Геомеханічні основи розробки і вибору комбінованих способів кріплення вертикальних стовбурів у структурно неоднорідних породах: Автореф. дис… д-ра т

I?I?NOA?NOAI INA?OE OE?A?IE

IAOe?IIAEUeIA A??IE*A AEAAeAI?ss OE?A?IE

EAA?O A?eoi? Aieiaeeie?iae/

OAeE 622.831+622.25:550.8.07.08

AAIIAOAI?*I? INIIAE ?IC?IAEE ? AEAI?O

EIIA?IIAAIEO NIINIA?A E??IEAIIss

AA?OEEAEUeIEO NOIAAO??A O NO?OEOO?II

IAIAeII??AeIEO II?IAeAO

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 05.15.04 – “Oaooia ? i?aecaiia aoae?aieoeoai”

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Aei?i?iiao?ianuee

1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia a ?inoeooo? aaioaoi?/ii? iaoai?ee (?AOI) IAI Oe?a?ie ?
o?ano? “Aeiiaoeueeoaooii?io?aeea”

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeaaeai?e Aeaaeai?? a??ie/eo iaoe Oe?a

?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eo ?AOI IAI
Oe?a?ie ONA*AIEI Ai?en Ie?iiiae/.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeaaeai?e AAI Oe?a?ie, aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,
i?ioani? OTH?EssI ?aoo? A?iaiaeiae/,

aieiaa i?aae?iiy a?aee?eoiai aeoe?iia?iiai oiaa?enoaa
i?iaeoii-oaoiieia?/iee o?ano “I?aoaooaooiaoae”

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

CAAeI?IAEI?E Ieaen?e Ieoaeeiae/,

caa?aeoth/ee eaoaae?ith oaooiiai ? i?aecaiiiai aoae?aieoeoaa
E?eai??cueeiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo

aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

IA?*AANUeEEE Eaii?ae sseiae/,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e ia?eoaeaea??? Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai??
Oe?a?ie

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Eiiieaeniee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiee ?
oaoiieia?/ii-eiino?oeoi?nueeee ?inoeooo ii i?iaeaiai Oeaio?aeueiiai
?aeiio Aeiiaano I?i?noa?noaa aoa?eueii? i?iieneiaino? Oe?a?ie (i.
Ai?e?aea).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “26 ” __03______ 1999 ?. i _14__ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 08.080.04 i?e Iaoe?iiaeuei?e
a??ie/?e aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie (320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee – 27, i?. E.
Ia?ena, 19).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Iaoe?iiaeueii?
a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie ca aae?anith: 320027, i. Aei?i?iiao?ianuee –
27, i?. E. Ia?ena, 19.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “_23__” __02_______ 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieo. oaoi. iaoe
A.I. ?i?iei

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Noai oa aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie. Caaea/a aa?aioiaaiiai caaacia/aiiy
Oe?a?ie aoa?eeyi, yea ? aieiaiei aia?aiiin??i, iio?aao? aoae?aieoeoaa
iiaeo ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo aoa?eueieo oaoo. Iaea?eueo aaaiiith
caaea/ath a oeueiio ieai? ? nii?oaeaeaiiy ? iiaeeaeaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a – eai?oaeueieo a??ie/eo ae?iaie, a?ae aenieoaoaoe?eii?
iaae?eiino? yeeo caeaaeeoue ?eoi?/i?noue oa aeiiii?/i?noue ?iaioe oaoo.
Cia/ia ciaioaiiy inoaii?i /anii ianya?a ? oaii?a i?io?aeee noiaao??a
noaei i?e/eiaie a?aenoaaaiiy o i?aeaioiaoe? iiaeo ai?eciio?a,
?aeiino?oeoe?? aoa?eueieo oaoo o ?aioaaaeuei? oa?i?ie, oneeaaeiaiiy noai
?o i?ia?o?thaaiiy oa i?aecaiieo o?ainii?oieo nenoai. ?ioaineo?eaoe?y
nii?oaeaeaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a noaaeoue ?yae i?iaeai, ?c yeeo iaeia c
aaaeeeaeo oea i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino?, oaoiieia?/iino? ? iaae?eiino?
?o e??ieaiiy.

I?aeoeea na?ae/eoue, ui ia aeeaeyenue ia iaai? oaoi?/i? aeinyaiaiiy o
oeueiio, e??ieaiiy noiaao??a caeeoa?oueny iaoa??aei- e o?oaeii?noeei,
iaeii?iaeoeoeaiei ? ia? cia/io aoae?aaeueio aa?o?noue. Aa?o?noue
nii?oaeaeaiiy noiaao??a neeaaea? 30-50% aa?oino? a??ie/eo ae?iaie oaooe,
a aeo?aoe ia iaoa??aee aeey e??ieaiiy ia?aaeuothoue 70-80% ?o aa?oino?.
Iaoiiaeaii oea oei, ui c ia?aoiaeii a??ie/eo ?ia?o ia aeeaeio aei
500-1300 i cia/ii iia??oeeenue oiiae ?o i?iaaaeaiiy, o ca’yceo c oeei
i?iaeoia iano/a caeaoi?noue e??ieaiiy i?aeaeuaia a 2 ?ace, aeo?aoe
iaoaeo ? aaoiio c?inee a 1,5-2,0 ?ace, o?oaeii?noe?noue ae?inea a 2-2,5
?ace, a i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ciaioeeanue a 1,3-1,8 ?ace. Ia
aeeaey/enue ia cia/i? o?iainia? ? iaoa??aeuei? aeo?aoe ia nii?oaeaeaiiy
noiaao??a, a oiio /ene? ? ia e??ieaiiy, ca?aeii aeaieo IAe?IIOA, iaeaea
48% noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo iathoue aeaoi?iiaaia e??ieaiiy, a 50% ?o
niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie iio?aaothoue oa?i?iiaiai
?aiiioo. Aaaaeathoue, ui iniiaieie i?e/eiaie aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a ? neeaaei? iaia?aaeaa/ai? a??ie/i-aaieia?/i? oiiae (32,1%),
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue oaoiieia?e e??ieaiiy (33,6%) iniaeeainoyi iaoai?cio
i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo, iaa?aooaaiiy i?aeneeaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?ii?
oa iaoai?/ii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae, aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia
noiaao?e c aeeaeiith ?ia?o oa ?io? oaeoi?e. Oaeei /eiii, a oiiaao
cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiioaiue a aeiiii?eo, aeao?oeeoo o?iainiaeo
? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, ae??oaiiy iaei??? ?c aaaeeeaeo caaea/
aoa?eueii? aaeoc? – aoae?aieoeoai, iiaeeaeaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?y
aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a oaoo iiaeii? i?iaiaeeoeny i?e cae?eniaii?
aeoeaii? ?ano?nicaa??aath/i? iie?oeee, ui ciaioeoue ieoiio aaao aa?oino?
e??ieaiiy noiaao??a o nia?aa?oino? aoa?eey. Noai, yeee neeaany o
a?aenoaaaii? nii?oaeaeaiiy noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a cia/i?e i???
iia’ycaiee ?c aeeni?iii?oe?yie a aeiiii?oe?, ? ae?ae iaeeie e?i?oiaaieie
eai?oaeueieie aeeaaeaiiyie a oaooia aoae?aieoeoai. Iaaenieee ??aaiue
oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a iaoiiaeth?oueny ia?o
ca ana iecueeith iaoeiaith iaa?oioiaai?noth i?iaeooaaiiy aoae?aieoeoaa,
?ic?iaie ii oaoi?/iei ? oaoiieia?/iei ??oaiiyi, ui no?eio? ??no
iieaciee?a aoaeoeaiino? ? ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, ineaaeaiiyi ae?iaie/i?
aace oaooiaoae?aaeueieo i?aai?caoe?e.

Aeeiiaieie a?oioiaieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie IAe?IIOA, AIAeI?, AeiiAOA?,
Oe?IAeI?, IAe?AI ?i. I.I. Oaaei?iaa, ?AOI ? AeiiOO? IAI Oe?a?ie, IA?,
OoeI?, IAeA??, Iaoe?iiaeueii? a??ie/i? aeaaeai?? Oe?a?ie, E?eai??cueeei,
Aeiiaoeueeei ? Ee?anueeei oaoi?/ieie oi?aa?neoaoaie, i?iaeoieie
(“Aei?i?iae?i?ioaoo”, “Aeiiae?i?ioaoo”, “I?aaeaiae?i?ioaoo”)
i?aai?caoe?yie noai?aia iaeaaeia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia aaca, yea caaacia/eea
?aaeueiee i?ia?an o i?iaeooaaii?, nii?oaeaeaii? oa aenieoaoaoe?? oaooieo
noiaao??a. Aea caaea/? i?aeaeuaiiy iiaiioe ? aeinoia??iino? aeaieo i?i
e?oieiai-no?oeoo?io ? i?oei?nio iaiaeii??aei?noue ii??ae, ioe?iee ?o
aieeao ia ye?ni? ? e?euee?ni? iieacieee a??nueeiai oeneo, i?iyaeaiiy i?e
oeueiio aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?e caeeoathoueny eeth/iaeie a
?ice?eoo? iaoai?cio aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee
ianea” ? iaa?oiooaaii? eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue i?aeaeuaiiy
?o no?eeino?.

Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy inoaii?o ?ie?a a aaeoc? iaoai?ee
a??nueeeo ii??ae ? i?aecaiieo nii?oae aeicaieythoue ooaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui
iiooe ? ?ic?iaea iiaeo ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith oaooieo noiaao??a iiaeii?
cae?enithaaoeny a ia?oo /a?ao ia ca ?aooiie i?aeaeuaiiy
iaoa??aeii?noeino? ? iano/i? caeaoiino? e??ieaiiy, aea aieiaiei /eiii,
ca ?aooiie noai?aiiy eiia?iiaaieo ioi?iiieo eiino?oeoe?e noiaao??a, ye?
caaacia/oaaee a caaaeueiinenoaiiee ea?iaaiee aieea ?aaoeyoeaieie
caniaaie ia i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ii??ae ? e??ieaiiy, iaee a
noaiioeiaeuei? ia?aiao?e ? iiieaeoaaee ia??aiii??i? aneiao?e/i?
iaaaioaaeaiiy ia noiaao?e. Aiae?c noaio oaoi?ee ? oaoiieia?? o oeueiio
ieai? iieaco?, ui oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? ?ic?iaea aaiiaoai?/ieo
iniia noai?aiiy ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo
niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo, ye?
i?ioiaeyoueny o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ianeaao ii??ae, ? aeooaeueiith
iaoeiaith i?iaeaiith. Ae??oaiith oe??? i?iaeaie, ui ia? aaaeeeaa
i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy, ? i?enay/aia oey aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie ? oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia
?iaioa aeeiiaia a?aeiia?aeii aei iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?ia?ai IAI Oe?a?ie,
I?iaoaeai?iio Oe?a?ie, ca oaiaoe/ieie ieaiaie ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie ii
aea?aeathaeaeaoi?e oai? “Iaoeia? iniiae aaoiiaoeciaaiiai eiio?ieth
aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a o aoaeaii?iaeiiio ianea? i?e
a??ie/i-oaoiieia?/ieo ?iaioao”, ainoai? ? 852 “Aeeiiaoe aaio?ce/io
ae?aaiinoeeo noaio e??ieaiiy ? ii??ae i?eeiioo?ii? ciie aa?oeeaeueieo
oaooieo noiaao??a aeey iaa?oiooaaiiy caoiae?a ii i?aeaeuaiith ?o
no?eeino?”, ca?aeii aei i?ia?ai iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo
i?aai?caoe?? ? iaoai?caoe?? oaooiiai aoae?aieoeoaa (IAe?IIOA). Oaooi?
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeiioaaeenue aaoi?ii i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??
aoa?eueieo oaoo o Aeiiaan?.

Iaoa ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith ?iaioe ? ?ic?iaea aaiiaoai?/ieo
iniia noai?aiiy oa aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, caaacia/oth/eo
i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino?, oaoiieia?/iino? ? iaae?eiino? ?o e??ieaiiy.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy aeacaii? iaoe a aeena?oaoe?ei?e ?iaio? iinoaaeai? ?
ae??oai? oae? caaea/?:

Aeeiiaoe e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/io ioe?ieo oiia aoae?aieoeoaa aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo Aeiiaano c a?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ii? ?
i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? aaaaoioa?oaaoiai ianeao a??nueeeo ii??ae.

Aenia?eiaioaeueii iaa?oiooaaoe iaoiaeeeo oaooieo aaio?ce/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? ?ic?iaeoe ea??aieoeoai c ae?aaiinoeee noaio nenoaie
“e??ieaiiy – ii?iaeiee ianea” aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a.

Aeine?aeeoe caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy – ii?iaeiee
ianea” a aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao?ao aoa?eueieo oaoo c a?aooaaiiyi
iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae, oei?a e??ieaiiy, ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a
? aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia e??ieaiiy.

Aeeiiaoe iiaeaethaaiiy aieeao iaiaeii??aeiino? ii?iaeiiai ianeao ia noai
nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ianea” c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae
o?eaiaaiiaoai?/ii? aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oiyo eiioaeoo noiaao? – ianea ?
iiaa?oiyo eiioaeoo ii?iaeieo oa??a.

Aeeiiaoe aaiiaoai?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue
? ?ic?iaeoe oaoiieia?/i? noaie ?aae?caoe?? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a
e??ieaiiy oaooieo aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a.

Aeeiiaoe oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/io ioe?ieo ?ic?iaie ii ?acoeueoaoao ?o oaooii?
ia?aa??ee ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy a i?aeoeeo.

Iniiaia ?aeay ?iaioe iia`ycaia ?c aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeniiai
caaaeueiinenoaiiiai aoaeoo a?ae aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aeai?o e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a oa iine?aeiaii? /e ni?eueii? ?aae?caoe?? eiiieaiaioa?ieo
oiiaai ?aaoeyoeaieo cania?a a nenoai? “e??ieaiiy – iaiaeii??aeiee
ii?iaeiee ianea”, ye? caaacia/othoue aeoi? aeaiio??oaaiiy ci?uaiue
ii??ae, i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? i?eeiioo?iiai ianeao ? e??ieaiiy,
ciaioaiiy a?ae oeueiai aaee/eie oa aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?.

Iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiue. Iaoiaee/iith iniiaith ? eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae,
yeee aeeth/a?: aiae?c ? ocaaaeueiaiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo aeinyaiaiue ii
i?iaeai?; eiia??ii-noaoenoe/iee aiae?c; i?iaaaeaiiy eaai?aoi?ieo ?
oaooieo aenia?eiaio?a; aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy c canoinoaaiiyi AII ?
aeei?enoaiiyi iieiaeaiue iaoai?ee nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua ? i?aecaiieo
nii?oae; oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/iee aiae?c.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe, ui caoeuathoueny, ?o iiaecia.

Iaoeia? iieiaeaiiy:

Aaaaoioaeoi?ia ioe?iea ? i?iaiicoaaiiy oiia i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo Aeiiaano iaea?eueo aaeaeaaoii
oaeoe/iei oiiaai ioe?ith?oueny c aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic?iaeaiiai
e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo, yeee oaaee/ii iia’yco? eiiieaen
iieaciee?a aeanoeainoae oa noaio iaiaeii??aeii? aaaaoioa?oaaoi? oiau?,
ui aiae?oe/ii aecia/a?oueny iioaioe?eiei iieacieeii eiai no?eeino?
iieeaaeaiei a iniiao a?oioaaiiy oiia ? aeai?o ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith
noiaao??a.

Aeiaaio?eaaea aca?iiae?y nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee ianea”
aecia/a?oueny oeiii, ia?aiao?aie e??ieaiiy oa ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a,
ia? ae?aaeaia i?iyaeaiiy aieeao no?oeoo?ii-i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino?
ii??ae ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaaoeaiei aieeaii ia??aiii??ieo aneiao?e/ieo
iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?, ui i?iyaey?oueny a i???ioaoe?? iaeneioi?a
aneiao??? iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue (Ea = 1,2-1,4) a iai?yi?
“iaae?iiy(i?aeeiio” oa??a ii??ae ? c?inoaiiyi ?? nooi?iy ia ae?eyieao c
a?eueo neaaeeie ii?iaeaie, yea ? ? aecia/aeueiith i?e/eiith
aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy, e?eoa??aeueiei iieacieeii aaiiaoai?/iiai noaio
nenoaie, oa aeo?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th aeey aeai?o aieea?a c iaoith
ea?oaaiiy iei.

Iaoai?ci aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii?iaeiiai ianeao ai?uoth/iai noiaao? ia
iacae??ieaieo ae?eyieao ia ?aii?o noaae?yo iia’ycaiee c ooai?aiiyi aeaio
cii i?aeaeuaiiai o??ueiiooai?aiiy a oaeeo iaaeao: ia?oa ( 0-0,8 i;
ae?oaa ( 1,2-1,6 i; aeiaaio?eaaea aca?iiae?y nenoaie “e??ieaiiy ( ianea”
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny oi?ioaaiiyi a?ey noiaao??a aeoeaieo o?eaiaaiiaoai?/ieo
cii: ? ( 1,4-1,6 i; ?? ( 1,8-2,2 i; ??? ( a?eueoa 2,2 i, ui ? iniiaiith
aaiiaoai?/iith ia?aaeoiiaith aeai?o oei?a, ??ai?a oa iine?aeiaiino?
?aae?caoe?? ea?oth/eo aieea?a aeey caaacia/aiiy noaeiai noaio nenoaie.

