?aicenoi?ia c iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii i aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei.

2.Noai?aii o?ceei-oaoiieia?/i?, noaiioaoi?/i? ?
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/i? iniiae ?ic?iaee oa aeaioiaeaiiy iiooaeieo
oaeaeeiae?th/eo ?iioeuenieo ?ioaa?aeueieo o?aicenoi?ieo ? ae?iaeieo
no?oeoo?. Aeey oeueiai ?ic?iaeaii:

-iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, ui aaeaeaaoii iienothoue AAO iiooaeiiai
iiioeueniiai iioaa?aeueiiai aiiiey?iiai o?aicenoi?a i?e ia?aoiaei a
?aaeei iii/iiai eaaciiane/aiiy ? ?iciiae?e aonoeie no?oio a
?ioaa?aeuei?e ae?iaei?e no?oeoo?? c aa?’??ii Oiooei a ?aaeeii ia?aoiaeo
aei aenieiai ?iaiy iiaeaeoei? iainiiaieo iini?a ca?yaeo;

-iaoiaeeee, i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieia i iioeiicaoei? oiiieiai? iiooaeieo
iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia oa aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii
Oiooei, ui aeicaieeei i?e caaeaiie aaee/eii eiiooiaaii? iiooaeiinoi
ciaioeoe /an ia?aoiaeieo i?ioeania;

-iiai iaoiaee oienaoei? ?aaeeio ?iaioe iiooaeieo iioaa?aeueieo
aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia, ye? aeicaieeee onoiooe ?o iane/aiiy.

3.?ic?iaeaii ? i?aeoe/ii ?aae?ciaaii eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ia
??oaiiy, yea aeicaieeei cia/ii iiaeaeueoe iai?oao i?iaith noieo
ai?eciioaeueiiai IAeI-o?aicenoi?a aaaaeaiiyi a iaeanoue eaiaeo
aaeueaaii/ii iac’?aeiaii? iaeanoi, i?ioeeaaeii? aei iiaeeeaaeee oeio
i?iaiaeiinoi.

4.Noai?ai? iai?ai?ia?aeieeia? ?N oi?ioaa/? iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo
?iioeuen?a ?c caaacia/aiiyi ?icaeieueiiai oi?ioaaiiy o?iioo i niaaeo
iiioeuenia ? ?ic?iaeaii noaiioaoi?eo, eiino?oeoe?? ? i?iieneiao
oaoiieia?th aeaioiaeaiiy iaeiaaaa?eoieo a?a?eaeii-?ioaa?aeueieo iiaeoe?a
?iioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi??a i?aeaeuaii? iiooaeiino? aeey aaia?aoi??a
?aae?i?iioeuenieo neaiae?a IIAeO ai?oiaeo ?AN, ye? aenieoaoothoueny a
oiiaao i?aeaeuaii? ae?? ee?iaoe/ieo ? iaoai?/ieo /eiiee?a.

5.I?iaaaeaii oai?aoe/ii-aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiy
oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia a AII oaea?inoieeeo ?AN. ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo
aecia/aiiy eiaoioei?ioa oaici/ooeeainoi iaoa?iaeo ?acenoi?ia i
cae?eniaii ?ic?aooiie iioeiaeueii? eiino?oeoei? oaea?inoieeiai
?acenoi?a. Aeineiaeaeaii aieea eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo ?
aenieoaoaoe?eieo /eiieeia ia oaea?io noieeinoue, no?oeoo?o ? oaciaee
neeaae oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia ia iniia? n??aei-iaeaae??aeo (na??y
4000), ?ooai??aeo (na??y 4400) ? ai?eaeieo iano (na??y 0800), ui na??eii
aeaioiaeythoueny, ? ?ic?iaeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii ?o canoinoaaiith a
oaea?inoieeeo ?AN.

6.?ic?iaeaii i?eioeeie, iaoiaeeee, iaoaiaoe/i? iiaeae?, aeai?eoie aeey
noai?aiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy iane??ciiai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy EAe aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia ? ?ici?uaiiy e?i?eieo
?ici???a ia e?aneaiiyo eiino?oeoe?e A?I, yei neeaaeathoue iniiao
neeaaeieo no/anieo o?ainii?oieo ?AN niaoeiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, ia aaci
aiaeiioae oeiiaeo eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiai/ieo ?ioaiue (EO?). Ia
aiaeiiio aiae aiaeiieo, a iniiao aeaii? iaoiaeeee caeeaaeaii i?eioeei
?iaioe eiino?oeoi?a ia c oeiiaei a?aoi/iei cia?aaeaiiyi ?enoieia, a c
oeiiaeie EO?, aeai? yeeo neeaaea? nooue i?ioeano eiino?othaaiiy.

Iaoeiaa i i?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue ?iaioe:

1.Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue, ?ic?iaeaieo iaoiaeee, iaoaiaoe/ieo
iiaeaeae, i?ia?ai ?ic?aooieia i eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo ?ioaiue
aia?oa noai?aii iiooaeii oaeaeeiaeith/i iioaa?aeueii iiioeuenii
aiiiey?ii o?aicenoi?e i aeiiaee c aa?’??ii Oiooei, yei caaacia/othoue
i?e caaeaiie aaee/eii eiiooiaaii? iiooaeiinoi (?iii = 10…30 Ao)
iiiiiaeueiee /an ia?aoiaeieo i?ioeania (to? F 10 in).

2.?ic?iaeaia eiino?oeoeiy iiooaeiiai oaeaeeiaeith/iai ai?eciioaeueiiai
IAeI o?aicenoi?a aeicaieeea aia?oa ?aaeicoaaoe a neeaaei oaa?aeioieueii?
IN eaneaaee ia aeiiiaithaaeueieo ii oeio i?iaiaeiinoi o?aicenoi?ao i
oeei naiei noai?eoe iioaa?aeueii iaiiaa?oiaaii iiaeneethaa/i iiooaeieo
iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia (?iii ? 10 Ao);

3.?ic?iaeaii aeaiaioia aaca, noaie aeaeo?e/ii, eiino?oeoei? i
oaoiieiaiy aeicaieeee aia?oa a i?iieneiaeo oiiaao aeaioiaeoe
iaiiai?iaiaeieeia? IN-oi?ioaa/? iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia
o?aiaoei?aeaeii? oi?ie c aeiaieueii ?aaoeueiaaiei iaoeeii aa?oeie
iiioeueno (?iii = 10…30 Ao; tiii = 50…300 in; to?,tni F 10 in,
aeiaiacii ?aaoethaaiiy iaoeeo ± 50%).

4.C?iaeaii iaa?oiooaaiiy i iiaeaii ?ic?aooiie ia?aiao?ia oaieiaiai
?aaeeio ?iaioe IN OIINI. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy ii?iaeueiiai
?aaeeio ?iaioe noai c aaeeeith oia?oaaoinoth iiioeuenia na?aaeiy
oaiia?aoo?a i, ioaea, na?aaeiy iiooaeiinoue, yea aeaeiey?oueny a
e?enoaei, iiaeiii ?ic?aoiaoaaoeny c iaia’yceiaei a?aooaaiiyi aaee/eie
iiioeueniiai ia?aa?iao aeeoocieieo ?acenoi?ia (iniiaiiai aeaea?aea
oaiea) i aiia iiaeiia aooe iaioith, iiae iiooaeiinoue noai aacia?a?aiiai
?aaeeio ?iaioe.

5.Aia?oa ae??oaia i?iaeaia oaa?aeioieueii? iioaa?aoei?
aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeuaii?
iiooaeiinoi aeey aaia?aoi?ia IIAeO, ui aeicaieeei ciaioeoe ?o e?eoe/ii
iieacieee iane i aaaa?eoia a 3…5 ?ac.

6.Aeey caaacia/aiiy a?aeoai?thaaiino? oa noaa?eueiino? ?acenoi??a a
ciai?oi?o i?aoeec?eieo eieao ?iioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi??a aia?oa
aeine?aeaeaii oa?aeoa? ci?ie iii?iae?a oianoiie?aeiaeo ?acenoi??a:

a)n??aei-iaeaae??aeo a na?aaeiaeu? a?aiio ? inooaiiai iia?o?y.
Anoaiiaeaia i?e/eia iecueei? noaa?eueiino? ?acenoi??a (ciaioaiiy
iii?iae?a aei 90%) a na?aaeiaeu? a?aiio, yea ai?uo? a?eueiee aiaeaiue,
yeee a?aeiiaeth? PdO aei Pd, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy iii?iaeo
?acenoi?a ? aeniei? noaa?eueiino? ( a na?aaeiueiio — aei 2%) a
na?aaeiaeu? inooaiiai iia?o?y, yea ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey caiiaiaiy
ei?ion?a A?I a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa (E2.25203.00023);

a)?ooai??aeo i?e aaaaoie?aoiiio (2-i ? 3-e e?aoiiio) iiaoi?iiio
aiaethaaii?, yea aeicaiey? ei?aeooaaoe iii?iae ?acenoi??a ia 50…80% a
noi?iio ciaioaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ia iii?iae?a ?ooai??aeo
?acenoi??a, ye? i?ieoee iiaoi?ia aiaethaaiiy ia ia?aaeuo? 0,6% i?ney
ae?? oa?iioeeee?a ? i?aeaeuaii? oaiia?aoo?e;

a)c iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy nooiai? ?ioaa?aoe?? i?e?iieao A?I ?ic?iaeaii ?
aeine?aeaeaii oaoiieia?/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy oianoiie?aeiaeo
?acenoi??a ia iniia? ai?eaeieo iano ia ae?aeaeo?e/ieo oa?ao ?c ianoe
3014. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy ciaoiaeaeaiiy ai?eaeieo
?acenoi??a a aenieoaoaoe?eiiio aeiioneo ±10% aeinoaoi?i ? ae?iaie/ee
aeiione ±8%.

7.?ic?iaeai? ? ?aeiiaiaeiaai? aeey na??eiiai aaaaoiiiiaieeaoo?iiai
aeaioiaeaiiy oianoiie?aeiaeo ?acenoi??a i?e?iieao A?I:

a)aeaeo?io?i?/iee iaoiae ? i?eno??e aeey i?aeaiiee ?acenoi??a ia iniia?
n??aei-iaeaae??aeo iano a noi?iio ciaioaiiy ?o iii?iae?a, ui aeicaieeei
ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo ia 20…30%;

a)iaoiae iiaoi?iiai aiaethaaiiy ?ooai??aeo ?acenoi??a aeey ei?aeooaaiiy
?o iii?iae?a a noi?iio ciaioaiiy, ui aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae
i?eaeaoieo ia 10…20%;

a)eaca?iee iaoiae i?aeaiiee ?acenoi??a ia iniia? n??aei-iaeaae??aeo,
?ooai??aeo ? ai?eaeieo iano a noi?iio ca?eueoaiiy iii?iae?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao iaoiaeeeo thnooaaiiy aeii?thaaeueieo ciiaeia i
eaca?iiai i?iiaiy aaoiiaoeciaaii? onoaiiaee oeio «Aea?eae-009», ui
iiaeaeueei i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i?aoei a 2,7 ?ace.

8.?aeiiaiaeiaaii i?aeeeaaeee ? ?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoei? oaea?ino?eeeo
?acenoi??a aeey aeaioiaeaiiy i?e?iieao ? ei?ionia iiooaeieo A?I, niinia
?o aa?iaoecaoei? i cai?iiiiiaaia iaoiaeeea ?ic?aooieo eiaoioei?ioa
caiano iioeiinoi iayiiai oaa iiaeaeueee iaaeieiinoue c’?aeiaiiy
ei?ion-e?eoea i caaacia/eee i?aoeacaeaoiinoue a oiiaao aei? iiaeaeuaieo
eeiiaoe/ieo /eiieeia ? iaoai?/ieo ae?e aeeiai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue ca?aeii
a?oie 1.10 AINO A20.39.304-76. ?ic?iaeaia a neeaae? ei?iono eiino?oeoeiy
oieueo?a eaiie aeeaeaiiy i ea?oaaiiy ic canoinoaaiiyi iiaeeiath/eo
iaoa?iaeia iie?aueea aeaeo?iiaaiioio noiiniinoue iie?icao?ie a AII IA*
aeiaiaciio oaeeue.

9.?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeee, iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeaei i aeai?eoie, i?ia?aiia
caaacia/aiiy iane?iciiai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoeie AII
aeicaieeee nei?ioeoe o?oaeiiinoeinoue ?ic?iaee EAe a 2,7…3,1 ?ace.

Iiaecia i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie caoeuaia aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie ia
aeiaoiaee (A.n.1748581, A.n.1660535, A.n.1452409. A.n.1545842,
A.n.318664, A.n.320493, A.n.302312, A.n.1145827, A.n.287444, A.n.289850,
A.n.1492309, iiceoeaia ??oaiiy ia aeaea/o Aea?aeiaoaioo Oe?a?ie ca
cayaeith ? 94042646).

I?aeoe/ia ?aaeicaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia ?iaioe. Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe
iaoeiaeo i aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue ai?iaaaeaeaii a ?yaei
IAeAeE? i ae?iaia o Eueaianueeiio iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiio ?aaeiioaoii/iiio
iinoeoooi (EIAe?OI) i?e i?iaeooaaiii i aeaioiaeaiii ?AN niaoeiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy ia i?eioeeiao eiiieaenii? iie?iiiiiaoth?ecaoei? a ?aieao
oaiaoe/ieo i ae?iaie/eo ieaiia iinoeoooo, aea?aeaaieo i
eiiieaenii-oeieueiaeo iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo i?ia?ai. Cie?aia: ?aea-1,
?aea-2, ?iae, Caoai?, A?aeii, Eeaeiiea, Coa?, A?ce?, No?oeoo?a-1,
Ni?a-2, I?inoi? EI, A?ioue-2, O6E2, ?-25, Ia?niaeoeaa, I?inoi?-E,
?E-632, Eoe-1, Aoe-1, 720A.

Oea aeicaieeei:

-ae?ioeoe neeaaeio oeaio?aeueio i?iaeaio oaa?aeioieueii? iioaa?aoei?
aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo aeaea?ae iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia
aeey oaoiiee IIAeO, ui ciaioeei ?o e?eoe/ii iieacieee iane i aaaa?eoia a
3…5 ?ac, iiaeaeueei oaoiieiai/iinoue i iaaeieiinoue, iie?aueei
oaeoeei-oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee ?AN;

-caieueoeoe aeoiae i?eaeaoieo AII ia 20…30%;

-nei?ioeoe o?oaeiiinoeinoue ?ic?iaee EAe a 2,7…3,1 ?ace;

-caaacia/eoe i?aoeacaeaoiinoue i aenieoaoaoeith a neeaaei
niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN a oiiaao aieeao ciaiioiio iiaeaeuaieo eeiiaoe/ieo i
iaoaii/ieo /eiieeia;

-iaea?aeaoe aeiiiii/iee aoaeo aiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy 937 oen.a?i. a ?ie.

Ie?ii oeueiai, i?eioeeie i iaoiaeeee aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy EAe
AII ia iniiai aiaeiioae oeiiaeo EO?, iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeaei ?icii?ieo
nioie, iaoiaeeea i aeai?eoie ?iciiuaiiy ?icii?ia ia e?aneaiiyo EAe
?aaeiciaaii a i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiio eiiieaeni iane?iciiai
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo IA* iiaeoeia
«?AIE?A-4IN», yeee ciaoiaeeoueny o i?iieneiaie aenieoaoaoei? a
Eueaianueeiio IAe?OI oa ia iioeo iiaei?e?inoaao aaeoci.

?ic?iaeaii, ia iniiai iaoeiaeo i i?aeoe/ieo ?acoeueoaoia, iaoiaee
aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee EAe iiaeoeia i aaoiiaoeciaaiiai aeioneo
e?aneaiue ei?ionia i neeaaeaeueieo iaeeieoeue a oi?ii aeiaeaoeia
noaaeaii aenia?oii-oaoii/iith ?aaeith i?aaenoaaieeia i?iaiaeieo
iiaei?e?inoa aaeoci i ai?iaaaeaeaii ia iiaei?e?inoaao aaeoci o aeaeyaei
noaiaea?oia:

-INO4 AI.010.224 «Iiaeoee NA* eioaa?aeueiua. Eiino?oe?iaaiea»,
aeiaeaoie «Iienaiea iaoiaea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie ?ac?aaioee
eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee iiaeoeae» (n.80…114);

-INO4 AI.073.208 «Iiaeoee NA* eioaa?aeueiua. Aaoiiaoece?iaaiiua iaoiaeu
auionea eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee», aeiaeaoie «Iaoiae
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai auionea /a?oaaeae ei?ionia e nai?i/iuo /a?oaaeae
eioaa?aeueiuo iiaeoeae NA* a ei?ionao» (n.6…7).

A IAI «Ea?ao» aeei?enoaii i ai?iaaaeaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo i
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue oa aeiaaio?eaaeeo aei?iaoaaiue,
iaaaaeaieo a aeena?oaoeieiie ?iaioi.

Oea aeicaieeei iie?aueoe oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee i caieueoeoe aiaenioie
aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo iaoa?iaeia c iiaeaeuaieie aei ieo aeiiaaie aeey
iie?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a ?AA niaoeiaeueiiai i?ecia/aiiy, yea
aenieoaoo?oueny a oiiaao aei? iiaeaeuaieo oaieiaeo, eeiiaoe/ieo i
iaoaii/ieo /eiieeia. Aeiiiii/iee aoaeo aiae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy neeaa aiey
140 oen. a?i. a ?ie.

