Формування механізму стимулювання праці в перехідній економіці: проблеми теорії і практики: Автореф. дис… д-ра екон. наук / М.І. Карлін, Київ. нац.

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EE?ANUeEEE IAOe?IIAEUeIEE AEIIII?*IEE OI?AA?NEOAO

Ea?e?i Ieeiea ?aaiiae/

OAeE 330.161:331.2.01

OI?IOAAIIss IAOAI?CIO NOEIOETHAAIIss

I?AOe? A IA?AO?AeI?E AEIIII?Oe?:

I?IAEAIE OAI??? ? I?AEOEEE

08.01.01 – Aeiiii?/ia oai??y

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe

Ee?a-1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia ia eaoaae?? iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a
Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo I?i?noa?noaa
ina?oe Oe?a?ie

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

E?eaaiei Einoyioei Oa?aniae/

Ee?anueeee iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?, aeaaeai?e IAI Oe?a?ie

*ooii Aiaoie?e Aiae??eiae/

Iaoe?iiaeueiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e
aeiiii?/ii? oai???

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Aiaeiy Aeai’yi Iao?iae/

?inoeooo aeiiii?ee IAI Oe?a?ie, caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eaiiyi aeiiii?ee
i?aoe?, aeaiia?ao?? ? nioe?aeueii? iie?oeee

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

A?oaeaanueeee A?oae?e Einoyioeiiae/

?inoeooo nioe?ieia?? IAI Oe?a?ie, aieiaiee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?iai? ?aaia
O?aiea I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, eaoaae?a aeiiii?/ii? oai???

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ 20 ” o?aaiy 1999 ?. i 14 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 26.006.03 a Ee?anueeiio iaoe?iiaeueiiio
aeiiii?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 252057, i.Ee?a, i?iniaeo
Ia?aiiae, 54/1, aoaeeoi??y 214.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “ 20 ” ea?oiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

aeieoi? aeiiii?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani? A.?.Ooen

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aaaeeeaei iai?yieii iaoeiaeo
aeine?aeaeaiue a aeiiii?/i?e oai??? ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo
i?iaeai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo a?ae
eiiaiaeii? aeiiii?ee aei ?eieiai?.

?aoi?ioaaiiy noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ? iaiao?aeiith ia?aaeoiiaith aeoiaeo
aeiiii?ee iaoi? aea?aeaae c e?ece. Iie?oeea no?eioaaiiy c?inoaiiy
ca?ieaoe, yea i?iaiaeeeanue o 1992-1998 ??., noaea aaeueiii ?icaeoeo
aeiiii?ee ? i?e/eiith cia/iiai iaae?iiy ??aiy aeeooy ia?aaaaeii? /anoeie
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

Cieaeaiiy ??aiy yeino?, i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? caeiyoeo
iiynith?oueny iiieeeaie o aecia/aii? oaeoeee ? no?aoaa?? uiaei iieaoe
i?aoe? ? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? caaaeii. Iaae?y ia aaoiiaoe/iee aieea
?eieo i?aoe? ia ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/ieo i?iaeai ia aei?aaaeaeanue,
iaaiaee, aacnenoaiia ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie ae?ae caaino?eei
i?iaeaie noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

Iae?iaeiiii?/iee aiae?c i?iaeai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? i?aei?iaii
aeine?aeaeaiiyie iniaeeainoae iioeaaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ia i?e?i??ai?,
ui i?ecaaei aei iiaii? ao?aoe aea?aeaaiiai eiio?ieth iaae i?aeaaeocaaeie
? i?aeoa?eoi??aeueieie i?iii?oe?yie a iieao? i?aoe?.

A?aenooi?noue na?eicieo oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ?ic?iaie c ieoaiue
nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo iaoiiaeea
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia aaaaoueio i?aei?e?inoaao iaaei??ii
?iaeea?aeoae?ciaaieo nenoai iieaoe ? i?ai?thaaiiy,ye? ia aieeaathoue ia
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, ai ia i?noyoue a nia? aeinoaoi?o
iioeaaoe?eieo noeioe?a.

O?iainia? a?aeiineie, ui neeaeeny a ia?ao?aei?e oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?,
ia?aoai?eeeny o aaeueii c?inoaiiy aeioiae?a caeiyoiai ianaeaiiy,
aiane?aeie /iai a?aeaoaa?oueny nooo?aa cieaeaiiy ??aiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
i?aoe? a noni?euenoa?. Aiae?co i?iaeai aca?iica’yce?a “o?iainiaee
iaoai?ci ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee – iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?” oaeiae
ia i?eae?ey?oueny iaeaaeia oaaaa.

Aeooaeuei?noue i?iaeaie, iaaeinoaoiy ?? aeine?aeaeai?noue c o?aooaaiiyi
oiia ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo aei ?eieo, iayai?noue aaaaoueio aeeneon?eieo
ieoaiue coiiaeee aea?? oaie, aecia/eee iaoo oa caaaeaiiy
aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie ci?noo noeioethaaiiy, oi?i, aeae?a ? nenoai
noeioethaaiiy iino?eii ciaoiaeeeeny a oeaio?? oaaae ?aaeyinueei?
aeiiii?/ii? iaoee, aeiiii?no?a eieeoi?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i. O
60-80-o? ?iee iiooee oeyo?a oaeineiiaeaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? ? noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? aaee oae? a?aeii? a/ai?, ye Ae.I.Aiaeiy, I.A.A?oey?a,
I.A.Aeaaeiaa, A.I.Ai?iia, A.E.A?oaeaanueeee, I.I.Aaicae?a, A.?.Aoey?a,
A.A.Aa?aca?yi, I.I.?iaeueyiia, ?.?.Eaiono?i, TH.I.Eie?i, ?.A.Ei?i??aa,
I.I.Eino?i, A.I.Ei/eeyi, E.?.Eoiaeuenueeee, ?.A.Eooio?ia, A.O.Iae??,
I.I.Iaeueoeaa, ?.E.Iaiaae/, A.I.Iae?oianueeee, I.A.Iooae?iia,
I.N.In?iaieia, TH.?.Iaee?i, I.?.?aae?ia, A.A.?aaea?a, A.A.?aeeonueeee,
I.I. ?eiaoaanueea, I.A.?oaai, A.O.?ycaiia, I.I.Ni??iia,
A.I.Nooa?aanueeee, A.A.*ooii, I.I.Oio?i, A.?.Ua?aaeia, ?.N.sseiae?a oa
?io?.

Nooo?aee aianie o c’ynoaaiiy i?iaeai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae aianee: I.A.Aoaooeueeee, A.N.Aaeue/einueeee,
N.Ae.Ae?aaiia?aoeueeee, O.I.Caaai?iaeiy, O.I.Ee?’yi, A.I.Eieio,
I.?.Eocuei?i, A.O.Eoe?eia, I.O.Eo/a?aiei, A.Ae.Eaaoo?i, O.A.Eaiae?ia,
I.E.Iae?e, A.I.Iia?eia, I.I.Iaaeianueea, A.I.Ieicaiee, N.O.Iie?iieaiee,
O.A.Naiai?nueea, E.A.Nieieiaa, ?.A.Ni?iea, E.A.O?oiaa, I.A.Oo?aoeueeee,
I.I.Oiainueeee, I.?.Oooia oa ?i.

Aaaaoi oe?eaaeo ?aeae c ?aoi?ioaaiiyi iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?
i?iiiio?oueny a/aieie eieeoi?o nioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?i.

Cia/iee iaoeiaee ?ioa?an aeey inieneaiiy i?iaeai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae i?aaenoaaeythoue eeane/i? iiaeae? iieaoe i?aoe?,
?ic?iaeai? a?aeiieie aeiiii?noaie Caoiaeo.

I?aeoeea ?aoi?ioaaiiy oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee na?ae/eoue, ui oai?aoe/iiai
aiae?co ianaiia?aae aeiaaathoue oae? i?iaeaie: aieea iniaeeainoae
ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo oa no/aniiai noaio ?eieo i?aoe? a Oe?a?i? ia
?aae?caoe?th oi?i ? nenoai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?; a?aeia?aaeaiiy a
noeioethaaii? i?aoe? ci?i o ci?no?, oa?aeoa?? ? noni?euei?e oi?i? i?aoe?
oa i?ioe??/ iiaeo oi?i aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy; iniaeeaino?
aeei?enoaiiy aeae?a noeioethaaiiy yeino?, i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
?ioaineaiino? i?aoe?; ?ieue aea?aeaae o ?aaoethaaii? noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? oa eiai aieea ia noaiiaeaiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo i?aoe? a
Oe?a?i?.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa aeeiioaaeanue
ye neeaaeiaa /anoeia aea?aeathaeaeaoii? eiiieaenii? iaoeiai? oaie
“I?iaeaie iiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/ii? nenoaie noni?euenoaa oa i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy” (aea?aeaaiee ?a?no?aoe?eiee ??A
10002100?), ui ?ic?iaeyeanue eaoaae?ith iie?oe/ii? aeiiii?? iae?eiaeo
oaeoeueoao?a Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaoith aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy
? eiiieaeniee ? nenoaiiee aiae?c oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo i?iaeai
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? oa ?ic?iaea aaeaeaaoiiai
?e iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oe??? iaoe a ?iaio? iinoaaeai? ? ?ica’ycai? ianooii?
caaaeaiiy:

1) ia iniia? aeine?aeaeaiiy ??cieo oai?aoe/ieo i?aeoiae?a aei noo?
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ia??oiooaaoe eiai ci?no, no?oeoo?o oa ooieoe??
a?aeiia?aeii aei ci?i o ci?no?, oa?aeoa?? oa noni?euei?e oi?i? i?aoe? a
oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee;

2) iieacaoe aieea eiaeiiai c aoai?a noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ia i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iaoai?cio
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a Oe?a?i?;

3) ia iniia? c’ynoaaiiy aeiiii?/iiai i?ioe??//y ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
ooi/ieoe aeiiii?/ia i?ioe??//y noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? oa oi?ie eiai
ae??oaiiy a oiiaao noaiiaeaiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo i?aoe?;

4) aeynieoe ?ieue ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a nenoai? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? oa ci?ie o ?? ooieoe?yo;

5) aeyaeoe aeiiii?/i? i?ioe??//y iiaeo oi?i aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy
oa a?aeia?aceoe ?o o iaoai?ci? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? caeiyoeo ia
i?aei?e?inoaao c a?aeiia?aeiith oi?iith aeaniino?;

6) ooi/ieoe nenoaio eaoaai??e noni?eueii? i?aoe? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ?
iieacaoe niaoeeo?eo noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino?, yeino?,
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe?;

7) ?ice?eoe ci?ie a i?eioeeiao ? iaoiaeao ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe?, iaoiiaeaieo
aoiaeaeaiiyi Oe?a?ie a ?eieiaa na?aaeiaeua;

8) i?iaiae?coaaoe iniaeeaino? ioe?iee ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? caeiyoeo
o nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa?? a?aeiia?aeii aei iiieoo ia iineoae caeeaae?a
oe??? noa?e;

9) aeiaanoe iaiao?aei?noue aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy iaoai?cio
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? c o?aooaaiiyi niaoeeo?ee ?eieo i?aoe? Oe?a?ie oa
iniaeeainoae ae?yeueiino? i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?;

10) iiaeeaeoe aiae?c aieeao o?iain?a ia iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

I?aaeiao oa ia’?eo aeine?aeaeaiiy. I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie o ae?iaie/?e oa nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa?ao,
iia’ycai? c? noeioethaaiiyi i?aoe?, ye? ?icaeyaeathoueny a eiioaeno?
no/aniiai ia??iaeo ?icaeoeo Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

Oai?aoe/i? e iaoiaeieia?/i? canaaee aeine?aeaeaiiy. Oai?aoe/iith
iniiaith i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooiathoue iaoeia? ?ic?iaee
i?iaeai ca?ieaoe ? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? eeaneeaie iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??,
oai?aoe/i? ?aea? no/anieo ca?oa?aeieo ? oe?a?inueeeo aeiiii?no?a.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiiy ? iaoiae ae?aeaeoe/ii? eia?ee,
ia iniia? yeiai a iie?oaeiiii?/iiio aniaeo? aiae?co?oueny iaoai?ci
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?. A ?iaio? ciaeoee canoinoaaiiy iaoiaee noiaeaeaiiy
a?ae aano?aeoiiai aei eiie?aoiiai ? a?ae eiie?aoiiai aei aano?aeoiiai,
ii?aeiaiiy aiae?co ? neioaco, eia?/iiai oa ?noi?e/iiai. Aeoeaii
aeei?enoiaoaaany nenoaiiee iaoiae, ia iniia? yeiai iaoai?ci
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ?icaeyaea?oueny ye yaeua, ui ?icaeaa?oueny i?ae
ae??th noeoiiino? aeiiii?/ieo ? nioe?aeueieo oaeoi??a ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee.