Aca?iiee aieea aa?oeeaeueiiai noiaao?a ? i?eieeath/i? ai?eciioaeueii?
ae?iaee i?iyaey?oueny a ci?i? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a ii?iaeao
iaae ?o niieo/aiiyi oa a ii?iaeao, ai?uoth/eo inoaiith, ?
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny eaac?oaeeueiaith ci?iith a ieo iai?oaeaiue i?e
iayaiino? i?i?ioia ia a?aenoai? ??ai?e ae?aiao?o noiaao?a ? ciie eiai
aaciina?aaeiueiai aieeao i?eaeecii ??ai?e aeaii ae?aiao?ai, a?aooaaiiyi
/iai aea? aeo?aeio aaco aeey ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith niieo/aiue ae?iaie,
aeai?o eiino?oeoe?? ia?aiao??a ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a.

Aieea /a?aoaaiiy ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?nieo ii??ae ia ?o
aca?iiae?th c e??ieaiiyi noiaao?a i?iyaey?oueny a aa??aoe?? ia?aiao??a
ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e (ieanoe/iino?) ? ciie e??ieaiiy, ui
ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ae??th ianeao: ia?aiao?e ia?oi? iae?i?eii caeaaeaoue
a?ae iiooaeiino? aa?noae (neaae? ii?iaee) ? ??aiy iaaaioaaeaiiino?
ii??ae, a ae?oai? – iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii a?ae oeo aea /eiiee?a.

Canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a c aeei?enoaiiyi
?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a ??cii? i?aeaeaoeeaino? ? aei?noeino?,
eiiieaiaioa?ieo oiiaai ioi?iie noiaao??a, caaacia/o? iie?auaiiy
iieaciee?a noi?nii? ?iaioe ianeao ii??ae ? e??ieaiiy, cieaeo?
eiao?oe??io aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia iueiai aei 1,03-1,07, ui a
noeoiiino? i?aeaeuo? no?ee?noue, aeiiii?/i?noue ? iaae?ei?noue
e??ieaiiy.

Iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe:

Aia?oa ia iniia? nenoaiaoecaoe?? ? ocaaaeueiaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i
aaieiai-aaiiaoai?/i? oiiae i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a
aoa?eueieo oaoo a aaaaoioa?oaaoeo ii?iaeao iaa?oioiaai? eiao?oe??ioe ?o
e?oieiai-no?oeoo?ii? ? i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino?, oaeineiiaeaii c
a?aooaaiiyi ?aieia?/ieo iieaciee?a oi?ioeo ioe?iee i?eaaaeaii? i?oeiino?
neeaaeiino?oeoo?ii? oiau? ii?iaeieo ianea?a; anoaiiaeai? e?euee?ni?
iieacieee eiia??iino? aeaae?a c oaeeie iaaeaie aeey a?aeiia?aeieo
eaoaai??e no?eeino? ii??ae – ? – 0,11-0,47 (f ( 21), ?? – 0,29-0,56 (f (
12), ??? – 0,81-0,92 (f ( 6) – oa oeie noaoenoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae
iaaaioaaeaiue ii??ae ia e??ieaiiy, ye? iieeaaeaii a iniiao noai?aiiy
e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo, ui a?oio? i’youe oei?a oiia e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a, ? ? ?o ae?aaiinoe/iith aacith oa aea? iiaeeea?noue ioe?ieoe
iai?yie aeeoa?aioe?eiiai aeai?o eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue
ioi?iie noiaao??a.

Anoaiiaeaia noeoii?noue iniiaieo ?ioi?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a noaio
aaiiaoa??ae?a ? iaoa??ae?a eiino?oeoe?e e??ieaiiy oa ?aaoeyoeaieo
aeaiaio?a a oiiaao aeia?aie/ieo ? iicaiaaeiaeo iaoai?/ieo iaaaioaaeaiue,
ioe?ithaaieo iaoiaeii aaio?ce/ii? ae?aaiinoeee ca aeaeo?iiii?ii, ??aiai
i?e?iaeiiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, aiie?ooaeith ?
niaeo?aeueiei neeaaeii a?eueieo eieeaaiue, ae?aeaeo?e/iith i?iieei?noth
na?aaeiaeua, aeei?enoaiiy yeeo a eiiieaen? aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe
iiaee i?aeo?ae aei iia?aoeaii? ioe?iee noiaao??a o oe?ieiio ae?aiacii?
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia ? oieeiooe iaiaeiicia/iino? i?e ?ioa?i?aoaoe??
?acoeueoao?a aei??thaaiue a oaooieo noiaao?ao.

Anoaiiaeaii ia iniia? oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue ? niinoa?aaeaiue a
noiaao?ao caeiiii??iino? ? iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – ii?iaeiee ianea”, ye? a?aoiaothoue
aieea no?oeoo?ii? ? i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae, aaiiaoai?/i? ?
a??ie/i-oaoiieia?/i? oaeoi?e ? aecia/athoue: ye?ni? ? e?euee?ni?
iieacieee oeueiai i?ioeano, ui iia’ycai? c iaaaoeaiith ae??th aneiao???
iaaaioaaeaiue ia e??ieaiiy noiaao?a; iaea?eueo ?iia??i? ciie
i?aeaeuaiiai ??aiy, ye? i?eoaiaii? iai?yieo iaae?iith – i?aeeiio oa??a ?
oiauai c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie; iniaeeaino? ? e?euee?ni? ia?aiao?e cii
aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ii??ae a?ey noiaao??a ? iaae niieo/aiiyie;
eaac?oaeeueiao ci?io ??aiy iai?oa a i?eeiioo?ieo ii?iaeao i?eieeath/i?
aei noiaao?o ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee; iayai?noue ca’yceo i?ae
iiooaei?noth aa?noa ii??ae, ?o i?oei?noth ? ?ioaineai?noth aeaae?a o
noiaao?ao, ui aeei?enoaii aeey noai?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?eioeei?a
eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy ? aeai?o iaea?eueo ?aoe?iiaeueieo
niieo/aiue iniiaiiai e??ieaiiy noiaao??a ? eiiieaiaioa?ieo ?aaoeyoeaieo
aeaiaio?a.

Eiii’thoa?iei iiaeaethaaiiyi ia aac? i?inoi?iai? caaea/? iaoai?ee
a??nueeeo ii??ae aeine?aeaeaii aieea /a?aoaaiiy ??ciiiiooaeieo ?
??ciii?oei?nieo oa??a ii??ae ia noai aeaoi?ioaaiiy nenoaie “e??ieaiiy
noiaao?o – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – iaiaeii??aeiee ianea” c a?aooaaiiyi
aca?iiae?? ia iiaa?oi? noiaao? – ianea ? ia iiaa?oi? iiae?eo oa??a aeey
o?ueio oei?a a?aie/ieo oiia: iiaiiai c/aieaiiy, aeaionoi?iiiueiai
eiioaeoo c oa?oyi Eoeiia oa iaeiinoi?iiiueiai aeaaeeiai eiioaeoo,
?acoeueoaoe /iai iieeaaeaii aeey noai?aiiy i?eioeei?a aeai?o ea?oth/eo
aieea?a ? ia?aiao??a ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a aeey i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino?
noiaao??a.

?ic?iaeai? aaiiaoai?/i? iniiae aeai?o oa iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai?
eiino?oeoe?? ? ia?aiao?e eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoueny i?aeaeuaiiyi ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy i?e ioi?ii?
noiaao??a.

Iaa?oioiaai?noue ? a??ia?aei?noue iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, iniiaieo
aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny noaoenoe/ii cia/eiei
ianyaii eaai?aoi?ieo ? oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue, ii?aeiaiiyi oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi ai?iaiaaieo iaoiaeee ?
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo iieiaeaiue iaoai?ee nooe?eueiiai na?aaeiaeua, oai???
eiia??iino?, iaoaiaoe/ii? noaoenoeee ? AII, caaeia?eueiith ca?aei?noth
?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a ? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue
(?ica?aei?noue ia ia?aaeuo? 20%); iiceoeaieie ?acoeueoaoaie ia?aa??ee ?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiyi a ae?iaieoeoai oaoi?/ieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue a
oiiaao aoae?aieoeoaa iiaeo ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? ae?th/eo oaoo.

Iaoeiaa cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ?icaeoeo oai?aoe/ieo ?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo iniia iaoai?ee a??nueeeo ii??ae ? i?aecaiieo nii?oae
uiaei anoaiiaeaiiy iiaeo caeiiii??iinoae aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – iaiaeii??aeiee ianea ii??ae”:

aaaaeai? iia? iieacieee, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue no?oeoo?io ? i?oei?nio
iaiaeii??aei?noue aaaaoioa?oaaoeo ii??ae, ?o no?ee?noue a iaieaiiyo, ye?
iieeaaeai? a iniiao aecia/aiiy iioaioe?eiiai eiao?oe??ioa no?eeino?
ianeao;

anoaiiaeai? iia? caeiiii??iino? aca?iiae?? ??cieo oei?a e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a c neeaaeiino?oeoo?iei iaiaeii??aeiei ii?iaeiei ianeaii i?e
??cieo aeaeao ea?iaaieo aieea?a ia iueiai;

aecia/aii o?ceei-iaoai?/io nooo?a?noue i?ioean?a aeaoi?ioaaiiy ?
io?eiai? e?euee?ni? iieacieee oi?ioaaiiy cii aeac?ioaa?aoe?? ii??ae ia
iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyieao e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ?o niieo/aiiyo ? o
i?eieeath/eo aei ieo ai?eciioaeueieo ae?iaeao;

aeaia iiaa oyaeaiiy c e?euee?niith ioe?ieith aca?iiae?? e??ieaiiy
noiaao?a ?c aa?noaaie ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?nieo ii??ae i?e ??cieo
oiiaao ?o iaaaioaaeaiiy oa eiioaeooaaiiy; ?ic?iaeai? aaiiaoai?/i? iniiae
iaa?oiooaaiiy oa aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a o
no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao;

aecia/ai? ia?niaeoeae ? iai?yiee iiaeaeueoeo aeine?aeaeaiue o aaeoc?
o?eaiaaiiaoai?ee ? a?aa?neia?aaoeee ii?iaeiiai ianeao.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe iieyaa? a ianooiiiio:

o aeei?enoaii? e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo ioe?iee oiia i?io?aeee ?
e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a a Aeiiaan? ye iniiae aeey
i?iaeooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue ii ?o e??ieaiith;

a ?ic?iaoe? “?oeiaiaenoaa ii aaioece/aneie aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey
nenoaiu “e?aiue ( ii?iaeiue iannea” aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia (Aeiiieiaiea e
“Iiniaeth ii ainnoaiiaeaieth e?aie e a?ie?iaee aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia.
?Ae. 12.18.073(88”)”, yea caoaa?aeaeaia ia ??ai? aaeoc? ? ? ea??aiei
ii?iaoeaiei aeieoiaioii;

o ?ic?iaoe? “?oeiaiaenoaa ii i?iecaiaenoao ?aaio niiniaii iioneiie e?aie
a oeenio?iiiie ?oaaoea i?e i?ioiaeea aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia oaoo e
nii?oaeaiee iaaeoaieiai caeiaeaiey”, yea caoaa?aeaeaia ia ??ai? aaeoc?;

o ?ic?iaoe? ?icae?e?a “Eino?oeoeee ii ?aiiioo e i?eiaiaieth iaeaa/aiiuo
aeaeia e?aiae n aiea?aie a aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieao. ?Ae. 12.18.089(90”;

o ?ic?iaoe? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo
oaoo c aeei?enoaiiyi ??cieo ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a, ye? caoeuai? ?
aaoi?nueeeie na?aeioeoaaie (1624168, SU, A21D 5/00; 1744260, SU, E21D
7/02);

o ?ic?iaoe? oaoiieia?e ? oaoiieia?/ieo noai canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo
niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo ?
oe?ieiianooaaiiio ?o ai?iaaaeaeaii? i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ? ?aeiino?oeoe??
noiaao??a oa ?o niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie, ye?
caaacia/othoue i?aeaeuaiiy a 1,15-1,25 ?ace i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ?
iaeii/ania ciaioaiiy a 1,1-1,15 ?ace caaaeueieo aeo?ao;

o ?ic?iaoe? o/aiaiai iin?aieea ca eo?nii “Oaoiieiaey nii?oaeaiey ai?iuo
au?aaioie a neiaeiuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo (niaoeeaeueiua niiniau
no?ieoaeuenoaa)” oa iaoiaee/ieo aeac?aie ii eiai aea/aiith.

?aae?caoe?y aeniiae?a ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e ?iaioe:

ea??aieoeoai c aaio?ce/ii? ae?aaiinoeee aeei?enoaia i?e ioe?ioe? noaio
aa?oeeaeueieo noaiao??a ia oaooao: ?i. I.A. Noaoaiiaa (noiaao?e ??
4,5,7,8), “Ci?y”, “Eo?ao?anueea”, “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee”,
“E?aniieeiainueea”, “A?eica?nueea”, “Eiiniiieaoeue Aeiiaano”, “I?ia?an”
oa ?i.;

iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe aeei?enoai? i?e ?ic?iaoe? ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a oa
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a ?iaioao iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo i?aai?caoe?? ?
iaoai?caoe?? oaooiiai aoae?aieoeoaa (IAeIIIOA);

ia oaoo? ?i. I.A. Noaoaiiaa ai?iaaaeaeai? eiia?iiaai? niiniae e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a ia iniia? niieo/aiiy iiiie?oiiai aaoiio, aiea?iiai e??ieaiiy ?
oaiiiiaaeo, iiaea?eieo iaoaeaaeo iaieiiie, oi?ioaaiiyi e?eueoeaaeo u?eei
oa ?i.; ai?iaaaeaeai? ?aae?aeueii-i?aeaeaoeea? oa ai/eiaeaei? e??ieaiiy
ia niieo/aiiyo noaiao??a c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie;

ia oaoo? “Eo?ao?anueea” ai?iaaaeaeaii eiia?iiaaiee niin?a oi?ioaaiiy a
aeeaei? ianeao ii??ae aeaiio??oth/iai e?eueoey ?c canoinoaaiiyi
o?i?/iiai oaiiiiaaeo oa oi?ioaaiiy a?ociiano/i? iaieiiee a?ey eiioo?o
e??ieaiiy noiaao?a ia iniia? iai?aai?/ieo a’yaeo/eo;

ia oaooao “?icneiiyinueea”, ?i. I.I. Eae?i?ia a ciiao i?aeaeuaiiai
a??nueeiai oeneo canoiniaaia i?aeaeaoeeaa e??ieaiiy c aeaoi?iaoe?eieie
oaaie oa aeei?enoaiiyi eiiiainaoi??a ei?ia/aoeo i?ia?aeiee?a;

ia oaoo? “E?aniieeiainueea” i?ae /an i?ioiaeee ae?ea noiaao?a
ai?iaaaeaeaia iioneia e??ieaiiy;

?ic?iaeai? oaoiieia?? oa oaoiieia?/i? noaie ?o ?aae?caoe?? aeei?enoai? a
i?iaeoao ?inoeooo?a, ?aeiiaiaeaoe?yo c aoae?aieoeoaa oa iiaeeaeaiiy
noiaao??a.

Aeei?enoaiiy ?ic?iaie, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeoaie, aeicaieeei
ciaioeoe eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ia 10-15%, i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue
i?aoe? ia 15-25%, ciaioeoe aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai
e??ieaiiy, ?icoe?eoe canoinoaaiiy aiea?iiai oa aaoiiiiai ooo/iiai
e??ieaiiy a neeaaeieo aaioaoi?/ieo oiiaao.

Aeaeea?aoe?y eiie?aoiiai iniaenoiai aianeo a ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, aeianaieo ia caoeno, iieyaa?: a oi?ioethaaii? i?iaeaie,
iaoe, caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue; noaoenoe/iiio aiae?c?
? iaa?oiooaaii? iieaciee?a no?oeoo?ii-iaoai?/ii? iaiaeii??aeiino?
aaaaoioa?oaaoeo ianea?a ii??ae oa iioaioe?eiiai iieacieea ?o no?eeino? a
iaieaiiyo; ?ic?iaoe? iaoiaeeee ? e?eoa???a aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae??
e??ieaiiy noiaao??a c ii?iaeaie; ia?iaoe? ?acoeueoao?a oaooieo
aeine?aeaeaiue ? iaa?oiooaaii? iiaiai oyaeaiiy i?i iaoai?ci
aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii??ae a?ey noiaao??a oa ?o niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie
ae?iaeaie; o iinoaiiaoe? aiae?oe/ii? caaea/? ? aiae?c? ?acoeueoao?a
eiii’thoa?iiai iiaeaethaaiiy; ?ic?iaoe? iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo i?eioeei?a
aeai?o ea?oth/eo aieea?a ia nenoaio e??ieaiiy noiaao??a oa eiino?oeoe?e
eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a ?o ioi?iie; ai?iaaaeaeaii? ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiue o ae?iaieoeoai.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ? iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? ii e??ieaiith a??ie/eo ae?iaie (Iaaeia?aae, 1995),
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii i?iaeaiai ? ia?niaeoeaai inai?iiy
?iaeiaeu ei?enieo eiiaeei (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1997, 1998), ii eiio?ieth
i?e?iaeii-oaoiiaaiieo nenoai (sseoa, 1996; Euea?a, 1996; Ooea, 1996); ii
i?iaeaiai a?ae?iaaiiaoai?ee a a??ie/ee ni?aa? ? aoae?aieoeoa? (Ee?a,
1996), a oaeiae ia iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ieo eiioa?aioe?yo ii
ia?eoaeaea?nueeiio caaacia/aiith a??ie/eo ?ia?o (Aeiiaoeuee, 1995),
aoae?aaeueiei eiino?oeoe?yi (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996), e??ieaiith
aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a oaoo (?inoia-ia-Aeiio, 1997). Ie?ai? ?icae?ee
?iaioe aeiiia?aeaeeny ia oaoi?/i?e ?aae? o?anoo
“Aeiiaoeueeoaooii?io?aeea” (Aeiiaoeuee, 1994-1998), iaoeiaeo nai?ia?ao
?AOI IAIO Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1996-1998), ia’?aeiaiiio nai?ia??
eaoaae? IAA Oe?a?ie (Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1998).