Iiiia?aoi? «Oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau aea?eaeiuo eioaa?aeueiuo noai», Ea.,
aeae. EAeO «Aeua oeiea», 1977, 168 n. i «Neaiciia aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea iee?iyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u», I., aeae. «?aaeei e
naycue», 1989, 280 n., a yeeo aiaeia?aaeaii ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo
aeineiaeaeaiue aaoi?a aeena?oaoei?, aeei?enoiaothoueny a o/aiaiio
i?ioeani aeueo iaa/aeueieo caeeaaeia.

Aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe iaaaaeaii a
aeiaeaoeo A.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?iaioe. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe
aeiiiaiaeaeeny i iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo i
naiiia?ao: OOIO aaeocaaie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? IAI «Aioae»
(Iineaa, 1990); II iiaeaaeocaaie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? ii IIO
(Eueaia, 1990); Ananithciiio iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio naiiia?i «I?iaeooaaiiy i
aeaioiaeaiiy IAA, i?iaeaie i ia?niaeoeae» (Iineaa-Caeaiia?aae, 1990);
Iiaeaaeocaaie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «?iciianthaeaeaiiy
ia?aaeiaiai aeinaiaeo a iaeanoi eiino?othaaiiy ?AA iaoiaeaie eiiieaenii?
iiiiaoth?ecaoei?» (Eaiiia?aae, 1983); Ananithciie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie
eiioa?aioei? «I?iaeaie iioaa?aeueii? aeaeo?iiiee IA*» (Eaiiia?aae,
1984); Ananithciie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «Eiino?othaaiiy i
oaoiieiaiy iie?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a» (?eaa, 1986); Iiaeaaeocaaie
iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «I?iaeooaaiiy i aeaioiaeaiiy IAA,
i?iaeaie i ia?niaeoeae» (Iineaa, 1983, 1985); Aaeocaaie
iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «Niaoeiaeiciaaia aeaiaioia aaca aeey ?AA»
(Iineaa, 1989); III iiaeaaeocaaiio iaoeiai-oaoii/iiio naiiia?i «Noai i
ia?niaeoeae ?ic?iaee iaoa?iaeia aeey AIN» (Eueaia, 1988); V Ananithciie
iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? ii «E?enoaeioiii? iioa?iaoaei/ieo
c’?aeiaiue»(Eueaia, 1989); Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei?
«Aeinaiae ?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy i?eeaaei-oaoiieiai/ieo NAI?
iie?iaeaeo?iiiee» (Eueaia, 1995); Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie
eiioa?aioei? «No/anii i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee i ae?iaieoeoaa
?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo caniaia oa iiaeaioiaea iiaeaia?ieo eaae?ia» (Eueaia,
1994, 1996); VI Iiaeia?iaeiie E?einueeie eiioa?aioei? «IA* oaoiiea i
oaeaeiioiieaoeieii oaoiieiai?» (Naaanoiiieue, 1996); OO Conference of
the International Society for Hybrid Microelectronics Poland Chapter
(Jurata, 1996); Second International School-conference «Physical
problems in material science of semiconductors» (Chernivtsi, 1997); IV
Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei? «Aeinaiae ?ic?iaee oa
canoinoaaiiy i?eeaaei-oaoiieiai/ieo NAI? iie?iaeaeo?iiiee» (Eueaia,
1997); III Iiaeia?iaeiie iaoeiai-oaoii/iie eiioa?aioei?
«Iie?iaeaeo?iiiea oa iioi?iaoeea» (Iineaa- Caeaiia?aae, 1997); ia ?yaei
iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo eiioa?aioeie Eueaianueeiai iaoeiai-aeineiaeiiai
?aaeiioaoii/iiai iinoeoooo i Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo «Eueaianueea
iieioaoiiea» (Euea?a, 1980-1998).

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a iieyaa? o ?ic?iaoei iiaeo oai?aoe/ieo
iieiaeaiue, iaoiaeee iiaeaethaaiiy, ?ic?aooieo,
iioeiicaoei?,i?iaeooaaiiy oa niiniaia aeaioiaeaiiy iiaiai eeano
iiooaeieo ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia —
iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia ia oaa?aeioieueiie iioaa?aeueiie iniiai aeey
no/anii? oaoiiee IIAeO. Aieueoinoue iniiaieo ?acoeueoaoia
aeineiaeaeaiue, yei eyaee a iniiao ?ic?iaee oiceei-oaoiieiai/ieo,
noaiioaoii/ieo i eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo ?ioaiue oa iaeae ii ?o
iioa?i?aoaoei? aeey ?aaeicaoei? oeeo i?eno?i?a iaeaaeaoue aaoi?o
aeena?oaoei?, ye iaoeiaiio ea?iaieeo i aieiaiiio eiino?oeoi?o ?yaeo
IAeAeE?. Iniiaia /anoeia ic ieo aeeiiaia i iioaeieiaaia naiinoieii [5,
7, 8, 18, 20, 34, 49, 51, 52, 58-60].

A oai?aoe/ieo i aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiiyo, aeeiiaieo o
niiaaaoi?noai caiaeii c iaaaaeaiei nieneii iniiaieo ioaeieaoeie[1-4, 6,
9-17, 19, 21-33, 35-48, 50, 53-57], aeena?oaio a?aa o/anoue o
iinoaiiaoei caaea/ aeineiaeaeaiue i aecia/aiii iaoiaeia ?o ?ioaiiy,
aeeiiaiii oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?aooieia, a i?iaaaeaiii aeii?thaaiue, aiaeici
oa iioa?i?aoaoei? ?acoeueoaoia. Aaoi? a?aa aaciina?aaeith o/anoue ia
anio aoaiao ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoai io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia i
iiaeaioiaoei ioaeieaoeie. Aeniiaee i iieiaeaiiy, ui neeaaeathoue nooue
aeena?oaoei?, noi?ioeueiaaii aaoi?ii iniaenoi.

Ioaeieaoei?. ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoei? iioaeieiaaii a 78 ae?oeiaaieo
?iaioao, a oiio /ene? 2 iiiia?ao?yo, 12 aaoi?nueeeo naiaeioeoaao i
iaoaio? ia aeiaoiaee, 32 noaooyo a oaoiaeo ?aoa?iaaieo iaoeiaeo
aeo?iaeao (ic ieo 6 iioaeieiaaii aac niiaaaoi?ia), 1 noaoo?
aeaiiiiaai?e, 31 oac? ? aeiiia?aeyo iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo eiioa?aioeie, oeie
i naiiia?ia (?c ieo 6 iioae?eiaaii aac ni?aaaoi??a), 2 aaeocaaeo
noaiaea?oao.

No?oeoo?a i ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoeieia ?iaioa neeaaea?oueny ic
anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, iniiaieo ?acoeueoaoia i aeniiaeia, nieneo
eioa?aoo?e ic 337 iaeiaioaaiue, aeeeaaeaieo ia 40 n. oa aiiuo? 472
noi?iiee (?c ieo 275 noi??iie iniiaiiai iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo
aeena?oaoe??), 90 ?enoieia ia 82 n., 14 oaaeeoeue ia 16 n., a oaeiae 5
aeiaeaoeia ia 59 n.

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii aeena?oaoei? iiaeaia caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe, iieacaii
aeooaeueiinoue oaie i aeioeieueiinoue i?iaaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiue,
noi?ioeueiaaii iaoa i iniiaii caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiue, ei?ioei iienaii
ia’?eoe i iaoiaee aeineiaeaeaiue, ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie,
aenaioeaii iaoeiaa iiaecia, iaoeiaa i i?aeoe/ia oeiiiinoue ?iaioe,
?aaeicaoeiy oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy io?eiaieo ?acoeueoaoia, noi?ioeueiaaii
iaoeiai iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, iaaaaeaii aeaii i?i
ai?iaaoeith iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoaoia, aiaecia/aii iniaenoee aeeaae aaoi?a,
eieueeinoue ioaeieaoeie oa no?oeoo?o i ianya aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiaeico i?iaeaie noai?aiiy iiooaeieo
iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo noai iaiinaeoiaeiiai aeiaiaciio. Iaaiaeeoueny
oa?aeoa?enoeea iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo noai iaiinaeoiaeiiai aeiaiaciio,
?icaeyiooi aeaiaioio aaco — aeene?aoii iiioeuenii o?aicenoi?e i aeiiaee
aaeeei? iiooaeiinoi.

Iieacaii, ui ia aiaeiiio aiae aeene?aoieo i?eeaaeia, aeaiaioia aaca
iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN a iaeanoi iiooaeii? iaiinaeoiaeii? oaoiiee
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny nooo?aeie iaiaaeaiiyie. Iniiaieie na?aae ieo ?:

-iaiiaeeeainoue ?aaeicaoei? a neeaaei ?aeeiiai iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaiai
e?enoaeo iiooaeieo oaeaeeiaeith/eo aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia
aeiiiaithaaeueiiai oeio i?iaiaeiinoi;

-nooo?aee aieea ia oaeaeeiaeith aeaiaioia ia?aceoeieo ?iiinoae
iioaa?aeueii? no?oeoo?e;

-ieaia?ia ?icoaooaaiiy anio aeaeo?iaeia iioaa?aeueieo aeaiaioia, i
ioaea, iaiaaeaiinoue o aeai?i eiino?oeoeaieo ?ioaiue, a oaeiae cia/ii i
ia?iaiiii?ii aaee/eie iii?ia iaeanoae no?oeoo?e aeaiaioia;

-aieea ia oa?aeoa?enoeee iioaa?aeueieo aeaiaioia ia?aceoieo
o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo?, ooai?aieo iciethth/eie p-n ia?aoiaeaie;

-iaiaaeaia oaieiaeaeieaiiy a e?enoaei IN;

-iaiaaeaia oice/iith ieiuath e?enoaeo nooiiiue iioaa?aoei? iiooaeieo
aeaiaioia.

Iaoith iiaeaiiai a ?icae?e? iaeyaeo eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo
iniaeeainoae aeaiaioii? aace iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo noai ? aiaeic
iiaeeeaeo oeyoia ?aaeicaoei? i?iaeaie, ui ae?ioo?oueny, a oaeiae
eiie?aoecaoeiy eiioeaioe?? iai?yieo aeineiaeaeaiue.

Iniiaieie eeth/iaeie aeaiaioaie iiioeuenieo i?eno?i?a iaiinaeoiaeiiai
aeiaiaciio ia aeaiee /an ? aiiiey?ii o?aicenoi?e.

Ia aiaeiiio aiae aeene?aoieo i?eeaaeia, eiino?oeoeith iioaa?aeueieo
o?aicenoi?ia aecia/a? ia oieueee aaiiao?iy aiioa?iiai ia?aoiaeo, aea i
niinia aeaiaeo ia iiaa?oith e?enoaeo eieaeoi?iiai aeaeo?iaeo. «Noiaaiee»
i aa?oeeaeueii oa?e, ui canoiniaothoueny a iioaa?aeueieo o?aicenoi?ao,
aeicaieythoue cia/ii ciaioeoe iii? eieaeoi?ii? iaeanoi. Iaeiae aeey
o?aicenoi?ia aaeeei? iiooaeiinoi, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny cia/ieie
ieiuaie, caaea/a ciaioaiiy eieaeoi?iiai iii?o aeiaaa? canoinoaaiiy
aaeeei? eieueeinoi eiioaeoia aei eieaeoi?a, ui ua caieueoo? ieiuo
o?aicenoi?a. Aianeiaeie aaciina?aaeiuei? caeaaeiinoi aaee/ei aa?’??ieo
?iiinoae o?aicenoi?a aiae eiai ieiui, caaea/a aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii?
oiiieiai? iioaa?aeueiiai iiooaeiiai oaeaeeiaeith/iai o?aicenoi?a noa?
ia?oi/a?aiaith.

Ie?ii /aniai? cao?eiee ?iiiniiai oa?aeoa?o, oaeaeeiaeith iiioeuenieo
aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia aecia/athoue i?ioeane ?icniieooaaiiy ca?yaeo
iainiiaieo iini?a a ?aaeeii iane/aiiy.

Ia iniiai eiiieaeniiai ae?ioaiiy i?iaeaie io?eiaiiy aeiiiaithaaeueieo ii
oeio i?iaiaeiinoi o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? oa caaacia/aiiy ?o oaeaeeiaei?,
a ?iaioi iaa?oioiaaia iaiaoiaeiinoue aiaeiiae aiae oe?iei
canoiniaoaaiiiai iaoiaeo aaaaeaiiy a no?oeoo?o aeiaeaoeiaeo oeaio?ia
?aeiiaiiaoei? iainiiaieo iini?a. I?eeiyoa ?ioaiiy aeicaieeei aaanoe a
neeaae IN, ui oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieeie iiioeuenieie ia?aiao?aie, IAeI
o?aicenoi? c iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii. ?icaeyiooi iniiaii i?iaeaie,
iia’ycaii c ?aaeicaoei?th ia IAeI o?aicenoi?ao a neeaaei IN iaiaoiaeii?
oaeaeeiaei? i iiooaeiinoi. Noaaeoueny caaea/a ?ic?iaee eiino?oeoei?
aenieiaieueoiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai IAeI o?aicenoi?a.

Iiioeuenii noaie ia?aaeaa/athoue oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy aeiiaeia. Aeniei
cai?ioii iai?oae, aaeeei ?iaii eiiooiaaieo no?oiia, iaeee /an
aiaeiiaeaiiy cai?ioiuei? i?iaiaeiinoi — iniiaii ia?aiao?e aeiiaeia, yei
canoiniaothoueny a iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo noaiao iaiinaeoiaeiiai
aeiaiaciio.

I?iaaaeaiee aiaeic iniiaieo aeiiaeieo no?oeoo? IN, iaa?oioiaaia
iaiaoiaeiinoue canoinoaaiiy aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooe?.

?icaeyiooi iniiaii i?iaeaie, iia’ycaii c iioaa?aoei?th iiooaeieo
iiioeuenieo aeiiaeia. Ia?iaiiii?iinoue ?iciiaeieaiiai iii?o aeiiaeii?
no?oeoo?e, ui ? ianeiaeeii ieaia?iiai ?icoaooaaiiy aeaeo?iaeia,
i?eaiaeeoue aei ia?a?iciiaeieo no?oio a iaaeao ieiui aei?yiethaaeueiiai
eiioaeoo. Inoaii? oneeaaeith? ae?iooaaio a ?iaioi caaea/o ?ic?iaee
no?oeoo?e iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii
Oiooei.

Ae?ioaeueiei oaeoi?ii, yeee aeicaiey? ?icaeyaeaoe i?iaeaio ?ic?iaee IN
oi?ioaa/ia iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia ye oaeo, ui i?eioeeiiai
?aaeico?oueny, ? ?aaeei ?iaioe aeacaieo i?eno?i?a ia?aaaaeii c aaeeeith
oia?oaaoinoth ei?ioeeo iiioeuenia. E?eoa?i?i ei?ioei/aniinoi iiioeuenia
a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo ? iacia/ia ca /an aei? iiioeueno, a ii?iaiyiii c
aei?th aiaeiai/ii? aacia?a?aii? iiooae iinoi, oaieiaa ?aeaenaoeiy
aeaiaioia oa IN a oeieiio. Aeaia ianoaaeia, ?acii c i?eioeeiiai
iae?eoe/iei na?aaeiii oaieiaeaeieaiiyi ca ia?iiae i?ioiaeaeaiiy
iiioeuenia, aeicaiey? ia?aaeaa/eoe iiaeeeainoue noai?aiiy iiooaeieo
iiioeuenieo i?eno?i?a a iiiieioiiio aeeiiaiii.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ae?ioothoueny caaea/i ?ic?iaee aeaiaioia
iioaa?aeueieo no?oeoo? aeey oaeaeeiaeith/eo i?eno?i?a aaeeei?
iiioeuenii? iiooaeiinoi (iiooaeieo ?iioeuenieo ?ioaa?aeueieo n-p-n ?
p-eaiaeueieo IAeI o?aicenoi??a, ae?iae?a c aa?’??ii Oiooei).

Caeaaeiinoue oaeaeeiaei? iiooaeieo iioaa?aeueieo n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia aiae
aaee/eie aonoeie no?oio o ieo iineoue aeno?aiaeueiee oa?aeoa?. I?e
iecueeie aonoeii no?oio ia?aoiaeii i?ioeane aecia/athoueny a iniiaiiio
/anii ia?aca?yaeo aa?’??ieo ?iiinoae no?oeoo?e, i cia/eoue, c ?inoii
no?oio iinoieia /ano ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeano ciaioo?oueny. I?e aonoeii
no?oio a eieaeoi?i aeua e?eoe/ii? o?aicenoi? ia?aoiaeeoue a iaeanoue
iii/iiai eaaciiane/aiiy, aeey yei? oa?aeoa?iei ? iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy ca?yaeo
iainiiaieo iini?a, i ye ianeiaeie, cieaeaiiy oaeaeeiaei?.

Iinoaaeaia iaoa aeinyaa?oueny oienaoei?th ?iai/i? oi/ee o?aicenoi?a ca
iaaeaie iaeanoi eaaciiane/aiiy, a oae ye inoaiiy aecia/a?oueny iii?ii
iaiiaeoeueiaaiiai oa?o eieaeoi?a, oi aoei ?ic?iaeaii:

-iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, yea aeicaiey? aiaeioe/ii aecia/eoe AAO iaeanoi
iii/iiai eaaciiane/aiiy aeey iioaa?aeueiiai o?aicenoi?a c ?iciiaeieaieie
ia?aiao?aie no?oeoo?e;

-iaoiaeeeo i aecia/aii oiiieiaith o?aicenoi?ii? no?oeoo?e, yea
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iiiiiaeueieie cia/aiiyie ia?aceoieo ?iiinoae i iii?o
iaiiaeoeueiaaiiai oa?o eieaeoi?a;

-iia? iaoiaee oienaoei? ?iai/i? oi/ee o?aicenoi?a ca iaaeaie iaeanoi
eaaciiane/aiiy.