?ioi?iaoe?eia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. ?ioi?iaoe?eiith aacith i?aeaioiaee
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ? ??oaiiy Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, Oeace
I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie, iinoaiiae Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a, io?oe?ei? iaoa??aee
Aea?aeaaiiai eii?oaoo noaoenoeee ? I?i?noa?noaa i?aoe? oa nioe?aeueii?
iie?oeee, a oaeiae noaoenoe/i? ? oaeoe/i? iaoa??aee, iioae?eiaai? a
iaoeia?e e?oa?aoo?? ? ia??iaee/i?e i?an?, ia?aeii? aeieoiaioe ?yaeo
i?aei?e?inoa oa onoaiia Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy. O ?iaio? i?iaaaeaia eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy oai?aoe/ieo i?iaeai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae aei ?eieo, ui aeicaieeei iaea?aeaoe iaoeia? ?acoeueoaoe, ye?
oa?aeoa?ecothoue iiaecio aeine?aeaeaiiy oa iniaenoee aianie aaoi?a:

1) aeiaaaeaii, ui a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? ?aaoeth?oueny aiaeii/an caeiiaie ?eieo, caeiiii ?iciiae?eo ca
aeo?aoaie ? ?acoeueoaoaie i?aoe? oa caeiiii aa?oino? ?iai/i? neee;
noi?ioeueiaai? iieiaeaiiy uiaei iniaeeainoae aeei?enoaiiy oeeo caeii?a a
iaoai?ci? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?;

2) aeaii oai?aoe/ia ia??oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? aeiei??iii? ia?aaoaeiae
nenoaie noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?; iai?/ai? iniiai? iai?yiee iiaeieaiiy
iaaii?yaeeiaaiino?, noeo?eiino?, aacnenoaiiino? a iueiio, ui aeiaaa?
ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o iinonioe?ae?noe/ieo e?a?iao iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai
ia?oia?noaa ?a?iiaenueeiai c?aceo, i?aeaeuaiiy ?ie? i?ioni?eie o
ae??oaii? i?iaeai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?;

3) aeyaeaii, ui noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a Oe?a?i? i?ioiaeeoue oae? o?e
aoaie:

— oi?ioaaiiy eaac??eieo i?aoe?, ca yeiai ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy “aea-oaeoi”
ia?aaeuo? /aoaa?oue ?iai/i? neee e?a?ie, iieaoa i?aoe? cae?enith?oueny
ia ?aaoey?ii, a i?i?iaeueia ca?ia?oia ieaoa cia/ii ieae/a iaae?
iaeicaaacia/aiino?;

— oi?ioaaiiy iaaeineiiaeiai ?eieo i?aoe?, ca yeiai ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy
(ca?a?no?iaaiiai ? i?eoiaaiiai) ia ia?aaeuo? 15% ?iai/i? neee; ?aaeueii
i?i?iaeueia ca?ia?oia ieaoa a?aeiia?aea? iaae? iaeicaaacia/aiino?; a
aeiiii?oe? iaeaaiaeaeaiiy nenoaie nai?/anii? aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe;

— oi?ioaaiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo i?aoe? ia an?o ??aiyo ca yeith
??aaiue aac?ia?ooy eeoa a ie?aieo aeiaaeeao ia?aaeuo? 10% ?iai/i? neee,
i?i?iaeueia ca?ia?oia ieaoa aei??aith? i?i?iaeueiiio i?iaeeoeiaiio
i?i?ioio, a ??aaiue ca?ieaoe iaeiaiiai ia?niiaeo ?aaoeth?oueny caeiiii
iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? oa nioe?aeueiith iie?oeeith aea?aeaae;

4) c’yniaaii, ui a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ci?no noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ?
neeaaeiith, aaaaoi??aiaaith noeoii?noth aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui
aeieeathoue i?ae aea?aeaaith, i?ioni?eeaie, ni?eeaie i?aei?e?ioe?a,
aeanieeaie i?aei?e?inoa c i?eaiaeo aieeao ia ?ioa?ane i?aoe?aiee?a c
iaoith caeo/aiiy ?o aei ??cii? ca ci?noii i?aoe? a?aeiia?aeii aei iio?aa
noni?euenoaa oa c o?aooaaiiyi ?ie? ?eieo i?aoe?, yeee oi?io?oueny.
I?ia?aeiei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
noa? aeiiii?/ia noeioethaaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao o?iainia? aaaeae?;

5)i?iaiae?ciaai? iniaeeaino? ci?noo, oa?aeoa?o oa noni?eueii? oi?ie
i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, ui aeaei iiaeeea?noue iai?oeoe
ia??oioiaai? oeyoe iiaeieaiiy iaaaoeaieo i?iya?a o o?oaeiaeo a?aeiineiao
ca aeiiiiiaith ci?i o noeioethaaii? i?aoe?; iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue
iinooiiai? ia?ai???ioaoe?? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ?c ioe?iee aeo?ao i?aoe?
ia ioe?ieo ?? ?acoeueoao?a, ui iiynith?oueny ci?iaie a aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiineiao ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui o?iainia? ?ano?ne
i?aei?e?inoa o ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ana a?eueoa aecia/athoueny ianyaii
ia ae?iaeaii?, a ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??, ui iaoiiaeth? iineeaiiy
aca?iica’yceo oi?i ? aeae?a noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? c ??aiai aeioiae?a
o??ie;

6)ia??oioiaai? iniiai? oi?ie i?iyao ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, yeeie ?: ye?noue, i?iaeoeoeai?noue oa
?ioaineai?noue i?aoe?, iieacaia ?o ?ieue o aecia/aii? e?euee?nieo oa
ye?nieo iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? i?aoe?aieea ? i?aei?e?inoaa;

7) aeiaaaeaia caeiiii??i?noue ?icoe?aiiy aeae?a noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a
i?aai?/iiio ca’yceo c? ci?iaie o e?eueeino? noa’?eo?a noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? oa niaoeeo?eith aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei ia?ao?aeiiai ia??iaeo.
Aeaee noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, ia a?aei?io a?ae oi?i noeioethaaiiy,
aieeaathoue ia an? a?oie ?ioa?an?a i?aoe?aieea ? ?ic??ciythoueny ca
noa’?eoaie ? ia’?eoaie aieeao, ca oi?iith aieeao oiui; c’yniaai?
iniaeeaino? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ia i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?
? ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ui iaoiiaeai? aeiiii?/ieie i?ioe??//yie oeeo oi?i
aeaniino? ? ainiiaea?thaaiiy;

8) i?iaiae?ciaai? e?eoa??? ioe?iee ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? caeiyoeo o
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo aaeocyo oa aeyaeai? iaea?eueo ae??a? c ieo aeey
i?aai?caoe?? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oeeo aaeocyo. Aeiaiaeeoueny
iaiao?aei?noue iineeaiiy aca?iica’yceo iieaoe i?aoe? c noaaeai ?iaioe o
aea?aeaaieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo caeeaaeao, c iaoeiaei nooiaiai ? a/aiei
caaiiyi; a?aoiaioiaaii iai?yie ?aoi?ioaaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? o aeueo
caeeaaeao ina?oe ia iioi/iee ia??iae (1999-2000 ??.) ? ia ia?niaeoeao
(2001-2005 ??.); iieacaii, ui a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee
nioe?ieoeueoo?ia noa?a iiaeiia iaoe ia?aaaae o o?iainoaaii? c
aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, ine?eueee ?icoe?aiiy ieaoieo iineoa ia iiaea
caaacia/eoe iaeaaeia o?iainoaaiiy ?? iio?aa;

9) ia??oioiaai? oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio aea?aeaaiiai
?aaoethaaiiy noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? c iaoith ciyooy
i?ioe??/, ui aeieeathoue i?e oi?ioaaii? ?eieo i?aoe? a Oe?a?i?
(cai?iaaaeaeaiiy oa?eoieo n?oie, ?ic?iaeaieo aea?aeaaieie no?oeoo?aie c
o?aooaaiiyi ?ioa?an?a eieaeoea?a ? aeaniee?a i?aei?e?inoa; noai?aiiy
oiia aeey naiicaeiyoino? iacaeiyoiai ianaeaiiy; iineeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
eiio?ieth ca oiiaaie oa i?aai?caoe??th iieaoe i?aoe? ia iaeeo
iaaea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao). Iieacaia iaiao?aei?noue ?ic?iaee ?
iaaaeueiiai i?eeiyooy aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie noeioethaaiiy c?inoaiiy
noeoiii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a ia??oiooaaii?
?yaeo iieiaeaiue, ye? aeiaaaeai? aei eiie?aoieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e,
ni?yiiaaieo ia aaeineiiaeaiiy noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ia ie?aieo
i?aei?e?inoaao (OCIA “Eooeueeeiiaeeoa?”,) oa aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe
(Aieeinueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao, Aieeinueeee ?inoeooo aeiiii?ee oa
iaiaaeaeiaioo, Aeua oeiea “Eooeueeee aoiai?oa?iee oi?aa?neoao”). A
ainiiaea?nuee?e i?aeoeoe? iiaeooue aooe aeei?enoai? aaoi?nuee?
i?iiiceoe?? uiaei oaeineiiaeaiiy oa?eoii? nenoaie, iaoai?ci?a iieaoe
i?aoe? ? i?ai?thaaiiy caeiyoeo a iaoa??aeuei?e ? nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e
noa?ao; oeyoe oaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ca?ieaoe ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy
aei ia? iiaeo aeaiaio?a: ci?iiiai oa?eoo aeey ?ia?oiee?a ? ci?iiiai
ieeaaeo aeey niaoe?ae?no?a.

Aeaeea?aoe?y iniaenoiai aianeo aeena?oaioa o ?ic?iaeo iaoeiaeo
?acoeueoao?a, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

— iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, aaeaeaaoiee o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiio
ia??iaeo;

— no?oeoo?a ? ooieoe?? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieo;

— eiioeaioe?y noeioethaaiiy c?inoaiiy ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? noni?eueii?
i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee;

— eeaneo?eaoe?y aeae?a noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieo(ca noa’?eoaie, ia’?eoaie, aeaeaie, iai?yiaie);

— iaoai?ci aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?;

— aoaie ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee;

— iaoiaeieia?y aiae?co aca?iica’yce?a ci?noo, oa?aeoa?o ? noni?eueii?
oi?ie i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?;

— eeaneo?eaoe?y eaoaai??e noni?eueii? i?aoe? a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?eiiai
ia??iaeo;

— oai??y aieeao nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? noa?e ia ?icaeoie o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo Oe?a?ie;

— o?iainiaee iaoai?ci i?aeaeuaiiy iieaoe i?aoe? a nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e
noa??;

— no?oeoo?a ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? eiiaiaeii?
aeiiii?ee;

 iaoai?ci aeei?enoaiiy ci?iiiai oa?eoo (ieeaaeo).