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? iiooeoaa/ai iioae?eiaaii 35 ?ia?o, o
oiio /ene?: iaeia iiiia?ao?y, noaoo?, aeiiia?ae? – 25, ea??aieoeoaa – 3,
na?aeioeoaa ia aeiaoiaee – 2, oace aeiiia?aeae – 4.

No?oeoo?a ? ianya ?iaioe. Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae ? aeiaeaoe?a.
I?noeoue … noi??iie iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo, a oiio /ene? … iaethiee,
… oaaeeoe?, nienie aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae c … iaeiaioaaiue oa …
aeiaeaoe?a.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o iiaeyeo aeieoi?o oaoi?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?o A.I.
Ona/aieo ca oaaao oa oe?ii? ii?aaee i?e aeeiiaii? ?iaioe ? i?aeaioiaoe?
aeena?oaoe??, a oaeiae ni?a?ia?oieeai ?AOI IAI Oe?a?ie oa ?ia?oieeai
o?anoo “Aeiiaoeueeoaooii?io?aeea” ca aeiiiiiao a i?iaaaeaii?
aenia?eiaio?a ? i?iieneiaiio inai?ii? ?ic?iaie.

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

?icae?e 1. Noai i?iaeaie ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiue

Eeth/iaith i?iaeaiith o i?aeaeuaii? aia?aaoe/ii? iacaeaaeiino? Oe?a?ie
ca ?aooiie ca?eueoaiiy aeaeiaooeo aoa?eey, i?e iaeii/aniiio c?inoaii?
eiai eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?, ? i?iaeaia ?ioaineo?eaoe??, iaae?eiino? oa
aeiiii?/iino? aoae?aieoeoaa ? iiaeeaeaiiy oaooieo aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a. Aeeiiaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c aeicaiey? aecia/eoe, ui
i??i?eoaoiith neeaaeiaith oe??? i?iaeaie ? caaea/a iaoeiaiai
iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaee oa oaeineiiaeaiiy niinia?a e??ieaiiy ? ioi?iie
oaooieo noiaao??a. Ii nueiaiaei? o?aaeeoe?eii nii?oaeaeaiith noiaao??a,
?o e??ieaiith i?eoaiaii? cia/ia aoae?aaeueia aa?o?noue,
o?oaeii?noe?noue, cieaeaiiy ianya?a, oaii?a i?io?aeee ? c?inoaiiy
oa?i?i?a aoae?aieoeoaa. Oey oaiaeaioe?y iia’ycaia c aaaaoueia oaeoi?aie,
iniiaieie c yeeo ?: aeeni?iii?oe?? a aeiiii?oe? e?a?ie, ui ni?e/eieee
ciaioaiiy eai?oaeiaeeaaeaiue a oaooia aoae?aieoeoai, oneeaaeiaiiy
a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia, canoinoaaiiy niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ye?
ae/a?iaee naaa ii i?iaeoeoeaiino? ? aeieia?/iino?. Aea aaaiiei ? oa, ui
ia? i?noea iaiaaeaia a?aooaaiiy ci?ie a oiiaao aoae?aieoeoaa ?
aeiaaio?eaaei? aenieoaoaoe?? noiaao??a, iaaeinoaoi? iaoeiaa
iaa?oiooaaiiy eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue ii e??ieaiith
noiaao??a o oeeo oiiaao. A noeoiiino? oea cieaeo? ye?noue i?iaeooaaiiy
oa i?ecaiaeeoue aei c?inoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo aeo?ao i?e aoae?aieoeoa? ?
aenieoaoaoe?? noiaao??a.

Ioaea, i?aeaeuaiiy aeiiii?/iino? ? iaae?eiino? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo ? aaaeeeaith iaoeiai-oaoi?/iith i?iaeaiith,
ine?eueee ?acoeueoaoe iaoeiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue neeaaeathoue iaiao?aeio
aaco i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? a??ie/iai ae?iaieoeoaa. Ia?aeiieeaei
aeieacii oeueiai ? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiue a aaeoc? iaoai?ee
a??nueeeo ii??ae, ea?oaaiiy a??nueeei oeneii, ?ic?iaee oaoiieia?e
e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a.

Ooiaeaiaioaeueiee aianie o ae??oaiiy i?iaeai ioe?iee oa ea?oaaiiy noaiii
ianeao a??nueeeo ii??ae ? a??nueeei oeneii, a ioaea i?iaeaie ioi?iie
a??nueeeo ae?iaie c?iaeee nai?ie a?aee?eooyie a/ai?: A.?. Aiiaea?aiei,
A.O. Aoeao, A.A. Aeiia?aaeia, A.I. Ci??i, A.A. I?aiye, A.I.
Iioo?a?a, TH.I. Oae?iaiaeee, ?.?. Oaiye?i oa ?io?.

Aaaiia cia/aiiy aeey ae??oaiiy caaea/ ioe?iee aieeao no?oeoo?ii? ?
i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae ia no?ee?noue i?iaaaeaieo o
iueiio ae?iaie iathoue ?iaioe A.Ae. Aeaena?aa, TH.A. A?yaeouiai, AE.N.
??aeaiiaa, I.I. Cai?ueea, I.I. E?aoeia, A.A E?aaoey, ?.O. Ic??iaa, E.ss.
Ia?/aanueeiai, I.?. Iiiiia?aiea, A.?. ?ao?iiaa, A.I. ?i?iea, E.A.
?oiiaiaeoa, A.A. O?iiia, Aee. I. *aoiaa, I.I. Oaoaiea, A.?. Oai?ia,
A.I. Oanoaeiaa oa ?i. Cia/iee aieea ia ?ic?iaeo oeiecaoe?e oiia
i?aeo?eiaiiy a??ie/eo ae?iaie oa iaa?oiooaaiiy e?eoa???a no?eeino?
ianeao ii??ae iathoue ?iaioe I.N. Aoee/iaa, A.O. Aeooea, A.I. Ae?ooeea,
TH.I. Ea?oaoiaa, A.A. Eeoaeinueeiai, A.ss. Iia?ea, ?.I. Naaeiaaiea, I.I.
I?ioiae’yeiiiaa, A.A. I?ioinai?, A.A. ?aeaanueeiai, A.I. Ona/aiea, A.A.
Oea?eeianueeiai, E.I. Oeo??ii?, A.I. sseainueeiai, caei?aeiiieo a/aieo –
I. Aa?oiia, C. Aaiyanueeiai, Ae. Eiaona, E. Oa?oeaa? oa ?io?.

Cia/i? aianee a ?icaeoie oai?aoe/ii? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii? aaiiaoai?ee,
noai?aiiy cania?a, oaoiieia?e i?io?aeee e??ieaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe??
aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a c?iaeee a/ai?: O.?. Aa?ainii, ?.A.
Aaeeaoia, O.A. Aaea?iei, A.A. Aa??caioeaa, A.I. Ai?eniaaoeue, A.A.
Aoaeiee, I.N. Aoee/ia, TH.I. Aan?eia, I.A. Aa?eooa, A.I. Aeiaa, I.A.
Aoca?a, I.N. Aeieoe?i, A.A. Ae??aai, I.I. Caaei?iaei?e, A.A. Ea?oic?y,
A.ss. E?iei, A.?. E?aa/aiei, A.I. Eicae, ?.A. Eineia, E.A. Eioae?a, A.I.
E?oiaii?eia, I.I. Iaen?iia, ?.A. Iaiaoeue, TH.I. Ia?aoe?n, E.A,
Iia?eiaa, TH.I. Iieuaiei, E.ss. Ia?/aanueeee, A.N. I?iueeianueeee, TH.A.
Iieicia, A.A. I?aaa?, ?.O. I?iyae?i, A.I. ??iei, A.E. Noaaeeia, ?.A.
Oth?eyi, I.A. O?eaoia, I.I. Oio??aa, I.I. Oaoaiei, O.?. ssaiaee?i;
caei?aeiii? a/ai? – I. Aaee, A. A?oo?, Eaaann, O. Eaooea?, O. Ii?, ss.
Oaiia?, I. Ooaeae oa ?i.

Aaeeea caneoaa a ?icaeoie i?iaeaie nii?oaeaeaiiy e??ieaiiy ? ioi?iie
aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a iaeaaeeoue IAe?IIOA, AIAeI?, Oe?IAeI?,
IAe?AI ?i. I.I. Oaaei?iaa.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oe?ieee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aei i?iaeaie nii?oaeaeaiiy
aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a, caaea/a ?o aoaeoeaiiai e??ieaiiy ua
aeaeaea a?ae naiai ae??oaiiy.

I?iaaaeaiee a ?iaio? aiae?c i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aeicaieea aecia/eoe ?yae aaaeeeaeo ia?aaeoiia oi?ioaaiiy
caaea/ aeine?aeaeaiue. A?aoiaoth/e aenieo ieoiio aaao (30-40%) aieeao
iaia?aaeaa/aiino? a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia ia aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiiy
noiaao??a, a?aenooi?noue oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaieo i?aeoiae?a ?o ioe?iee,
aecia/aeueiith o i?aeaeuaii? iaae?eiino? i?iaeooaaiiy ? aeai?o niinia?a
e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a ? caaea/a oeiecaoe?? oeeo oiia, canoinoaaiiy
yei? i?aeaeueoue aeinoia??i?noue ? iiaiioo aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino?
aoaeaii?iaeieo oiau, ia?aoeia?ieo noiaao?aie. Ine?eueee ooiaeaiaioaeueia
aeanoea?noue oeeo oiau iia’ycaia c aaaaoioa?oaao?noth, ui aecia/a?oueny
/a?aoaaiiyi ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?nieo ii??ae, eeth/iaith ?
ioe?iea no?oeoo?ii? oa i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae c aecia/aiiyi
iioaioe?eieo iieaciee?a no?eeino? ianeao ye ia a?aeie?aieaieo
ae?eueieoeyo, oae ? ii noiaao?o a oe?eiio. I?e oeueiio noeoiia ioe?iea
ca’yceo i?ae e?oieiai-no?oeoo?ieie ? o?ceei-iaoai?/ieie iieacieeaie
ii??ae iiaeiia iaoe ocaiaeaeai?noue c ?o noaiii a a?aeneiiaiiyo oa
iaoai?ciii i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo o ae?iaeao, ye? ?icoaoiaai? a
ieo. Iaaeinoaoiy aea/ai?noue oe??? caaea/?, a oaeiae cia/ia ciaioaiiy
oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao c?inoath/eo iio?aa ciaiue i?i ye?ni? ?
e?euee?ni? iieacieee iiaeo oi?i i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo a noiaao?ao,
ui i?iaiaeyoueny o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, a cia/i?e i??? ?
iaei??th c i?e/ei iaiaaeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy ?ioeo ? iianthaeiiai
canoinoaaiiy iiiie?oiiai aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy, ianyae yeiai neeaaeathoue
85-95%. I?e oeueiio ?io? oeie e??ieaiiy iathoue ae?ae iaiaaeaia
canoinoaaiiy: iiiie?oia ? otha?iaiaa cae?ciaaoiiia – 8-10%, 0,5-1,5%
a?aeiia?aeii, otha?iaiaa iaoaeaaa – 3-5%, aiea?ii-aaoiiia – 2-3%,
aaaaoioa?iaa – 0,5-1%. Iayai?noue ie?aieo /anoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ia iaaea?
iaae?eii? aace aeey aoaeoeaiiai canoinoaaiiy ??ciiiai?oieo niinia?a
e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aenieei a?aenioeii (48-60)
aeaoi?iiaaieo noiaao??a, i?e/iio ?c-ca iaa?aeiia?aeiino? oaoiieia?e
e??ieaiiy oeae iieaciee aeinyaa? – 33-43%. I?e oeueiio aeii?ioth/ith
i?e/eiith ?oeioaaiiy e??ieaiiy ? eiai iacaeaoi?noue i?ioeae?yoe
ia??aiii??iei aneiao?e/iei iaaaioaaeaiiyi ia noiaao?e, ye?
aeeeeeathoueny iaiaeii??aei?noth ii??ae oa iaiaeii??aei?noth a?ae
oeueiai i?oaeii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ianeao. I/aaeaeia iaiao?aei?noue
ye?nii iiaiai i?aeoiaeo aei iaa?oiooaaiiy niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a o
no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeieo ianeaao.

Ooiaeaiaioaeuei? aeine?aeaeaiiy (a?aee?eooy ? 1, Oe?a?ia, ?AOI IAIO)
na?ae/aoue, ui ia?oith eaieith a i?aeaeuaii? no?eeino? noiaao??a iiaeiii
aooe ea?iaaia aeei?enoaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ianeao ii??ae aeey
cieaeaiiy aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e??ieaiiy oa noai?aiiy eiia?iiaaieo
ioi?iiieo eiino?oeoe?e noiaao??a. Oaeei /eiii, caaaeueiinenoaiiee aoaeo
a nenoai? “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee ianea” iiaea aooe aeinyaiooee
aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiei aeai?ii iniiaiiai e??ieaiiy ? canoinoaaiiyi
eiiieaiaioa?ieo (noaiioeiaeueieo) oiiaai niinia?a ? cania?a aeey
?aaoethaaiiy aca?iiae?? ?? aeaiaio?a. Aea/aiiy ii?ooaiiy neiao???
(ia??aiii??i?noue, iaa??aiiaaaeai?noue) aith? iaaaioaaeaiue yaey? niaith
iaoiaee/iee aacen aeine?aeaeaiue, a aaee/eia aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ?
e?eoa???i ioe?iee aaiiaoai?/iiai noaio nenoaie ? aeo?aeiei ia?aiao?ii
aeey aeai?o aeaeo ? iine?aeiaiino? aeeiiaiiy ?aaoeyoeaieo ?
noaa?e?coth/eo ea??aieo aieea?a aeey caaacia/aiiy a?eueo neiao?e/iiai ??
iaaaioaaeaiiy ? ??aiii?oei?niiai, ??aiiaaaeiiai noaio. ?ic?iaea ia oe?e
iniia? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a ciaioeoue canoinoaaiiy
e??ieaiiy aeniei? aa?oino? ? o?oaeii?noeino?, yea /anoi ia caaacia/o?
aenieoaoaoe?eio iaae?ei?noue noiaao??a.

Oaeei /eiii, noai?aiiy iaoeiaeo iniia aaiiaoai?/iiai iaa?oiooaaiiy
?ic?iaee ? aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao yaey?
niaith cia/io iaoeiao ? oaoi?/io i?iaeaio. Ieae/a aena?oeai? ?acoeueoaoe
aecia/athoue ci?no ? nooi?noue ?ic?iaie aaoi?a ii i?iaeai?.

?icae?e 2. Ioe?iea e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/ieo iniaeeainoae nii?oaeaeaiiy
noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo oa i?iyaeaiiy a ieo a??nueeiai oeneo

I?aeoeea i?iaeooaaiiy, i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a a
Aeiiaan? na?ae/eoue i?i iaiao?aei?noue i?aeaeuaiiy iiaiioe oa
aeinoia??iino? aeaieo i?i aeanoeaino? ia?aoeia?ieo ieie oiau ii??ae,
iniaeeaino? ?o iiaiaeaeaiiy o a?aeneiiaiiyo oa aca?iiae?? c e??ieaiiyi.
Aia?oa nenoaiaoeciaaii ? ocaaaeueiaii ?ioi?iaoe?th i?i
?iaeaia?ii-aaieia?/i? oa aaiiaoai?/i? oiiae nii?oaeaeaiiy noiaao??a c
oi/ee ci?o noeoiii? ioe?iee aca?iica’yce?a i?ae iieacieeaie no?oeoo?ii?
? i?oei?noii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae aaaaoioa?oaaoeo oiau,
?iia??i?nieie iieacieeaie ?o no?eeino? i?e iaieaiiyo oa iaaaioaaeaiiyo
a??nueeei oeneii.

Aeey ioe?iee /a?aoaaiiy ??ciiiiooaeieo ? ??ciii?oei?noieo oa??a ii??ae
iaa?oioiaaii iieacieee no?oeoo?ii? (Kni) ? i?oei?noii? (Kii)
iaiaeii??aeiinoae ianeao, aiae?oe/i? ae?ace yeeo io?eiai? ia aac?
aiae?co oaeoe/ieo iaoa??ae?a ii aaieia?/ieo ?ic??cao a caeaaeiino? a?ae
ii?aeiaiiy ii??ae ca e?oieia?/ieie ? iaoai?/ieie iciaeaie:

, (1)

aea oi, Ri ( iiooaei?noue ? i?oei?noue i?iaa?noe?a ii??ae a?eueoi?
i?oeiino?.