Iaaaaeaiee a ?iaioi aiaeic ?iciiaeieo aonoeie no?oio a o?eii?iiio
i?inoi?i iaeanoi eieaeoi?a aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy
niaaeo iai?oae ia iii?i eieaeoi?a iioaa?aeueiiai o?aicenoi?a ye

,

— oaiia?aoo?iee iioaioeiae; b, i3 — aaiiao?e/ii ?icii?e aeey
o?aicenoi?ii? no?oeoo?e c iaeiinoi?iiiii eiioaeoii aei eieaeoi?a.

, li — a?aeiia?aeii, ieiua, ona?aaeiaia ieoiia aa?’??ia ?ii?noue ?
a?aeiiniee eiao?oe??io aieeao aaee/eie oe??? ?iiino? ia /ania? ia?aiao?e
o?aicenoi?a). Aeey anio oeiia eiino?oeoeie ciaoiaeyoueny ?ioaiiy
o?ainoeaiaeaioieo caeaaeiinoae Ue=f(Y,I,n). Eiino?oeoeiy, aeey yei?
iai?oaa Ue a oi/oei aeno?aioio dUe/dn=0 iiiiiaeueia, aaaaea?oueny
iioeiaeueiith. Aeey iioeiaeueii? eiino?oeoei? i?iaiaeeoueny ?ic?aooiie
aeiaaeeie aiioa?ieo iaeanoae oa iioeo aaiiao?e/ieo ?icii?ia o?aicenoi?a.
Iaaaaeaii i?ia?aio i ianea ?acoeueoaoia ?ic?aooieo aeey eiie?aoiiai
i?eeeaaeo.

Oienaoeiy ?iai/i? oi/ee o?aicenoi?a ca iaaeaie iaeanoi iii/iiai
eaaciiane/aiiy caaacia/o?oueny eeth/iaei aeaiaioii, yeee ooioo?
aiioa?iee ia?aoiae o?aicenoi?a i yeee oi?aaey?oueny no?oiii a eiei
eieaeoi?a i iai?oaith ia eieaeoi?i. A yeinoi eeth/iaeo aeaiaioia
oienaoei? aeei?enoiaothoueny n-p-n o?aicenoi?e, IO c oi?aaeyth/ei p-n
ia?aoiaeii, a eieao oi?aaeiiiy — eaoa?aeueii p-n-p i IAeI o?aicenoi?e.
?ic?iaeaii eiie?aoii iia? noaie oienaoei? ?iai/i? oi/ee iiooaeieo
iiioeuenieo o?aicenoi?ia. A aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii
o aeai?i iaoiaeo ? iiaeeeainoue eiai ?aaeicaoei? a neeaaei IN,
aiaeoai?thaaiinoue ia?aiao?ia noaie, ?? oaoiieiai/iinoue.

?icaeyiooi ieoaiiy noai?aiiy iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo eaneaaeia ia IAeI
o?aicenoi?ao c iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii. A neeaaei iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai? IN
inoaiii ia oieueee aeiiiaiththoue aiiiey?ii n-p-n o?aicenoi?e ii oeio
i?iaiaeiinoi, aea i, oa?aeoa?ecoth/enue aiaenooiinoth iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy
iainiiaieo iini?a i iaeith i?ioiaeiith ?iiinoth, aiaee?eaathoue iiai
iiaeeeainoi a ?ic?iaoei iiioeuenieo noai.

Iieacaii, iaeiae, ui iecueei cia/aiiy iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeii? iai?oae i
aaee/eie ?iai/iai no?oio ai?eciioaeueieo IAeI o?aicenoi?ia ia
caaacia/othoue iiaeeeainoi noai?aiiy iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo eaneaaeia.
Iiooaeii IAeI o?aicenoi?e, iai?eeeaae D-III i V-III i?eeaaee,
oaoiieiai/ii ianoiinii c no?oeoo?ith aiiiey?ieo IN, oa ?o canoinoaaiiy a
neeaaei inoaiiio iai?eeiyoia.

I?e/eiith iecueeeo iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeieo iai?oa ai?eciioaeueiiai IAeI
o?aicenoi?a ? iiaeoeyoeiy iieai caneiio oe?eie caiaeiaii? iaeanoi noieo
i ?ino ia iiaa?oii iiaeeeaaeee iai?oaeaiinoi aeaeo?e/iiai iiey. A ?iaioi
cai?iiiiiaaii iiao eiino?oeoeith, oaoiieiai/ii noiinio c aiiiey?ieie
no?oeoo?aie, aenieiaieueoiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai IAeI o?aicenoi?a.

Aeey ciaioaiiy aoaeoo iiaeoeyoei? caneiiii iai?oae i?iaith p-n ia?aoiaeo
noieo cai?iiiiiaaiee o?aicenoi? iinoeoue a iaeanoi eaiaea ?icaeieueia
eieueoea, i?ioeeaaeiiai aei iiaeeeaaeee oeio i?iaiaeiinoi. ?icaeieueia
eieueoea, yea ciaoiaeeoueny ia oaeie aiaeaeaei aiae noieo, ui ia
ia?aaeuo? oe?eie iaeanoi i?inoi?iaiai ca?yaeo, oi?io? aoi?eiio iaeanoue
i?inoi?iaiai ca?yaeo, ui ciaioo? iai?oaeaiiinoue iiey iiae caneiiii.
Aeineiaeaeo?oueny caeaaeiinoue iai?oae i?iaith noie-iiaeeeaaeea
cai?iiiiiaaii? eiino?oeoei? o?aicenoi?a aiae ia?aiao?ia i aaiiao?i?
iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai? no?oeoo?e.

Iaiaaeaiiy ?iai/iai no?oio a IAeI o?aicenoi?i aecia/a?oueny aaeeeith
aaee/eiith caeeoeiai? iai?oae o aiaee?eoiio noaii. Cai?iiiiiaaia
eiino?oeoeiy neeaaeiaiai p-eaiaeueiiai o?aicenoi?a i?e caaeaiie
caeeoeiaie iai?oci a aeanyoee ?ac caieueoo? aaee/eio ?iai/iai no?oio ia
iaeeieoeth ieiui no?oeoo?e.

?ic?iaeaii eiino?oeoei? p-eaiaeueieo IAeI o?aicenoi?ia aeicaieeee
noai?eoe ia ?o iniiai eeth/i-iiaa?oi?e aeey iioaa?aeueiiai oi?ioaa/a
iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia.

Ae?ioo?oueny caaea/a ?ic?iaee iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo
aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei (AeO).

Ooieoeiy caeaaeiinoi oaeaeeiaei? AeO aiae aonoeie no?oio, yeee
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac aa?’??, ia? iaeneioi, ui aeicaiey? aeey eiaeiiai
eiie?aoiiai aeiaaeeo aecia/eoe iioeiaeueiee ?aaeei ?iaioe. Oae i?e
iecueeeo aonoeiao no?oio ia?aaaaea? ?iiinia neeaaeiaa /ano cao?eiee
neaiaeo, i?e aaeeeeo — neeaaeiaa, ui aecia/a?oueny iiaeaeoei?th i
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi iainiiaieo iini?a ca?yaeo.

Aeey oeueiai ?ic?iaeaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue AeO, yea a?aoiao? aoaeoe,
iia’ycaii c iiaeaeoei?th iainiiaieo iini?a ca?yaeo oa iieno? ?aaeei
ia?aoiaeo aei aenieiai ?iaiy iiaeaeoei?, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeeainoue
iioeiicaoei? eiino?oeoei? iioaa?aeueiiai aeiiaea c ?iciiaeieaiith
no?oeoo?ith.

Iniaeeainoth aeiiaeia, aeeiiaieo a neeaaei iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN ?,
aeeeeeaia ieaia?iei ?icoaooaaiiyi aeaeo?iaeia, ia?iaiiii?iinoue
?iciiaeieaiiai iii?o no?oeoo?e. A ?acoeueoaoi oeueiai niinoa?iaa?oueny
ia?a?iciiaeie aonoeie no?oio, ui cia/ii oneeaaeith? caaea/o aeai?o
iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio ?iaioe i ?ic?aooieo aaiiao?i? aeiiaeo.

Caaeaaoe iaeneiaeueio aonoeio no?oio /a?ac aa?’??, i?e yeie iiaeaeoeiy i
iaa?iiaaeaeaiiy iainiiaieo iini?a iacia/ii, a ?iaioi noaaeoueny caaea/a
aecia/aiiy oeio eiino?oeoei? i aaiiao?e/ieo ?icii?ia aeiiaea, ui
caaacia/othoue iiiiiaeueio ?iiinoue no?oeoo?e.

I?iaaaeaiee aiaeic no?oii?iciiaeieo a iioaa?aeueiie no?oeoo?i AeO
aeicaiey? aecia/eoe iaeneiaeueio aonoeio no?oio Jm

,

i h — aiaeiiaiaeii, iiaa?oiaaee iii? i oiaueia aiioaeniaeueiiai oa?o;
a i b — aaiiao?e/ii ?icii?e aei?yiethaaeueiiai eiioaeoo
iaoae-iaiiai?iaiaeiee aeey iaei?inoieoi? no?oeoo?e c iaeiinoi?iiiii
eiioaeoii aei aiioaeniaeueiiai oa?o.

Oiaei aaiiao?e/i? ?ici??e, ye? caaacia/othoue iiiiiaeueio ?iiinoue
no?oeoo?e aeiiaeo, aecia/athoueny ?c ae?aco

,

.. — aiaeiai/ii ia?aiao?e aeey ?iiinoi aeiiaeo ia iiaeeeaaeeo; i1, i2 —
aaiiao?e/ii ?icii?e no?oeoo?e.

Ii?yae c iaei?inoieoith no?oeoo?ith iaaiaeyoueny ?ic?aooieiai oi?ioee
aeey iioeo iaeaieueo /anoi canoiniaoaaieo eiino?oeoeie iioaa?aeueieo
aeiiaeia. Ae?iooth/e iaaaaeaii o?ainoeaiaeaioii caeaaeiinoi aeey anio
oeiia eiino?oeoeie aeiiaeia, ciaoiaeeoueny eiino?oeoeiy aeey yei? i?e
a=aiio ?iiinoue no?oeoo?e iiiiiaeueia.

Iaaaaeaii i?ia?aio i ianea ?acoeueoaoia ?ic?aooieo aeey eiie?aoiiai
i?eeeaaeo. I?iiiio?oueny eiino?oeoeiy iiooaeiiai iiioeueniiai
iioaa?aeueiiai AeO, yeee oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aenieith ?iaiiii?iinoth
aonoeie no?oio. Aoaeo aeinyaiooi aeyeoth/e ?icaeieaiith ieiui
aei?yiethaaeueiiai eiioaeoo ia ie?aii iiaeoei, ui c’?aeiothoueny
ae?iaithaaeueieie ?acenoeaieie iaeanoyie.

?icaeyiooi iiaeaeoeith iainiiaieo iini?a ic ioi?iiieo eieaoeue —
iaeanoae p-n ia?aoiaeia, noai?aieo ii ia?eoa?i? eiioaeoo
iaoae-iaiiai?iaiaeiee c iaoith onoiaiiy e?a?aeo aoaeoia. Cai?iiiiiaaii
eiino?oeoeith aenieiaieueoiiai AeO c «iaiiaeaeooth/ei» eieueoeai, yea
ae?ioo? i?iaeaio noai?aiiy iioaa?aeueiiai aeiiaeo c iecueeei
eiaoioei?ioii ia?aaea/i no?oio ia?aceoii? o?aicenoi?ii? no?oeoo?e,
ooai?aii? iciethth/ei p-n ia?aoiaeii.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? iaaaaeaii ?acoeueoaoe ?ic?iaee i aeaioiaeaiiy
iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai? iioaa?aeueii? noaie oi?ioaa/a iiooaeieo
iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia (IN OIINI) ia iniiai i?aeoe/ii? ?aaeicaoei?
iaaaaeaieo a ?icaeieao 1 i 2 aeineiaeaeaiue.

IN OIINI i?ecia/aia aeey oi?ioaaiiy iiioeuenia o?aiaoei?aeaeueii? oi?ie
c aeiaieueii ?aaoeueiaaiith aa?oeiith iiioeueno. No?oeoo?ia noaia
IN-oi?ioaa/a iaaaaeaia ia ?en.1.

?en. 1. No?oeoo?ia noaia ?N OIIN?.

Aoiaeiee iiaeneethaa/-iiaa?oi? 1 i?ecia/aiee aeey iiaeneeaiiy iiioeuenia
aeiaeaoiuei? iiey?iinoi aiieiooaee 2,4…5 A aei ?iaiy, aeinoaoiueiai
aeey oi?aaeiiiy iiaeneethaa/ii-iiaa?oi?ii ci noaiith iaiaaeaiiy
aiieiooaee iiioeuena 2. Iiioeuen aeiaeaoiuei? iiey?iinoi c
?aaoeueiaaiith aiieiooaeith A0 = 10…40 A c iiaeneethaa/a-iiaa?oi?a 2
iinooia? a iioaa?oth/i-aeeoa?aioethth/a eiei, i?ecia/aia aeey oi?ioaaiiy
iaoeeo aa?oeie iiioeuena. Iioaa?oth/a i aeeoa?aioethth/a neeaaeiai
iinooiathoue ia aiioa?ii iiaoi?thaa/i 4, 5. Iiioeuen o?aiaoei?aeaeueii?
oi?ie c ?aaoeueiaaiei ia noiaoi?i RS iaoeeii aa?oeie, oieno?oueny ca
o?eaaeinoth oi?ioaa/ii niaaeo 3. Aaia?aoi? no?oio 6 i?ecia/aiee aeey
oi?ioaaiiy iiioeueno no?oio aiae’?iii? iiey?iinoi, yeee iiaoi?th? ca
oi?iith iiioeuene iai?oae, ui iinooiathoue ia eiai aoiae.

Cai?iiiiiaaii i?eioeei ?icaeieueiiai oi?ioaaiiy o?iioo i niaaeo
iiioeuenia. Aeey io?eiaiiy iio?iaieo ia?aiao?ia niaaeo aeoiaeiiai
iiioeueno, eiai oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeiciaaii noaiith, yea neeaaea?oueny c
ia?aieea/a no?oio c iiioeueniei aeaea?aeii no?oio, oi?ioaa/a iiioeueno
«c?eao» i eeth/iaiai eaneaaeo.

Iniiaii oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee IN OIINI: iiey?iinoue iiioeuenia, ui
oi?iothoueny: iai?oae — aeiaeaoiy, no?oio — aiae’?iia; iaeneiaeueia
aiieiooaea iiioeuenia, yei oi?iothoueny: iai?oae 40 A,no?oio 0,6 A;
o?eaaeinoue iiioeuenia 50…300 in; o?eaaeinoue o?iioo i niaaeo ia
aieueoa 10 in; uieueiinoue iiioeuenia ia iaioa 30; aeiaiacii
?aaoethaaiiy iaoeeo aa?oeie iiioeuena ±50%; aeiaiacii ?aaoethaaiiy
aiieiooaee iiioeuena iai?oae 10…40 A; oi?aaeiiiy -noaiaea?oieie
eiai/ieie ?iaiyie neaiaeia oeeo?iaeo IN OOEO aeiaeaoiuei? iiey?iinoi;
iai?oaa aeeaeaiiy + 50 A, — 5 A; iiooaeiinoue ?icnithaaiiy: iiioeuenia,
ia aieueoa 100 Ao; iinoieia, ia aieueoa 3 Ao. ?icii? e?enoaeo IN (2,6o3)
ii. Eiino?oeoeaiee oei aeeiiaiiy 4.

Eieueeinoue eeth/iaeo aeaiaioia, yei aoiaeyoue a neeaae e?enoaeo IN c
iaeneiaeueieie iiioeuenieie no?oiaie 300 iA — 10 oo., 600 iA- 3 oo.
Caaaeueiee ?iaaiue iioaa?aoei? — i?eaeecii 100 aeaiaioia ia e?enoae.

Iniiaieie eeth/iaeie aeaiaioaie IN ? ?ic?iaeaii ia iniiai iiaeo
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo ?ioaiue iiioeuenii aiiiey?ii n-p-n
o?aicenoi?e c ?iai/eie no?oiaie aiae 10 aei 600 iA. Eiino?oeoeiy
aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia — cono?i/ii-ooe?iaa. Io?eiaiiy iio?iaieo
oa?aeoa?enoee o?aicenoi?ia aeinyaiooi ca aeiiiiiaith ioi?iiieo eieaoeue,
yei, ia iiai?ooth/e /anoioieo i iiaeneethaaeueieo aeanoeainoae,
aeicaieeee caaacia/eoe i?iaeaio iai?oao eieaeoi?iiai ia?aoiaeo 80…100
A. Eieueoey noi?iiaaii iaeanoyie aace «ianeaii?».

Aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo iiaeo noaiioaoii/ieo ?ioaiue, yei
aeeeth/athoue ?aaeei iane/aiiy iiooaeieo aiiiey?ieo n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia,
i aiaeiiaa aiae aeeooci? cieioa, yea o?aaeeoeieii canoiniao?oueny c
iaoith iiaeaeuaiiy oaeaeeiaei? aiiiey?ieo IN, aeicaieeee canoinoaaoe a
?icaeyiooie IN OIINI ?ic?iaeaii iiai eiino?oeoei? oaeaeeiaeith/eo
aenieiaieueoieo IAeI o?aicenoi?ia c iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii, ye
aeiiiaithth/iai oeio i?iaiaeiinoi.