Ai?iaaoe?y oa ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Oai?aoe/i? iieiaeaiiy, aeniiaee, i?iiiceoe??, iaea?aeai? a
aeine?aeaeaii?, iaaiai?thaaeeny ia eaoaae?? iie?oe/ii? aeiiii??
iae?eiaeo oaeoeueoao?a Ee?anueeiai iaoe?iiaeueiiai aeiiii?/iiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, ia eaoaae?ao aeiiii?/ii? oai???, aeiiii?ee oa
iaiaaeaeiaioo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Ean? Oe?a?iee
a 1989-1998 ??., ia a?eueo ye 20-oe ?a??iiaeueieo, ?anioae?eainueeeo oa
i?aeia?iaeieo eiioa?aioe?yo, o oiio /ene? a iaeeiaaeoeyoe i?aeia?iaeieo
eiioa?aioe?yo, na?aae yeeo: “I?iaeaie aeiiii?ee, iieaoe oa ii?ioaaiiy
i?aoe? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a” (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1995),
“?a?iiaenueeee aeina?ae no?aoiai? ae?yeueiino? ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ??
eaae?iaiai caaacia/aiiy” (Ee?a, 1996), “Nenoaia iaia?a?aii? ina?oe:
caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie” (*a?i?aoe?, 1996), “Oi?aae?iiy o?oaeiaeie
?ano?naie: i?iaeaie oa ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo” (Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1997,
1998), “?ioaa?aoe?y ina?oe, iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa” (Eooeuee, 1995, 1996,
1997, 1998), “I?iaeaie aeiiii?/ii? oai??? oa i?aeoeee a no/anieo oiiaao”
(Oiaeueieoeueeee, 1998).

Aeena?oaio a?aa o/anoue o ?aae?caoe?? a?aioa, iaaeaiiai Oiiaeii
“?a?ac?y” a 1995 ?., aeey i?aeaioiaee i?ia?aie eo?no, iaa/aeueiiai
iin?aieea aeey aoc?a oa ca??ieea caaaeaiue c eo?no “Iae?iaeiiii?ea”,
yeee aoa oni?oii aeeiiaiee eieaeoeaii eaoaae?e aeiiii?ee oa
iaiaaeaeiaioo Aieeinueeiai aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo a 1995-1996 ??.

Aeey nooaeaio?a V eo?no aeiiii?/iiai oaeoeueoaoo Aieeinueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo aeena?oaioii ?ic?iaeaiee niaoeeo?n “O?iainia? aniaeoe
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa??”.

Aeena?oaioii i?aeaioiaeaia aenia?eiaioaeueia i?ia?aia c eo?no “Iniiae
n?iaeii? aeiiii?ee oa iaeiai a?ciano” (aeey 9-ai eeano), ?aeiiaiaeiaaia
I?i?noa?noaii ina?oe Oe?a?ie a 1995 ?. (Aeea.: ?ioi?iaoe?eiee atheaoaiue
I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie, 1995, ?15.— N.13-25).

Ioae?eaoe?? ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeine?aeaeaiiy c oaie aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe
iioae?eiaaii 46 ?ia?o, na?aae ieo ? 1 ?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiiia?ao?y (10
ae.a.), ?icae?ee a eieaeoeaieo iiiia?ao?yo ? iaa/aeueieo iin?aieeao
(16,5 ae.a.), 21 iaoeiaa noaooy (8,5 ae.a.), 10 iaoeiaeo aeiiia?aeae
(3,0 ae.a.). Caaaeueiee ianya iaoeiai? i?iaeoeoe?? — aeecueei 26 ae.a.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya ?iaioe.

?iaioa neeaaea?oueny c anooio, oanoe ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a ? aeiaeaoe?a,
aiia aeeeaaeaia ia 432 noi??ieao iaoeiiieno, i?noeoue nienie
aeei?enoaii? e?oa?aoo?e c 239 iaca oe?a?inueeith oa ?iicaiieie iiaaie.

INIIAI? IIEIAEAIIss AeENA?OAOe??

O anooi? ia??oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iieacaii noai ?ic?iaee
iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, ?? cia/aiiy aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ?aoi?i a
Oe?a?i?, aecia/aii iniiaio iaoo ? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy, iiaeaii
ei?ioeo aiioaoe?th iiaeo iaoeiaeo iieiaeaiue, cai?iiiiiaaieo aaoi?ii
iniaenoi, iieacaii oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo
?acoeueoao?a.

?icae?e 1. Noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? ye ia’?eoeaiee /eiiee oi?ioaaiiy
iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee

1. Iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? o?nii
iia’ycaiee c iniaeeainoyie noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a oeae ia??iae.

O i?ioean? noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a Oe?a?i? iiaeia aeae?eeoe o?e
aoaie: 1) oi?ioaaiiy eaac??eieo (aai o?a?iaioa?iiai ?eieo) i?aoe?, i?e
yeiio o?eueee o aeayeeo naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee i?i?iaeueia ca?ia?oia ieaoa
aeinyaa? ??aiy i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio, a ??aaiue ca?a?no?iaaiiai ?
i?eoiaaiiai aac?ia?ooy noaiiaeoue 25-30% ?iai/i? neee; 2) oi?ioaaiiy
iaaeineiiaeiai ?eieo i?aoe?, i?e yeiio o a?eueoino? aaeocae aeiiii?ee
i?i?iaeueia ca?ieaoa aei??aithaaoeia i?i?iaeueiiio niiaeea/iio
athaeaeaoo, a ??aaiue aac?ia?ooy ia ia?aaeuoaaoeia 15% ?iai/i? neee; 3)
oi?ioaaiiy oeea?e?ciaaiiai ?eieo i?aoe? ia iae?i-, iaci- ? i?e?i??aiyo,
aeey yeiai oa?aeoa?iei ? aeinoaoiuei aenieee ??aaiue caeiyoino? (??aaiue
aac?ia?ooy ia iiaeiai aooe a?eueoei 10% ?iai/i? neee), aeeiai?/ia
c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa yeino? i?aoe?, ui caaacia/eoue i?aeaeuaiiy
??aiy i?i?iaeueii? ca?ieaoe aei ??aiy i?iaeeoeiaiai i?i?ioio.

Iniiaieie ooieoe?yie ?eieo i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee ?: 1)
?iciiae?e ?iai/i? neee a iaaeao iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o aeiiii?ee; 2)
anoaiiaeaiiy ??aiy iieaoe i?aoe? a iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?? ia iniia?
iiieoo ? i?iiiceoe?? ?iai/i? neee; 3) ia?a?iciiae?e ?iai/i? neee c
iaoa??aeueii? noa?e o noa?o iineoa.

2. Aeiiii?/ia i?ioe??//y noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii?
aeiiii?ee iieyaa? o iaiao?aeiino? aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye ?eieia?, oae ?
iica?eieia? iaoiaee caeo/aiiy ethaeae aei i?aoe?. Aeacaia i?ioe??//y
iiee iaaeinoaoiuei a?aoiao?oueny i?e oi?ioaaii? ?eieo i?aoe? a Oe?a?i?,
ui aeaoi?io? iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

Iaoooaaiiy caaaeueiiaeciaieie i?eioeeiaie a iieao? ??ciiye?nii? i?aoe?
a i?aei?e?iieoeueeiio naeoi?? i?eaiaeeoue aei caaino?aiiy aeiiii?/iiai
i?ioe??//y noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, aei aeaoi?iaoe?? ?eieo i?aoe? a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?.

3. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe?,
aaeaeaaoiiai oiiaai ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, iiaeiii a?aeia?aaeaoe ia
o?eueee oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo ?eieo i?aoe?, a e ci?ie o ci?no?,
oa?aeoa?? oa noni?euei?e oi?i? i?aoe?.

A?aoiaoth/e iaiaeiicia/ia ?icoi?iiy eaoaai??? “noni?eueia oi?ia i?aoe?”,
ie aecia/eee ?? ye noeoii?noue nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ?
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ui aeieeathoue a i?ioean?
aeei?enoaiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo noni?euenoaa a i?ioean? i?aoe?.

O nenoai? eaoaai??e noni?eueii? i?aoe? i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieo iiaeia
aeae?eeoe ianooii? a?oie eaoaai??e: 1) caaaeuei? (aai iniiai?)
eaoaai???, ye? oa?aeoa?ecothoue noni?eueio i?aoeth o ??cieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo nenoaiao (noni?eueia oi?ia i?aoe?, oa?aeoa?
i?aoe?, ci?no i?aoe?); 2) niaoeeo?/i? eaoaai???, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
ioe?ith?oueny aoaeoeai?noue aeei?enoaiiy i?aoe? ie?aii? ethaeeie aai
a?oie ethaeae c oiai /e ?ioiai aieo aeo?ao ?iai/i? neee ? io?eiaiiai i?e
oeueiio ?acoeueoao? (aoaeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ye?noue i?aoe?,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ?ioaineai?noue i?aoe?, ye?noue ?iaioe,
?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe?); 3) eaoaai??? e?euee?nii? oa?aeoa?enoeee
i?aoe?, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo aeo?aoe i?aoe? io?eiothoue noni?eueio
ioe?ieo (e?euee?noue i?aoe?, neeaaei?noue i?aoe?, aaaee?noue i?aoe?,
iai?oaeai?noue i?aoe?, i??a i?aoe?).

Uiaei eaoaai??? ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe?, oi a ?eieia?e aeiiii?oe? aiia
a?aeia?aaea? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo aecia/aiiy
?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea ? i?aei?e?inoaa c oi/ee
ci?o a?aeiia?aeiino? aeo?ao i?aoe? iiieoo ia ae?iaeaio i?iaeoeoe?th.

4. Iaaaoeai? ci?ie o ci?no? i?aoe? iaaiei /eiii a?aeia?aaeathoueny a
oa?aeoa?? oa noni?euei?e oi?i? i?aoe?. Ia?aaeon?i ca?eueoeeany
iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae cao?aoaie i?aoe? oa ?o a?ioiaith ioe?ieith ia
aaaaoueio i?aei?e?inoaao oa onoaiiaao, ui ia?o ca ana i?iyaey?oueny o
iino?eieo cao?eieao aeieaoe ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. Oea ciooo? cia/io /anoeio
caeiyoeo i?i?i?coaaoe nai? cao?aoe i?aoe? o ?iai/ee /an ? ?aae?coaaoe
na?e iioaioe?ae o iica?iai/ee /an. Iaei??th c iaeaino??oeo iaaaoeaieo
oi?i i?iyao oa?aeoa?o oa noni?eueii? oi?ie i?aoe? ? i?enei?aia
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y aeioiae?a ianaeaiiy, ui iaaaoeaii a?aeaeaa?oueny ia
i?aai?caoe?? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? caeiyoeo a aeiiii?oe? Oe?a?ie.
Iaea?eueo neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith noni?eueii? oi?ie i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? ? iacaeiyo?noue cia/ii? e?eueeino? i?aoe?aiee?a i?e iayaiino?
a?eueieo ae?iaie/eo iiooaeiinoae, ui ca?ac i?inoiththoue.