Aeei?enoiaoth/e ?ic?iaee ?AOI IAIO (A.O. Aeooei, A.I. Oanoaeia)
oaeineiiaeaii oi?ioeo ?ic?aooie?a i?eaaaeaii? i?oeiino? aaaaoioa?oaaoeo
neeaaeiino?oeoo?ieo oiau ii?iaeieo ianea?a c a?aooaaiiyi e?eueeino?
oa??a, ?o iiooaeiino? ? ??ciii?oeiino?, a oaeiae cieaeaiiy iano/i?
caeaoiino? oaeiai ianeao i?ae aieeaii ?aieia?/ieo i?ioean?a. Aeey
oeiecaoe?? oiia e??ieaiiy noiaao??a caaaeueio oeaeo i?oeiino?
aeine?aeaeaieo ii??ae ?icae?eaii ia i’youe eean?a, iia’ycaaoe ?o c
aaee/eiaie ?aieia?/iiai iieacieea ii??ae (/( (ii A.I. Ona/aiei): ? (
aeoaea i?oei?, Rc > 120 IIa, (/( < 0,16; ?? ( i?oei?, Rc = 60-120 IIa, (/( = 0,16-0,25; ??? ( na?aaeiuei? i?oeiino?, Rc = 40-60 IIa, (/( = 0,25-0,40; IV ( iaeii?oei?, Rc = 25-40 IIa, (/( = 0,40-0,63; V ( neaae?, Rc < 25 IIa, (/( = 0,63-1,00. Iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?aaeea Oe?ioa aeey i?eaeecii? ioe?iee aeiaaio?eaaei? i?eaaaeaii? i?oeiino? oa?oaaoi? oiau? ii??ae, ca?aeii c yeei oey aaee/eia aecia/a?oueny ye /anoea a?aeiioaiiy na?aaeiueicaaaeaii? i?oeiino? ii??ae oiau? oa ei?aiy eaaae?aoiiai ?c eeano oeaee i?oeiino? ? i?e eiai c?inoaii? aeniiiaioe?eii cieaeo?oueny. Ii??aiyiiyi aaee/eie e?eoa??th no?eeino? noiaao??a, ae/eneaieo ii AI?I ??-94-80, i?aeoaa?aeaeaia aeioe?euei?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?ic?iaie aaoi?a, ine?eueee i?e oeueiio io?eiai? cia/aiiy e?eoa??th a?eueo aaeaeaaoii a?aeia?aaeathoue oaeoe/i? oiiae no?eeino? noiaao??a. Aeey o?ueio iniiaieo eaoaai??e ii??ae ii i?oeiino? (f = 0-21; 0-12; 0-6) aeyaeaii aeniiiaioe?eiee ?iciiae?e oa??a ii??ae ii eiao?oe??ioo i?oeiino? oa i?iaa?noe?a, ui i?aeiaee i?ae aeaaee; iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eiee ?iciiae?e iiooaeiino? on?o oa??a a iaaeao ?ic??c?a oiau?, noaoenoe/ii caeiiii??ia ciaioaiiy /anoino? aeaae?a i?e ca?eueoaii? iiooaeiino? oa??a o aeaeyae? ?iciiae?eo Ia?aoi. Aeey oeacaieo o?ueio eaoaai??e ii??ae cia/aiiy ?iia??iino? aeaae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiooaeiino? oa??a ci?ith?oueny a iaaeao: 0,33-0,67; 0,16-0,67; 0,72-0,92, a a?ae i?oeiino? ii??ae ( 0,11-0,47; 0,29-0,56; 0,81-0,92. A??o? oiiae i?iyaeythoueny i?e iiooaeieo neaaeeo ii?iaeao, eiee ?iia??i?noue aeaae?a c?inoa? a 2 ?ace. Aiiiaeuei? cia/aiiy iieaciee?a ?iia??iino? aeaae?a aeyaeaii aeey aeayeeo iaeiiiooaeieo i?oeieo ii?iaeieo oiau, ye? caeyaathoue a iiooaeieo neaaeeo ii?iaeao. Io?eiaia noaoenoe/ia caeaaei?noue ioe?iee ieoiii? (a?aeiinii?) aaee/eie aeaae?a c ?inoii aeeaeie ia eiaei? 100 i: . (2) . A?aoiaoth/e aeai? i?i aeaaee ? ia?eoaeaea?nueeeo aei??thaaiue onoaiiaeaia noaoenoe/ia caeaaei?noue ioe?iee aaee/eie noaiioeiaeueiiai a?aeoiaeo aeaith noiaao?a a?ae iniiaiiai e??ieaiiy: , (3) aea (oi. ( aeiaaeeia oio?a, Kao( eiao?oe??io aeei?enoaiiy oio?a. Ei?aeyoe?eia a?aeiioaiiy 0,874, iioeaea ?ic?aooieo 7-18%. Aaee/eiith (a?ae a cia/i?e i??? aecia/a?oueny aoaeo ?icaaioaaeaiiy ianeao ii??ae. Oiio aecia/aii eiao?oe??io eiai ?icaaioaaeaiiy a?ae (a?ae o aeaeyae? K?ae. = 1(0,00625(a?ae. Aeei?enoiaoth/e aeai? AIAeI?, IAe?IIOA, “Aei?i?iae?i?ioaoo” anoaiiaeaii o?e oeie noaeeo noaoenoe/ieo caeiiii??iinoae ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiue ia e??ieaiiy noiaao?a a ??cieo ii?iaeao: Aoiaaey (i?oei?), ?aeay (na?aaeiueii?oei?), Aaonna (neaae?), ye? neeaee iaoiaee/io iniiao i?e ?ic?iaeao aaoi?a. Ia iniia? io?eiaieo i?iaiicieo iiaeaeae noaoenoe/iiai oeio ? iiaeaeae ?iia??i?niiai oeio ?ic?iaeaii e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iee o?aiae oiia i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo, yeee aca?iiiia’yco? oa ii?aeio? a nenoaio eiiieaen iieaciee?a no?oeoo?ii?, i?oei?noii? iaiaeii??aeiinoa, o??ueioaaoino? ii??ae, iieacieee ?o no?eeino? a a?aeneiiaiiyo, ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi yeeo aecia/a?oueny aiae?oe/iee ae?ac iioaioe?eiiai iieacieea no?eeino? ii??ae, yeee iieeaaeaii a iniiao a?oioaaiiy oiia: , (4) = = 1/(a?ae; go ( /anoioa o??uei. Ii aaee/ei? Keao ?ic?iaeaia i’yoe/eaiia oeiecaoe?y oiia (oaae. 1), yea aea? ?iia??io ?o ioe?ieo oa iiaeeea?noue aecia/eoe iai?yie aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aeai?o eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue e??ieaiiy noiaao??a. ?icae?e 3. Aenia?eiaioaeueia iaa?oiooaaiiy ? ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee oaooieo aaio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue A ca’yceo c iaiao?aei?noth iaoaiaoe/iiai iiaeaethaaiiy i?ioean?a a ianea? i?e ae?th/eo iaaaioaaeaiiyo, aeecueeeo aei ?oeioth/eo, cai?noue noaeeo ia?aiao??a A0 oa n0 , ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue noai iaoa??aeo a ii/aoeia?e i?oaei?e iaeano? aeaoi?ioaaiiy, io?eiaii ooieoe?iiaeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee, ui a?aoiaothoue iacai?ioi? ci?ie a iaoa??ae? i?ae /an iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ieo iiaeaii a oaae. 2. Oaaeeoey 2 – Ooieoe?iiaeuei? caeaaeiino? cia/aiue noaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a iaoa??ae?a a?ae ae?th/eo iai?oaeaiue Iaoa??ae Ae?th/? cia/aiiy noaoe/ieo ia?aiao??a a aeeoa?aioe?aeuei?e oi?i? Iiaeoey i?oaeiino? A, AIa Eiao?oe??ioa Ioanniia, n Aaiiye 34(1-0,55?9) 0,07(1+5,9?18) I?neiaee 32(1-0,62?6) 0,09(1+4,3?14) I?uaiee neaiaoeue (aeaa?ie?o) 24(1-0,68?6) 0,14(1+2,4?10) Aeeiyiee neaiaoeue (a?aee?o) 22(1-0,70?2) 0,24(1+1,0?5) Aaoii 25(1-0,60?4) 0,17(1+1,8?7) Ia?aiao? ? a aeuaiaaaaeai?e oaaeeoe? /enaeueii ??aiee a?aeiioaiith ae?th/iai iai?oaeaiiy s aei iaae? i?oeiino? ia noene sno.. I?e aecia/aii? aeaoi?iaoe?eieo aeanoeainoae oeaeiaeo aeie?a, ye ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a, aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e aieiaiio i?aeii?? ii?yaeea 0,3 sno. a?aeiinia iicaeiaaeiy aeaoi?iaoe?y eiic. i?e aeinyaiaii? iaae? i?oeiino? ia? cia/aiiy aeecueei 3,5%. Cieaeaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? aeie?a aei aaee/eie 0,5 sno. ca iaaeath i?oeiino? a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e eiic. a?ey 5%. Aeniea i?aeaeaoeea?noue oeaeiaeo aeie?a ? ia?aaeoiiaith ?o c?inoath/iai aeei?enoaiiy a aaaaoioa?iaeo e??ieaiiyo aeey aeaiio??oaaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e ii??ae a?ey noiaao??a. Aeey caaacia/aiiy oaooieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?iaaaeaii eiiieaen aenia?eiaio?a c iaoith ioe?iee ?ioaineaiino? aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeey ??cieo iaoa??ae?a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? iaaaioaaeaiue. Caaaeueiith caeiiii??i?noth ? ii/aoie ?a?no?aoe?? ai?n?? i?ney aeinyaiaiiy ae?th/iai cia/aiiy iaoai?/iiai iai?oaeaiiy ??aiiai 0,2 sco., iiaeaeueoee ??ceee ??no ? ianooiia noaa?e?caoe?y i?e iai?oaeaiiyo (0,7 – 0,9) sno.. Aaciina?aaeiuei ia?aae ?oeioaaiiyi a??nueeeo ii??ae ??aaiue ai?n?? ciaioo?oueny. Ia a?aei?io a?ae aaiiaoa??ae?a ??no ?ioaineaiino? aei?ii?ithaaiiy aeey aaoiio niinoa??aa?oueny iiaeeco iaae? i?oeiino? aai ae iaa?oue ca ?? iaaeaie. Oea iia’ycaii c aeaioeiiiiiaioiith no?oeoo?ith aaoiio. I?ney ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? ca’ycoth/i? iniiae a?aeaoaa?oueny ?oeioaaiiy a?eueo e?eoeiai oa i?oeiiai, a a?aeoae ? a?eueo aia?aiiane/aiiai iaiiaithaa/a. A ca’yceo c aeei?enoaiiyi aeey iaoo?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeaeo?iiao?e/iiai iaoiaeo anoaiiaeaii aeaeyae caeaaeiinoae ieoiiiai aeaeo?iiii?o iaoa??ae?a a?ae iaoai?/iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy. Aeey e?eoeeo ii??ae ? oa?aeoa?iei cieaeaiiy iii?o aei ii/aoeo ooai?aiiy iae?io??uei a iaoa??ae? (s ( 0,5sno.) c iiaeaeueoei ieaaiei c?inoaiiyi. C? ca?eueoaiiyi ieanoe/iino? ii??ae aeinyaiaiiy i?i?ioio aeaeo?iiii?o a?aeaoaa?oueny i?e iaioeo iaaaioaaeaiiyo c iine?aeoth/ith noaa?e?caoe??th aae aei ii/aoeo ?oeioaaiiy. Iniaeea?noth aaoiio ? noaa?e?caoe?y aeaeo?iiii?o a a?eueo oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? iaaaioaaeaiue, aeeth/ath/e ? ae?eyieo aaciina?aaeiuei ca iaaeath i?oeiino?. Ia iniia? eaai?aoi?ieo aeine?aeaeaiue onoaiiaeai? cia/aiiy a?aeiinii? ae?aeaeo?e/ii? i?iieeeeaino? ii??ae oa iaa?oioiaai? iniiai? oaoi?/i? ??oaiiy aaoiaaia?aoi?iiai i?eeaaeo c ?ii?niei oio?iaei aeao/eeii aeey ioe?iee nooiaiy o??ueioaaoino? a ii?iaeiiio ianea? oeyoii i?io?ethaaiiy ii ia?aoeiath/iio ianea oio?o. Aeey canoinoaaiiy a?a?iaeonoe/iiai iaoiaeo aeine?aeaeai? oa?aeoa?i? caeiiii??iino? ci?ie ia?aiao??a a?eueieo iaoai?/ieo eieeaaiue c?ace?a ??ciiai ii?ooaiiy oe?e?niino? ? oiia aeaiio??oaaiiy: i?e iayaiino? ii?iaeieie ana?aaeei? iiaeae? /e iau?eueiiai eiioaeoo ?? c iniiaith niinoa??aa?oueny iii??ia cieaeaiiy ?aciiainii? /anoioe a?eueieo eieeaaiue, a oaeiae cia/ia ca?eueoaiiy ?o aiie?ooaee oa o?eaaeino?. Eaai?aoi?i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeaee ciiao aecia/eoe aeioe?eueiee eiiieaen iniiaieo ?ioi?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a, ye? a nai?e noeoiiino? aeicaieyee a ioe?ieo noaio ianeao oa eiai aca?iiae?th c e??ieaiiyi noiaao??a a oe?ieiio ae?aiacii? a?ae iaiaaaioaaeaiiai aei c?oeiiaaiiai c onoiaiiyi iaiaeiicia/iino? i?e aiae?c? aeeiai?ee ci?ie ia?aiao??a. Aeacaiee eiiieaen aeeth/a?: ieoiiee aeaeo?e/iee ii??, ??aaiue i?e?iaeiiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ae?aeaeo?e/io i?iieeeea?noue na?aaeiaeua, aiie?ooaeo oa niaeo?aeueiee neeaae a?eueieo eieeaaiue eiino?oeoe?e. O a?aeiia?aeiino? c iaai?ii ?ioi?iaoeaieo ia?aiao??a oa c a?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?/ieo oiia ?iaioe a oaooieo noiaao?ao a?ae?a?aii eiiieaen oaoi?/ieo cania?a aaio?ce/iiai eiio?ieth. ?ic?iaeaii oa caoaa?aeaeaii ia ??ai? aaeoc? “?oeiaiaenoai ii aaioece/aneie aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey nenoaiu “e?aiue – ii?iaeiue iannea” aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia” ye aeiaeaoie aei “Iiniaey ii ainnoaiiaeaieth e?aie e a?ie?iaee aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia. ?Ae 12.18.073-88”. ?icae?e 4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? iaiaeii??aeiiai ianeao ii??ae i?eeiioo?ii? ciie c e??ieaiiyi aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a ? niieo/aiue c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie C aeei?enoaiiyi eiiieaeno aaio?ce/ieo iaoiae?a, a oaeiae aeiaaio?eaaeeo ?ino?oiaioaeueieo aei??thaaiue aeine?aeaeaii a ye?niiio oa e?euee?niiio aniaeoao noai nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – a??ie/ee ianea” ia 47 ae?eyieao a 14 noiaao?ao oaoo Aeiiaano. Na?aaeiueinoaoenoe/iee neeaae ii??ae ia aeine?aeaeaieo ia’?eoao, a i?ioeaioao: i?neiaeee – 34,7; i?n/ai? neaioe? – 39,8; aeeiyi? neaioe? – 39,8; aoa?eey – 2,9; aaiiyee – 1,4; ?io? ii?iaee – 2,4. Ae?aiacii ci?ie ia?aiao??a: aeeaeia – a?ae 75 i aei 1291 i; ae?aiao? noiaao?a ia i?ina?o – a?ae 5,0 i aei 8,0 i; oiaueia e??ieaiiy – a?ae 0,35 i aei 0,80 i. A?aeiiniee ia’?i canoinoaaiiy ??cieo oei?a e??ieaiiy a i?ioeaioiiio a?aeiioaii? aeaeyaea? oaeei /eiii: iiiie?oia aaoiiia – 84,9; iiiie?oia cae?ciaaoiiia – 8,1; otha?iaiaa iaoaeaaa – 3,1; otha?iaiaa cae?ciaaoiiia – 0,9; aaaaoioa?iaa – 0,6. *anoeia aei??thaaiue aoea aeeiiaia oaeiae ia oei/aniai iacae??ieaieo i?ecaa?eieo ae?eyieao oaooieo noiaao??a. Iaoiaeeea eiiieaenii? ae?aaiinoeee nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ii?iaeiee ianea” aeeth/aea aiae?c aca?iiae?? iaio aeacaieo aeaiaio?a ii aeaieo a?a?iaeonoe/ii? ae?aaiinoeee, aecia/aiiy eieaeueieo ae?eyiie i?aeaeuaieo iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue oeyoii ?a?no?aoe?? ?iioeueniiai aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy, ioe?ieo ii?ooaiino? ianeao ii aeaieo aeaeo?iiao??? oa aaceiioaeoiiai aeniei/anoioiiai oio?iaiai ea?ioaaeo. Iaoiaeaie aaciina?aaei?o aei??thaaiue oa aaio?ce/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue anoaiiaeai? caeiiii??iino? oa iniaeeaino? noaio ii?iaeiiai ianeao ? eiai aca?iiae?? c ??cieie oeiaie e??ieaiiy noiaao??a. Anoaiiaeaii, ui a i?eeiioo?ieo ii?iaeao iacae??ieaiiai noiaao?a ?ici?? ciie i?aeaeuaiiai o??ueiiooai?aiiy a ianea?, iaea?aeaii? i?e aeeiiaii? ao?i-aeaooiaeo ?ia?o, noaiiaeoue aeecueei 0,8 i. A ie?aieo aeiaaeeao niinoa??aa?oueny iayai?noue ae?oai? oaei? ciie ia a?aenoai? 