Iniaeeainoth IN OIINI ? oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy cai?iiiiiaaieo
i?eaiiaeueieo eiino?oeoeie aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei. Aiaenooiinoue
iiaeaeoei? iainiiaieo iini?a ca?yaeo a aeiiaei Oiooei aecia/a? eiai
aenieo oaeaeeiaeith, a aeei?enoaii a no?oeoo?i aeiiaea, aiaeiai/ii aei
o?aicenoi?ia, ioi?iiii eieueoey, caaacia/othoue aeniei cia/aiiy
i?iaeaieo iai?oa.

IN ?aaeiciaaia ii noiiuaiie e?aiii?aie oaoiieiai? aeaioiaeaiiy
iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo n-p-n i p-eaiaeueieo IAeI o?aicenoi?ia,
aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei. Icieyoeiy aeaiaioia IN — cai?ioiuei-ciiuaiei
p-n ia?aoiaeii. Ia?a?ic no?oeoo?e IN iieacaii ia ?en.2. Iaaaaeaia
oaoiieia?y aeaioiaeaiiy e?enoaeia IN.

.

?en. 2. Ia?a??c no?oeoo?e ?N OIIN?.

?ic?iaeaia IC OIINI iiaea aeei?enoiaoaaoeny a yeinoi iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia, eiee iaiaoiaeii caaacia/eoe oi?ioaaiiy iiioeuenia no?oio c
aiieiooaeith ia aieueoa 0,6 A. Iaeanoue canoinoaaiiy — eaca?ia i
iaaee/ia oaoiiea, i?eno?i? iaaiioiaeaeo?iiiee, aaia?aoi?e ?AN IIAeO oa
iioi.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooi noaiioaoii/ii i
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiai/ii ?ic?iaee iaeiaaaa?eoieo aia?eaeieo
iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia (AII) iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeuaii?
iiooaeiinoi (caaacia/aiiy iiioeuenia no?oio c aiieiooaeaie 1…15 A) ca
ia?niaeoeaiith eiia?iiaaiith aia?eaeiith ? iioaa?aeueiith oaoiieiaiyie
ia iniiai noai?aii? IN OIINI aeey aaia?aoi?ia IIAeO niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN
?iciiiaiioiiai o?ainii?oiiai ai?oiaiai aacoaaiiy, yei i?aoeththoue a
aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei?.

Oaeee AII, ooieoeiiiaeueia noaia yeiai cia?aaeaia ia ?en.3, iinoeoue
IN-oi?ioaa/a, IN-oi?aaeiiiy, aeoiaeiee iiaeneethaa/.

.

?en. 3. Ooieoe?iiaeueia noaia A?I ?iioeueniiai iiaeoeyoi?a i?aeaeuaii?
iiooaeiino?.

IN-oi?ioaa/a, no?oeoo?ia noaia yeiai cia?aaeaia ia ?en.1, oi?io?
iiioeuene no?oio o?aiaoei?aeaeueii? oi?ie c aeaeo?e/iei ?aaoethaaiiyi
aiieiooaee aeoiaeiiai iiioeueno i ?aaoeueiaaiei iaoeeii eiai aa?oeie. ?o
o?eaaeinoue ti caaea?oueny o?eaaeinoth aoiaeieo iiioeuenia caioneo.

IN-oi?aaeiiiy caaea? aiieiooaeo iiioeuenia (no?oio, iai?oae) c aeoiaeo
IN-oi?ioaa/a i iiaea i?aoethaaoe o aeaio ?aaeeiao — noaaieicaoi?a
iai?oae aai ea?iaaiiai ia?aoai?thaa/a ?iaiy iai?oae. ?aaeei ?aaioe
caaea?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith ia?aeiiooaoei? ciaiioiio eaiie AII.

Oaeei /eiii caaacia/o?oueny oi?aaeiiiy aiieiooaeith iiioeuenia no?oio ia
aeoiaei IN-oi?ioaa/a i AII a oeieiio, a oea aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
aeaeo?e/ia ia?aeaoooaaiiy /anoioe aaia?aoi?ia IIAeO aai iaeaooiaoaaoe ?o
ia iioeiaeueio iiooaeiinoue.

A neeaae oaei? i?aoeecieii? aaaaoiooieoeiiiaeueii? IN-oi?aaeiiiy
aeaea?aeaie no?oio i iai?oae aoiaeyoue: aaaaoiooieoeiiiaeueia
iioaa?aeueia aeaea?aei iii?ii? iai?oae (AeII); noaia ia?aoai?aiiy
iii?ii? iai?oae ic cnoaii ?iaiy i?ea’ycee; iia?aoeieiee iiaeneethaa/ c
A* ei?aeoei?th i iaiaaeaiiyi ii aeoiaeiiio no?oio; noaia caoenoo
aeoiaeieo o?aicenoi?ia aeaea?aea no?oio (iai?oae) aiae ia?aaaioaaeaiue.

Iniiaii oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee IN-oi?aaeiiiy: aeiaiacii aeoiaeii?
iai?oae 10…45 A; oaiia?aoo?iee eiaoioei?io aeoiaeii? iai?oae — ia
iaioa 0,01%/ iN; aiaeiinia ciiia ciaiioiueiai ea?oth/iai neaiaeo
5…30%; iaeneiaeueiee aoiaeiee no?oi 50*10-6 A; iai?oaa aeeaeaiiy +50
A; iayaiinoue caoenoo aiae ei?ioeiai caieeaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy; ?aaeei
?iaioe: noaaieicaoi? iai?oae, ea?oth/ee ia?aoai?thaa/ ?iaiy iai?oae;
?icnithaaia iiooaeiinoue — ia a?eueoa 3 Ao; ?icii? e?enoaeo IN (2,6o3)
ii; eiino?oeoeaiee oei aeeiiaiiy 4.

sseui aieueoinoue noai a neeaaei IN-oi?aaeiiiy aoee ?ic?iaeaii c
aeei?enoaiiyi aiaeiieo aiaeiaia, oi aeey caaacia/aiiy aeua iaaaaeaieo
oaoii/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee, noai?aiiy iioaa?aeueiiai
aaaaoiooieoeiiiaeueiiai AeII aeiaaaei neeaaeieo i?eaiiaeueieo ?ioaiue.
Iaaaaeaia noaia aeaeo?e/ia.

I?e iaaaeeeie eieueeinoi aeaiaioia cai?iiiiiaaia AeII oi?io? aoaeiiii
iai?oae aiaeiinii ioeueiaiai iioaioeiaeo U01, aiaeiinii iioaioeiaeo oeie
aeeaeaiiy Aae = U02, a oaeiae caaacia/o? c aenieith eiiieiinoth i
noaaieueiinoth iiaeeeainoue iiaa?ni? aoiaeiiai neaiaeo aiaeiinii «caiei»
Uao a iii?io iai?oao Aae = Uaeo Aoaeo/e /anoeiith iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai?
IN-oi?aaeiiiy, ?ic?iaeaia AeII aeicaiey? ?icoe?eoe oiiaa?naeueiinoue
iioaa?aeueieo aoi?eiieo aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy.

Aeoiaeiee iiaeneethaa/ iiaoaeiaaiee ca eeane/iith noaiith i a
caeaaeiino? a?ae iio??aii? iiooaeiino? a yeinoi iiooaeieo ?iioeuenieo
o?aicenoi??a iiaeneethaa/a iiaea iinoeoe aacei?ioniee aa?iaio na??eieo
a?iiey?ieo ? IAeI-o?aicenoi??a aai o?aicenoi?e aeanii? ?ic?iaee ?
aeaioiaeaiiy, aeeaeoueny iai?oaith +50 A, aeaeo?e/ii ca’ycaiee c
IN-oi?ioaa/a i, ia ciiithth/e oi?ie iiioeueno no?oio c aeoiaeo
IN-oi?ioaa/a, iiaeneeth? eiai ii no?oio.

AII iiioeueniiai iiaeoeyoi?a aeey aaia?aoi?a IIAeO i?e aeei?enoaiii
aeene?aoieo aacei?ionieo aeaiaioia iio?aao? aiey 5…6 iie?iieao
?icii?ii 48o30 ii a oianoiieiaeiaiio aeeiiaiii i aaaa?eoe oaeiai iiaeoey
150o80o20 ii. I?e aeei?enoaiii IN-oi?ioaa/a oa IN-oi?aaeiiiy eieueeinoue
iie?iieao a AII ciaioo?oueny aei 2 (24o30 ii i 48o30 ii), a aaaa?eoe
eiai 80o60o15 ii.

Oaeei /eiii ae?ioaia i?iaeaia oaa?aeioieueii? iioaa?aoei? iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia aeey aaia?aoi?ia IIAeO, ui aeicaieeei cia/ii iie?aueoe ?o
oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiaeaeueoe iaaeieiinoue i oaoiieiai/iinoue,
ciaioeoe aaaa?eoii-aaaiai iieacieee a 3…5 ?ac, ?icoe?eoe iaeanoi
aeei?enoaiiy.

Na?aae i?eioeeiiaeo aeiia aei ?ic?iaeaieo noai iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia
(IN-oi?ioaa/a) i noaaieicaoi?ia iai?oae oa no?oio (IN-oi?aaeiiiy),
aeoiaeiiai iiaeneethaa/a i iioeo aoceia ?AA ? aeniea noaaieueiinoue
ooieoeiiioaaiiy, ui iaoiiaeaia aiaeoai?thaaiinoth ia?aiao?ia aeaiaioii?
aace, ?o oaiia?aoo?iith i /aniaith noaaieueiinoth.

Ia aiaeiiio aiae ia?aiao?ia o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? aiiiey?ieo IN,
iaaiaeoai?thaaiinoue oa ianoaaieueiinoue yeeo iiaeooue aooe
noaiioaoii/ii ceiiiainiaaii, iiiiiaee ?acenoi?ia ?yaeo eie IN iathoue
i?eioeeiiaa cia/aiiy, a ?o aiaeoeeaiiy ? iaaeiionoeiei. sse aiaeiii,
iaaiaeoai?thaaiinoue iiiiiaeia ?acenoi?ia aiiiey?ieo IN a «aaciaiio»
p-oa?i neeaaea? aaee/eio ±20% i?e oaiia?aoo?iiio eiaoioei?ioi
(0,1-0,2)%/ iN, a a «aiioa?iiio» n -oa?i, aiaeiiaiaeii, ±30% oa
(0,01-0,05)%/ iN. Oaeei /eiii,a i?aoeicieieo eieao iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia i noaaieicaoi?ia iai?oae oa no?oio aeaioiaeaiiy ?acenoi?ia
a neeaaei aiiiey?ieo IN ? iaaeiionoeiei. I?iaeaia ae?ioaia oeyoii
aeaioiaeaiiy o ieiaeiaiio aeeiiaiii iiooaeieo iie?icai?ie AII.

Aaaaoi aeineiaeaeaiue aca?iica’yceo aeaeo?ioice/ieo ia?aiao?ia
oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia iie?iieao AII i eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo,
aenieoaoaoe?eieo /eiiee?a aenaioeaii o aio/eciyiie i ca?oaiaeiie
eioa?aoo?i. Iaeiae, aei?noei oiiae aenieoaoaoei? ?AA niaoeiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy, iniaeeai oi??, yea anoaiiaeth?oueny ia o?ainii?oieo
caniaao, noaee aeiaaaoe i?iaaaeaiiy oeieiai eiiieaeno niaoeiaeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue. Aeey oeueiai i?iaaaeaii:

-aiaeic iiaeeeaaeie, ye iniiae AII, yea caaacia/o? iaaeieiee
oaieiaiaeaiae i iaoaii/io iioeiinoue, i ic iiiaeeie aa?iaioia, ui
i?iiiiothoueny, aea?aii iioeiaeueiee;

-aeineiaeaeaiiy aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua, yea caiiaith? ei?ion iiaeoey, i ??
aieea ia iaaeieiinoue oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia;

-aeineiaeaeaiiy oaciaiai neeaaeo oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia, yei i?ieoee
aeaeo?ioiii/io ia?iaeo c iaoith iiaeaiiee iiiiiaeo a noi?iio eiai
ciaioaiiy, i c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i noaaieueiinoue oaei? no?oeoo?e;

-aea/aiiy aieeao iiaoi?iiai aiaethaaiiy ?acenoeaieo iano ia aiaenioie
aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia;

-aeineiaeaeaiiy oaea?ii? noieeinoi oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia;

-aeineiaeaeaiiy i ?ic?iaea i?ia?aneaieo iaoiaeia iie?auaiiy
oa?aeoa?enoee AII (iiaeaeuaiiy nooiaii iioaa?aoei?, iaaeieiinoi,
aiaenioeo aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo, caieueoaiiy iaoaii/ii? iioeiinoi oa ii.);

-?ic?iaeo iiaeo iaoa?iaeia, niiniaia aeaioiaeaiiy aeoeaieo i ianeaieo
aeaiaioia, iie?inoai i iie?icai?ie a oeieiio aeey iiaeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo
i?eaeaoieo, i?iaeoeoeaiinoi i oi/iinoi aeaioiaeaiiy, noaaieueiinoi
ia?aiao?ia iie?iaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?iia, caaacia/aiiy ?o i?aoeacaeaoiinoi
a aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei?.

I’yoee ?icae?e aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe i?enay/aiee oaeineiiaeaiith
iaoiaeia eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoei? ?ic?iaee oa aeaioiaeaiiy
eiino?oeoi?nueei? aeieoiaioaoei? (EAe) AII ?iioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi??a oa
no/anii? niaoeiaeiciaaii? IAA, cie?aia, iaoaii/ieo aeaoaeae oa aoceia
eiino?oeoeie AII, ?iaaiue aaoiiaoecaoei? i?iaeooaaiiy yeeo nooo?ai
ieae/ee (10…15%) a ii?iaiyiii c aeinyaiooei aenieei ?iaiai (80…95%)
— e?enoaeia i iie?iieao, yei aoiaeyoue a neeaae iie?inoai, iie?icai?ie
AII.

Aiaeic i?ioeano ?ic?iaee EAe iieaco?, ui iaeaieueo aaaeeioi?iaeiciaaieie
? aoaie aeai?o ?aoeiiiaeueieo i?iaeoeie, eiiiiiiaee iiey e?aneaiiy,
?icoaooaaiiy ?icii?ii? nioee oa iaianaiiy ?icii?ia.

Iaeo?oaeiiinoeioei a i?ioeani aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy AII ? aoai
iiaeaioiaee iieno eiai eiino?oeoei?. Iniaeeao o?oaeiinoue noaiiaeoue
iaiaoiaeiinoue eiaeoaaiiy eiino?oeoei? ia ?iaii a?aoi/ieo aeaiaioia
e?aneaiiy, a ia ia ?iaii cai?iiiiiaaieo eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiai/ieo
?ioaiue (EO?), o aeai?i yeeo iieyaa? nooue i?ioeano eiino?othaaiiy.

Oeiecaoe?y EO? cia/ii ni?iuo? ?ioaiiy caaea/i aeai?o ?aoeiiiaeueieo
i?iaeoeie i eiiiiiiaee iiey e?aneaiiy. Caaea/a ?iciiuaiiy ?icii?ia ia
e?aneaiiyo aiaeiineoueny aei iaeaieueo aaaeeioi?iaeiciaaieo i
o?oaeiiinoeeo. Aac ae?ioaiiy aeaii? caaea/i iaiiaeeeaa aaoiiaoecaoeiy
neioaco e?aneaiue.

Ia iniiai i?iaaaeaiiai aiaeico aeey iiaeaeuaiiy ?iaiy aaoiiaoecaoei?
i?ioeano ?ic?iaee EAe AII ia aaci oeiecaoei? EO? i neioaco ?icii?ieo
nioie ae?ioai? aeai iniiaii caaea/i:

-?ic?iaeai? i?eioeeie i iaoiaeeea aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy EAe AII
ia iniiai aiaeiioae oeiiaeo EO?;

-?ic?iaeai? iaoiaeeea, iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeaei, aeai?eoie i i?ia?aie
aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?iciiuaiiy ?icii?ia ia e?aneaiiyo eiino?oeoeie AII IAA.

I?ioean eiino?othaaiiy ae?iaia oi?iaeueii iiaea aooe iiaeaiee o aeaeyaei
iineiaeiaieo aiaeia?aaeaiue iiiaeeie caaea/ eiino?othaaiiy — aeiia
oaoii/iiai caaaeaiiy (OC) ia iiiaeeio EO?, yei caaeiaieueiythoue aeaiei
aeiiaai OC, i iiiaeeie EO? ia iiiaeeio o?aaiaioia EAe. A caeaaeiinoi
aiae ?iaiy eiino?oeoeaii? i??a?oi? eiaeiiio EO? iiaea aiaeiiaiaeaoe
iaeei aai aeaeieueea o?aaiaioia EAe.

Ia iniiai cai?iiiiiaaiiai oi?iaeueiiai iiaeaiiy i?ioeano eiino?othaaiiy
iieacaia iiaeeeainoue ?ic?iaee EAe AII c aeei?enoaiiyi aia?aoo oai?i?
a?ao-noai aai oaaee/ieo aeai?eoiia aeai?o ?ioaiue.