?icae?e 2. Oai?aoe/i? aniaeoe ?ic?iaee iiaiai iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe?

5. O iaea?eueo caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy ?
noeoii?noth oi?i ciai?oiueiai aieeao ia i?aoe?aieea, ca aeiiiiiaith yeeo
noa’?eoe noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ?ica’ycothoue i?ioe??//y o i?ioean?
caeo/aiiy ??cieo (ca ina?oith, eaae?o?eaoe??th, iaioaeuei?noth oiui)
o?oae?aiee?a aei iaiaeiaeiaeo ca ci?noii aeae?a i?aoe?. Oiio ia’?eoii
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ? ia no?eueee nai? ethaee, ne?eueee ?oi? aeiiii?/i?
?ioa?ane, caeaaei? a?ae iio?aa ie?aii? ethaeeie. Iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? aeeth/a? a naaa ia o?eueee iaaeoa?eoio
/anoeio iieaoe, a e oa?eoio iieaoo, a oaeiae oi?ie aeiiii?/iiai
noeioethaaiiy (oe?ie, noaaee ii e?aaeeoao, noaaee iiiaeaoeoaaiiy
aeioiae?a i?aei?e?inoa oiui). Aaaeeeaeie neeaaeiaeie noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? ? ii?aeueia ? nioe?aeueia noeioethaaiiy. O no?oeoo?? iaoai?cio
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? iniaeeaa i?noea iaeaaeeoue iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? i?aoe?, oai?aoe/i? canaaee yeiai iio?aaothoue
aeeaoiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co. Iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? iiaeiai
aeeth/aoe a naaa, e??i iiceoeaieo, ? iaaaoeai? noeioee. Inoaii?
i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith noeoii?noue noeioe?a oo?aoiiai oa?aeoa?o, ae?y
yeeo iai?aaeaia ia oeo i?aoe?aiee?a, ye? c noa’?eoeaieo i?e/ei ia
i?aeei?ththoueny ii?iaoeaiei aeiiaai i?aai?caoe?? ae?iaieoeoaa.

6. Ci?ie o ci?no?, oa?aeoa?? oa noni?euei?e oi?i? i?aoe? aieeioee ia
ooieoe?? oa caaaeaiiy noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?. Ni?aa?aeiioaiiy i?ae
ooieoe?yie aecia/a?oueny aeiiii?/iei i?ioe??//yi noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?: c
iaeiiai aieo, noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? aeeiio? iioeaoth/o ooieoe?th, a c
?ioiai — ooieoe?th i?eiono aei i?aoe?; aeeiioth/e a?aeoai?thaaeueio
ooieoe?th, noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a oie aea /an iiaeiii aeeiioaaoe ?
?aaoethth/o ooieoe?th. Noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? iiaeiii caaacia/eoe
ae??oaiiy oaeeo o?nii iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith caaaeaiue: aei?? aeo?ao
i?aoe? iaeiaiiai i?aoe?aieea oa ioe?ieo ?acoeueoaoeaiino? eiai i?aoe?.
Ia?oa caaaeaiiy ae??oo?oueny oeyoii ii??aiyiiy oaeoe/ieo aeo?ao i?aoe?
oa ?o a?aeiia?aeiith ioe?ieith o a?ioia?e oi?i?. Ae?oaa caaaeaiiy
ae??oeoe neeaaei?oa, ine?eueee iaia iaeiicia/ii? a?aeiia?ae? ia ieoaiiy,
/ei aei??th?oueny ?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe?. Ia iao iiaeyae, o
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe? aei??th?oueny
i?iaeoeoeai?noth, ?ioaineai?noth oa ye?noth i?aoe?. Naia aiie
oa?aeoa?ecothoue e?euee?ni? oa ye?ni? iieacieee ae?yeueiino?
i?aoe?aieea ? i?aei?e?inoaa.

7. Oa /e ?ioa oi?ia noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? — oea iaoai?ci aeei?enoaiiy
iaaieo a?oi noeioe?a, ye? iaoe?eai? ia ie?ai? ?ioa?ane i?aoe?aiee?a (aai
iaoa??aeuei?, aai ii?aeuei?, aai nioe?aeuei?). O naith /a?ao, aeaee
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith eiie?aoi? oi?ie
aeei?enoaiiy iaaieo noeioe?a, ye? aieeaathoue ia an? aai a?eueo?noue
?ioa?an?a i?aoe?aieea. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c oai??? e i?aeoeee
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? o 80-90-o? ?iee, aeicaiey? iai aeae?eeoe ianooii?
aeaee noeioe?a i?aoe?: 1) ca oi?iith aieeao: iaoa??aeuei? e
iaiaoa??aeuei?; 2) ca ??aiyie aieeao: ia ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea ? ia aanue
eieaeoea i?aei?e?inoaa; 3) ca oi?iith aeiaai?iaee: a?ioia? ? iaa?ioia?;
4) ca neeith aieeao ia ia’?eo noeioethaaiiy: i?yi? ? iiina?aaeeiaai?; 5)
ca noa’?eoaie noeioethaaiiy: c aieo ea??aieoeoaa (aeaniee?a)
aea?aeaaieo, i?aiaeieo, eiiia?aoeaieo, i?eaaoieo i?aei?e?inoa; 6) ca
ia’?eoaie noeioethaaiiy: noeioee, iai?aaeai? ia ?ioa?ane i?aoe?aiee?a
aea?aeaaieo, eiiia?aoeaieo ? i?aiaeieo i?aei?e?inoa; ia ?ioa?ane
i?aoe?aiee?a i?eaaoieo, aeoe?iia?ieo, ni?eueieo i?aei?e?inoa, ia
?ioa?ane iaiaaeaea??a ??ciiai ??aiy, i?aei?e?ioe?a, i?aoe?aiee?a
a?eueieo i?ioan?e; 7) ca ?acoeueoaoaie i?aoe?: ca ye?noue i?aoe?, ca
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ca ?ioaineai?noue i?aoe?; 8) ca
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieie iciaeaie (iaoai?cie ?iciiae?eo aeioiae?a
ana?aaeei? i?aei?e?inoa ??cieo oi?i aeaniino?).

8. Na?aae iaoa??aeueieo noeioe?a i?aoe? i?ia?aeia i?noea caeia?
ca?ia?oia ieaoa. Aiia a?aeia?aaea? ye aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee, oae ?
oe?io iineoae, yeo iaaea? iaeiaiee i?aoe?aiee. Oaea ?icoi?iiy
aeai?noino? ca?ieaoe aeicaiey? c?iaeoe aeniiaie i?i oaiaeaioe?th
ae??oaiiy aeiiii?/iiai i?ioe??//y ca?ieaoe a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?: ??
?ici??e aecia/athoueny ye aeiiaaie caeiio aa?oino? ?iai/i? neee, oae ?
aeiiaaie caeii?a ?eieo.

A oe?eiio, aeey anoaiiaeaiiy iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? iiaeia aeei?enoaoe ianooiio oi?ioeo:

CI = CI(i.i.)o Ei + CI(i.i.)o?i?.i?., aea:

CI — ca?ia?oia ieaoa; CI(i.i.) — i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi; Ei —
i?ae?ic?yaeiee eiao?oe??io, ? i?.i?. — ??/iee i?e??no i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe?, yeee aecia/a?oueny ye ??cieoey i?ae ?iaeaenaie i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe? a iioi/iiio ? iiia?aaeiueiio ?ieao. O aeioiaeao iaeiaieo
i?aoe?aiee?a /anoea ca?ieaoe iiaeiia ia?aaaaeaoe, uia noeioethaaoe ?oith
aeniei?acoeueoaoeaio ?iaioo ia iniiaiiio ?iai/iio i?noe?.

Ooieoe?? ca?ieaoe ciaoiaeyoue nai? a?aeia?aaeaiiy o oi?iao ? nenoaiao
ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. A Oe?a?i? o?aaa oe?oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe eii?n?eio oi?io
ca?ieaoe, ine?eueee aiia aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeeoue a?ae ye?nieo ?
e?euee?nieo ?acoeueoao?a i?aoe? eiie?aoiiai i?aoe?aieea.

C iaoith i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ca?ieaoe ? ae??aino? anueiai iaoai?cio
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ie i?iiiio?ii cae?enieoe ye aenia?eiaio oe?eueiaa
i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ca?ieaoe a eaae?e ? oa?/ia?e i?iieneiaino? oa noa??
iineoa ca ?aooiie oe?eueiaiai noaneaeoaaiiy c athaeaeaoo. O i?eaaoiiio
naeoi?? i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ca?ieaoe iiaeia aeinyaoe ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy
aeey iueiai iiaeaoeiaeo i?euea, iiaeaoeiaeo eai?eoe aeey ie?aieo
aaeocae, oe?oiai canoinoaaiiy aeey an?o i?aei?e?inoa oeueiai naeoi?o
iaoai?cio iiaeaoeiaiai e?aaeeoo.

9. I?aei?e?inoaa iaaea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o iiaeooue aeaanoe ia?ao?aeio
aeiiii?eo c e?ece, aea ca oiiae cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ieo oaeeo oi?i
i?aai?caoe?? oa iieaoe i?aoe?, ye? cia/ii i?aeaeuothoue o i?aoethth/eo
iioeaaoe?th i?aoe?. Oey oiiaa ia caaaeaee a?aoiao?oueny i?e i?aai?caoe??
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ia i?eaaoeciaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao a Oe?a?i?, ui
cieaeo? aoaeoeai?noue ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy.

?icae?e 3. Oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie oaeineiiaeaiiy iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy
aenieiye?nii? i?aoe?

10. Aiae?c a?aeiinei, ui oa?aeoa?ecothoue ci?no eaoaai??? “ye?noue
i?aoe?”, iiaeiai aanoenue ia ??ai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei, ye? aeieeathoue i?e ioe?ioe?
?acoeueoaoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iioaioe?aeo ethaeeie a noni?eueiiio
ae?iaieoeoa?. I?ioan?ei?, eaae?o?eaoe?ei? oa aeooiai? aeanoeaino?
ae?yeueiino? ethaeeie — oea oi?ie ?aae?caoe?? iniaenoiai iioaioe?aeo
i?aoe?aieea, oiio ye?noue i?aoe? (a oe?ieiio ?icoi?ii? neiaa) iiaeia
aecia/eoe ye eaoaai??th, ui oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo ioe?iee
?acoeueoaoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iniaenoiai iioaioe?aeo i?aoe?aieea.

11. A oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee, aea iiieoii ii/eia? ei?enooaaoeny
aenieiye?nia, aea a?aeiinii aeaoaaa i?iaeoeoe?y, aeieea? ia’?eoeaia
iaiao?aei?noue ia?aoai?aiiy an?o no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a ca?ieaoi? o
noeioe c?inoaiiy yeino? i?aoe? caeiyoiai ianaeaiiy. A ia?oo /a?ao oea
a?aeiineoueny aei i?aeaeuaiiy /anoee oa?eoii? iieaoe a ca?ia?oi?e ieao?
aei 70%.

Iaoiaeieia?/iith iniiaith ia?aoai?aiiy oa?eo?eaoe?? ?ia?o o can?a
i?aeaeuaiiy yeino? i?aoe? o?oae?aieea iiaeiii noaoe aeciaiiy oiai oaeoo,
ui ?? ??aaiue caeaaeeoue ia o?eueee a?ae neeaaeiino? e oiia i?aoe?, a e
a?ae iniaenoino? i?aoe?aieea, yeee aeeiio? oo /e ?ioo ?iaioo.