1,2 – 1,6 i a?ae eiioo?o. Oa?aeoa?iith ? aneiao??y iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio a ai?eciioaeuei?e ieiuei?. Iaea?eueoa e?euee?noue aeeiiaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue noino?oueny ae?eyiie noiaao??a, ui cae??ieai? aaoiiiei e??ieaiiyi. C iaoith aea/aiiy aieeao ia no?ee?noue e??ieaiiy i?i?iaeueii? e?eueeino? oaeoi??a ie?aia a?oia aenia?eiaio?a aoea aeeiiaia ia iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyieao noiaao??a. A aieiaiiio noiaao?? oaooe “A?eica?nueea” aoee aeine?aeaeai? oiiae aca?iiae?? oeiiaiai aeey oaoo ?aa?iio iiiie?oiiai aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy oiaueiith 0,4 i ? aioo??oi?i ae?aiao?ii 7,0 i c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie ii eiioo?o (f = 2 – 4). Ii ?acoeueoaoao eiiieaenii? ae?aaiinoeee anoaiiaeaii oaeo yaii? aneiao??? iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a aaoii?, i?e/iio iaea?eueo iaaaioaaeai? naeoi?e a aaaaoueio aeiaaeeao i???ioiaai? a iai?yieo i?aeeiio ieanoa, a nooi?iue aneiao??? c?inoa? ia ae?eyieao c a?eueo neaaeeie ii?iaeaie. Aeacai? caeiiii??iino? aoee a?aei?/ai? oaeiae ? ia ae?eyieao c a?eueo i?oeieie ii?iaeaie (f = 5-10), cie?aia a aaioeeyoe?eieo noiaao?ao ? 5 oa ? 8 oaooe ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa ? ? 2 oaooe “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee”. Oeyoii niinoa?aaeaiiy ca noaiii iiiie?oiiai aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy c ??ciei oa?i?iii aenieoaoaoe?? anoaiiaeaii ?ieue oaeoi?a /ano i?e oi?ioaaii? iiey iai?oaeaiue a nenoai? “e??ieaiiy – ii?iaeiee ianea”. A iaaeao aei 1 i?nyoey i?ney anoaiiaeaiiy e??ieaiiy aiane?aeie ieanoe/iino? aaoiio a?aeaoaa?oueny ?aeaenaoe?y iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue, a a iiaeaeueoiio, i?e c?inoaii? aei?noeino? e??ieaiiy aneiao??y aeanoeainoae ii?iaeiiai ianeao aeeeeea? ia??aiii??ia iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aaoiiiee oeee?iae?. Cae?ciaaoiiia e??ieaiiy, a?aoiaoth/e eiai a?eueo aenieo aa?o?noue, canoiniao?oueny o?eueee ia ae?eyieao, aea iiaeooue aeieeiooe cia/i? ?icoyaoth/? iai?oaeaiiy. Oea, cie?aia, ae?eyiee niieo/aiue noiaao??a c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy, aeeiiai? a aaioeeyoe?eiiio noiaao?? ? 5 oaooe ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa a ?aeii? niieo/aiiy c ai?eciioii 986 i iieacaee, ui a aeaiiio aeiaaeeo niinoa??aa?oueny cia/ia aneiao??y iaaaioaaeaiue. Ia oaooao “I?ia?an” oa ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa aoei aeeiiaii aenia?eiaioe ii aea/aiith aca?iiae?? cae?ciaaoiiiiai otha?iaiaiai e??ieaiiy c ianeaii. Anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e i?oeieo ii?iaeao a i?eeyaath/iio ianea? otha?iaiaa e??ieaiiy caaacia/o? aeineoue aenieo nooi?iue iaeii??aeiino? iaaaioaaeaiue ia ie?ai? aeaiaioe. Iaio caaeia?euei? ?acoeueoaoe io?eiaii ia ae?eyioe? c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie, i?aaenoaaeaieie i?neiai-aeeiyieie neaioeyie (oaooa “I?ia?an”). Oey ianoaaeia na?ae/eoue i?i aeioe?euei?noue aeiaeaoeiaeo i??ii?e?inoa ii oe??ieaiith neaaeiai ianeao ia ae?eyieao c otha?iaiaei e??ieaiiyi. Aeey ia’?eoeaii? ioe?iee aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia e??ieaiiy ??cieo oei?a i?e ??cieo a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao ia iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyieao noiaao??a c?iaeaii aea??eo ii 14 ia?a??cao oaoo “A?eica?nueea”, ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa oa “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee”. A aea??oe? i?aaenoaaeai? ne?aeoth/? aeaee e??ieaiiy: iiiie?oia aaoiiia (6 ia?a??c?a), aiea?ii-aaoiiia (2 ia?a??ce), otha?iaiaa cae?ciaaoiiia (4 ia?a??ce). A aeaio aeiaaeeao, ui a?aeiinyoueny aei i?ecaa?eieo ae?eyiie noiaao??a, e??ieaiiy a?aenooi?. E?euee?ni? ioe?iee aaeenue ii ??aith aeaeo?iiaai?oii? ai?n??, ye iaea?eueo no?eeiio ia?aiao?o oeyoii aaaaeaiiy eiao?oe??ioa aneiao??? Ea = ?max./Pmin., aea ?max. ? ?min. – a?aeiia?aeii iaea?eueoa ? iaeiaioa ?c ona?aaeiaieo ii o?ueio noi?aeieo oi/eao cia/aiiy ?ioi?iaoeaiiai ia?aiao?a. Ii ?acoeueoaoao aiae?co c?iaeaii ne?aeoth/? aeniiaee: aeey iniiaiiai oeio e??ieaiiy, a naia iiiie?oiiai aaoiiiiai, ia ae?eyieao c i?oeieie ii?iaeaie niinoa??aa?oueny, iacaeaaeii a?ae aeeaeie oa ae?aiao?a noiaao?a, i?eaeecii iaeiaeiaa nooi?iue aneiao??? (Ea = 1,1); iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy aneiao??y aeey iiiie?oiiai aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy ia? ia ae?eyieao c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie (Ea = 1,2 – 1,4); ia ae?eyieao c i?oeieie ii?iaeaie otha?iaiaa cae?ciaaoiiia e??ieaiiy caaacia/o? aenieo no?ee?noue eiioo?a i?e caaeia?euei?e ??aiii??iino? iaaaioaaeaiue ia otha?iae (Ea < 1,1) ? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeaui a??oa ia ae?eyieao c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie (Ea = 1,3). Aeeiiaii oaeiae aiae?c ianeao aeaieo noiniaii iai?aaeaiino? ae?aa?ai aeaeo?iiaai?oii? ai?n?? a iai?yieo i?aeeiio ii??ae. ?acoeueoaoe iinyoue ?iia??i?niee oa?aeoa?. I?e/iio, iaea?eueo ?iia??iith ? i???ioaoe?y iaeneioio aeaeeo?iiaai?oii? ai?n?? a iai?yieo i?aeeiio ieano?a ii??ae. Oaeei /eiii, ae?aaeaia oaiaeaioe?y uiaei iaea?eueoiai ?aae?aeueiiai oeneo ia e??ieaiiy c? noi?iie i?aeeiio ii??ae. C iaoith aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o aeaoi?iaoe?e ?ino?oiaioaeueieie iaoiaeaie a ?aeii? niieo/aiiy noiaao?a ? 8 oaooe ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa c ai?eciioii 986 i aoei iaeaaeiaii niinoa?aaeio noaioe?th. Aei??thaaiiy ci?uaiue eiioo?o a?aeiinii aene?a i?iaiaeeeinue a ?ioa?aae? aeeaei 963,5 – 999,7 i ia i?ioyc? 4-o ?ie?a. Aeeiai?ea ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?e ne?aeoth/a: ieaaia aeaoi?ioaaiiy eiioo?a a iai?yieo aei oeaio?o noaiea ca ia?o? aeaa ?iee niinoa?aaeaiue, oaeaeea ca?eueoaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e ca iine?aeoth/? aeaa ?iee oa ieaaia caoooaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai i?ioeano. Aeyaeaii aneiao??th ? ia??aiii??i?noue ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?e e??ieaiiy. Iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy ?aae?aeueii? aeaoi?iaoe?? aeinyaei 420 ii. A?eueo? aaee/eie aeaoi?iaoe?? niinoa??aathoueny aeeae/a aei i?eieeath/i? ae?iaee, i?e/iio iaeneiaeuei? aaee/eie ci?uaiue iathoue ae?aaiiaeueiee iai?yiie a?aeiinii e?i?? ia?aoeio a ieai? noiaao?a c i?eieeath/ith ae?iaeith oa ei?aeththoueny c aceiooii iaae?iiy ii??ae. O e?euee?niiio a?aeiioaii? aeiaaio?eaaeee ?icaeoie ci?uaiue iiaea aooe c iioeaeith ia a?eueoa 20 % iienaiee ne?aeoth/ei aiae?oe/iei ae?acii U(t)max. = 0,11 Rc (1 – exp(-tm/PG)a), aea: Rc – ?aae?on noiaao?a; t – /an; m – ei?aaoth/ee eiao?oe??io; ? – ii?? e??ieaiiy (0,5 IIa); G – iiaeoeue c?ooaiiy ii??ae (2,1AIa i?e A = 5AIa oa n = 0,2); ia?aiao? a = 2. Ia 5-e oaooao aeeiiaii aaio?ce/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy oa a?coaeuei? niinoa?aaeaiiy ia ae?eyieao niieo/aiue noiaao??a c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie. A a?eueoino? aeiaaee?a noaia niieo/aiiy aeainoi?iiiy, iiia?ae i?inoe?aiiy, c iioeeei caiaeii. E??ieaiiy noiaao?a ia?aaaaeii cae?ciaaoiiia, a ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee – a?ea NAI /e aeaiooaa? a aaoii?. Aeanyoe??/iee aeina?ae a?coaeueieo niinoa?aaeaiue ca niieo/aiiyie aeicaieea aeyaeoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? ?icaeoeo aeaoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioean?a. Ia ii/aoeia?e noaae?? niinoa??aa?oueny iiaa?oiaaa ?oeioaaiiy ? a?aeeiethaaiiy aaoiio, caeieiooai?aiiy aeeaeiith aei 0,5 i. Ia?aeaeueii a?aeaoaa?oueny caeeiaiiy i?aeioae a ae?iaoe? ia i?ioyc? e?eueeio iao??a a?ae eiioo?o noiaao?a. A a??oeo aeiaaeeao aeaoi?iaoe?y a i?eieeath/?e ae?iaoe? iioe?th?oueny ia a?aenoaiue aei aeaio ae?aiao??a noiaao?a. A noiaao?ao oaoo ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa oa “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee” aeine?aeaeaii i?eieeath/? aei niieo/aiue ae?eyiee aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a, cae??ieai? aaoiiii c aiea?aie, iiiie?oiei aaoiiii oa iiiie?oiei cae?ciaaoiiii. Ia a?aei?io a?ae iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyiie noiaao?a, aea iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiee noai e??ieaiiy cia/iith i??ith aecia/a?oueny iai?yieii iaae?iiy ii??ae, ia niieo/aiiyo niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae ? aieea i???ioaoe?? i?eieeath/eo ae?iaie. Na?aaeiy ?ioaineai?noue aeaeo?iiaai?oiiai aei?ii?ithaaiiy a 1,2-1,3 ?ace aeua i?ae ia iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyieao noaiea, ui na?ae/eoue i?i iino?eia yaeua e?eoeiai ?oeioaaiiy aaoiio a i?e?iia’?iao. ?acoeueoaoe aiae?co iaoa??ae?a, io?eiaieo a i?ioean? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue a oiiaao oaoo ?i. I.A.Noaoaiiaa, “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee” oa “I?ia?an”, aeicaieeee neeanoe iaaia oyaeaiiy i?i neeaaeiee oa?aeoa? iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio ia ae?eyioe? i?eieeaiiy ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee aei noiaao?a. Ia?oith c a?aei?/aieo caeiiii??iinoae, ui niinoa??aa?oueny iacaeaaeii a?ae a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiia oa eiino?oeoe?? niieo/aiiy, ne?ae iacaaoe iayai?noue i?i?ioio iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue ia a?aenoai? a?ae eiioo?o noiaao?a, ui i?eaeecii ??aia eiai ae?aiao?o. Iaaia aa??aoe?y iieiaeaiiy i?i?ioia iia’ycaia c a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieie oiiaaie, cie?aia c i?inoi?iaith i???ioaoe??th ieano?a a?aeiinii inae ae?iaie. Aenia?eiaioaeueii anoaiiaeaii oaeiae oaeo eaac?oaeeueiai? ci?ie iaoai?/ieo iai?oaeaiue a i?eeiioo?i?e cii? i?eieeath/i? aei noiaao?a ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee. Oa?aeoa?ieie iniaeeainoyie ? cieaeaiiy aiie?ooaee inoeeeyoe?? ii i??? a?aeaeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aeieo oi/ie i?io?eth a?ae eiioo?o noiaao?a. Aeey ia?oi? ia?e aeno?aioi?a a?aeiioaiiy iaeneioio aei i?i?ioia ??aiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? ai?n?? eieeaa?oueny a iaaeao a?ae 1,15 aei 1,33 i?e na?aaeiueiio cia/aii? 1,23. Aeey ae?oai? ia?e iaae? aa??aoe?? – a?ae 1,10 aei 1,24 i?e na?aaeiueiio cia/aii? 1,16. Iaae? aeey o?aouei? ia?e, ui niinoa??aa?oueny ia o an?o aeiaaeeao, noaiiaeyoue a?ae 1,10 aei 1,16 i?e na?aaeiueiio cia/aii? 1,13. Niinoa??aa?oueny oaeiae ca?eueoaiiy ia??iaeo inoeeeyoe?? ii i??? a?aeaeaeaiiy oi/ie i?io?eth a?ae noiaao?a. A?aenoaiue i?ae ia?oeie aeaiia aeno?aioiaie ??cieo ciae?a noaiiaeoue a na?aaeiueiio 2,6 i. Aeey ae?oai? ? o?aouei? ia?e aeno?aioi?a oey a?aenoaiue noaiiaeoue aeecueei 4 i. Aeinoia??ia cia/aiiy iaae? aieeao noiaao?a ia ?iciiae?e iai?oaeaiue a i?eeiioo?i?e cii? ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee iiaeia aaaaeaoe ??aiei aeaii ae?aiao?ai noiaao?a c a?aee?eii a?ae eiai eiioo?o. A ?iaio? aecia/aia o?ceei-iaoai?/ia nooo?a?noue aea/aieo i?ioean?a c a?aooaaiiyi iaiaeii??aeiino? ianeao ii??ae. Aia?oa anoaiiaeai? iia? caeiiii??iino? ? e?euee?ni? caeaaeiino? i?iyaeaiiy a??nueeiai oeneo o aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao?ao aoa?eueieo oaoo, ye? iieeaaeai? a iniiao iaa?oiooaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a ?o e??ieaiiy. ?icae?e 5. Aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy aca?iiae?? nenoai “e??ieaiiy ( ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio ( iaiaeii??aeiee ii?iaeiee ianea” a aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao?ao Aeey aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeei?enoaii eiioeioaeueio iiaeaeue, o a?aeiia?aeiino? c yeith e??ieaiiy noiaao?a oa ?aaoeueiaaiee aeaiaio iiaeaeththoueny nooe?eueieie iaiaeii??aeieie oeee?iae?aie ci?iii? oiaueie, a ii?iaeiee ianea – nooe?eueiei oa?oaaoei na?aaeiaeuai c oeee?iae?e/iei ioai?ii. Ia aa?oi?e iaae? ?ic?aooieiai? iaeano? caaeaii a?aie/i? oiiae, ui a?aoiaothoue aaao iaeyaath/eo ii??ae, a ia aieia?e oa ieaei?e iiaa?oi? i?eeiyoi oiiao a?aenooiino? ii?iaeueieo ia?ai?uaiue oa aeioe/ieo iai?oaeaiue. Iniaeeaino? aca?iiae?? iiaa?oiiue e??ieaiiy c? noiaao?ii oa i?ioa?e?a i?ae niaith a?aoiaothoueny 3-ia oeiaie a?aie/ieo oiia: iiaiiai c/aieaiiy, aeaionoi?iiiueiai eiioaeoo c oa?oyi Eoeiia oa iaeiinoi?iiiueiai aeaaeeiai eiioaeoo. Aeey iieno i?ioeano i?oaeiiieanoe/iiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy an?o aeaiaio?a aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie aeei?enoaii aeaoi?iaoe?eio oai??th ieanoe/iino?. Iaiao?aei? ?ic?aooieia? ia?aiao?e io?eiaii a i?ioean? ia?iaee ae?aa?ai iiaiiai aeaoi?ioaaiiy c?ace?a iaoa??ae?a ia aei?noe?e aei?iaoaaeuei?e onoaiiaoe? (?icae?e 3). Caaea/a ?ic?aooieo iai?oaeaii-aeaoi?iiaaiiai noaio nenoaie “e??ieaiiy – ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio – ianea” iieyaa? a aecia/aii? iie?a ia?ai?uaiue oa iai?oaeaiue, ui caaeiaieueiythoue a ?ic?aooieia?e iaeano? W ??aiyiith ??aiiaaae, aaiiao?e/iei ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi Eio?, iieiaeaiiyi aeaoi?iaoe?eii? oai??? ieanoe/iino?, a?aie/iei oiiaai ia ciai?oi?e iiaa?oi? oa aioo??oi?o eiioaeoieo iiaa?oiyo. C aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeeio iiaeeeaeo ia?ai?uaiue iaea?aeaii aa??aoe?eia oi?ioethaaiiy caaea/? a aeaeyae? eaac?aa??aoe?eii? ia??aiino?, aeey e?iaa?ecaoe?? yei? aeei?enoaii iaoiae ci?iieo i?oaeieo ia?aiao??a. Aeene?aoecaoe?y caaea/? aeeiiaia ia iniia? iaoiaeo e?ia/ieo aeaiaio?a, e?euee?noue yeeo neeaaea? ii?yaeea 10000, a i?i?iaeueiee ?ici?? ( 0,1 i. Ii aeaieo iaoo?ieo niinoa?aaeaiue a noiaao?ao iaeiaio no?eeeie ? ae?eyiee ia iaae? ii?iaeieo oa??a c nooo?ai a?aei?iieie aeanoeainoyie. ?icaeyiooi aeaa oa?aeoa?i? aeiaaeee: oiieee oa? neaaeeo ii??ae i?ae aeaiia iiooaeieie oa iaaiaee – iaaaeeeee i?oeiee ii?iaeiee oa? i?ae aeaiia neaaeeie oa?aie cia/ii? oiaueie. Aeey ia?oiai aa??aioo oa?aeoa?ii ??cea eieaeueia ca?eueoaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e??ieaiiy a iaaeao neaaeiai oa?o oa ciaioaiiy iaaaioaaeaiiy ia i?eeyaath/? ae?eyiee iai?ioe iiooaeieo oa??a. Ne?ae a?aei?oeoe ne?aeoth/? iniaeeaino?: a?ia?aie?