Oaeei /eiii i?ioean eiino?othaaiiy AII IAA iiaeaii o aeaeyaei
iineiaeiaiinoi oaeeo iniiaieo aoaiia: aeai?o i ?iciiuaiiy a eiino?oeoei?
EO?, yei aiaeiiaiaeathoue aeiiaai OC; aecia/aiiy o?aaiaioia EAe, yei
aiaeiiaiaeathoue aea?aiei EO?; eiiiiceoei? (ia’?aeiaiiy) o?aaiaioia EAe
o aiaeiiaiaeii eiino?oeoi?nueei aeieoiaioe.

Aecia/aii iiiyooy EO?. I?ae EO? ?icoi??oueny ca??ia iaeeieoey, neeaaeia?
/anoeie ca??ii? iaeeieoe? aai eiino?oeoeai? aeaiaioe aeaoae?, ye?
i?ecia/ai? aeey aeeiiaiiy aeayei? aeaeo?e/ii?, eiino?oeoeaii?,
oaoiieia?/ii? aai aenieoaoaoe?eii? ooieoe??, oa oaoiieia?y ?o
?aae?caoe?? o aeaiiio ae?ia?. EO? ?icae?eai? ia aacia? ? ie?ai?.
Iieacaia aeioeieueiinoue aeei?enoaiiy a yeinoi aaciaeo EO?
aa?iaoeciaaieo ei?ionia AII no/anii? niaoeiaeiciaaii? IAA. ?icaeyiooi
aaciai i ie?aii EO? oeiiaeo eiino?oeoeie AII.

Ia iniiai aiaeico eiino?oeoeie no/anii? IAA i i?eeiyoeo oai?aoe/ieo
ia?aaeoiia oi?iaeicaoei? i?ioeano eiino?othaaiiy AII cai?iiiiiaaii oaei
iniiaii i?eioeeie, yei iniiaaii ia oeiecaoei? EO?:

-cia?aaeaiiy eiino?oeoei? aocea o aeaeyaei ia’?aeiaiiy aaciaiai i
iiaeiiiaeeie ie?aieo EO?, ui iaiaoiaeii aeey ?aaeicaoei? iio?iaii?
eiino?oeoei?;

-i?aaiicaoeiy EO? ca ooieoeiiiaeueiith iciaeith a aiaeiioaee
eiino?oeoi?nueeiai i oaoiieiai/iiai caaacia/aiiy;

-?icaeie iioi?iaoei? i?i aocie, ui eiino?oth?oueny, ia iinoieio
(aiaeiioaee EO?) i ciiiio (aeaii i?i oeie i ?icoaooaaiiy ie?aieo EO? a
nenoaii eii?aeeiao aaciaiai);

-oeiecaoeiy ?icoaooaaiiy ie?aieo EO? ii ini aieieao aaciaiai, aeaeieaiiy
?o a iiaeiiiaeeio oieniaaieo cia/aiue i caaaeaiiy i?ioeano ?icoaooaaiiy
ie?aieo EO? a aaciaiio aei aeaiaeii?ii? caaea/i;

-aeei?enoaiiy iii?ieo oi/ie (aeaiaeia iie?inioaeeiaeo eiiie i eiioaeoieo
ieiueiie) iie?iieao aeey ?icoaooaaiiy ie?aieo EO? a aaciaiio.

Ae?ioaii ianooiii iniiaii caaea/i: ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy EAe AII ia iniiai aiaeiioae oeiiaeo
eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiai/ieo ?ioaiue; ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeea,
iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeaei, aeai?eoie i i?ia?aie aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?icoaooaaiiy
?icii?ia ia e?aneaiiyo eiino?oeoeie AII IAA.

Iaoiaeeea ?ic?iaee EAe AII iinoeoue oaei iniiaii aoaie:

-aeai? aaciaiai i ie?aieo EO?, yei iaiaoiaeii aeey ?aaeicaoei? iio?iaii?
eiino?oeoei?;

-iioa?aeoeaia ?icoaooaaiiy ie?aieo EO? a aaciaiio c aeei?enoaiiyi
eii?aeeiao iii?ieo oi/ie iie?iieao;

-aaoiiaoe/ia aecia/aiiy aiaeiiaiaeieo a?aoi/ieo i oaenoiaeo o?aaiaioia i
?o ia’?aeiaiiy a neeaaei iio?iaieo eiino?oeoi?nueeeo aeieoiaioia.

.

Oaeei /eiii aeey ?ioaiiy caaea/i aaoiiaoeciaaiiai ?icoaooaaiiy ?icii?ia
ia e?aneaiii ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?ic?iaeai? iaoaiaoe/ii
iiaeaei ?icii?ieo ia?aae: oiiieiai/io iiaeaeue ?icii?ieo eiiie aeey
iiiiiicaoei? /enea ia?aoeiia ?icii?ieo i aeiinieo eiiie; oiiieiai/io
iiaeaeue aeiinieo eiiie aeey iiiiiicaoei? /enea aca?iieo ia?aoeiia
aeiinieo eiiie;: iao?e/io iiaeaeue aeiinieo eiiie aeey iiiiiicaoei?
noia?ii? aeiaaeeie aeiinieo eiiie.

Aeoiaey/e ic aea?aieo e?eoa?i?a oa iaiaaeaiue i a?aoiaoth/e iniaeeainoi
aeai?eoii/iiai ?iciiuaiiy ?icii?ia ia e?aneaiiyo, ?ic?iaeaia ianooiia
no?oeoo?a ?icii?ieo nioie, ui aeiaaa? nei?i/aiiy cao?ao iaoeiiiai /ano
ia aiaeic iiaeeeaeo ia?aoeiia:

-?icii?ia nioea S, a yeo aoiaeyoue ani ?icii?e, yei iaiaoiaeii
?iciinoeoe ia aeaiiio cia?aaeaiii e?aneaiiy, iiaeathoueny ye noeoiiinoue
ai?eciioaeueieo (Sx) oa aa?oeeaeueieo (Sy) ?icii?ia;

.

-a ieiei cia?aaeaiue e?aneaiiy aeaeieythoueny 4 i?yiieooii ciie (2 aeey
ai?eciioaeueieo ?icii?ia i 2 aeey aa?oeeaeueieo), a eiaeiie ic yeeo
iaiaoiaeii ?icoaooaaoe iaeio ?aaeicaoeith iiaeia?aaei ?icii?ia,
iiiiiicoth/e i?e oeueiio oiiieiai/iee aai iao?e/iee e?eoa?ie.

Caaea/o ?icoaooaaiiy ?icii?ia i?iiiio?oueny ae?iooaaoe o o?e aoaie:

1) ?iciiaeie ?icii?ia, yei aoiaeyoue a neeaae eiaeii? ic iiaeia?aae, ia
aeai iiaeiiiaeeie (?aaeicaoei? iiaeia?aaei) c iiiiiicaoei?th iniiaiiai
oiiieiai/iiai e?eoa?ith — /enea ia?aoeiia ?icii?ieo i aeiinieo eiiie;

2) i?ecia/aiiy ?icii?ia, yei aoiaeyoue a neeaae ?aaeicaoei? iiaeia?aae,
a ciie cia?aaeaiiy c iiaeeeainoth aeueoa?iaoeaii? iiiiiicaoei? ye
oiiieiai/iiai (/enei ia?aoeiia aeiinieo eiiie), oae i iao?e/iiai
(noia?ia aeiaaeeia aeiinieo eiiie) e?eoa?i?a;

3) ?icoaooaaiiy ?icii?ia a ciiao cia?aaeaiiy e?aneaiiy.

Ia ia?oiio aoaii iiaoaeiae ?icii?ii? ia?aaei ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
canoinoaaiiy aiaeiieo aeai?eoiia eiiiiiiaee ?AA, iai?eeeaae,
iineiaeiaiiai i oaeiai, yeee aeei?enoiao? niiaenoai aioo?ioiuei noieeeo
iiaeiiiaeei.

Ia ae?oaiio aoaii i?iaeooaaiiy ?icii?ii? ia?aaei ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoie ?icoaooaaiiy ?icii?ia, yei
caaacia/othoue aeueoa?iaoeaii iiiiiicaoeith oiiieiai/iiai (/enei
ia?aoeiia aeiinieo eiiie) aai iao?e/iiai (noia?io aeiaaeeio aeiinieo
eiiie) e?eoa?i?a.

Aeinoiai?iinoue i aoaeoeaiinoue iniiaieo iieiaeaiue i ?acoeueoaoia
aeeiiaii? ?iaioe iiaeoaa?aeaeaii a i?ioeani i?iieneiai? aenieoaoaoei?
IIE aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy i ?icoaooaaiiy eiiieieo ?icii?ia ia
e?aneaiiyo eiino?oeoeie AII IAA «?AIE?A-4IN».

Ianya ? oa?i?ie ?ic?iaee EAe nei?ioeeeny a 2,7…3,1 ?ace. Iniiaii
?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? aenia?oii-oaoii/ieo ia?aae
i?aaenoaaieeia i?iaiaeieo iiaei?e?inoa aaeoci ai?iaaaeaeaii a aaeocaai
noaiaea?oe INO4AI.010.224 i INO4AI.073.208.

?iaioa iinoeoue Aeiaeaoee, a yeeo iaaaaeaii: i?ia?aie i ?acoeueoaoe
eiii’thoa?iiai ?ic?aooieo ia?aiao?ia, iioeiicaoei? oa i?iaeooaaiiy
oiiieiai? iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?iiai o?aicenoi?a i
aeiiaea c aa?’??ii Oiooei (A1-A4, A); ?acoeueoaoe aei?iaoaaiue
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aci?oeia iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia iiaeaeuaii?
iiooaeiinoi (A); ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe IIE «?aie?a-4IN», i?eeeaaee
aeiaiaeeiai-aaciai? EAe i EAe aeeiiaiiy (Ae); aeoe ai?iaaaeaeaiiy
?acoeueoaoia iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiue o ia?iaeia ainiiaea?noai i o/aiaee
i?ioean (A).

INIIAI? ?ACOEUeOAOE OA AENIIAEE

1.?ic?iaeaii o?ceei-oaoi?/i?, noaiioaoi?/i? oa
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/i? iniiae, ye? aeicaieeee aia?oa ia i?aeoeoei
ae?ioeoe i?iaeaio noai?aiiy niaoeiaeueieo iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN
oi?ioaa/ia iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia o?aiaoeiiaeaeueii? oi?ie
c aeiaieueii ?aaoeueiaaiei iaoeeii aa?oeie iiioeuena (?iii= 10…30 Ao;
to?,tni, F 10 in; aeiaiacii ?aaoethaaiiy iiioeuena ± 50%). Ia ?o iniiai
ae?ioaii i?iaeaio ?ic?iaee, ii ia?niaeoeaiie eiiaiiiaaiie aia?eaeiie i
iioaa?aeueiie oaoiieoai?, iaeiaaaa?eoieo AII iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia
iiaeaeuaiii? iiooaeiinoi (io?eiaiiy iiioeuenia no?oio c aiieiooaeaie
1…15 A) aeey iiaeoeyoei? ?aaeiiiiioeuenieo neaiaeia aaia?aoi?ia IIAeO
niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN ?iciiiaiioiiai o?ainii?oiiai ai?oiaiai aacoaaiiy,
ui i?aoeththoue a aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei?, a oaeiae iiaeooue
oe?iei canoiniaoaaoeny a eaca?iie i iaaee/iie oaoiioei, i?eno?iyo
iaaiioiaeaeo?iiiee i iioeo aaeocyo.

2.Aecia/aio aeiiae aei aeaiaioii? aace iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN
oi?ioaa/ia iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia. Ia iniiai eiiieaeniiai
ae?ioaiiy i?iaeai io?eiaiiy aeiiiaithaaeueieo ii oeio i?iaiaeiinoi
o?aicenoi?ieo no?oeoo? i caaacia/aiiy ?o oaeaeeiaei? iaa?oioiaaio
iaiaoiaeiinoue aiaeiiae aiae oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaiiai iaoiaeo aaaaeaiiy
a no?oeoo?o aeiaeaoeiaeo oeaio?ia ?aeiiaiiaoei? iainiiaieo iini?a.
?ic?iaeaii ? aeaioiaeaii iniiai? aeaiaioe IN: iiioeuenii iioaa?aeueii
n-p-n o?aicenoi?e, IAeI o?aicenoi?e c iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii, aeiiaee c
aa?’??ii Oiooei, yei oa?aeoa?ecothoueny ?iai/ith iai?oaith ia iaioa 50
A, no?oiii — aei 1 A, /anii ia?aoiaeieo i?ioeania — ia aieueoa 10 in.

3.Aeineiaeaeaii oice/ii iaoaiicie ooieoeiiioaaiiy i ?ic?iaeai? iia?
no?oeoo?e iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi??a
(A.n.1748581).

3.1.Cai?iiiiiaaio iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, ui aaeaeaaoii iieno? ?aaeei
ia?aoiaeo a iaeanoue iii/iiai eaaciiane/aiiy a eieaeoi?i iiooaeieo
iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia, iniaeea?noth yeeo ?
ia?iaiiii?iinoue ?iciiaeieaiiai iii?o iaeanoi eieaeoi?a, i yea nooo?ai
aecia/a? ?o aeniei/anoioii i iiioeuenii oa?aeoa?enoeee. ?ic?iaeaia
iiaeaeue yaey? niaith o?aicenoi?io no?oeoo?o a o?eaeii?iiio i?inoi?i c
a?aooaaiiyi aoaeoia aeoeniaiiy no?oio aei ia?eoa?i? aiioa?ia,
ia?a?iciiaeieo aiioa?iiai no?oio ia cono?i/ii-ooe?ueiaeo iaeanoyo
o?aicenoi?a, ia?iaiiii?iiai ?iciiaeieo no?oio a iaeanoi eieaeoi?a.

3.2.?ic?iaeaii aeai?eoi i i?ia?aio aeey ?ic?aooieo caeaaeiinoi niaaeo
iai?oae ia eieaeoi?i i ia?eiao?a aiioa?a iioaa?aeueiiai aiiiey?iiai
o?aicenoi?a. Io?eiaia caeaaeiinoue niaaeo iai?oae ia iii?i eieaeoi?a
iiooaeiiai iiioeueniiai iioaa?aeueiiai aiiiey?iiai o?aicenoi?a aiae
aaee/eie ?iai/iai no?oio, ia?aiao?ia no?oeoo?e i oiiieiai? o?aicenoi?a,
caaacia/eea iiaeeeainoue aecia/aiiy AAO o?aicenoi?a i?e ia?aoiaei aei
?aaeeio iii/iiai eaaciiane/aiiy. Aeyaeaii iaeiiieiinoue niaaeo iai?oae
ia iii?i iaiiaeoeueiaaiiai oiea eieaeoi?a iioaa?aeueiiai o?aicenoi?a,
yea aeeeeeaia ia?a?iciiaeieii aonoeie no?oio o cono?i/ii-ooe?ueia?e
no?oeoo?i.

3.3.Aia?oa io?eiaii ?yae aiaeioe/ieo caeaaeiinoae, yei iieeaaeaii a
iniiao ?ic?iaee iaoiaeeee, i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieia i iioeiicaoei? oiiieiai?
iiooaeieo iiioeuenieo iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia, ui
i?aoeththoue a aeoeaiiio ?aaeeii i aeicaieythoue ae?ioeoe i?iaeaio
aecia/aiiy eiino?oeoei? i aaiiao?e/ieo ?icii?ia no?oeoo?e o?aicenoi?ia,
yei oa?aeoa?ecothoueny iiiiiaeueieie cia/aiiyie aa?’??ieo ?iiinoae i
caeeoeiai? iai?oae ia iii?i eieaeoi?a. I?e oeueiio niinoa?iaa?oueny
aeia?a ei?aeyoeiy ?ic?aooieiaeo cia/aiue c aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeaieie.

3.4.?ic?iaeaii i aeineiaeaeaii iaoiaee oienaoei? ?aaeeio ?iaioe
iiooaeieo iioaa?aeueieo aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia. Cai?iiiiiaaii iiai
eiino?oeoeaii ?ioaiiy aeey o?aicenoi?a c aiioa?iei ia?aoiaeii, yeee
caooioiaaiee noi?iiaaiith a aiioaeniaeueiiio oa?i eieaeoi?a iaeanoth c
i?ioeeaaeiei aei aiioaeniaeueiiai oa?o oeiii i?iaiaeiinoi i
iioaa?aeueiiai iieueiaiai n-eaiaeueiiai o?aicenoi?a c oi?aaeyth/ei p-n
ia?aoiaeii (A.n.1452409). Anoaiiaeaii, ui a aieueoinoi aeiaaeeia
aecia/aeueiei oaeoi?ii o aeai?i iaoiaeo ? iiaeeeainoue eiai ?aaeicaoei?
a neeaaei IN, aiaeoai?thaaeueiinoue ia?aiao?ia noaie, ??
oaoiieiai/iinoue.

3.5.Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeineiaeaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iee
eiiieaen (IIE) aaoiiaoecaoei? ?ic?aooieo, iioeiicaoei? i i?iaeooaaiiy
eiino?oeoei? aiiiey?iiai o?aicenoi?a iioaa?aeueii? noaie c canoinoaaiiyi
iiae i?ia?aioaaiiy «Turbo-Pascal» i IIE iaoeiiiai i?iaeooaaiiy oiiieiai?
«Graph Lays Editor» ia ia?niiaeueieo eiii’thoa?ao oeio IBM PC/AT.