Ciaioeoe iaa?aeiia?aei?noue i?ae i/?eoaaieie ? aeinyaiooeie
?acoeueoaoaie i?aoe? iiaeia oeyoii iineeaiiy aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? a oa?eoi?e
ioe?ioe? yeino? i?aoe? o?oae?aieea, ?icoe?thth/e aeey oeueiai oa?eoiee
ae?aiacii.

Na?aae aeae?a iao?aaeeoe?eiiai iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy
yeino? i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? aaaeeeaa i?noea iiaeiai caeiyoe
oaeee eiai aeae, ye ca?eueoaiiy ?ici??o iain?e a caeaaeiino? a?ae ??aiy
yeino? i?aoe? o?oae?aieea i?ioyaii anueiai o?oaeiaiai aeeooy.

?icae?e 4. Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa iaoiaee/i? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy iiai?
nenoaie noeioethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe?

12. I?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ne?ae ?icaeyaeaoe ia no?eueee /a?ac i?ecio
ni?aa?aeiioaiiy “e?euee?ni? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? aei aeo?ao i?aoe? (o
iaoo?aeueieo /e aa?o?nieo iieacieeao)”, ne?eueee /a?ac ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
“e?euee?ni? ?acoeueoaoe i?aoe? o aa?o?niiio ae?ac? aei aeo?ao /ano ia
aeaioiaeaiiy ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??”. A oea icia/a?, ui
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? oa?aeoa?eco? ?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe? c iaeyaeo
e?eueeino? ?aae?ciaaieo oiaa??a oa iineoa, yea i?eiaaea? ia ie?aiiai
i?aoe?aieea aai ana i?aei?e?inoai.

I?e ?ic?iaoe? iiaiai iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? oaeiae o?aaa a?aoe aei oaaae aeiiae caeiio aa?oino?
na?oiaiai eai?oae?noe/iiai ainiiaea?noaa (NEA). Aeey ?icaeiooeo e?a?i,
aeiiii?ea yeeo iiai?noth ci???ioiaaia ia na?oiaee ?eiie ? aea aeinyaiooa
iaeneiaeueia i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, iio??aia iiaia aeeth/ai?noue o
NEA, uia ia cai?oaoe ae?iaieoeoai. Oeueiai ae iiaeii? aeiaeaaoeny ?
iinonioe?ae?noe/i? e?a?ie, aea c oiiaith i?aeaeuaiiy noni?eueii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? aei ??aiy ?icaeiooeo e?a?i.

13. Ii?yae c i?iaeoeoeai?noth aaaeeeaith oiiaith c?inoaiiy
?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? ? i?aeaeuaiiy ?? ?ioaineaiino?. Ia aaaaoueio
i?aei?e?inoaao Oe?a?ie ??aaiue ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? cia/ii a?aenoa? a?ae
??aiy, aeinyaiooiai a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao.

A?aoiaoth/e, ui ?eieiaa aeiiii?ea ioe?ith? eeoa cao?aoe i?aoe?, ao?eai?
a ?aae?ciaai?e i?iaeoeoe??, oi ?ioaineai?noue i?aoe? iiaeiia
aei??thaaoeny ei?eni?noth aeo?ao i?aoe? ia iaeeieoeth ?aae?ciaaii?
i?iaeoeoe??.

Ia Caoiae? a 70-? ?iee caaaeueiii?eeiyoei aoaeiiii iane i?aoe?, yea
aeo?a/aeany i?ioyaii aiaeeie, aaaaeaeany e?euee?noue aia?a??, aeo?a/aia
ethaeeiith i?e oiaeuea? c? oaeaee?noth 4,8-5,6 ei ca aiaeeio. Ca?ac, a
ae?oa?e iieiaei? 90-o ?ie?a, oaeei i???ioe?ii noa? e?euee?noue aia?a??,
yea aeo?a/a?oueny i?e oiaeuea? c? oaeaee?noth a?ey 6 ei ca aiaeeio.
Ioaea caeiiii??i?noth ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? ? iinooiiaa i?aeaeuaiiy ??
??aiy.

?ioaineai?noue i?aoe? ye aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y a?aeia?aaea? a?aeiineie,
ui neeaeenue a noni?euenoa? c i?eaiaeo aecia/aiiy ei?eniino? cao?ao
i?aoe?, aeo?a/aieo ia iaeeieoeth ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

14. A?aoiaoth/e, ui ?eiie i?aoe? ia?aaeeaa? eeoa aoai noaiiaeaiiy, a
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe? ? ae?ae iecueeith,
i?iiiio?ii ?ic?iaeoe aea?aeaaio i?ia?aio i?aeaeuaiiy noeoiii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, a ye?e ia?aaeaa/eoe ui??/i? oaiie c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? noni?eueii? i?aoe? acaaae?, a oaeiae a ie?aieo naeoi?ao
aeiiii?ee oa i??i?eoaoieo aaeocyo. O ca’yceo c oeei aaaaea?ii ca
aeioe?eueia iiaa?iooeny aei ?ai?oa ?nioth/iai ii?yaeeo ca?oiino? c
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, a oiio /ene? e oeyoii aaaaeaiiy aea?aeaaiiai
eiio?ieth ca oaiiaie i?e?inoo i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ia an?o aeaeao
i?aei?e?inoa. Oaeei /eiii iiaeia iiaeieaoe iaae?iiy iieacieea noeoiii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a Oe?a?i? ? /a?ac iaeei — aeaa ?iee ia?aeoe aei
eiai iaooeeueiiai c?inoaiiy.

15. ?ic?iaea iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe?,
aaeaeaaoiiai ia?ao?aeiiio ia??iaeo aei ?eieo, aeeth/a? a naaa c’ynoaaiiy
iieaciee?a i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? ? oaeoi??a ui aecia/athoue ?? ??aaiue,
cania?a caioi/aiiy i?aoe?aiee?a aei aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? oa
o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, ui noeioeththoue aenieii?iaeoeoeaio i?aoeth.

I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ia iioi/iee ??aaiue
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe? aieeaathoue: 1)
iacaaa?oai?noue ?icaea?aeaaeaiiy ? i?eaaoecaoe?? aea?aeaaii? aeaniino?;
2) ianoaa?euei?noue ainiiaea?nueeiai caeiiiaeaanoaa; 3) aeaoi?iiaaia
nenoaia aea?aeaaiiai oi?aae?iiy; 4) iaaaeaeaaoiee nueiaiaei?oi?i ?aae?yi
iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

On? oaeoi?e i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oaeiae iiaeia iiae?eeoe ia iiceoeai?
? iaaaoeai?, oiaoi o?, ye? ni?eythoue i?aeaeuaiith ?? ??aiy ? o?, ui
aaeueiothoue ?? c?inoaiiy.

16. Cae?eniai? aeena?oaioii ianoaaeaiiy aieeinueeeo i?aei?e?inoa
iieacothoue, ui o?aaeeoe?ei? oi?ie ? nenoaie noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ia
iiaeooue iaeaaeiei /eiii aieeiooe ia c?inoaiiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?.
Oiio o?aaa iiaea?i?coaaoe ?nioth/? oi?ie ? nenoaie ca?ieaoe oa aanoe
iiooe iiaeo c oei, uia i?aeaeueoe caoe?eaaeai?noue i?aoe?aiee?a o
cia/iiio i?aeaeuaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino? ?oiuei? i?aoe?.

Aeina?ae ?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?ae/eoue i?i iiceoeaiee aieea ia c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oi?i ? nenoai ca?ieaoe, ye? a?aoiaothoue
aeieueiao o/anoue i?aoe?aiee?a o caaaeuei?e i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aei?e?inoaa.

?icoe?aiiy e?eueeino? i?aoe?aiee?a ??cieo i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo i?ioan?e
aeiaaa? aeei?enoaiiy ??cieo nenoai eii?n?eii? oi?ie iieaoe ?oiuei?
i?aoe?.

Ianoaaeaiiy i?aei?e?inoa i?iieneiaino? Aieeinueei? iaeano? ??cieo oi?i
aeaniino? iieacaei, ui aiie ia a ciic? aeei?enoaoe nenoaie eii?n?eii?
oi?ie iieaoe i?aoe?, ai iiieo ia ?o i?iaeoeoe?th iaiaaeaiee /a?ac
iaia??oioiaaio e?aa?ae?caoe?th ciai?oiuei? oi?a?ae?.

Ie??i ca?ia?oii? ieaoe ? i?ai?thaaiiy, a noeioethaaii? i?iaeoeoeaiino?
i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ne?ae caae?yoe e ?io? aeaee
noeioethaaiiy, iia’ycai? c oaeineiiaeaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy o?iainiaeo
?ino?oiaio?a oi?aae?iiy aeiiii?eith a oe?eiio.

17. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aeena?oaioa na?ae/aoue, ui o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 90-o
?ie?a i?ioean noni?eueii? i?aoe? oa?aeoa?eco?oueny c?inoaiiyi
?ioaineo?eaoe?? i?aoe? iaaaeeei? e?eueeino? caeiyoeo o
i?aei?e?iieoeueeeo no?oeoo?ao ? cieaeaiiyi ??aiy ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe?
caeiyoeo ia aea?aeaaieo oa aaeeeeo aeoe?iia?ieo i?aei?e?inoaao. C iaoith
noai?aiiy oiia aeey i?aeaeuaiiy ??aiy ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? iaiao?aeii
aianoe a?aeiia?aei? ci?ie a ?nioth/ee iaoai?ci ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe?.
Ia?aaeon?i o?aaa noai?eoe iaeaaei? oiiae aeey caaacia/aiiy ??aii?
iai?oaeaiino? ii?i i?aoe? aeey an?o aeae?a i?aoe? ? aeey an?o a?oi
i?aoe?aiee?a. A oe?eiio, ia eiaeiiio i?aei?e?inoa? aeioe?eueii ?ic?iaeoe
nenoaio eiiiainaoe?e ca i?aoeth c i?aeaeuaiith ?ioaineai?noth i?aoe?.
Ieie iiaee a aooe: 1) ca?eueoaiiy oa?eoieo noaaie; 2) i?aeaeuaiiy
?ici???a i?ai?e ca ?iaioo c a?eueo aenieith ?ioaineai?noth i?aoe?; 3)
anoaiiaeaiiy ie?aiei i?aoe?aieeai ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeiieao ca
aeniei?ioaineaio ?iaioo oiui.

18. Ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe? aenooia? iniiaith anoaiiaeaiiy aeo?ao i?aoe?
o?oae?aieea, a oiio ? aaaeeeaei /eiieeii, yeee ia? aecia/aoe ??aaiue
eiai ca?ieaoe ? a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

Ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe? nueiaiaei? ia? a?aeia?aaeaoe oe?eo aaio iiaeo
i?aai?caoe?eii-aeiiii?/ieo oa ae?iaie/eo a?aeiinei c i?eaiaeo ?ic?iaee
ii?i i?aoe? oa ?o ioe?iee. Ia?aaeon?i oea a?aeiineoueny aei ?icoe?aiiy
i?aa o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a ? aeaniee?a i?aei?e?inoa o anoaiiaeaii? ii?i
i?aoe?. A?aoiaoth/e neeaaei?noue ? o?eaae?noue noaiiaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
iaoai?cio nioe?aeueiiai ia?oia?noaa ?a?iiaenueeiai oeio, iaiao?aeii
iineeeoe aea?aeaaiee eiio?ieue ca ii?ioaaiiyi i?aoe?, c?iaeaoe iaaiein
ia iai?yi? iaoiaee. Oea iio??aii ua e oiio, ui o ae?oa?e iieiaei? 90-o
?ie?a a Oe?a?i? ??cei caaino?eeany i?iaeaia ae?iaie/iai o?aaiaoecio, a
oiio /ene? ? a i?eaaoiiio naeoi??.