/ia caeaaei?noue ?ici??o ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a neaaeiio ii?iaeiiio oa?? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Rt./(I; i?aeoe/ia iacaeaaei?noue ?ici??o ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a neaaeiio ii?iaeiiio oa?? a?ae i?oeiino? noeneoth/eo oa??a; i?e aeeiiaii? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy aeey neaaeiai oa?o Rt./(I ( 0,67 ?ici?? ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e caeaaeeoue a?ae iiooaeiino? oa?o, a i?e Rt./(I ( 0,67 i?aeoe/ii aecia/a?oueny a?aie/ieie oiiaaie ia eiioaeoao oa??a; iaeneiaeueiee ?ici?? cii a?ae?eaieo yaeu a i?oeieo oa?ao o?eno?oueny i?e iiaiiio c/aieaii? oa??a. Aeey ae?oaiai ?ic?aooieiaiai aa??aioo anoaiiaeaii ne?aeoth/? caeiiii??iino?: aca?iiae?y i?oeiiai ii?iaeiiai oa?o c e??ieaiiyi aeeeeea? a iueiio aeaoi?iaoe?? caeio; ?ici?? ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a neaaeeo oa?ao i?aeoe/ii ia caeaaeeoue a?ae iiooaeiino? i?oeiiai i?ioa?eo, a aecia/a?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi Rt./(I aeey neaaeeo oa??a; i?e oiauei? i?oeiiai oa?o aei 0,8 i eiai aieea ia no?ee?noue e??ieaiiy iacia/iee; iaeneiaeueia cia/aiiy ?ici???a cii a?ae?eao a i?oeiiio oa?? aeinyaa?oueny i?e iiaiiio c/aieaii? eiai c? neaaeeie ii?iaeaie. A iaio aeiaaeeao, iacaaaeath/e ia ?ica?aeiino? a i?e?iae? aeieeiaiiy eieaeueieo ia?aiai?oaeaiue, iaoai?ci ?oeioaaiiy e??ieaiiy aiaeia?/iee: aeieeiaiiy aeaoi?iaoe?e caeio aiane?aeie eieaeueii? inueiai? ia??aiii??iino? iaaaioaaeaiiy ia e??ieaiiy c aieo no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeiiai ianeao c ??cei a?aei?iieie aeanoeainoyie oa??a. Ea?oth/? aieeae, ui caeaoi? i?aeaeuoaaoe no?ee?noue, iiaeia ?icae?eeoe ia ne?aeoth/? a?oie: i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? oa aei?noeino? e??ieaiiy noiaao?a; i?aeaeuaiiy caeeoeiai? iano/i? caeaoiino? i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ii?iaeiiai ianeao; aaaaeaiiy ?aaoeyoeaiiai i?aeaeaoeeaiai aeaiaioa, ui caeaoiee iiaeeiooe iaaeeeoeia? iiceoeai? ia?ai?uaiiy ii?iaeiiai ianeao; eiia?iiaaia canoinoaaiiy ia?ae?/aieo aeua aieea?a. Ia?oee oeyo i?aeaeuaiiy aei?noeino? e??ieaiiy noiaao?a iieyaa? a ca?eueoaii? oiaueie aaoiiii? no?ie aac ci?ie ?? i?oeiino?. Ca?aeii ?ic?aooie?a, ca?eueoaiiy oiaueie e??ieaiiy c 0,4 i aei 1,2 i i?eaiaeeoue aei ciaioaiiy ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e a neaaeeo oa?ao ia 30 – 40%, a a?aeiia?aeii? ciie a e??ieaii? – ia 20 – 40%. Ae?oaee oeyo iieyaa? a i?aeaeuaii? i?oeiino? e??ieaiiy i?e iaci?ii?e oiauei? e??ieaiiy. Aeey e??ieaiiy oiaueiith 0,4 i i?aeaeuaiiy i?oeiino? ia ?icoya a?ae 2 IIa aei 5 IIa i?aeaeuo? caian i?oeiino? e??ieaiiy ia 30 – 70%. I?e oeueiio ?ici?? ciie aeaoi?iaoe?e a neaaeeo ii?iaeieo oa?ao i?aeoe/ii ia ci?ith?oueny. I?aeoe/ia ?aae?caoe?y ea?oth/eo aieea?a, ui i?aeaeuothoue caeeoeiao iano/o caeaoi?noue i?eiiaa?oiaaeo oa??a ianeao iieyaa? a aeei?enoaii? aiea?iiai e??ieaiiy /e oaiiiiaaeo ineaaeaieo cii a aeeaei? ianeao /e ia eiioo?? noiaao?a. Aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee iieacaee, ui i?aeaeuaiiy caeeoeiai? i?oeiino? i?eeiioo?ii? ciie ? aeioe?eueiei, eiee aeey oa?a neaaeeo ii??ae aeeiio?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Rt./(I ( 1 aeey ia?oiai c ?ic?aooieiaeo aeiaaee?a ? Rt./(I ( 1,5 aeey ae?oaiai. Ia i?aeoeoe? oe?iea canoinoaaiiy ciaoiaeeoue aaaaoioa?iaa i?aeaeaoeeaa e??ieaiiy, caeaoia aei aan?iiy aeaoi?iaoe?e , cie?aia ?aae?ciaaia c canoinoaaiiyi oeaeiaeo aeie?a. ?icaeyiooi aea? noaie oeeaaeee: aeiaaith noi?iiith ii eiioo?o e??ieaiiy oa oi?oeai aei eiioo?o. I?e ?ic?aooieao aea?aii ne?aeoth/? ia?aiao?e aaiiaoai?/ii? nenoaie: oiaueia aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy – 0,4 i; iaaea i?oeiino? aeieo – 20 IIa, ?ici?? ciie ineaaeaieo ii??ae – 0,8 i. Aeey ia?oiai c ?ic?aooieiaeo aeiaaee?a i?e oiauei? ooo/iiai i?aeaoeeaiai oa?o 0,2 i aeiionoeia cieaeaiiy i?oeiino? neaaeiai i?ioa?eo, i?e ye?e ii/eiathoueny iii?oi? aeaoi?iaoe??, noaiiaeoue 0,25 (I i?e oiauei? 4 i. Aeey ae?oaiai ?ic?aooieiaiai aeiaaeeo i?e oiauei? i?aeaeaoeeaiai oa?o 0,2 i ii?iaiaa cia/aiiy i?oeiino? neaaeeo ii??ae noaiiaeoue 0,75 (I, i?e oiauei? i?oeiiai i?ioa?eo 0,4 i ? 0,66 (I ( i?e oiauei? 4,0 i. Iiaeai?iiy oiaueie i?aeaeaoeeaiai oa?o i?eaiaeeoue aei iiaeeeaino? i?aeo?eioaaoe no?ee?noue nenoaie aae aei cieaeaiiy i?oeiino? neaaeeo ii??ae aei 0,5 (I i?aeoe/ii iacaeaaeii a?ae iiooaeiino? i?oeiiai i?ioa?eo. Oaeei /eiii, aeei?enoaiiy ?aaoeyoeaiiai aeaiaioa a aeaeyae? i?aeaeaoeeaiai oa?o c oeaeiaeie?a ? aoaeoeaiei caniaii i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? eiee aeey neaaeeo ii??ae ianeao aeeiio?oueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiy Rt/(I < 1. A i?ioean? aiae?co ?acoeueoao?a ?ic?aooie?a io?eiaii caeaaeiino? ?ici???a ciie ieanoe/iino? oa ?ici???a iiaeiaaeaieo ae?eyiie e??ieaiiy noiaao?a a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?oeiinoieo iieaciee?a ii??ae noi?aeieo oa??a, iiooaeiino? neaaeiai i?ioa?eo, i?oeiino? e??ieaiiy ? caeeoeiai? i?oeiino? i?aeaeaoeeaiai oa?o a yeino? ?aaoeyoeaiiai aeaiaioa. Cie?aia, ?ici?? ciie ieanoe/iino? a neaaeeo ii?iaeao aecia/a?oueny c iioeaeith ia aeua 16% (ei?aeyoeaia a?aeiioaiiy ??aia 0,821) ne?aeoth/ei /eiii: , aea Rt ( aeiaaio?eaaea i?oei?noue; a0 = 0,018 ( 0,031; b0 = 1,60 ( 2,13 aeey iiooaeiino? ieanoa a iaaeao o = 1,2 ( 4,0 i. . ?ici?? ciie aieeao ia e??ieaiiy noiaao?a c iioeaeith, ui ia ia?aaeuo? 14% (ei?aeyoeaiee eiao?oe??io ??aiee 0,873) aecia/a?oueny caeaaei?noth , aea a1 = -3; b = 0,5 ( 7,6 aeey iiooaeiino? ieanoa o = 1,2 ( 4,0 i. ?icae?e 6. Aaiiaoai?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, ?ic?iaea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a a no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao Aaiiaoai?/i? iniiae ?ic?iaee ? aeai?o niinia?a e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a a iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao aacothoueny ia eiiieaeniiio i?aeoiae?, yeee ia?aaeaa/a?: aecia/aiiy, c aeei?enoaiiyi e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iiai o?aiaeo, oiia i?io?aeee, ioe?ieo iai?oaeaiiai noaio nenoaie “e??ieaiiy ( ii?iaeiee ianea”, aea?? eiino?oeoe?? iniiaiiai e??ieaiiy oa iaa?oiooaaiiy, ca?aeii cai?iiiiiaaieo i?eioeei?a ?aaoeyoeaieo cania?a ea?oaaiiy a??nueeei oeneii, caaacia/oth/eo a noeoiiino? i?aeaeuaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? nenoaie ? ciaioaiiy aaee/eie oa aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?. Oaoiieia?/i? ia?aaeoiiae o oeueiio iia’ycai? c oi?ioaaiiyi iaiaaeaii-i?aeaeaoeeaeo oa aeniei? iano/i? caeaoiino? ioi?iiieo eiino?oeoe?e ca oiia ea?iaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeanoeainoae ii?iaeiiai ianeao ? ci?ie aeaoi?iaoe?eii-neeiaeo oa?aeoa?enoee oeacaii? nenoaie. Aeinyaa?oueny oea aeei?enoaiiyi i?eioeei?a iiia?aaeiuei?, /e noi?nii? ?aae?caoe?? ea?oth/eo aieea?a, ii?aeiaiiy aeoeaieo ? ianeaieo ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a c canoinoaaiiyi ?o ia ??cieo aoaiao i?aeo?eiaiiy noiaao??a. ?ic?iaeaii ae?aa?aio aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aeai?o niinia?a e??ieaiiy c o?aooaaiiyi oa?aeoa?enoee iiaiaeaeaiiy ianeao ii??ae ia ?aii?o noaae?yo eiai iaieaiiy oa aeiaaio?eaaeiio noai?. A?aoiaoth/e ?acoeueoaoe oaooieo ? aiae?oe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue, iaa?oioiaai? ia?aiao?e eiia?iiaaieo noai ioi?iie noiaao??a: oi?ioaaiiyi a aaiiaoai?/ii aeoeaieo (ooo/ii noai?aieo) ciiao i?aeaeaoeeai? (o?ioaiiiiaae), a a cae??iiiio i?inoi?? aaioaaeiiano/i? (iai?aai?/i? a’yaeo/?) iaieiiie; oi?ioaaiiyi a i?noeyo i?aeaeuaiiai ii?ooaiiy ii??ae a iai?yieo “i?aeeii ( iaae?iy” ieano?a, i???ioiaaieo ci?oeiaieo cii ianeao aeey i?aeaeuaiiy eiai eaac?iaeii??aeiino?, ??aiii?oeiino? ii eiioo?o ? ciaioaiiy aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao?. ?ic?iaeai? noaie canoinoaaiiy a yeino? ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a aiea?iiai oa aiea?iiai iaoyaeiiai e??ieaiiy. A ia?oiio aeiaaeeo iaa?oioiaai? ia?aiao?e ??ciiaeeaeiiiai aiea?oaaiiy, i?e yeeo noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey oi?ioaaiiy eiinie?aeiaaii? ii??aeii? iaieiiee ia eiioo?? noiaao?a. O ?ac? canoinoaaiiy aiea?iiai iaoyaeiiai e??ieaiiy noai?ththoueny oiiae eiai aeoeaii? i?eioniai? ae?? c ianeaii ii??ae. Iiaeaethth/e iaoyaeia aiea?ia e??ieaiiy, ye aio/eo ieoeo, ciaeaeai? aiae?oe/i? ae?ace aeey ?ic?aooieo oaao eiai caaaeaiiy, iaiao?aeiiai iii?o oa iiia?aaeiueiai coneeey iaoyao. ?icaeyiooi canoinoaaiiy oeueiai e??ieaiiy ia oeee?iae?e/i?e /anoei? noiaao?a oa eiai niieo/aiiy c ai?eciioaeueiith ae?iaeith ye aio/eiai ?aaoeyoeaiiai aeaiaioo, caaacia/oth/iai aaoiiiiia aeaoi?ioaaiiy e??ieaiue ae?iaie. Iaa?oioiaai? ia?aiao?e ? ?ic?iaeai? eiia?iiaai? eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/i? ??oaiiy ii canoinoaaiith aaaaoioa?iaeo e??ieaiue c aeei?enoaiiyi aiea?ieo nenoai oa i?aeaeaoeeaeo ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a. I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?o i?ia?aneaiino? iia’ycaia c caaacia/aiiyi iaeiiai?oaeaiino? a iniiaiiio e??ieaii? a ia?oo /a?ao ca ?aooiie /a?aoaaiiy ci?ie noaio iaoa??ae?a i?aeaeaoeeaeo aeaiaio?a a ?aaeeiao aeaoi?iaoe?eiiai ?ici?oeiaiiy ? ci?oeiaiiy. ?ic?iaeaii niin?a eiia?iiaaiiai e??ieaiiy noiaao??a a iaaiaeiaieo ii?iaeao n oi?ioaaiiyi i?ioeo?eueo?aoe?eieo caiii, aeeiiaii iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?? ? oeio e??ieaiiy aeey i?io?aeee ae?ea noiaao??a o no?oeoo?ii iano?eeeo ieeaoiieo ii?iaeao. Ii??aiyeueieie oaooieie aenia?eiaioaie (o. ei. I.A. Noaoaiiaa, “AEiaoiaaee ?oaeiee”, “Ci?y”) aeieacaia aoaeoeai?noue iie?auaiiy ?iaioe nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a ( ianea” i?e aeei?enoaii? ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a ??cii? aei?noeino? ? i?aeaeaoeeaino? (aiea?e, oeaeiaeiee, ?ic/eie, ?o eiia?iaoe??): eiao?oe??io aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia iniiaia e??ieaiiy ciaioo?oueny c 1,4 aei 1,03-1,07. Aeey aeiiii?/ii? aeni?anioe?iee aa?oino? nii?oaeaeaiiy iaeiiai iao?a noiaao?a ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea; aeeiiai? oaoi?ei-aeiiii?/i? ?ic?aooiee aoaeoo a?ae ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?ic?iaie ia oaooao Aeiiaano. Iieacaii, ui ?o aeei?enoaiiy aeicaieeei ciaioeoe eai?oaeuei? aeo?aoe ia 10-15%, i?aeaeueoe i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ia 15-25%, ciaioeoe ianyae aeei?enoaiiy aei?iaiai cae?ciaaoiiiiai ? ?icoe?eoe canoinoaaiiy aiea?iiai oa ooo/iiai aaoiiiiai e??ieaiiy a neeaaeieo aaioaoi?/ieo oiiaao. Io?eiaii aeiiii?/iee aoaeo 972,5 oen. e?a (a oe?iao 1984 a.). AENIIAEE Aeena?oaoe?y ? cae?i/aiith iaoeiai-aeine?aeiith ?iaioith, a ye?e aeaia oai?aoe/ia ocaaaeueiaiiy ? ae??oaia iaoeiai-oaoi?/ia i?iaeaia, yea i?noeoue aaiiaoai?/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy, aaeineiiaeaiiy oa ?ic?iaeo eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy oaooieo aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao, ai?iaaaeaeaiiy yeeo aiineoue cia/iee aianie a ?icaeoie iaoeiai-oaoi?