4.Noai?aii iioaa?aeueio iiioeuenio eiiieaiaioa?io ia?o iiooaeieo
o?aicenoi?ia. Aia?oa iieacaii, ui a neeaaei iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN
ai?eciioaeueiee IAeI o?aicenoi? c iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii ?
iaeiioeiaeueiioei, ye aeaiaio, yeee aeiiiaith? ii oeio i?iaiaeiinoi
iiooaeii iiioeuenii n-p-n o?aicenoi?e. ?ic?iaeaia iiaa eiino?oeoe?y
aenieiaieueoiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai IAeI o?aicenoi?a, a yeiio i?aeaeuaii
iai?oao i?iaith noieo ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy a iaeanoue eaiaeo
?icaeieueii? iaeanoi, i?ioeeaaeiiai aei iiaeeeaaeee oeio i?iaiaeiinoi
(A.n.1660535), ui aeicaieeei noai?eoe iiooaei? oaeaeeiaeith/?
iaiiaa?oiaai? iiaeneethaa/i.

5.Aeineiaeaeaii oice/ii iaoaiicie ooieoeiiioaaiiy i noai?ai? iiooaei?
iioaa?aeuei? iiioeueni? aeiiaee. Iieacaii, ui canoinoaaiiy aeiiaeia c
aa?’??ii Oiooei a neeaaei iiooaeieo iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN iaiaaeaia
aoaeoii ia?a?iciiaeieo aonoeie no?oio, i ye ianeiaeie oeueiai,
ciaioaiiyi aeoeaii? ieiui aa?’??iiai eiioaeoo, iiieaeaiiyi oaeaeeiaei?.

5.1.?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue iiooaeiiai iioaa?aeueiiai aeiiaeo c
aa?’??ii Oiooei, yea a?aoiao? aoaeoe iia’ycaii c iiaeaeoei?th iainiiaieo
iini?a ca?yaeo i iieno? ?aaeei ia?aoiaeo aei aenieiai ?iaiy iiaeaeoei?.
Io?eiaii aiaeioe/io caeaaeiinoue, yea aecia/a? iaeneiaeueio aonoeio
no?oio i caeii ?iciiaeieo aonoeie no?oio a no?oeoo?i i?e aenieiio ?iaii
iiaeaeoei? i iaa?iiaaeaeaiith iainiiaieo iini?a ca?yaeo. A aeiaiaciii
Jm@(1…10) J0 ?ic?aooieiaa caeaaeiinoue ?iciiaeieo aonoeie no?oio
aeia?a iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?acoeueoaoaie aenia?eiaioaeueieo
aeineiaeaeaiue.

5.2.Ia iniiai aia?oa io?eiaieo aiaeioe/ieo ae?acia, ?ic?iaeaii
iaoiaeeeo, i?ia?aie ?ic?aooieia i iioeiicaoei? ieiui aei?yieyeueiiai
eiioaeoo iaoae-iaiiai?iaiaeiee iiooaeieo iioaa?aeueieo aeiiaeia Oiooei,
ui i?aoeththoue a ?aaeeii aaeeeeo oia?oaaoinoae ei?ioeeo iiioeuenia i?e
iacia/iiio oaieiaeaeieaiii. Iaaaaeaii caeaaeiinoi, yei aecia/athoue
iioeiaeueii ?icii?e no?oeoo?e iioaa?aeueieo aeiiaeia Oiooei ?icieo
eiino?oeoeie. Iioeiicaoeiy aeicaiey? i?iaanoe aeai? eiino?oeoei? i
aecia/eoe aaiiao?e/ii ?icii?e no?oeoo?e aeiiaeia, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoueny
i?e caaeaiie aaee/eii ?iai/iai no?oio iiiiiaeueieie cia/aiiyie ?iiinii?
neeaaeiai? ia?aoiaeiiai i?ioeano ia?aieeaiiy.

6.Aia?oa cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae ?icaeieueiiai oi?ioaaiiy o?iioo i niaaeo
iiioeuena, ui caaacia/o? iiaeeeainoue noai?aiiy iiooaeiiai
iaiiaa?oiaaiiai iiaeneethaa/a-iaiaaeoaa/a, yeee ? iniiaiei aoceii
?ic?iaeaii? iaiiai?iaiaeieeiai? IN-oi?ioaa/a i yeee caaacia/o? aenieo
oaeaeeiaeith, noaaieueiinoue, a oaeiae iiaeeeainoue ?iaioe ia
iaaaioaaeaiiy c iaa?iiaaeaeaiiyi ca?yaeo.

7.Aia?oa ae??oaii i?iaeaio oaa?aeioieueii? iioaa?aoei?
aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia (AII) iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia aeey
aaia?aoi?ia ?AN IIAeO. ?ic?iaeai? eiino?oeoe?? ? i?iieneiaa oaoiieia?y
aeaioiaeaiiy e?enoae?a ?N-oi?ioaa/a ? A?I ia ?o iniia? (A.n.318664,
A.n.320493) aeicaieeee cia/ii iie?aueoe ?o oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee,
iiaeaeueoe iaaeieiinoue i oaoiieiai/iinoue, ciaioeoe aaaa?eoii-aaaiai
iieacieee AII a 3…5 ?acia, ?icoe?eoe iaeanoue canoinoaaiiy ?
caaacia/eoe aenieoaoaoe?th a oiiaao i?aeaeuaii? ae?? ee?iaoe/ieo ?
iaoai?/ieo /eiiee?a. A a neeaaei e?enoaeo ?ic?iaeaii? IN-oi?aaeiiiy AII
noai?aii iioaa?aeueia aaaaoiooieoeiiiaeueia aeaea?aei iii?ii? iai?oae,
ui aeicaieeei ?icoe?eoe oiiaa?naeueiinoue iioaa?aeueieo aoi?eiieo
aeaea?ae aeeaeaiiy.

8.Ia iniia? oai?aoe/ieo oa aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue aia?oa
iaa?oioiaaii canoiniaoaaiiy oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia, yei aeaioiaeaii
ic n?iaei-iaeaaei?aeo (na?iy 4000), ?ooaii?aeo (na?iy 4400) i ai?eaeieo
(na?iy 0800) iano , ui oe?iei canoiniaothoueny ? na??eii
aeaioiaeythoueny, a AII ?iioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi??a i?aeaeuaii? iiooaeiino?
oaea?ino?eeeo ?AN.

8.1.?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aecia/aiiy eiao?oe??ioa oaici/ooeeaino?
iaoa??aeo ?acenoi??a ? iaaaaeaii ?ic?aooiie iioeiaeueii? eiino?oeoe??
oaea?ino?eeiai ?acenoi?a. Aia?oa aeine?aeaeaii aieea
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo oaeoi??a (iaoa??aeo ?acenoeaieo iano,
ieoiiiai iiaa?oiaaiai iii?o, eiao?oe??ioa oi?ie ? ieiu? ?acenoi?a,
iai?yieo aeaoi?iaoe?eii? ae??, iaoa??aeo i?aeeeaaeee, iayaiino?
i?aeaiiee) ia oaea?io no?ee?noue oianoiie?aeiaeo ?acenoi??a. Aeyaeaii
aenieo oaea?io no?ee?noue aeine?aeaeaieo oianoiie?aeiaeo ?acenoi??a,
ie??i aenieiiiieo n??aei-iaeaae??aeo. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?? ?acenoi??a ia
iniia? n??aei-iaeaae??aeo iano iii?iaeii aeua 20 eIi/ea. ca?eueoo?oueny
a aeine?aeaeaiiio ae?aiacii? oaea?ieo ae?e, i?e oeueiio /ei aeuee
iii?iae ianoe, oei a?eueoa ci?ia iii?o ?acenoi?a, oiio aeacai? ianoe ia
?aeiiaiaeothoueny aeey canoinoaaiiy a oaea?ino?ee?e aia?aoo??.

8.2.Aia?oa aeineiaeaeaii aieea aaciaiai na?aaeiaeua, ui caiiaith?
ei?ion AII, ia no?oeoo?o i oaciaee neeaae oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia ia
iniiai Ag-Pd. Anoaiiaeaii i?e/eio iecueei? noaa?eueiino? ?acenoi??a
(ciaioaiiy iii?iae?a aei 90%) a na?aaeiaeu? a?aiio, a yeiio aeyaeaii
a?eueiee aiaeaiue, yeee aiaeiiaeth? PdI aei Pd, ui i?eaiaeeoue aei
ciaioaiiy iiiiiaeia ?acenoi?ia ? aenieo noaaieueiinoue (a na?aaeiueiio —
aei 2%) a aoiinoa?i inooaiiai iiaio?y. Inooaia iia?o?y ?aeiiaiaeo?oueny
aeey caiiaiaiiy ei?ionia AII a i?ioean? ae?iaieoeoaa.

8.3.Aeineiaeaeaii oa?aeoa? ciiie iiiiiaeia ?acenoi?ia i aecia/aii
caeaaeiinoue DR/R=f(O) i?e 2-i i 3-e e?aoieo iiaoi?ieo aiaethaaiiyo aeey
anio oeiia ?acenoeaieo iano ia iniiai ?ooaiith. Oa?aeoa? caeaaeiinoi ia?
yne?aai ae?aaeaio aiae’?iio iaeanoue ciiie. Canoinoaaiiy iiaoi?iiai
aiaethaaiiy i?e iaiaoiaeiie oaiia?aoo?i aeicaiey? ei?aeooaaoe ieoiiee
iiaa?oiaaee iii? ?acenoeaii? ieiaee «a iiion» ia 50…80% i «a iethn» ia
5…30%. Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoaii a i?ioeani ae?iaieoeoaa
oianoiieiaeiaeo iie?iieao aeey a?oiiai? iiaeaiiee a noi?iio ciaioaiiy
iiiiiaeia ?ooaii?aeo ?acenoi?ia. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ci?ia iii?iae?a
?ooaii?aeo ?acenoi?ia, yei i?ieoee iiaoi?ia aiaethaaiiy neeaaea? ia
aieueoa 0,6% iiney aei? aeanoaaieicoth/eo oaeoi?ia — i’yoee?aoia
oa?iioeeeethaaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?ao aiae iiion 60°N aei +85°N i
caa?iaaiiy i?e oaiia?aoo?i +70°N.

8.4.?ic?iaeaii oaoiieiai/iee i?ioean aeaioiaeaiiy oianoiieiaeiaeo
?acenoi?ia ia iniiai ai?eaeieo iano ia aeiaeaeo?e/ieo oa?ao ic ianoe
3014. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeey caaacia/aiiy ciaoiaeaeaiiy ?acenoi?ia a
aenieoaoaoeieiiio aeiioneo ±10% aeinoaoiii ? ae?iaie/ee aeiione ±8%. Oea
aeicaieeei caieueoeoe nooiiiue iioaa?aoei? AII, ciaioeoe ?o aaaa?eoe i
aaao.

9.Aeey na??eiiai aaaaoiiiiaieeaoo?iiai ae?iaieoeoaa i?e?iieao A?I
?ic?iaeai? ? ?aeiiaiaeiaai?:

-aeaeo?io?i?/iee iaoiae ? i?eno??e aeey i?aeaiiee ?acenoi??a ia iniia?
n??aei-iaeaae??aeo iano a noi?iio ciaioaiiy ?o iii?iae?a, ui aeicaieeei
ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae i?eaeaoieo ia 20…30%;

-iaoiae iiaoi?iiai aiaethaaiiy ?ooai??aeo ?acenoi??a aeey ei?aeooaaiiy
?o iii?iae?a a noi?iio ciaioaiiy, ui aeicaieeei ca?eueoeoe aeo?ae
i?eaeaoieo ia 10…20%;

-eaca?iee iaoiae i?aeaiiee ?acenoi??a ia iniia? n??aei-iaeaae??aeo,
?ooai??aeo ? ai?eaeieo iano a noi?iio ca?eueoaiiy iii?iae?a.
Cai?iiiiiaaii iiao iaoiaeeeo thnooaaiiy aeii?thaaeueieo ciiaeia i
eaca?iiai i?iiaiy aaoiiaoeciaaii? onoaiiaee oeio «Aea?eae-009», ui
iiaeaeueei i?iaeoeoeaiinoue i?aoei a 2,7 ?ace.

10.Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo i?eaeaoieo, i?iaeoeoeaiino? i oi/iino?
aeaioiaeaiiy, noaaieueiino? ia?aiao?ia aia?eaeieo iioaa?aeueieo
?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a oa caaacia/aiiy ?o i?aoeacaeaoiino? a
aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei? cai?iiiiiaaii iiaee niinia aeai?eiaiai
aeii?thaaiiy iii?o iie?ieiioaeoiiai c’?aeiaiiy iiioaaeiiai ae?ioo i
ieiaeiai? eiioaeoii? ieiueiee, ui iiaeaeuo? yeinoue i iaaeieiinoue
iie?ieiioaeoia AII (A.n.1492309). ?ic?iaeaii iiai iaoa?iaee (A.n.302312,
A.n.1145827), niiniae aeaioiaeaiiy no?oeoo?, aeaiaioia i?e?inoai
(A.n.1545842, A.n.287444) i iie?icai?ie (A.n.289850).

11.Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy iaae?eiino? ae?ioaia caaea/a caieueoaiiy iioeiinoi
eiino?oeoei? AII aeey oiia aenieeo aeeiaii/ieo aeie i oeeeei/ieo ciii
oaiia?aoo?e. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iaenooo?aeoa aieeaa? ia iioeiinoue
c’?aeiaiiy ei?ion-e?eoea AII oiaueia oa?o i?eiith a caci?i iiae
c’?aeioaaieie aeaoaeyie. Eiaoioei?io caiano iioeiinoi iayiiai oaa
c?inoa? a ia?oiio iaaeeaeaiii i?iii?oeieii eaaae?aoo oiaueie oa?o
i?eiith. Aeaii ?aeiiaiaeaoei? ii aeai?o eiaoioei?ioa iioeiinoi (ia iaioa
10), iaoa?iaeo e?eoee ei?iono AII oa ii. A aeey iiaeaeuaiiy nooiaii
aeaeo?iiaaiioii? noiiniinoi AII cai?iiiiiaaii iiao eiino?oeoeith
oieueo?a eiea aeeaeaiiy i oi?aaeiiiy.

12.C iaoith oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeia eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoei? ?ic?iaee
i aeioneo eiino?oeoi?nueei? aeieoiaioaoei? (EAe) IAA, cai?iiiiiaaii
iiaee i?eioeei eiino?othaaiiy i ?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeeo aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy EAe iaoaii/ieo aeaoaeae i aoceia eiino?oeoeie AII, yei
neeaaeathoue iniiao neeaaeieo no/anieo o?ainii?oieo ?AN niaoeiaeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy, ia aaci aiaeiioae oeiiaeo eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiai/ieo
?ioaiue (EO?). A iniiao aeaii? iaoiaeeee caeeaaeaii i?eioeei ?iaioe
eiino?oeoi?a c oeiiaeie EO?, aeai? yeeo neeaaea? nooue i?ioeano
eiino?othaaiiy.

13.?ic?iaeaii iaoiaeeea aaoiiaoeciaaiiai i?iaeooaaiiy EAe AII ia iniiai
aiaeiioae oeiiaeo EO?, iaoaiaoe/ii iiaeaei ?icii?ieo nioie, iaoiaeeea i
aeai?eoie ?icoaooaaiiy ?icii?ia ia e?aneaiiyo EAe ?aaeiciaaii a
i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/iiio eiiieaeni (IIE) iane??ciiai aaoiiaoeciaaiiai
i?iaeooaaiiy aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo IA* iiaeoeia «?AIE?A-4IN», yeee
aeicaiey? nei?ioeoe ianya EAe i oa?iiie ?? ?ic?iaee a 2,7…3,1 ?ace.
IIE ciaoiaeeoueny a i?iieneiaie aenieoaoaoei? o Eueaianueeiio IAe?OI i
ia iioeo iiaei?e?inoaao aaeoci. ?acoeueoaoe ai?iaaaeaeaii a aaeocaaeo
noaiaea?oao INO 4AI.010.224 ? INO 4AI.073.208.

Nienie iniiaieo iioaeieiaaieo i?aoeue ca oaiith aeena?oaoei?:

1.Aio?a C.TH., Iooea?aeai Y.I., Nia?eei E.I. Oaoiieiae/aneea iniiau
aea?eaeiuo eioaa?aeueiuo noai. -Eueaia:Ecae.i?e EAO. Aeua oeiea. -1977.
-168 n.

2.Aio?a C.TH., A?eai?ueaa A.A., Nia?eei E.I., Yeaeaeueiaio A.I. Neaiciia
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiia i?iaeoe?iaaiea iee?iyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u.
-I.:?aaeei e naycue. -1989. -280 n.

3.Aio?a C.TH., Eoeiyiia N.A., Nia?eei E.I. Eaca?ii-noeioee?iaaiiia
o?aaeaiea a oaoiieiaee EN // Ca?oaaaeiay yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea.
-I.:OeIEE»Yeaeo?iieea». -1986. -Aui.6. -55n.

4.Aieyea ?.E., Nia?eei E.I. Enneaaeiaaiea ?aaeeia ia?aoiaea e iie/aneiio
eaaceianuuaieth a eieeaeoi?a iiuiiai eioaa?aeueiiai aeiiey?iiai
o?aicenoi?a // Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?.Iauea
aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. -I.:IEEYE?. -1991. -Aui.22. -N.42-46.

5.Nia?eei E.I. ?ic?iaea iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeaei iiooaeiiai iioaa?aeueiiai
aiiiey?iiai o?aicenoi?a, ui iieno? ?aaeei ia?aoiaeo a iaeanoue
eaaciiane/aiiy // Ainiee I?eea?i.oiia.Na?.I?e?iaei.-iaoaiao.iaoee.
-Iaaii-O?aieianuee: «Ieae». -1996. -Aei.2. -N.152-159.