Aeey ciaioaiiy ?ic?eao i?ae aeo?aoaie i?aoe? ca ieaiiaith ii?iith ?
?aaeueieie aeo?aoaie i?aoe? a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo iaiao?aeii
?aoi?ioaaoe eieeoith nenoaio ii?i i?aoe?, a ia a?aeeeaeaoe ?? ye
canoa??eo ? iaiio??aio. Aeey aeinyaiaiiy ??aiiiai?oaeaiino? ii?i i?aoe?
aaaeeeai cai?iaaaeeoe ?aeei? ii?ie /ano, ye? i?aaenoaaeythoue niaith
ii?ie, ui anoaiiaeththoueny ia aaeocaaiio ??ai? ni?eeaie ?iaioiaeaaoe?a
ca iiaiaeaeaiiyi c i?ioni?eeaie a?aeiia?aeieo aaeocae.

?icae?e 5. Oai?aoe/i? canaaee oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?
a nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa?? Oe?a?ie

19. Aoaeoeai?noue iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e
noa?? iiaeia aei??yoe ca aeiiiiiaith ioe?iee aieeao aaeocae oe??? noa?e
ia oi?ioaaiiy iniaenoiai iioaioe?aeo ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea oa o?oaeiaiai
iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie, a /a?ac ieo — ia aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa a
oe?eiio.

I?i iaae?iiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? caeiyoeo o nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo
aaeocyo o 90-? ?iee aiane?aeie iaaaoeaieo ci?i a iaoai?ci? ?o
noeioethaaiiy na?ae/eoue iia??oaiiy noaio caei?ia’y ? ??aiy ina?/aiino?
ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie, aaeeea e?euee?noue nea?a ia ?iaioo caeeaae?a
aeuaiacaaieo aaeocae.

Iaei??th c iaeiaio aeine?aeaeaieo i?iaeai a oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?/i?e
iaooe? ? aieea ?ae?a?? oa i?aai?caoe?eieo no?oeoo? oea?eae ia oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo, a /a?ac iueiai — ia ?icaeoie
o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo e?a?ie.

20. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui iaei??th c
iniiaieo i?e/ei iaaeinoaoiueiai aeeiiaiiy nioe?ieoeueoo?iith noa?ith
nai?o ooieoe?e o a?aeoai?aii? o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo noni?euenoaa a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? ? iaaeie?ee a iaoai?ci? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a
oe?e noa??, yeee ia a?aeiia?aea? ?aae?yi ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo.

Aeey i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? caeiyoeo o
nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo aaeocyo iaiao?aeii ooi/ieoe e?eoa??? (iieacieee)
?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? a oeeo aaeocyo, a oaeiae i?eioeeie ?iciiae?eo
io?eiaieo eioo?a na?aae i?aoe?aiee?a. A?eueo neeaaeiith i?iaeaiith a
noeioethaaii? ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? a/eoae?a oa ?ioeo i?aoe?aiee?a
ia?iaeii? ina?oe ? cieaeaiiy iieaoe ca iaiaeaaeia aeeiiaiiy nai?o
ooieoe?e.

21. I?iaaaeaiee aiae?c ??cieo oi/ie ci?o ia oaeineiiaeaiiy nenoaie
iieaoe i?aoe? a ina?o? oa aeani? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeicaieythoue iai
cai?iiiioaaoe ianooiio iiaeaeue iieaoe i?aoe? o ACI, yea aeeth/a?
iaa?aeeeaaei? oa ia?niaeoeai? caoiaee. Aei iaa?aeeeaaeieo caoiae?a
(1999-2005 ??.) ie a?aeiineii o?, ui iaoe?eai? ia a?aooaaiiy noaaeo
?iaioe, iaoeiaiai nooiaiy, a/aiiai caaiiy, noaaeaiiy aei i?aoe?
(aeea.oaaeeoe? 1,2). Ca aaciao a oaaeeoe? 1 ia?aia iieaoa i?aoe?
anenoaioa, yea ia ii/aoeo 1999 ?. iiaeiia aoea a aei??aithaaoe na?aaei?e
ca?ieao? o i?iieneiaino? (190 a?i.).

Oaaeeoey 1.

Oeaea i?iaiicieo eiao?oe??io?a iinaaeiaeo ieeaae?a o aeueo caeeaaeao
ina?oe c 1.01.1999 ??.

?

i/iIinaaea /

Noaae
?iaioe12345678910131619221.Annenoaio1,01,01,01,11,11,11,21,21,21,21,21,2
1,21,22.No.aeee.1,11,11.11,211,211,211,331,331,331,331,331,331,331,333.A
eioe.aac
e.i.,no.aeee.,e.i.1,51,51,51,681,181,681,861,861,861,861,861,861,861,864
.Aeioe.,e.i.1,71,71,71,941,941,942,182,182,182,412,412,412,412,415.I?io.
,e.i.;aeioe.,ae.i.1,91,91,92,202,202,202,512,512,512,512,512,512,512,516
.I?io.,ae.i.2,02,02,02,362,362,362,722,722,723,083,443,804,164,52

Oaaeeoey 2.

?ici?? i?iaiicieo iinaaeiaeo ieeaae?a o aeueo caeeaaeao ina?oe c
1.01.1999 ??.

?

i/iIinaaea /

Noaae
?iaioe12345678910131619221.Anenoaio1901901902092092092282282282282282282
282282.No.aeeeaaea/209209209229,9229,9229,9252,7252,7252,7252,7252,7252,
7252,7252,73.Aeioe.aac e.i.;
no.aeee.,e.i.285285285319,2319,2319,2353,4353,4353,4353,4353,4353,4353,4
353,44.Aeioe.,e.i,323323323368,6368,6368,6414,2414,2414,2457,9457,9457,9
457,9457,95.I?io.,e.i.;

aeioe.,ae.i.361361361418418418476,9476,9476,9476,9476,9476,9476,9476,96.
I?io.,ae.i.380380380448,4448,4448,4516,8516,8516,8585,8653,6722790,4858,
8

Aei nenoaie ia?niaeoeaieo caoiae?a ?aoi?ioaaiiy iieaoe i?aoe?
aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo ACI (2006-2010 ??.) ie a?aeiineii ianooii?: a)
i?enai?iiy an?i aeeeaaea/ai aea?aeaaieo ACI noaoono aea?aeaaiiai
neoaeaiaoey a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy; a) aaaaeaiiy aeey ieo aeiieao ca noaae
?iaioe o aea?aeaaieo ACI (ye o aea?aeaaieo neoaeaiaoe?a):

iiiaae o?e ?iee — aeiieaoa a ?ici??? 10% aei ieeaaeo;

iiiaae i’youe ?ie?a — aeiieaoa a ?ici??? 15% aei ieeaaeo;

iiiaae aeanyoue ?ie?a — aeiieaoa a ?ici??? 20% aei ieeaaeo;

iiiaae i’yoiaaeoeyoue ?ie?a — aeiieaoa a ?ici??? 25% aei ieeaaeo;

iiiaae aeaaaeoeyoue ?ie?a — aeiieaoa a ?ici??? 30% aei ieeaaeo;

iiiaae aeaaaeoeyoue i’youe ?ie?a — aeiieaoa a ?ici??? 40% aei ieeaaeo;

a) cai?iaaaeaeaiiy aeey an?o aeeeaaea/?a aea?aeaaieo ACI iain?eiiai
noaaeo ? ?ici??o iain?e, ye aeey aea?aeneoaeaiaoe?a c a?aeiia?aeiei
noaaeai ?iaioe; a) aaaaeaiiy i?ai?thaaiiy ca caoeno eaiaeeaeaonueeeo ?
aeieoi?nueeeo aeena?oaoe?e; ca io?eiaiiy a/aieo caaiue “aeioeaio” ?
“i?ioani?”; ia?aiiaeoe?a eiieo?n?a “E?auee aeeeaaea/ ACI”, “E?auee
iaoeiaaoeue ACI”.

22. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieo aeiaaa? aianaiiy nooo?aeo ei?aeoea o iaoai?ci
noeioethaaiiy i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? caeiyoeo a ioi?ii?
caei?ia’y, o?ceoeueoo?? oa nii?o?, nioe?aeueiiio caaacia/aii?, eoeueoo??
oa ienoaoeoa?. ?nioth/a nenoaia iieaoe i?aoe? a oeeo aaeocyo
i???ioo?oueny ia?aaaaeii ia e?euee?ni? iieacieee ? a?aoiao? oi?iaeuei?
iciaee i?aoe?aieea (eiai ina?oo, ??aaiue eaae?o?eaoe??).

O aeayeeo iaoiaeeeao i?iiiio?oueny ioe?ieoe a aaeao eiaeio c ae?eiaeo
yeinoae i?aoe?aieea, aea neeaaei?noue iieyaa? o aeai?? iaea?eueo oi/ieo
iieaciee?a oaei? ioe?iee.

Aaaeeeao ?ieue a oaeineiiaeaii? noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe?
ea??aiee?a iaaee/ieo caeeaae?a, ?o i?ia?aeieo niaoe?ae?no?a oa ?ioeo
i?aoe?aiee?a iiaei a a?ae?a?aoe iiaia ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o i?aeoeeo
iieiaeaiiy i?i oa?eoi??aeuei? iaaee/i? ia’?aeiaiiy (OII).

O ?ae?aaoe?eieo ? ?aaa?e?oaoe?eieo caeeaaeao ne?ae cai?iaaaeeoe
?iaeea?aeoaeuei? iaaeaaaee ca aeniei?acoeueoaoeaio ?iaioo, ye? iiaeii?
anoaiiaethaaoenue ea??aieeaie a?aeiia?aeiiai ??aiy.

O aaeoc? o?ceoeueoo?e ? nii?oo iaiao?aeii, e??i aeacaieo aeua iaaeaaaie,
cai?iaaaeeoe iaoai?ci iino?eieo aeiieao ea??aiiio oa o?aia?nueeiio
neeaaeo ca aenie? aeinyaiaiiy a nii?o? aeoiaaioe?a a?aeiia?aeieo
nii?oeaieo caeeaae?a. Iiee ae oe? aeiieaoe iinyoue ?aciaee oa?aeoa?.

Aeey niaoe?ae?no?a noa?e nioe?aeueiiai caaacia/aiiy aoei a aeioe?eueiei
canoinoaaoe nenoaio iaaeaaaie ca aeinyaiaiiy aenieeo ?acoeueoao?a a
i?aoe? ai?iaeiaae aaaaoueio ?ie?a (ca aeneoao).

A oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo a aaaaoueio ienoaoeueeeo eieaeoeaao
aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe ??ciiai ?iaeo aeiieaoe, iaaeaaaee, i?ai??,
aea eiooe aeey ieo iiaeii? a?aoeny ia c aa?aioiaaii? oa?eoii? iieaoe, a
c aeioiae?a eieaeoea?a, ye? iathoue iiaeeea?noue ?o ca?iaeoe.

23. Ia?ao?ae aei ?eieo ? nei?i/aiiy athaeaeaoieo eioo?a a Oe?a?i?
noaaeoue ia ii?yaeie aeaiiee iiooe aeiaeaoeiaeo aeaea?ae o?iainoaaiiy
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? noa?e. Aaaeeeai ciaeoe oae? iaoai?cie caeo/aiiy oeeo
eioo?a, uia aiie iaeii/anii ni?eyee i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? i?aoe?
caeiyoeo o nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e noa??.