/iiai i?ia?ano a aaeoc? oaooiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ? caaacia/o? i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, aeiiii?? iaoa??aeueieo ?ano?n?a, nei?i/aiiy oa?i?i?a ? aa?oino? e??ieaiiy noiaao??a i?e i?aeaioiaoe? iiaeo ai?eciio?a ? ?aeiino?oeoe?? aoa?eueieo oaoo. Iniiai? iaoeia? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, aeniiaee ? ?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aeeiiaieo aeine?aeaeaiue iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio: I?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy aoaeoeaiino? ? oaoiieia?/iinoe e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo a neeaaeieo a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao iia’ycaia c aaeeeeie aeo?aoaie, a ?iiae? ? o?oaeiiuaie oaoi?/iiai ii?yaeeo. Iaa?oiooaaiiyi iieacaii, ui ia?niaeoeaiei ? eiia?iiaai? niiniae e??ieaiiy noiaao??a c caaacia/aiiyi ea?iaaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aeanoeainoae ii?iaeiiai ianeao, ?c canoinoaaiiyi aeaiaio?a ??cii? i?aeaeaoeeaino? ? aei?noeino?. Aeey ioe?iee, i?iaiicoaaiiy oiia i?io?aeee ? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aaaaeai? iia? iieacieee aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee no?oeoo?ii? ? i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii?iaeiiai ianeao, a aeey aecia/aiiy eiai no?eeino? o a?aeneiiaiiyo ?ic?iaeaii ia iniia? ?iia??iinii-noaoenoe/ieo iiaeaeae e?oieiai-aaiiaoai?/iee o?aiae, ui ia? oaaee/io a?aeia?aaeai?noue oa aiae?oe/iee ae?ac aeey ?ic?aooieo e?euee?nieo iieaciee?a eaoaai??e noaio ianeao, aeei?enoaiiy yeiai i?aeaeuo? iiaiioo ? aeinoia??i?noue aeo?aeieo aeaieo aeey i?iaeooaaiiy ? aoae?aieoeoaa noiaao??a oa aea? iiaeeea?noue aea?aoe iai?yie ?ic?iaee eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue ?o ioi?iie. Aiae?cii ? noaoenoe/iith ia?iaeith aeaieo i?i no?oeoo?ii-iaoai?/io iaiaeii??aei?noue ianea?a ii??ae onoaiiaeaii aeniiiaioe?eiee ?iciiae?e oa??a ii??ae ii eiao?oe??ioo i?oeiino? ? oa??a, ui i?aeiaee i?ae aeaaee, iaa?iaii-aeniiiaioe?eiee ?iciiae?e iiooaeiino? oa??a a oiau?. Aeyaeaii, ui noaoenoe/ia caeiiii??i?noue ciaioaiiy /anoioiino? aeaae?a ?c c?inoaiiyi iiooaeiino? ieano?a i?aeii?yaeeiao?oueny ?iciiae?eo Ia?aoi. Aeey o?ueio aeae?eaieo eaoaai??e ii??ae (? ( f ( 21, ?? ( f ( 12, ??? ( f ( 6) cia/aiiy ?iia??iino? aeaae?a a caeaaeiino? a?ae iiooaeiino? oa??a ci?iththoueny a iaaeao: 0,33-0,67; 0,16-0,67; 0,72-0,92 ? a?ae i?oeiino? 0,11-0,47; 0,29-0,56; 0,81-0,92 a?aeiia?aeii. ?ioaineai?noue aeaae?a a iiooaeieo neaaeeo ii?iaeao ca?eueoo?oueny aaea?/?, caa??aath/e ia?aaoey?iee oa?aeoa? caeaaeiino? ?iia??iino? aeaae?a a?ae iiooaeiino? ieano?a. Onoaiiaeaia ei?aeyoe?eia caeaaei?noue ioe?iee a?aeiinii? aaee/eie aeaae?a ia eiaei? 100 i iiaeeaeaiiy noiaao?a. ?c c?inoaiiyi aeeaeie ? i?oeiino? ii??ae aiia ciaioo?oueny iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii. Iniiai? caeiiii??iino?, iniaeeaino? oa o?ceei-iaoai?/ia nooo?a?noue aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a ( ?aaoeyoeaiee aeaiaio ( iaiaeii??aeiee ii?iaeiee ianea” iieyaathoue a ianooiiiio. I?e yaiiio aieea? no?oeoo?ii i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii??ae, oeio e??ieaiiy oa ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a aeiaaio?eaaea aca?iiae?y nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a ( ii?iaeiee ianea” oa?aeoa?eco?oueny iaaaoeaiei aieeaii ae?aaeaii aneiao???th ?iciiae?eo iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao? c i???ioaoe??th iaeneioi?a iai?oaeaiue (Ea = 1,2-1,4) a iai?yi? “iaae?iiy ( i?aeeii” oa??a ?c c?inoaiiyi nooi?iy aneiao??? ia ae?eyieao c a?eueo neaaeeie ii?iaeaie, yea ? ? aecia/aeueiith i?e/eiith aeaoi?ioaaiiy noiaao??a. Onoaiiaeaii, ui a aeeaeio ii?iaeieo ianea?a ia iacae??ieaieo ae?eyieao noiaao??a nii/aoeo oi?iothoueny aea? ciie i?aeaeuaiiai o??ueiiooai?aiiy a oaeeo iaaeao: ia?oa ( 0-0,8 i; ae?oaa ( 1,2-1,6 i. I?e aeiaaio?eaae?e aca?iiae?? e??ieaiiy noiaao??a ? ii?iaeieo ianea?a ia? i?noea oi?ioaaiiy aeoeaieo o?eaiaaiiaoai?/ieo cii a iaaeao: ? ( 1,4-1,6 i; ?? ( 1,8-2,2 i; ??? ( a?eueoa 2,2 i. Aeeeaaeaia o?ceei-iaoai?/ia nooo?a?noue oeeo i?ioean?a, a ?o e?euee?ni? iieacieee aeei?enoai? i?e iaa?oiooaaii? ia?aiao??a niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a oa i?eioeei?a ea?oaaiiy a??nueeei oeneii a ieo. Aeyaeaii, ui aca?iiee aieea aa?oeeaeueiiai noiaao?a ? i?eieeath/i? aei iueiai ai?eciioaeueii? ae?iaee i?iyaey?oueny a eaac?oaeeueia?e ci?i? ??aiy iai?oaeaiue a i?eeiioo?ieo ii?iaeao inoaiiuei?, i?e oeueiio c a?aeaeaeaiiyi a?ae noiaao?a aiie?ooaea inoeeeyoe?? iieaciee?a ciaioo?oueny, a a?aenoaiue i?ae noi?aeieie aeno?aioiaie c?inoa?: aeey ia?oi? ia?e a?aeiioaiiy iaeneioia aei i?i?ioia ??aiy aeaeo?iiaai?oii? ai?n?? neeaaea? 1,15-1,33 (na?aaei? 1,23), aeey ae?oai? ia?e ( 1,1-1,24 (na?aaei? 1,16), aeey o?aouei? ia?e ( 1,1-1,16 (na?aaei? 1,13). A?aenoaiue i?ae ia?oeie aeaiia aeno?aioiaie ??cieo ciae?a i?eaeecii ??aia 4,0 i. Oaeei /eiii, aecia/ai? e?euee?nii ciio aieeao noiaao?a ia ai?eciioaeueio ae?iaeo: iayai?noue i?i?ioia iai?oaeaiue ia a?aenoai?, ??ai?e ae?aiao?o noiaao?a ? ciie aaciina?aaeiueiai eiai aieeao, yea aei??aith? aeaii eiai ae?aiao?ai c a?aee?eii a?ae eiioo?o e??ieaiiy noiaao?a. Aecia/ai? oa?aeoa?i? ciie aeaoi?ioaaiiy ii??ae iaae niieo/aiiyie noiaao??a c ai?eciioaeueieie ae?iaeaie; ?ice?eoi iaoai?ci aaiiaoai?/ieo i?ioean?a a?ey noiaao?a c ??ciei e??ieaiiyi c a?aooaaiiyi iniiaieo aca?iiiaieeaath/eo oaeoi??a. Ia iniia? aaciina?aaei?o aeiaaio?eaaeeo aei??thaaiue ci?uaiue e??ieaiiy ? ii??ae a aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao?ao aoa?eueieo oaoo io?eiaia caeaaei?noue, yea ia? aeniiiaioe?eiee aeaeyae (ei?aeyoe?eia a?aeiioaiiy 0,758, iioeaea ?ic?aooie?a ia ia?aaeuo? 20%) ? aeicaiey? ?o i?iaiicoaaoe c a?aooaaiiyi /ano, ?aae?ona noiaao?a, iii?o e??ieaiiy oa aeanoeainoae ii??ae. Ii ?acoeueoaoao ??oaiiy caaea/? i?i aca?iiae?th aaaaoioa?oaaoi? oiau?, neeaaeaii? ??ciiiiooaeieie ? ??ciii?oeiinieie ii?iaeaie, c e??ieaiiyi noiaao?a aeyaeaii iaoai?ci oeueiai i?ioeano, yeee i?iyaey?oueny a aa??aoe?? ia?aiao??a ciie iai?oaeieo aeaoi?iaoe?e (ieanoe/iino?) ? ciie e??ieaiiy, ui ciaoiaeeoueny i?ae ae??th eiioaeooth/iai ianeao: ia?aiao?e ia?oi? iae?i?eii caeaaeaoue a?ae iiooaeiino? oa??a neaaeeo ii??ae ? ??aiy ?o iaaaioaaeaiino? (Rt/(I), a ae?oai? ( iaa?iaii i?iii?oe?eii a?ae oeo aea /eiiee?a. Ia iniia? eiiieaenieo aeine?aeaeaiue iaa?oioiaai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?eioeeie ?ic?iaee ? aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy noiaao??a, ye? ?aaeaiaioothoue aeaee, ??ai? ? iine?aeiai?noue ?aae?caoe?? iniiaieo ? ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a ea?oaaiiy a??nueeei oeneii. O?ceei-iaoai?/ia nooo?a?noue i?eioeei?a iia’ycaia c iiia?aaeiueith iine?aeiaiith /e noi?niith ?aae?caoe??th ea?oth/eo aieea?a ia ianea, canoinoaaiiyi i?aeaeaoeeaeo, aei?noeeo oa aio/eeo ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiao?a, caaacia/oth/eo ea?iaaia aeei?enoaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? ianeao ii??ae oa i?aeaeuaiiy no?eeino? noiaao??a. ?ic?iaeai? eiia?iiaai? niiniae e??ieaiiy noiaao??a a iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao ? oaoiieia?/i? noaie ?o canoinoaaiiy. Cai?iiiiiaaiith iaoiaeeeith aeiiii?/ii? ioe?iee e??ieaiiy, ia?aa??aiith ia aeae?eueeio oaooao, aeeiiai? ?ic?aooiee aeiiii?/ieo iieaciee?a ??cieo oei?a e??ieaiiy. I?iieneiaa ia?aa??ea ? ai?iaaaeaeaiiy oaoiieia?/ieo ?ic?iaie iieacaee aoaeoeai?noue ??oaiue aaoi?a ii canoinoaaiith ??cieo eiia?iaoe?e ?aaoeyoeaieo aeaiaio?a c iniiaiei iiiie?oiei, aaoiiiei, cae?ciaaoiiiei, otha?iaiaei e??ieaiiyi. Caaacia/o?oueny cieaeaiiy aaee/eie ? aneiao??? iaa?ocie (c Ea = 1,4 aei Ea = 1,03-1,07) ia noiaao?, /ei i?aeaeuo?oueny eiai no?ee?noue. Ai?iaaaeaeai? ?ic?iaee aaoi?a ia 10 oaooao Aeiiaano caaania/eee ciaioaiiy ia 10-15% eai?oaeueieo aeo?ao, i?aeaeuaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia e??ieaii? aei 15-25% , io?eiaiiy aeiiii?/iiai aoaeoo a ianyc? 972,5 oen.?oa. (a oe?iao 1984 ?.). Ia iniia? ?acoeueoao?a aeeiiaieo ?ia?o ?ic?iaeaii oaoiieia?/i? ea?oe ?aae?caoe?? eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a, “?oeiaiaenoai ii aaioece/aneie aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey nenoaiu “e?aiue ( ii?iaeiue iannea” aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia (aeiiieiaiea e ?Ae.12.18.073-88)”, “?oeiaiaenoai ii i?iecaiaenoao ?aaio niiniaii iioneiie e?aie a oeenio?iiiie ?oaaoea i?e i?ioiaeea aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia oaoo e nii?oaeaiee iaaeoaieiai caeiaeaiey”, caoaa?aeaeaieo ia ??ai? aaeoc? ye ii?iaoeaieo aeieoiaio?a. Noeoii?noue io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a neeaaea? iaiao?aei? aaiiaoai?/i? oa oaoi?/i? iniiae ?ic?iaee, aeai?o ? canoinoaaiiy eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo oaooieo noiaao??a a iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao i?iaeoeoeaieo oiau Aeiiaano. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy ? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ianooiieo ?iaioao: IIIIA?AO?ss Ioaie/iue TH.A., Eaaeo A.A. Oaoiieiaey nii?oaeaiey ai?iuo au?aaioie a neiaeiuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo (niaoeeaeueiua niiniau no?ieoaeuenoaa). O/aaiia iiniaea. ( Aeiiaoee, 1997. ( 200 n. EA??AIEOeOAA, IAOIAeAEAC?AEA ?oeiaiaenoai ii i?iecaiaenoao ?aaio niiniaii iioneiie e?aie a oeenio?iiiie ?oaaoea i?e i?ioiaeea aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia oaoo e nii?oaeaiee iaaeoaieiai caeiaeaiey/ Ionoaoei C.O., Iiaee A.A., Ie?iiia A.A., A?aeaoaa A.I., Eaaeo A.A., Eiaai A.I., Eethe A.E., ss?eo I.O., Eunuo A.A. – Aeiiaoee, 1993 a. ( 73 n. ?oeiaiaenoai ii aaioece/aneie aeeaaiinoeea ninoiyiey nenoaiu “e?aiue – ii?iaeiue iannea” aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia (Aeiiieiaiea e “Iiniaeth ii ainnoaiiaeaieth e?aie e a?ie?iaee aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia. ?Ae. 12.18.073(88)”/ A.O. Aoeao, A.I. Ona/aiei, A.A. sseaineee, A.E. Na?aeaiei, O.A. Iaeaia?/oe, N.E. Neeii/ea, A.A. Ona/aiei, Aeaen.A. sseaineee, A.A. Neauaaa, E.A. Eineia, A.A. Aoaeiee, A.A. Eaaeo. ( Aeiai?iiao?iane: EAOI IAIO, IEEIION, IAI “Aeiiaoeeoaooii?ioiaeea”, IOOe “Iiaecaieiaeono?ey” AAI Oe?aeiu, 1998. ( 42 n. Ioaie/iue TH.A., Eaaeo A.A. Iaoiaee/aneea oeacaiey e eco/aieth aeenoeeieeiu “Oaoiieiaey nii?oaeaiey ai?iuo au?aaioie a neiaeiuo ai?ii-aaieiae/aneeo oneiaeyo (niaoeeaeueiua niiniau no?ieoaeuenoaa)”. – Aeiiaoee: AeiiAOO, 1995. ( 22 n. IAOEIA? NOAOO?, AeIIIA?Ae?, AAOI?NUeE? NA?AeIOeOAA Eaaeo A.A. Iiaua oaoie/aneea ?aoaiey i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia e nii?yaeaiee a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo. Iaoa?eaeu io?aneaaie iao/ii-oaoie/aneie eiioa?aioeee “I?ia?anneaiua ?aoaiey ii e?aieaieth e iiaeaea?aeaieth ai?iuo au?aaioie”. ( Iaaeia?aae, 1996. ( N. 44-46. Eaaeo A.A. ?acoeueoaou aeeaaiinoeee ninoiyiey aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia iaoiaeii yeaeo?iiao?ee// Oaieue Oe?aeiu, 1997. - ? 6. ( N. 50(53. Eaaeo A.A. Aeeyiea naienoa ii?iae e oeia e?aie ia acaeiiaeaenoaea nenoaiu “e?aiue ( iannea” a aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieao// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 3. ( N. 32-39. Eaaeo A.A. Aea?iaeonoe/aneay aeeaaiinoeea e?aiae oaooiuo noaieia// Oaieue Oe?aeiu, 1997. ( ? 8. ( N. 44-45. Eaaeo A.A. Ioeaiea aeaoi?ie?oaiinoe neienouo ia?acoeia e yooaeoa oi?i/iaiey aiea?ia// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 4. ( N. 70-76. Eaaeo A.A. ?aaeno?aoeey anoanoaaiiiai yeaeo?iiaaieoiiai eceo/aiey aeey ioeaiee ninoiyiey aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia// Oaieue Oe?aeiu, 1998. - ? 2. ( N. 39-41. Eaaeo A.A., Ona/aiei A.A. ?aoaiea ii i?eiaiaieth aiea?iie noyaeiie e?aie, iaania/eaathuae naiicaie?aiea i?eeiioo?iuo ii?iae// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 2. ( N. 42(45. Eaaeo A.A. Ioeaiea ninoiyiey aaiiaoa?eaeia e acaeiiaeaenoaey nenoaiu “e?aiue ( ii?iaeiue iannea” aaioece/aneeie iaoiaeaie// Ecaanoey Aeiiaoeeiai ai?iiai einoeoooa. 1998. ( ? 1 (7). ( N. 87-89. Eaaeo A.A. Eeoieiai-aaiiaoaie/aneee o?aiae ai?iuo oneiaee eae iniiaa ?aoaiey yeieiai-oaoiieiae/aneeo caaea/ i?e no?ieoaeuenoaa aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia// I?iaeaie aeieia?/ii? aaciaee oa ea?iaaiiai eiio?ieth aeeiai?/ieo i?e?iaeii-oaoiiaaiieo nenoai (Iaoa??aee I?