6.Aieyea ?.E., Nia?eei E.I. Iioeiecaoeey oiiieiaee iiuiiai
eioaa?aeueiiai eiioeueniiai o?aicenoi?a // Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie
?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?. Iauea aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. -I.:IEEYE?.
-1991. -Aui.22. -N.47-51.

7.Nia?eei E.I. Iiaeaethaaiiy oa iioeiicaoeiy no?oeoo?e iiooaeiiai
iioaa?aeueiiai iiioeueniiai o?aicenoi?a // AEo?iae oice/ieo
aeineiaeaeaiue. -Eueaia:EAeO. -1998. -o.2. -? 4. -N.586-592.

8.Nia?eei E.I. Iaoiaee oienaoeii ?aaeeio ?iaioe iiooaeieo iioaa?aeueieo
aiiiey?ieo o?aicenoi?ia//Ainiee Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo «Eueaianueea
iieioaoiiea». Na?. Oai?iy i i?iaeooaaiiy iaiiai?ia?aeieeiaeo oa
?aaeiiaeaeo?iiieo i?eno?i?a. -Eueaia:AeO «EI». -1998. -?343. -N.183-189.

9.Iaaci?ia A.A., Nia?eei E.I. Iiuiua iieaaua o?aicenoi?u //
?aaeei-i?iiuoeaiiinoue. -I.:IEEYE?. -1992. -Aui.1. -N.41-42.

10.Aio?a C.TH., Aieyea ?.E., Nia?eei E.I. Enneaaeiaaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey
ieioiinoe oiea a eioaa?aeueiie aeeiaeiie no?oeoo?a n aa?uea?ii Oiooee
i?e aunieii o?iaia eiaeaeoeee // Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?.10.
Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua ono?ienoaa. -I.:OeIEE «Yeaeo?iieea». -1990. -Aui.6.
-N.40-42.

11.Aieyea ?.E., Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I. Iioeiecaoeey ieiuaaee
aui?yieythuaai eiioaeoa iaoaee-iieoi?iaiaeiee iiuiuo eioaa?aeueiuo
aeeiaeia Oiooee // Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?.10. Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua
ono?ienoaa. -I.:OeIEE «Yeaeo?iieea». -1990. -Aui.6. -N.42-45.

12.Aio?a C.TH., Aieyea ?.E., Aeia?yineee I.N., Nia?eei E.I.
Eioaa?aeueiue oneeeoaeue-ia?aie/eoaeue iaiinaeoiaeiuo eiioeuenia //
Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?.10. Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua ono?ienoaa. -I.:OeIEE
«Yeaeo?iieea». -1991. -Aui.3. -N.40-42.

13.Aio?a C.TH., Aieyea ?.E., Nia?eei E.I., Aeia?yineee I.N.
Eioaa?aeueiue oi?ie?iaaoaeue iiuiuo iaiinaeoiaeiuo eiioeuenia // Aii?inu
niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?.?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oaoieea.
-I.:IEEYE?. -1990. -Aui.14. -N.56-59.

14.Aieyea ?.E., Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I. Iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiue
eioaa?aeueiue enoi/iee iii?iiai iai?yaeaiey // Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie
?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?. ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oaoieea. -I.:IEEYE?. -1990.
-Aui.14. -N.69-72

15.Aieyea ?.E., Aeia?yineee I.N., Nia?eei E.I., Eioaiaoeeee A.A.,
Oanueeea E.I. Eioaa?aeueiue oi?ie?iaaoaeue iiuiuo iaiinaeoiaeieo
eiioeuenia // Eioi?iaoeeiiiue eenoie i iao/i.-oaoi.aeinoeaeaiee.
-Eueaia:IOOeIOE. -1990. -? 90-73. -4 n.

16.Nia?eei E.I., Iieooeia N.A., Anoaoueaa A.I. Iiuo i?iaeoe?iaaiey
iiiaieaiaeueiie ?EN iaoiaeaie eiiieaeniie ieieaoth?ecaoeee //
Niaoeeaeueiay ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea. -I.:IEEYE?. -1985. -Aui.1. -N.67-69.

17.Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I., Aieei E.E., Iieooeia N.A.
Oaieii?iaiaeiua iiaeeiaeee aeey iiuiuo AEN // Ca?oaaaeiay yeaeo?iiiay
oaoieea. -I.:OeIEE «Yeaeo?iieea». -1990. -Aui.12. -N.3-23.

18.Nia?eei E.I. Iee?iieieaoth?ecaoeey eiioeueniuo iiaeoeyoi?ia aeey
aaia?aoi?ia ?YN ieeeeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciia aiei // ?aaeeioaoieea.
-Oa?ueeia:OOO?Y. -1997. -?103. -N.93-99.

19.Nia?eei E.I., Aeaaeeie?iaa O.I. Aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueii aeaea?aea
iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia aeey oaoiiee iieiiao?iaiai
aeiaiaciio oaeeue // Ainiee I?ee.oiiaa?.Na?.I?e?iaei.-iaoaiao.iaoee.
-Iaaii-O?aieianuee:Ieae. -1995. -Aei.1. -N.132-139.

20.Nia?eei E.I. Eiioeueniua iiaeoeyoi?u aeey aaia?aoi?ia aeeaiaciia EA*
// ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea. Ecaanoey aunoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee. -Eeaa:IOOO
«EIE». -1998. -oii.41. -?4. -N.20-27.

21.Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I., Aa?aiiaa I.A., Naieoei ss.I., Aieioei N.A.
Oaciaue ninoaa e noaaeeueiinoue oienoiieaii/iuo ?acenoi?ia ia iniiaa
nenoaiu na?aa?i-iaeeaaeee // Aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?. Iauea
aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. -I.:IEEYE?. -1991. -Aui.20. -N.36-41.

22.Nia?eei E.I., Aey/ie Ae.O. Iiaeaioiaea i?ioeanna eaca?iie iiaeaiiee
oienoiieaii/iuo ?acenoi?ia // Oaoiieiaey e eiino?oe?iaaiea a yeaeo?iiiie
aiia?aoo?a. -Iaeanna: AI «Iaiooi». -1997. -? 4. -N.53-54.

23.Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I. Iiuo eiino?oe?iaaiey e ecaioiaeaiey
iiiaio?iaiaauo eiiiooaoeeiiiuo ieao // Niaoeeaeueiay ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea.
-I.:IEEYE?. -1986. -Aui.5. -N.35-37.

24.Nia?eei E.I., Eaaeia E.I. Niaaeeiaiea noa?aeiy aa?iiia?aoiaea n
iee?iiieineiaie eeieae // Niaoeeaeueiay ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea. -I.:IEEYE?.
-1989. -Aui.1. -N.52-53.

25.Oaaei?ia A.A., Nia?eei E.I., Iaaieieei N.I. Eaaeoeeee Ae.E.
Aa?iaoecaoeey ei?ionia iee?inoai eaca?iie naa?eie // Iaiai iiuoii a
?aaeeii?iiuoeaiiinoe. -I.:IEEYE?. -1980. -Aui.2. -N.13-14.

26.Nia?eei E.I., Iaaeaeea A.E., Oaooaa I.E. Oaaee/aiea iaoaie/aneie
i?i/iinoe iayiiai niaaeeiaiey ei?ion-e?uoea iee?inai?ee // Aii?inu
niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?.Iauea aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee.
-I.:IEEYE?. -1986. -Aui.15. -N.136-139.

27.Nia?eei E.I., Ieeieaaa A.A., Iaaeaeea A.E. Eiino?oeoeey oeeueo?a
oeaiae ieoaiey e oi?aaeaiey aeey NA*-iee?inai?ie // Aii?inu
niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?. ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oaoieea.
-I.:IEEYE?. -1986. -Aui.15. -N.174-176.

28.A?eai?ueaa A.A., Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I. Auai? aaciaiai yeaiaioa a
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iiaeaeyo eiino?oeoeee iee?iyeaeo?iiiie aiia?aoo?u //
Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeyeaeo?iieee.Na?. ?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oaoieea.
-I.:IEEYE?. -1981. -Aui.20. -N.138-141.

29.A?eai?ueaa A.A., Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I. Oi?iaeecaoeey o?aaiaaiee e
aeai?eoie/aneiio ?aciauaieth ?acia?ia ia /a?oaaeao oceia e aeaoaeae ?YA
// Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?.Iauaoaoie/aneay.
-I.:IEEYE?. -1983. -Aui.14. -N.67-71.

30.A?eai?ueaa A.A., Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I. Aeai?eoiecaoeey ?aciauaiey
?acia?ia ia /a?oaaeao oceia e aeaoaeae ?YA //Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie
?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. Na?.Iauea aii?inu ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee. -I.:IEEYE?.
-1985. -Aui.2. -N.101-110.

31.A?eai?ueaa A.A., Aio?a C.TH., Nia?eei E.I. Iniaaiiinoe
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai iaianaiey ?acia?ia ia nai?i/iuo /a?oaaeao
eioaa?aeueiuo iiaeoeae NA* // Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee.
Na?.?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oaoieea. -I.:IEEYE?. -1984. -Aui.9. -N.136-140.

32.A?eai?ueaa A.A., Eanaaa A.O., Nia?eei E.I. Iniaaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey
eiaee?iaueea a?aoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee i?e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiii
i?iaeoe?iaaiee iee?inai?ie // Aii?inu niaoeeaeueiie ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieee.
Na?.?aaeeieieaoeeiiiay oaoieea. -I.:IEEYE?. -1984. -Aui.9. -N.134-136.

33.Aieueaa A.O., A?eai?ueaa A.A., Nia?eei E.I. Iiuo i?iaeoe?iaaiey
oioioaaeiiia iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo iee?inai?ie n iiiiuueth III ?AIE?A-4EN e
I?AI5.3/IOO // Niaoeeaeueiay ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea. -I.:IEEYE?. -1985.
-Aui.11-12. -N.41-42.

34.Nia?eei E.I. Oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoiaeia eiiieaenii? aaoiiaoecaoei?
?ic?iaee eiino?oeoi?nueei? aeieoiaioaoei? iie?iaeaeo?iiii? aia?aoo?e //
Ainiee Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaa?neoaoo «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea». Na?.
Eiii’thoa?ii nenoaie i?iaeooaaiiy. Oai?iy i i?aeoeea. Eueaia:AeO»EI».
-1998. -? 327. -N.93-99.

35.A.n. 1748581 NNN?, IEE I01L27/04. Eioaa?aeueiue aeiiey?iue o?aicenoi?
/ C.TH.Aio?a, ?.E.Aieyea, E.I.Nia?eei (NNN?). -?4750951; Cayae.23.10.89;
Ca?aaeno?.15.03.92. -6n. -AeNI.

36.A.n. 1452409 NNN?, IEE I01L29/80. Eioaa?aeueiue iieaaie o?aicenoi? /
?.E.Aieyea, E.I.Nia?eei (NNN?). -?4213723; Cayae.23.03.87;
Ca?aaeno?.15.09.88. -4n. -AeNI.

37.A.n. 1660535 NNN?, IEE I01L29/78. Iieaaie o?aicenoi? n eciee?iaaiiui
caoai?ii / C.TH.Aio?a, ?.E.Aieyea, E.I.Nia?eei (NNN?). -?4752091;
Cayae.23.10.89; Ca?aaeno?.01.03.91. -5n. -AeNI.

38.A.n. 1545842 NNN?, IEE I01L21/18. Niinia ecaioiaeaiey e?aiieaauo
yieoaeneaeueiuo no?oeoo? ni ne?uouie neiyie / C.TH.Aio?a, E.I.Nia?eei,
A.A.Inaae/oe, E.TH.Nae?eaeiaa, A.A.Aeooae (NNN?). -?4459811;
Cayae.14.06.88; Ca?aaeno?.22.10.89. -9n. -AeNI.

39.A.n. 318664 NNN?, IEE I01L27/08. Iiuiue IAeI o?aicenoi? /
E.I.Nia?eei, A.A.Iaaci?ia (NNN?). -? 4523291; Cayae.27.11.89;
Ca?aaeno?.03.09.90. -5n. -Iioae. ia iiaeeaaeeo.

40.A.n. 320493 NNN?, IEE I01L29/94. Iiuiue IAeI o?aicenoi?. /
E.I.Nia?eei, A.A.Iaaci?ia (NNN?). -?4517829; Cayae.13.07.89;
Ca?aaeno?.01.11.90. -4n. -Iioae. ia iiaeeaaeeo.

41.A.n. 302312 NNN?, IEE I01L21/302. Aaciaay nianue aeey
ieacii-oeie/aneiai o?aaeaiey / E.I.Nia?eei, A.A.Aeaniaa, A.A.Aiae
(NNN?). -?4503268; Cayae.05.12.88; Ca?aaeno?.02.10.89. -3n. -Iioae. ia
iiaeeaaeeo.

42.A.n. 1145827 NNN?, IEE I01G4/10. Nieaa aeey ecaioiaeaiey
oiieiieaii/iuo aeeyeaeo?e/aneeo neiaa eiiaeainaoi?ia / A.N.A?euoe,
E.I.Nia?eei, A.A.Oaa?eeaio (NNN?). -?3519504; Cayae.03.12.82;
Ca?aaeno?.15.11.84. -4n. -AeNI

43.A.n. 287444 NNN?, IEE I01L27/08. Niinia ecaioiaeaiey aea?eaeiuo
eioaa?aeueiuo noai / I.A.Aa?aiiaa, E.E.Iaeueiee, E.I.Nia?eei,
ss.I.Naieoei, E.A.I?ieiiaiei (NNN?). -?3193680; Cayae.09.03.88;
Ca?aaeno?.02.01.89. -6n. -Iioae. ia iiaeeaaeeo.

44.A.n. 289850 NNN?, IEE I04Q1/07. Niinia oi?ie?iaaiey i?iaiaeieeiauo
yeaiaioia eiiiooaoeeiiiuo ieao / Ae.O.Aey/ie, E.I.Nia?eei,
A.N.Aeiaaoiee, E.TH.I?ieiieoei, A.A.Eaeyiei, TH.A.Eioaiia (NNN?).
-?3196100; Cayae.06.04.88; Ca?aaeno?.01.03.89. -5n. -Iioae. ia
iiaeeaaeeo.

45.A.n. 1492309 NNN?, IEE G01R27/00. Niinia ii?aaeaeaiey nii?ioeaeaiey
eiioaeoiiai niaaeeiaiey i?iaieiee e ieaii/iiai i?iaiaeieea /
Ae.O.Aey/ie, A.A.Iaaeeo, E.I.Nia?eei, ss.I.Naieoei (NNN?). -?4296087;
Cayae.11.08.87; Iioae.08.03.89, Athe.?25. -6n.

46.Cayaea ? 94042646, Oe?a?ia, IEE I01L27/08, I01L29/94.Iieueiaee
III-o?aicenoi? / E.I.Nia?eei, A.A.Iaaci?ia (Oe?a?ia). -Cayae.15.04.94.
Iioae. a athe. «I?iieneiaa aeaniinoue». -E, 1995. -?4. -N.2.123.

47.Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I. Aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo oaeoi?ia ia oaea?io noieeinoue
oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia: Aeai. a AeIOA Oe?a?ie. -1994. -? 1680.
-Oe.94. -7n.

48.Nia?eei E.I., Iaaci?ia A.A., Eo/iie A.E. Eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ii
iniaeeainoi iiooaeieo AeIII o?aicenoi?ia // Ca.iaoa?iaeia Iiaeia?iaeii?
iaoe.-oaoi.eiioa?aioei? «No/anii i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee i
ae?iaieoeoaa ?AC, canoinoaaiiy caniaia ca’yceo…». -Eueaia. -AeO
«EI». -1996. -*.1. -N.93-94

49.Nia?eei E.I. Iioaa?aeueii oi?ioaa/i iiioeuenia aeey IA* i?eno?i?a
iieiiao?iaiai aeiaiaciio oaeeue // Ca.aeiiiaiaeae Iiaeia?iaeii?
iaoe.-oaoi.eiioa?aioei? «No/anii i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee i
ae?iaieoeoaa ?AC…». -Eueaia. AeO «EI». -1994. -N.29-30.

50.Nia?eei E.I., Aieyea ?.E. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue iiooaeiiai
iioaa?aeueiiai aeiiaea c aa?’??ii Oiooei // Ca.oacia aeiiiaiaeae
Iiaeia?iaeii? iaoe.-oaoi.eiioa?aioei? «Aeinaiae ?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy
i?eeaaei-oaoiieiai/ieo NAI? iie?iaeaeo?iiiee». Eueaia. AeO «EI». -1995.
-N.99.

51.Smerklo L.M. Semiconductor pulse modulators for EHF-band technique //
Abstract booklet. Second International School-conference «Physical
problems in material science of semiconductors». Chernivtsi: State
University. -1997. -p.339-340.

52.Nia?eei E.I. Aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueii iiioeuenii iiaeoeyoi?e aeey
aaia?aoi?ia ?AN iieiiao?iaiai aeiaiaciio oaeeue // Ca.iaoa?iaeia
Iiaeia?iaeii? iaoe.-oaoi.eiioa?aioei? «No/anii i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii?
?ic?iaee i ae?iaieoeoaa ?AC, canoinoaaiiy caniaia ca’yceo…». Eueaia.
AeO «EI». -1996. -*.1 -N.95-96.