Ia iao iiaeyae, iniiaiei aeaea?aeii iiiiaiaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
caeeaae?a ina?oe iiaeiii noaoe cai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia ieaoiiai iaa/aiiy, a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aea?aeaaiiai e?aaeeooaaiiy aaaeath/eo io?eiaoe aeuo
ina?oo, ye oea ?iaeoueny a a?eueoino? e?a?i na?oo.

Iaeiei ?c aa??aio?a aeoiaeo ?c e?eciaiai o?iainiaiai noaio caeeaae?a
iaoee iiaei a noaoe ?o ia’?aeiaiiy c i?aei?e?inoaaie a
iaoeiai-oaoiieia?/i? eiioea?ie.

?aoi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei o noa?? eoeueoo?e iaiao?aeii ii/eiaoe
c? ci?i o ?iciiae?e? athaeaeaoieo eioo?a ia eoeueoo?o, ye? ia?aaeon?i
o?aaa iai?aaeoe a o? i?aeaaeoc? eoeueoo?e, ye? ia iiaeooue ca?iaeyoe
a?io? ia nai? oo?eiaiiy (ioca?, a?ae?ioaee, aoaeeiee eoeueoo?e oiui).

Aaaeeeaei /eiieeii caaacia/aiiy o?iainiaeie ?ano?naie ioi?iie caei?ia’y,
a oaeiae (/anoeiai) aaeocae o?ceoeueoo?e oa nii?oo ? nioe?aeueiiai
caaacia/aiiy a no/anieo oiiaao iiaei a noaoe cai?iaaaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i?
??cieo aeae?a nioe?aeueiiai no?aooaaiiy, a ia?oo /a?ao ?icoe?aiiy aeae?a
iaaee/iiai no?aooaaiiy.

Aeineoue ia?niaeoeaieie ? i?iiiceoe?? oeo a/aieo, ye? aaaaeathoue ca
aeioe?eueia aeei?enoiaoaaoe a i?aeoeoe? ?iaioe caeeaae?a
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? noa?e aea?aeaaia caiiaeaiiy, a oaeiae ioi?oeeiaeueia
caiiaeaiiy.

I?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ia noa?a iiaeiia iaoe ia?aaaae
iaae ?ioeie noa?aie a o?iainoaaii? c aea?aeaaiiai athaeaeaoo, uia aiia
iiaea ni?aaeyoe iaeaaeiee aieea ia oi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaiai iioaioe?aeo
e?a?ie oa iniaenoeo iioaioe?ae?a i?aoe?aiee?a.

?icae?e 6. Iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy
noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?

24. Eiioeaioe?y aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?
iiaeiia aeeth/aoe aeoeaia aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee ? oe?i,
athaeaeaoio i?aeo?eieo i??i?eoaoieo aaeocae, oe?iea aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeaoeiaeo oa ?ioeo i?euea, caoeno aeanieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, noai?aiiy
aaaaoinaeoi?ii? aeiiii?ee c aaaiiith /anoeith aea?aeaaiiai naeoi?o,
aea?aeaai? aa?aio?? iaaiiai ??aiy aeeooy oa caeiyoino? oiui.

Ca iaaieo nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo oiia o?iaine iiaeooue aeeiioaaoe
aioenoeioethth/o ooieoe?th. Oae, ia?aaaaeii o?neaeueiee iaoai?ci
oi?ioaaiiy athaeaeao?a ??ciiai ??aiy a Oe?a?i? a 1992-1999 ??. aaeueio?
?icaeoie i?iieneiaino?, n?euenueeiai ainiiaea?noaa oa ?ioeo aaeocae
aeiiii?ee.

25. Iaei??th c aieiaieo oi?i aea?aeaaiiai aieeao ia ??aaiue
?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? a aeiiii?oe? ? eiai ?aaoethaaiiy o aea?aeaaiiio
oa iaaea?aeaaiiio naeoi?ao aeiiii?ee. Aea?aeaaa ia?o ca ana ia?
?ic?iaeoe aaeaeaaoiee caeiiai ?eieo iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy ? iieaoe
i?aoe? o aea?aenaeoi??, a yeiio o?eaaeee /an ua aoaea caeiyoa cia/ia
/anoeia i?aoethth/eo.

O?oaeiaee eieaeoea aoaeue-yeiai i?aei?e?inoaa iiaeiai naiino?eii
aeae?aoe iaeei c aa??aio?a oa?eoii? n?oee, ?ic?iaeaii? aea?aeaaieie
i?aaiaie, yea a a?aoiaoaaea a?aei?iiino? a ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? ia
no/anieo ? a?aenoaeeo o oaoi?/iiio ieai? i?aei?e?inoaao, ia
i?aei?e?inoaao c ??cieie ni?aa?aeiioaiiyie eaae?o?eiaaii? ?
iecueeieaae?o?eiaaii? ?iai/i? neee.

Iaiao?aeii oaeiae aianoe ei?aeoeae a ii?yaeie oi?ioaaiiy ? ?iciiae?eo
oiiae?a aeiiii?/iiai noeioethaaiiy oa ?i iiae?aieo, ye? ooai?ththoueny c
i?eaooeo i?aei?e?inoa, c iaoith iaaeiiouaiiy ia?aoai?aiiy ?o a iniiaiee
noeioe ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? o?oaeiaiai eieaeoeao.

Aeioiaee i?aei?e?inoa, ia yeeo noai?ththoueny oiiae aeey iino?eiiai
i?aeaeuaiiy eaae?o?eaoe?eiiai oa ina?oiueiai ??aiy nai?o i?aoe?aiee?a,
iiaeii? /anoeiai ca?eueiyoeny a?ae nieaoe iiaeaoe?a, ia?aooaaiue ia OII,
?i iaiao?aeii iaaeaaaoe i?eueaia? e?aaeeoe ia icia/ai? oe?e?, ine?eueee
aiie ca ?aooiie nai?o eioo?a aeeiiothoue ooieoe??, ye? iieeaaeai? ia
aea?aeaao.

26. Ea?aeeiaeueieo ci?i a ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aei ?eieo iio?aao?
no?oeoo?a ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. Ie i?iiiio?ii aaanoe a ?? no?oeoo?o iiaee
aeaiaio — ci?iiee oa?eo (ci?iiee ieeaae — aeey niaoe?ae?no?a). Oea —
aeiaeaoie aei ca?ieaoe i?aoe?aieea, ?ici?? yeiai anoaiiaeth?oueny o
a?aenioeao aei oa?eoii? noaaee (iinaaeiaiai ieeaaeo) ? aeiea/o?oueny
i?aoe?aieeai uii?nyoey i?ioyaii iioi/iiai ?ieo ca aenie? ?acoeueoaoe
?iaioe o iiia?aaeiueiio ?ioe? c aeioiae?a i?aei?e?inoaa aai eiai
i?ae?icae?eo.

C iaoith iineeaiiy aca?iica’yceo ?ici???a ci?iiiai oa?eoo (ieeaaeo) c
?acoeueoaoeai?noth i?aoe? ie?aiiai i?aoe?aieea i?ioyaii ?ieo ? a?eueoa,
eiai ?ici?? aeioe?eueii ei?aaoaaoe ca aeiiiiiaith eiao?oe??io?a yeino?,
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe?.

C o?aooaaiiyi aeei?enoaiiy ci?iiiai oa?eoo (ieeaaeo) no?oeoo?a ca?ieaoe
iaoeia ianooiiee aeaeyae:

CI = Oc + I? + Co, aea

CI — ca?ia?oia ieaoa, Oc — oa?eoia /anoeia ca?ia?oeo, I?— i?ai?aeuei?
aeieaoe (aeey a?ae?yaeiee?a nthaee aeeth/a?oueny ? a?ae?yaeiee
i?e?ia?oie); Co — ci?iiee oa?eo (ieeaae).

Aaaeeeaeie oi?iaie iao?aaeeoe?eiiai noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
i?aoe? e?aueo ?ia?oiee?a ? niaoe?ae?no?a iiaeiii noaoe aeei?enoaiiy
iaoa??aeueieo iaa?ioiaeo noeioe?a.

27. Nooo?aei iaaeie?eii aeiiii?/ii? iie?oeee Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae a
1992-1999 ??. ? iaaeei?enoaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?, ui iinooiiai oi?io?oueny,
ye aaaeeeaiai /eiieea i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe?.

A inoaii? ?iee caaino?th?oueny aeiiii?/ia i?ioe??//y a aea?aeaaiiio
?aaoethaaii? ?eieo i?aoe?: aea?aeaaa, ye ? aoaeue-yeee ?ioee noa’?eo
?eieo i?aoe?, caoe?eaaeaia o caeo/aii? ia nai? i?aei?e?inoaa
eaae?o?eiaaii? ?iai/i? neee, a c ?ioiai aieo, aea?aeaaiee naeoi? iiaeiai
caaacia/eoe ?iaioith oeo, ooi ia iiaea ciaeoe ?iaioo iica iei
(?iaae?ae?a, ethaeae ia?aaeiain?eiiai a?eo, iieiae? oiui).

?nioth/? oi?ie aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? ua ia aieeaathoue
ia c?inoaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? eaae?o?eiaaieo i?aoe?aiee?a, ui
ciooo? ?o i?i?i?coaaoe aeo?aoe nai?o cae?aiinoae o ?iai/ee /an ?
?aae?coaaoe ?o iica iei, a oiio /ene? e o o?iueia?e aeiiii?oe?.

C iaoith noeioethaaiiy aea?eueiaiiy iaaeeeoeiai? /enaeueiino? caeiyoeo
ia aea?aeaaieo i?aei?e?inoaao, iaiao?aeii caeiiiaeaa/i ia ia??iae aei
o?ueio ?ie?a iaaeaaaoe i?aai aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeiiii?th oiiaeo iieaoe
i?aoe? ia ca?eueoaiiy ca?ieaoe i?aoethth/ei.

Aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? iiaeiii ni?eyoe iioei?caoe??
no?oeoo?e aeioiaeo i?aoe?aiee?a. Ia iao iiaeyae, ia ia?oeo aoaiao
ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo iaiao?aeii eoe ia i?aeaeuaiiy ieoiii? aaae ci?iii?
/anoeie a ca?ieao?, aea caiaeii oey /anoea iiaeiia aeinyaoe
iioeiaeueiiai ??aiy (aei 20-30% ca?ia?oeo).

Iiceoeaiee aieea aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? ia noeioethaaiiy
?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? aoaea aeinyaiooi oiae?, eiee aea?aeaaa (ii?yae
c ?ioeie noa’?eoaie oeueiai ?eieo) a?ae?aaoeth? i?iii?oe?? a
aeeoa?aioe?aoe?? iieaoe i?aoe? ??cieo eaoaai??e i?aoe?aiee?a,
i?aeaaeocaa? oa i?aeoa?eoi??aeuei? ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a iieao? i?aoe?.

A E N I I A E E

?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy aeathoue ciiao c?iaeoe
aeniiaee eiioeaiooaeueiiai, oai?aoe/iiai e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai
ni?yioaaiiy, iniiaieie c yeeo ? ianooii?:

1. Iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? — oea aaaaoi??aiaaa nenoaia
aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei i?ae ??aiii?aaieie noa’?eoaie i?ioeano
noeioethaaiiy: aea?aeaaith, i?ioni?eeaie, ni?eeaie i?aei?e?ioe?a ?
ie?aieie i?aoe?aieeaie oa noeoii?noue aeae?a ? oi?i noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe?, ui aeei?enoiaothoueny aeey caeo/aiiy i?aoeacaeaoieo in?a aei
??cieo aeae?a i?aoe? oa aecia/aiiy aaeaeaaoii? aeiaai?iaee ca aeo?aoe
?oiuei? i?aoe? e io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe.