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??, i. Euea?a, 24(26 aa?aniy 1996 ?.). *anoeia 2. ( N. 12(13. Eaaeo A.A. Aaioece/aneay aeeaaiinoeea a?aae- e oetheaeiaeano?oeoeee ii?iae aaeece aeoaieeo aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia oaieueiuo oaoo// I?iaeaiu aeae?iaaiiaoaieee a ai?iii aeaea e no?ieoaeuenoaa (Iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee, 8-10 ieoya?y 1996 a., Eeaa). *anoue 1. ( N. 94-95. Eaaeo A.A., Ionoaoei C.O. I?ioiaeea onouey oaoiieiae/aneiai iooiaea aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia a iaonoie/eauo ieuaoiiuo ii?iaeao // Oaieue Oe?aeiu, 1996. - ? 3. ( N. 44(46. Eaaeo A.A., E?eaei TH.A., Ai?iaeei A.A., I?aaa? A.A., Aoaeiee A.A. I oaoiieiaee ia?ae?aieaiey aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia// Oaieue Oe?aeiu, 1995 a. ( ? 5. ( N. 34. Eaaeo A.A., ?oaaoe A.O., Aia?i I.O. I?eeiaeeiinoue oai?ee iaeaieaa neaaiai caaia e ioeaiea i?i/iinoe neiaeiino?oeoo?iuo oieu, ane?uaaaiuo aa?oeeaeueiuie noaieaie// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 3. ( N. 59(65. Aoeao A.O., Eaaeo A.A., Ona/aiei A.A. Eiiieaene?iaaiea aaioece/aneeo iaoiaeia i?e ioeaiea ninoiyiey aaiiaoa?eaeia e acaeiiaeaenoaey nenoaiu “e?aiue ( ii?iaeiue iannea”// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 2. ( N. 34(42. Ona/aiei A.I., ?oaaoe A.O., Eaaeo A.A. Noaoenoe/aneay ioeaiea ?ani?aaeaeaiey iaa?ocie ia e?aiue aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia, i?iaiaeeiuo a ?aciii?i/iuo ii?iaeao// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 4. ( N. 32-37. Aiaueaa A.A., Eaaeo A.A. Iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia n o/aoii no?oeoo?iie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe ii?iae aaeece aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 3. ( N. 74(79. Aiaueaa A.A., Eaaeo A.A. Au/eneeoaeueiue aeai?eoi iiaeaee?iaaiey aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia aaeece aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia n o/aoii no?oeoo?iie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe ii?iae// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 4. ( N. 77-80. Ona/aiei A.I., sseaineee A.A., Iaeaia?/oe O.A., Eaaeo A.A. Neia?aaoe/aneea yooaeou e aieiiaay i?e?iaea aaiiaoaie/aneeo i?ioeannia a oaeaii?iaeiii ianneaa// XXI noieaoea ( i?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau inaiaiey ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo: Na. iao/i. o?oaeia IAA Oe?aeiu. ? 3, oii 3. I?ia?anneaiua oaoiieiaee iiaecaiiie ?ac?aaioee ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. ( Aeiai?iiao?iane: ?EE IAA Oe?aeiu, 1998. ( N. 58(61. Ona/aiei A.I., sseaineee A.A., Na?aeaiei A.I., Eaaeo A.A. I?eai?ii-iaoiaee/aneia iaania/aiea oaoie/aneie aeeaaiinoeee e?aie oaooiuo noaieia// Oai aea. ( N. 154(158. Eaaeo A.A., Nieyi I.A., Aoaeiee A.A. Aeae?iecieyoeey /oaoiiie othaeiaiaie e?aie iiaui /aeaii/iui iaoa?eaeii// Oaieue Oe?aeiu, 1995. ( ? 8. ( N. 39. Aa?iaoecaoeey oaia /oaoiiuo othaeiaia n iiiiuueth eeay “Yeano”/ E?anoioaaneee E.N., Ae?ooeei A.I., Aoaeiee A.A., Ieeoaaie A.I., Aaac A.E., Eaaeo A.A. e ae?.// Oaooiia no?ieoaeuenoai, 1986. ( ? 3. ( N. 26. Aoeao A.O., Ona/aiei A.A., Eaaeo A.A. Ia?niaeoeaiia iai?aaeaiea nicaeaiey io?aiiuo eiino?oeoeee ai?iuo au?aaioie n eniieueciaaieai aiea?iuo iaoyaeiuo nenoai// Aaioaoie/aneay iaoaieea, 1997. ( ? 3. ( N. 3(9. Ae?eaai A.A., Eaaeo A.A. Aaiiaoaie/aneea oneiaey io?aiu e iiaeaea?aeaiey nii?yaeaiee oaooiuo noaieia// III iao/iay eiioa?aioeey AOCia Oe?aeiu “Ia?eoaeaea?neia iaania/aiea ai?iuo ?aaio”. Aeieeaaeu e oacenu aeieeaaeia. – Aeiiaoee. – 1995. – N. 91-95. A.n. ? 1624168, NNN?, IEE A21D 5/00. Niinia e?aieaiey oaooiiai noaiea a iaaiaeiaiiuo ii?iaeao e aaeaia?acothuee ?anoai? ia iniiaa iai?aaie/aneiai ayaeouaai aeey aai inouanoaeaiey/ Ae.E. Iiaeeaaneee, I.I. Aaeue/aiei, A.A. Iiaee, A.A. Iienaaa, A.A. Eaaeo (NNN?). ? 4485563/03; Cayaeaii 20.09.88; Iioae. 30.01.91. Athe. ? 4. A.n. ? 1744260, NNN?, IEE A21D 7/02. Niinia o?ainii?oe?iaaiey i?iaeoeoa ii oaooiiio noaieo/ A.A. Eaaeo, E.A. Iaiaoe, I.I. Aa?aaeue, E.E. Nu/aa (NNN?). - ? 4802670/03; Cayaeaii 19.03.90; Iioae. 30.06.92. Athe. ? 24. Iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a a ?iaioao, ui iioae?eoaaeeny o ni?aaaoi?noa? iieyaa? a ianooiiiio: (1) – aiae?c, iaa?oiooaaiiy oaoiieia?e e??ieaiiy oaooieo noiaao??a; (3) – ?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee ? e?eoa???a ae?aaiinoeee a aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao?ao; (11, 17, 18) – noai?aiiy i?eioeei?a ?ic?iaee eiino?oeoeaieo ??oaiue;(19, 21) – iaoiaee/i? ?ic?iaee ?iia??iini? ? aiae?oe/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy; (25, 26) – oi?ioaaiiy caaea/?, aeai?eoi ?ic?aooieo, iiaeaethaaiiy; (20-24, 28, 34) – iaoiaeeea, i?iaaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue, aiae?c ?acoeueoao?a; 27 – ?ice?eooy iaoai?cio i?ioean?a; (29-33) – ?ic?iaea eiino?oeoeaieo ? oaoiieia?/ieo ??oaiue; (35, 36) – ?ic?iaea ?noioieo i?eciae?a a a?aeiia?aeiino? c aeia?aeeith i?i oai?/o o/anoue a noai?aii? aeiaoiae?a. AIIOAOe?ss Eaa?o A.A. Aaiiaoai?/i? iniiae ?ic?iaee ? aeai?o eiia?iiaaieo niinia?a e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a o no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii??aeieo ii?iaeao. – ?oeiien. Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a oaoi?/ieo iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.15.04 – “Oaooia ? i?aecaiia aoae?aieoeoai” ( Iaoe?iiaeueia a??ie/a aeaaeai?y Oe?a?ie, Aei?i?iiao?iane, 1999. Aeena?oaoe?y i?enay/aia ieoaiiyi i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ? oaoiieia?/iino? e??ieaiiy aa?oeeaeueieo noiaao??a aoa?eueieo oaoo, ye? i?ioiaeyoueny o iaiaeii??aeieo ianeaao ii??ae. A ?iaio? ?icaeaa?oueny eiiieaeniee i?aeo?ae io?eiaiiy caaaeueiinenoaiiiai aoaeoo a?ae aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiai aeai?o e??ieaiiy noiaao??a oa iine?aeiaii? /e noi?nii? ?aae?caoe?? ?aaoeyoeaieo cania?a a nenoai? “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – iaiaeii??aei?e ii?iaeiee ianea”, ye? noeoiii caaacia/othoue aeaiio??oaaiiy ci?uaiue, c?inoaiiy iano/i? caeaoiino? i?eeiioo?ieo ii??ae oa e??ieaiiy, a ?acoeueoao? /iai caaacia/o?oueny cieaeaiiy aaee/eie ? aneiao??? iaaaioaaeaiue ia noiaao? oa i?aeaeuaiiy eiai no?eeino?. C a?aooaaiiyi no?oeoo?ii? ? i?oei?nii? iaiaeii??aeiino? ii?iaeiiai ianeao oa ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy caeiiii??iinoae ? iniaeeainoae aca?iiae?? nenoaie “e??ieaiiy noiaao?a – ianea ii??ae” ?ic?iaeai? iaoeiai-oaoi?/i? i?eioeeie aeai?o ? iia? eiino?oeoe?? ioi?iiieo aaioaaeiiano/eo nenoai, ye? caaacia/othoue aeiaaio?eaaeo no?ee?noue oaooieo noiaao??a a neeaaeieo a??ie/i-aaieia?/ieo oiiaao. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe ciaeoee i?iieneiaa canoinoaaiiy ia aoa?eueieo oaooao, ?aae?ciaai? a ii?iaoeaii-oaoi?/ieo aeieoiaioao. Eeth/ia? neiaa: aoaeoeai?noue, ?ano?nicaa?aaeaiiy, aoa?eueia oaooa, aa?oeeaeueiee noiaao?, e??ieaiiy, eiia?iiaai? niiniae. AIIIOAOeEss Eaaeo A.A. Aaiiaoaie/aneea iniiau ?ac?aaioee e auai?a eiiaeie?iaaiiuo niiniaia e?aieaiey aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia a no?oeoo?ii iaiaeii?iaeiuo ii?iaeao. – ?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.15.04 – “Oaooiia e iiaecaiiia no?ieoaeuenoai” ( Iaoeeiiaeueiay ai?iay aeaaeaiey Oe?aeiu, Aeiai?iiao?iane, 1999. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia aii?inai iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe e oaoiieiae/iinoe e?aieaiey aa?oeeaeueiuo noaieia oaieueiuo oaoo, i?ioiaeeiuo a neiaeiino?oeoo?iuo ianneaao ii?iae. A ?aaioa ?acaeaaaony eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae iieo/aiey iauanenoaiiiai yooaeoa io aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai auai?a e?aieaiey noaieia e iineaaeiaaoaeueiie eee niaianoiie ?aaeecaoeee ?aaoeyoeaiuo niiniaia a nenoaia “e?aiue noaiea – iaiaeii?iaeiue ii?iaeiue iannea”, eioi?ua niaieoiii iaania/eaatho aeaiioe?iaaiea ia?aiauaiee, iiauoaiea ianouae niiniaiinoe i?eeiioo?iuo ii?iae e e?aieaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iaania/eaaaony nieaeaiea aaee/eiu e aneiiao?ee iaa?ocie ia noaie e iiauoaiea aai onoie/eainoe. Ia aaca o/aoa nenoaiaoecaoeee e iaiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ii no?oeoo?iie e i?i/iinoiie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe i?iaeoeoeaiuo oieu Aeiiaanna, o/aoa iieacaoaeae onoie/eainoe ii?iae a iaiaaeaieyo ?ac?aaioai eeoieiai-aaiiaoaie/aneee o?aiae oneiaee i?ioiaeee e e?aieaiey noaieia, eioi?ue eiaao oaaee/iia i?aaenoaaeaiea e aiaeeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea, iicaieythuaa ii?aaeaeeoue eiee/anoaaiii-iioaioeeaeueiue iieacaoaeue onoie/eainoe ii?iaeiiai ianneaa, ii eioi?iio auaeaeaii iyoue a?oii oneiaee. Ii ?acoeueoaoai oaooiuo yenia?eiaioia onoaiiaeaiu: aeeyiea iaiaeii?iaeiinoe ii?iae ia acaeiiaeaenoaea nenoaiu “e?aiue noaiea ( ii?iaeiue iannea”; au?aaeaiioth aneiiao?eth iaa?ocie ia e?aiue n eiyooeoeeaioii, ?aaiui 1,2-1,4, i?e eioi?ie iaeneioiu iaoaie/aneeo iai?yaeaiee a nenoaia ni?eaioe?iaaiu a iai?aaeaiee “iaaeaiea ( ainnoaiea” ieanoia, a oneeaiea noaiaie aneiiao?ee i?ineaaeeaaaony ia o/anoeao n aieaa neaauie ii?iaeaie; oi?ie?iaaiea a i?eeiioo?iii ii?iaeiii ianneaa ia iacae?aieaiiuo o/anoeao aeaoo cii o?aueiiia?aciaaiey (0-0,8; 1,2-1,6 i) e i?e aeieaia?aiaiiii acaeiiaeaenoaee e?aie n ianneaii oi?ie?iaaiea a aai aeoaeia aeoeaiuo o?eaiaaiiaoaie/aneeo cii (? ( 1,4-1,6 i; ?? ( 1,8-2,2 i; ??? ( aieaa 2,2 i); eaaceaieiiaia eciaiaiea iai?yaeaiiiai ninoiyiey a ii?iaeao aie?oa i?eiueathuae e noaieo ai?eciioaeueiie au?aaioee i?e iaee/ee ieieioia iai?yaeaiee ia ?annoiyiee, ?aaiii aeeaiao?o noaiea, e ciiu aeeyiey ia oaeaeaiee aeaoo aai aeeaiao?ia. ?ac?aaioaiu iao/ii-oaoie/aneea i?eioeeiu nicaeaiey e auai?a eiiaeie?iaaiiuo niiniaia e?aieaiey noaieia a iaiaeii?iaeiuo ii?iaeao, i?ia?anneaiinoue e yooaeoeaiinoue eioi?uo aeinoeaiooa ca n/ao aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai auai?a iniiaiiai e?aieaiey e oi?aaeaeathuae, iineaaeiaaoaeueiie eee niaianoiie ?aaeecaoeee eiiieaiaioa?iuo nenoaia ?aaoeyoeaiuo yeaiaioia. Oece/aneoth iniiao i?eioeeiia ninoaaeyao i?eiaiaiea ioaeaeueii eee a ni/aoaiee iiaeaoeeauo, aeanoeeo, aeaeeo ?aaoeyoeaiuo yeaiaioia, iaania/eaathueo oi?aaeyaiia eniieueciaaiea ianouae niiniaiinoe ianneaa, nieaeaiea iai?yaeaiiinoe e?aie, ?aaiii?i/iinoue io?aiiie eiino?oeoeee, /ai aeinoeaaaony nieaeaiea aaee/eiu e aneiiao?ee iaa?ocie ia iaa e iiauoaiea onoie/eainoe noaiea. ?ac?aaioaiu iiaua eiiaeie?iaaiiua niiniau e?aieaiey noaieia, iaania/eaathuea ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea. Iniiaiua ?acoeueoaou ?aaiou iaoee i?iiuoeaiiia i?eiaiaiea ia oaieueiuo oaooao, ?aaeeciaaiu a ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneeo aeieoiaioao. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yooaeoeaiinoue, ?ano?ninaa?aaeaiea, oaieueiay oaooa, aa?oeeaeueiee noaie, e?aiue, eiiaeie?iaaiiua niiniau. ANNOTATION V.V. Levit. “Geomechanical basis of development and selection of supporting of vertical shafts in structurally heterogenous rocks”. Manuskript. Thesis for scientific degree of doctor of technical sciences on speciality 05.15.04 – “Mining and underground construction” – National Mining Academy of Ukraine, Dnepropetrovsk, 1999. The thesis is devoted to the questions of support technology and efficiency increases in vertical shaft construction for coalmines in structurally heterogenous strata. In the thesis, a complex approach of developing a systematic effect from a differentiating selection of shaft supports and a successive and mutual realization of regulating means in the system “support-heterogenous rock mass” which, in their combination, supply a rock movements smoothing, a load capacity increase of supported rocks, and as a result of it, the reduction of the value and asymetry of loads on the shaft and the increase of its stafility has been used. Taking into consideration the structural and strength heterogeneity of the rock mass, the research results of the nature and features of interaction in the system “shaft supports – rock mass”, scientific and technical principles of support selection and new designs of combined supporting systems supplying a longterm stability of mine shafts in complex geological conditions have been obtained. The main results of the work have been applied in the practical environments of coalmines and realized in technical documents. Key words: materials saving, efficiency, coalmine, vertical shaft, support, combined methods.

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