53.Iaiaiei E.A., Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I., Aieioei N.A. Enneaaeiaaiea
aeeyiey aaciaie n?aaeu, caiieiythuae ei?ion iiaeoey ia iaaeaaeiinoue
oienoiieaii/iuo ?acenoi?ia // Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?.10.
Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua ono?ienoaa. Oacenu aeieeaaeia Iaaeio?aneaaie
iao/i.-oaoi. eiioa?aioeee «I?iaeoe?iaaiea e ecaioiaeaiea IYA, i?iaeaiu e
ia?niaeoeau». I.:OeIEE «Yeaeo?iieea». -1983. -Aui.2(190). -/.2.
-N.43-44.

54.Gotra Z., Wygoda L., Grigoriev V., Smerklo L. Automatization of
design of control program in resistor laser trimming process //
Proceedings of the 20-th conference of the International Society for
Hybrid Microelectronics Poland Chapter. -Wroclaw: 1997. -p.149-152.

55.Aieioei N.A., Iaiaiei E.A., Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I. Enneaaeiaaiea
aiciiaeiinoae ?acee/iuo iaoiaeia iiaeaiiee ieaii/iuo ?acenoi?ia //
Yeaeo?iiiay oaoieea. Na?.10. Iee?iyeaeo?iiiua ono?ienoaa. Oacecu
aeieeaaeia Iaaeio?aneaaie iao/i.-oaoi. eiioa?aioeee «Oaoiieiaey
ecaioiaeaiey IYA».I.:OeIEE «Yeaeo?iieea». -1981. -Aui.1(162). -N.50.

56.Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I. Aeaeo?io?i?/iee iaoiae i?aeaiiee
ie?aeiaeo ?acenoi??a // Ca.aeiiia?aeae I?aeia?iaeii? iaoe.-oaoi.
eiioa?aioe?? «No/anii i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee i ae?iaieoeoaa
?AC…». -Eueaia. AeO «EI». -1994. -N.24-26.

57.Nia?eei E.I., Naieoei ss.I. Aeai? eiino?oeoei? oaea?inoieeeo
ieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia // Ca.aeiiiaiaeae Iiaeia?iaeii? iaoe.-oaoi.
eiioa?aioe?? «No/anii i?iaeaie aaoiiaoeciaaii? ?ic?iaee i ae?iaieoeoaa
?AC…». -Eueaia. AeO «EI». -1994. -N.26-28.

58.Nia?eei E.I. Eiioeueniua iiaeoeyoi?u aeey aaia?aoi?ia EA*-aeeaiaciia
// Na.?ao. 6-ie Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie E?uineie eiioa?aioeee «NA*-oaoieea e
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee», a.Naaanoiiieue. NAOO. -1996.
-N.25-26.

59.Nia?eei E.I. Aaoiiaoeciaaia i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoi?nueei?
aeieoiaioaoei? i oioioaaeiiia aia?eaeieo iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia //
Ca.oacia aeiiia?aeae IV Iiaeia?iaeii? iaoe.-oaoi. eiioa?aioe?? «Aeinaiae
?ic?iaee oa canoinoaaiiy i?eeaaei-oaoiieiai/ieo NAI? iie?iaeaeo?iiiee».
Eueaia. AeO «EI». -1997. -/.2. -N.166-167.

60.Nia?eei E.I. Eioaa?aeueiua oi?ie?iaaoaee iiuiuo iaiinaeoiaeiuo
eiioeuenia e ?YO ia eo iniiaa // Na.oac. aeieeaaeia III Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
iao/i.-oaoi. eiioa?aioeee «Iee?iyeaeo?iieea e eioi?iaoeea».
Iineaa-Caeaiia?aae. -1997. -N.78-79.

Nia?eei E.I. Iioaa?aeueii oi?ioaa/i iiooaeieo iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia
i ?aaeiiaeaeo?iiii i?eno?i? ia ?o iniiai.-?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoii/ieo iaoe ca
niaoeiaeueiinoth 05.12.13.-I?eno?i? ?aaeiioaoiiee oa caniaia
oaeaeiioiieaoeie. -Aea?aeaaiee oiiaa?neoao «Eueaianueea iieioaoiiea»,
Eueaia, 1999.

Aeena?oaoeith i?enay/aii ieoaiiyi i?iaeooaaiiy i i?iieneiaiai
aeaioiaeaiiy iiaiai eeano iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaeo IN-oi?ioaa/ia iiooaeieo
iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia (IN OIINI) o?aiaoei?aeaeueii? oi?ie ic
?icaeieueiei oi?ioaaiiyi o?iioo i niaaeo, aeiaieueii ?aaoeueiaaiei
iaoeeii aa?oeie iiioeueno oa ia ?o iniiai iaeiaaaa?eoieo
aia?eaeii-iioaa?aeueieo iiaeoeia (AII) iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia
iiaeaeuaii? iiooaeiinoi aeey aaia?aoi?ia no/anieo ai?oiaeo
niaoeiaeiciaaieo ?AN iieiiao?iaiai aeiaiaciio oaeeue, ui i?aoeththoue a
aei?noeeo oiiaao aenieoaoaoei?, a oaeiae iiaeooue oe?iei canoiniaoaaoeny
a iioeo aaeocyo iaoee i oaoiiee. Aeineiaeaeaii oice/ii iaoaiicie
ooieoeiiioaaiiy, ?ic?iaeaii iaoaiaoe/ii oa oice/ii iiaeaei i
cai?iiiiiaaii iaoeiao eiioeaioeith noai?aiiy IN OIINI, yei iioaa?othoue
iiai eiino?oeoi?nueei-oaoiieiai/ii ?ioaiiy aenieiaieueoieo oa
oaeaeeiaeith/eo no?oeoo? n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia, IAeI o?aicenoi?ia c
iiaeoeiaaiei p-eaiaeii, aeiiaeia c aa?’??ii Oiooei i aeniea
aoaeoeaiinoue yei? iaa?oioiaaia oai?aoe/ii i iiaeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/ii.
Ae?ioaii i?iaeaio oaa?aeioieueii? iioaa?aoei? AII iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia. Aeineiaeaeaii aieea eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiai/ieo oa
aenieoaoaoeieieo /eiieeia ia oaea?io noieeinoue, no?oeoo?o i oaciaee
neeaae oianoiieiaeiaeo ?acenoi?ia ia iniiai na?ieieo iano. Iaa?oioiaaii
?o canoinoaaiiy i?e aeaioiaeaiii iie?iieao iiooaeieo AII iiioeuenieo
iiaeoeyoi?ia no?oio. ?ic?iaeaii i ai?iaaaeaeaii iiai eiino?oeoei?,
iaoa?iaee i oaoiieiai? aeaioiaeaiiy no?oeoo?, aeoeaieo i ianeaieo
aeaiaioia iie?inoai i iie?icai?ie AII, niiniae aeii?thaaiiy ia?aiao?ia,
yei iie?aueee oiceei-oaoii/ii oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiaeaeueee aeoiae
i?eaeaoieo i oi/iinoue aeaioiaeaiiy, noaaieueiinoue i iaaeieiinoue
ooieoeiiioaaiiy, cieceee e?eoe/ii aaaa?eoii-aaaiai iieacieee,
caaacia/eee i?aoeacaeaoiinoue AII iiioeuenieo iiaeoeyoi?ia a aei?noeeo
oiiaao aei? iiaeaeuaieo eeiiaoe/ieo i iaoaii/ieo /eiieeia.
I?iiiiothoueny iiai i?ia?aiii-iaoiaee/ii eiiieaene aeey caaacia/aiiy
iane?icii? aaoiiaoecaoei? ?ic?iaee i aeaioiaeaiiy EAe AII, cie?aia
iaoaii/ieo aeaoaeae oa aoceia eiino?oeoeie iiaeoeia IAA, yei aeicaieeee
nei?ioeoe ianya i oa?iiie ?ic?iaee EAe.

Eeth/iai neiaa: iaiiai?iaiaeieeiaa iioaa?aeueia no?oeoo?a, iaoaiaoe/ia
iiaeaethaaiiy, iioeiicaoeiy, iioaa?aeueia noaia, oi?ioaa/ iiooaeieo
iaiinaeoiaeieo iiioeuenia, iiioeueniee iiaeoeyoi?, aia?eaeiee
iioaa?aeueiee iiaeoeue, eiino?oeoeiy, oaoiieiaiy, aaoiiaoecaoeiy.

Nia?eei E.I. Eioaa?aeueiua oi?ie?iaaoaee iiuiuo iaiinaeoiaeiuo
eiioeuenia e ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiua ono?ienoaa ia eo iniiaa.-?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.12.13.-Ono?ienoaa ?aaeeioaoieee e n?aaenoa
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee.-Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao «Eueaianueea
iieioaoiiea», Eueaia, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iiuoeaiiiai
ecaioiaeaiey iiaiai eeanna iieoi?iaiaeieeiauo EN-oi?ie?iaaoaeae iiuiuo
iaiinaeoiaeiuo eiioeuenia (EN OIINE) o?aiaoeeeaeaeueiie oi?iu n
?acaeaeueiui oi?ie?iaaieai o?iioa e niaaea, i?iecaieueii ?aaoee?iaaiiui
iaeeiiii aa?oeiu eiioeuena e ia eo iniiaa iaeiaaaa?eoiuo
aea?eaeii-eioaa?aeueiuo iiaeoeae (AEI) eiioeueniuo iiaeoeyoi?ia
iiauoaiiie iiuiinoe aeey aaia?aoi?ia nia?aiaiiuo ai?oiauo
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?YN ieeeeiao?iaiai aeeaiaciia aiei, eioi?ua
?aaioatho a aeanoeeo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee, a oaeaea iiaoo oe?iei
i?eiaiyoueny a ae?oaeo io?aneyo iaoee e oaoieee aeeaiaciia EA* (30
…300 AAoe). ?ac?aaioaiu iaoaiaoe/aneea iiaeaee, aaeaeaaoii
iienuaathuea AAO iiuiiai eioaa?aeueiiai aeiiey?iiai o?aicenoi?a i?e
ia?aoiaea a ?aaeei iie/aneiai eaaceianuuaiey e ?ani?aaeaeaiea ieioiinoe
oiea a eioaa?aeueiie aeeiaeiie no?oeoo?a n aa?uea?ii Oiooee a ?aaeeia
ia?aoiaea aei aunieiai o?iaiy eiaeaeoeee iainiiaiuo iineoaeae ca?yaea,
eioi?ua nouanoaaiii ii?aaeaeytho eo auniei/anoioiua e eiioeueniua
oa?aeoa?enoeee. Iieo/aii ?yae aiaeeoe/aneeo au?aaeaiee e ?ac?aaioaiu
iaoiaeeee, i?ia?aiiu ?an/aoia e iioeiecaoeee iiuiuo eiioeueniuo
eioaa?aeueiuo n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia e aeeiaeia n aa?uea?ii Oiooee,
?aaioathueo a aeoeaiii ?aaeeia n aieueoie neaaaeiinoueth ei?ioeeo
eiioeuenia i?e iacia/eoaeueiii oaieiauaeaeaiee e iicaieythuea
ii?aaeaeeoue eiino?oeoeeth e aaiiao?e/aneea ?acia?u no?oeoo?u
o?aicenoi?ia e aeeiaeia, oa?aeoa?ecothueony i?e caaeaiiie aaee/eia
?aai/aai oiea ieieiaeueiuie cia/aieyie aieinoae ia?aoiaeiuo i?ioeannia
ia?aeeth/aiey. I?aaeeiaeaiu iiaua eiino?oeoeaiua ?aoaiey oeenaoeee
?aaeeia ?aaiou iiuiuo eioaa?aeueiuo aeiiey?iuo o?aicenoi?ia, iicaieeaoea
eneeth/eoue eo ianuuaiea. ?ac?aaioaia iiaay eiino?oeoeey
aunieiaieueoiiai ai?eciioaeueiiai IAeI-o?aicenoi?a n eiaeooee?iaaiiui
p-eaiaeii, eioi?ay iicaieeea ?aaeeciaaoue a ninoaaa iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie
EN eaneaaeu ia aeiiieiythueo ii oeio i?iaiaeeiinoe o?aicenoi?ao e
nicaeaoue eioaa?aeueiua iaeiaa?oe?oaiua oneeeoaee iiuiuo iaiinaeoiaeiuo
eiioeuenia. Enneaaeiaaiu oece/aneea iaoaieciu ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iiuiuo
eioaa?aeueiuo o?aicenoi?iuo e aeeiaeiuo no?oeoo?. Iainiiaaia
oai?aoe/anee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/anee i?aaeeiaeaiiay iao/iay
eiioeaioeey nicaeaiey EN OIINE, eioi?ua eioaa?e?otho iiaua
eiino?oeoi?nei-oaoiieiae/aneea ?aoaiey aunieiaieueoiuo e
auno?iaeaenoaothueo no?oeoo? n-p-n o?aicenoi?ia, IAeI-o?aicenoi?ia n
eiaeooee?iaaiiui p-eaiaeii, aeeiaeia n aa?uea?ii Oiooee. ?aoaia i?iaeaia
oaa?aeioaeueiie eioaa?aoeee AEI eiioeueniuo iiaeoeyoi?ia. ?ac?aaioaiu
no?oeoo?iay, ooieoeeiiaeueiay e yeaeo?e/aneea noaiu EN OIINE e AEI
eiioeueniuo iiaeoeyoi?ia iiauoaiiie iiuiinoe. Enneaaeiaaii aeeyiea
eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneeo e yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo oaeoi?ia ia oaea?ioth
noieeinoue, no?oeoo?o e oaciaue ninoaa oienoiieaii/iuo ?acenoi?ia ia
iniiaa na?eeiuo iano. Iainiiaaii eo i?eiaiaiea i?e ecaioiaeaiee
iee?iieao iiuiuo AEI eiioeueniuo iiaeoeyoi?ia oiea. ?ac?aaioaiu e
aiaae?aiu iiaua eiino?oeoeee, iaoa?eaeu e oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey
no?oeoo?, aeoeaiuo e ianneaiuo yeaiaioia iee?inoai e iee?inai?ie AEI,
niiniau ecia?aiey ia?aiao?ia, eioi?ua oeo/oeee oeceei-oaoie/aneea
oa?aeoa?enoeee, iiauneee auoiae aiaeiuo e oi/iinoue ecaioiaeaiey,
noaaeeueiinoue e iaaeaaeiinoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, nieceee e?eoe/aneea
aaaa?eoii-aaniaua iieacaoaee, iaania/eee ?aaioiniiniaiinoue AEI
eiioeueniuo iiaeoeyoi?ia a aeanoeeo oneiaeyo aicaeaenoaey iiauoaiiuo
eeeiaoe/aneeo e iaoaie/aneeo oaeoi?ia. I?aaeeaaathony iiaua
i?ia?aiiii-iaoiaee/aneea eiiieaenu aeey iaania/aiey neaiciie
aaoiiaoecaoeee ?ac?aaioee e ecaioiaeaiey EAe AEI, a /anoiinoe,
iaoaie/aneeo aeaoaeae e oceia eiino?oeoeee iiaeoeae IYA, eioi?ua
iicaieeee nie?aoeoue iauai e n?iee ?ac?aaioee EAe.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: iieoi?iaiaeieeiaay eioaa?aeueiay no?oeoo?a,
iaoaiaoe/aneia iiaeaee?iaaiea, iioeiecaoeey, eioaa?aeueiay noaia,
oi?ie?iaaoaeue iiuiuo iaiinaeoiaeiuo eiioeuenia, eiioeueniue iiaeoeyoi?,
aea?eaeiue eioaa?aeueiue iiaeoeue, eiino?oeoeey, oaoiieiaey,
aaoiiaoecaoeey.

Smerklo L.M. Integrated drivers of high-power nanosecond pulses and
microelectronic devices on their basis. -Manuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 05.12.13 -Devices of
radioengineering and telecommunication. -State University «Lviv
Polytechnic», Lviv, 1999.

The dissertation is devoted to design and production of new class of
semiconductor IC-drivers of high-power nanosecond trapeziumform pulses
(IC DPNSP) with separate formation of front and fall, free regulated
pulse apex inclination and on their basis elaboration and manufacturing
of small hybrid-integrated modules (HIM) of high-power pulse modulators
for modern on-board specialised mm-band radar-tracking station that
works at severe constraints of operation and can also find wide
application at different branches of techniques and science. The
physical mechanism of IC DPNSP operation was investigated, mathematical
and physical models were elaborated and the new conception for design of
IC DPNSP was proposed. These ICs integrate new constructive and
technological solutions of high-voltage and high-speed structures of
n-p-n transistors, p-channel MOSFET transistors, Schottky barrier
diodes. The effectiveness of proposed conception was proved
theoretically and practically. The problem of pulse modulator HIM
solid-state integration was solved. The influence of constructive,
technological and operational factors on shock stability, phase
structure of thick-film resistors on the base of serial inks was
investigated. Their application in production of high-power HIM of pulse
current modulator was proven. The new construction, materials and
manufacturing technology for structure, active and passive elements of
microcircuits and microassemble HIM, methods of parameters’ measurement
were elaborated and introduced. They allow to improve physical and
technical characteristics, increase output of effective devices,
production precision, operation stability and reliability, reduce
critical dimension and weight factors, provide functioning of pulse
modulator HIM at severe climatic and mechanical constraints. New
program&method complexes for providing of through automated elaboration
and production of HIM design documentation are proposed. It concerns to
mechanical units and microelectronic equipment modules what allows to
reduce scope and time of design documentation elaboration.

Key words: semiconductor integrated structure, mathematical simulation,
optimisation, integrated circuit, high-power nanosecond pulse driver,
pulse modulator, hybrid integrated module, construction, technology,
automatisation.

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