2. Iniiaiei aeaiaioii iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ? ca?ia?oia ieaoa,
aac ?? iaeaaeiiai a?aooaaiiy a iioeaaoe?eiiio iaoai?ci? ?io? neeaaeia?
oeueiai iaoai?cio ia ciiaeooue aeeiioaaoe nai? noeioethth/? ooieoe??.
Eaoaai??y “ca?ia?oia ieaoa” a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? a?aeia?aaea? ye
aa?o?noue ?iai/i? neee, oae ? oe?io iineoae, yeo iaaea? iaeiaiee
i?aoe?aiee. A?aeiia?aeii, ?ici??e ca?ia?oii? ieaoe aecia/athoueny ye
aeiiaaie caeiio aa?oino? ?iai/i? neee, oae ? aeiiaaie caeii?a ?eieo.

3. Aaaeeeaei caaaeaiiyi noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, ui aeo?ea? c eiai
ooieoe?e, ? noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe?. A ia?ao?aeiee
ia??iae ?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe? ia?aaeon?i caeaaeeoue a?ae ??aiy
yeino?, i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? caeiyoiai ianaeaiiy.

4.?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe? ye aeiiii?/ia eaoaai??y a?aeia?aaea?
aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie a noni?euenoa? c i?eaiaeo aeiiii?? /ano ia
iaeeieoeth aeaioiaeaii? ? ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??. Aiia ? neeaaeiaith
eaoaai??? “aoaeoeai?noue noni?eueii? i?aoe?”, a ia iaaiaee, ye ?ieiee
noaa?aeaeo?oueny a aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo??.

5. ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei coiiaeth? ooi/iaiiy i?aeoiae?a aei
aecia/aiiy ye?nieo ? e?euee?nieo iciae o?nii iia’ycaieo i?ae niaith
eaoaai??e “i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?” oa “?ioaineai?noue i?aoe?”. Ia?oa
a?aeia?aaea? aeiiii?/i? a?aeiineie c i?eaiaeo aecia/aiiy oe?iiino?
aeiiii?? cao?ao i?aoe? ia iaeeieoeth ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??. A
?ioaineai?noue i?aoe? oa?aeoa?eco? a?aeiineie, ui neeaeenue a
noni?euenoa? c i?eaiaeo aecia/aiiy ei?eniino? e?eueeino? i?aoe?,
aeo?a/aii? ia iaeeieoeth ?aae?ciaaii? i?iaeoeoe??.

6. I?e i?aai?caoe?? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? o?aaa a?aoe aei oaaae oa, ui
iia? oi?ie aeaniino? oa ainiiaea?thaaiiy iaeeaaeathoue na?e a?aeaeoie ia
oi?ie noeioethaaiiy iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a ? o?oaeiaeo eieaeoea?a.
Aeei?enoiaoth/e o? /e ?io? i?aai?caoe?ei? oi?ie ainiiaea?thaaiiy, ne?ae
a?aoiaoaaoe ?o aioo??oi? i?ioe??//y c iaoith ciaioaiiy iaaaoeaiiai
aieeao oeeo i?ioe??/ ia noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

7. Aeey oiai, uia caioioeoe iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a aei aenieiaoaeoeaii?
i?aoe?, c iaeiiai aieo, ? caeo/eoe aei oeo aeae?a i?aoe?, ye? ia
caaaeaee a?aeiia?aeathoue ?oi?i iio?aaai, c ae?oaiai, o?aaa
oaeineiiaethaaoe o?aaeeoe?ei? oa aeei?enoiaoaaoe iao?aaeeoe?ei? aeaee
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? iaeiaieo i?aoe?aiee?a. ?icoe?aiiy oa
??ciiiai?oi?noue ?ioa?an?a o/aniee?a o?oaeiaiai i?ioeano ni?e/eiy?
aeeth/aiiy aei noeioe?a i?aoe? ia eeoa aeiiii?/ieo noeioe?a, aea e
aeiiii?/ieo aaaeae?a.

8. Nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iee ci?no eaoaai??? “ye?noue i?aoe?” iieyaa? o
a?aeia?aaeaii? oeo a?aeiinei, ye? neeaaeathoueny i?ae aea?aeaaith,
i?ioni?eeaie, ni?eeaie i?aei?e?ioe?a ? iaeiaieie i?aoe?aieeaie c
i?eaiaeo oi?ioaaiiy oa ?acoeueoaoeaiino? aeei?enoaiiy iniaenoeo
iioaioe?ae?a inoaii?o a noni?eueiiio ae?iaieoeoa? a?aeiia?aeii aei
iio?aa noni?euenoaa ? c a?aooaaiiyi iniaeeainoae ci?noo oiai /e ?ioiai
aeaeo i?aoe?.

9. Ci?ie a noeioethaaii? ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe? ia aeaaeooue iaeaaeiiai aoaeoo aac ?aoi?ioaaiiy aeiiii?/ieo
a?aeiinei a nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo aaeocyo. Oe? aaeoc? aecia/athoue
iioaioe?eiee ??aaiue yeino? i?aoe? i?aoe?aieea (ye?noue ?iai/i? neee),
oiio aaaeeeai iaoa??aeueii caoe?eaaeoe i?aoe?aiee?a oeeo aaeocae o
aeeiiaii? iinoaaeaiiai caaaeaiiy, ine?eueee a?eueo?noue ?c ieo ia ia?
iaeaaeieo noeioe?a aei i?aoe?.

10. Aiae?c i?iaeai aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? iieaco?, ui
aiii iiaeiii aieeaaoe ia oi?ioaaiiy iiaiai iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? a Oe?a?i?. A?aeiiaa ae a?ae aea?aeaaiiai ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee,
a oiio /ene? e ?eieo i?aoe?, ia ni?eyoeia oaeineiiaeaiith nenoaie
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, ui iaaaoeaii iicia/eoueny ? ia oaiiao aeoiaeo
iaoi? e?a?ie c e?ece. Ia?aaeon?i aea?aeaa? aeioe?eueii eiio?iethaaoe
/anoeo ca?ieaoe o aeioiaeao i?aoe?aiee?a. Aiia iiaeiia neeaaeaoe a?eueoo
?o /anoeo (ia iaioa 60-70%).

11. E?eoa???i i?e?inoo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iiaeii? noaoe oaiie c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?. A?aeiia?aeii oi?ioea ca?ia?oii? ieaoe iaoeia
ianooiiee aeaeyae:

CI = CI(i.i) o Ei + CI(i.i) o 1i?.i?., aea:

CI – ca?ia?oia ieaoa;

CI (i.i.) – i?iaeeoeiaee i?i?ioi;

Ei – i?ae?ic?yaeiee eiao?oe??io;

? i?.i?. – ??/iee i?e??no i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe?, ui aecia/a?oueny ye
??cieoey i?ae ?iaeaenaie i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? a iioi/iiio ?
iiia?aaeiueiio ?ieao.

12. C iaoith nooo?aiai i?aeaeuaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? ia
ia?ao?aeiee ia??iae aoei a aeioe?eueiei canoinoaaoe iaoai?ci ci?iiiai
oa?eoo (ieeaaeo), ui i?aaenoaaey? niaith aeiaaaeo aei ca?ieaoe
i?aoe?aieea, yeee iino?eii aeiaeaa?oueny c?inoaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino?
i?aoe?.

13. Aoiaeaeaiiy a ?eieiaa na?aaeiaeua iaoiiaeth? ?icoe?aiiy no?oeoo?e
eaoaai??? “ca?ia?oia ieaoa”. Aiia oaia? iiaeiia aeeth/aoe ianooii?
aeaiaioe:

CI = Oc + I? + Co + Nae — Aee — O, aea:

Oc — oa?eoia iieaoa; I? — i?ai??; Co — ci?iiee oa?eo (ieeaae); Nae —
nioe?aeuei? aeiieaoe; Aee — ?ici?? cieaeaiiy i?ai?aeueieo ? nioe?aeueieo
aeiieao aiane?aeie cieaeaiiy iieaciee?a ae?yeueiino? eieaeoeao
i?aei?e?inoaa; O — oo?aoe oa ?io? ae?aooaaiiy ?c ca?ieaoe aiane?aeie
cieaeaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? ie?aiei o?oae?aieeii.

14. O ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? a iaoai?ci? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? cia/ii
i?aeaeuo?oueny ?ieue o?iainiaeo ?ino?oiaio?a, iniaeeai iiaeaoe?a ?
ia?aooaaiue ia oiiae iieaoe i?aoe?. Aaaeeeai i?i?i?coaaoe ?o, uia
aeaanoe c “o?i?” eiooe, ye? iai?aaeythoueny i?aei?e?inoaaie ia iieaoo
i?aoe? nai?o i?aoe?aiee?a.

15. Oi?ioaaiiy aaeaeaaoiiai ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? iaoai?cio
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? aeiaaa? a?aeiiae a?ae aei?noeeo iiiaoa?ieo iaoiae?a
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee, ui ni?e/eieei ianoa/o ia?aiaeo eioo?a o
i?aei?e?inoa, a oiio /ene? e ia aeieaoo ca?ia?oii? ieaoe. Iaaaeueiith
noa? iio?aaa ia?aoiaeo aei ia?aaaaeii iaieaein?ainueeeo iaoiae?a
?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie, ye? noeioethaaoeiooue noeoiiee iiieo,
iaiaaeaiee o iiia?aaei? ?iee.

INIIAI? IOAE?EAOe?? AAOI?A C OAIE AeENA?OAOe??

Iiiia?ao??, a?ioo?e oa iaa/aeuei? iin?aieee

1. Ea?e?i I.?. Noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?. —
Eooeuee: ?aae.-aeae. a?aeae?e AAeO ?i. E.Oe?a?iee, 1997. — 168 n.
(?aoeaic?y: Iaoeiaee A?niee OOA?. — ?2. – 1998. – N.197-198).

2. Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie caeiyoino? iieiae? o Aieeinuee?e iaeano?
/Eaaoo?i A.Ae., Ea?e?i I.?., Eaaoo?ia O.I. oa ?i. — Eooeuee: Aeae. AAeO
“Aaaea”, 1996. — 44 n. (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 6 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: ?ice?eoa noaaeaiiy iieiaeeo i?aoe?aiee?a Aieei? aei
i?iaeai aac?ia?ooy, aeyaeai? iiaeeea? iai?yiee o?oaeiai? i?a?aoe?? c
iaeano?.

3. Iae?iaeiiii?ea: iaa/aeueiee iin?aiee /Eaaoo?i A.Ae., Ea?e?i I.?.,
Neaa’the ?.A. oa ?i. — Eooeuee: Aeae. AAeO “Aaaea”, 1996. — 248 n.
(aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 42 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: ?ice?eoi ci?no ?eieiaeo oa iica?eieiaeo iaoai?ci?a a
oe?a?inuee?e aeiiii?oe?, iniaeeaino? o?neaeueii? iie?oeee oe?a?inueei?
aea?aeaae a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe?, iieacaii ?ieue ?inoeoooo n?i’? oa
i?eaaoiiai aeiiaoiueiai ainiiaea?noaa a iae?iaeiiii?/i?e nenoai?.

4. I?aei?e?inoai (o??ia) a oiiaao ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee. Iaa/aeueiee
iin?aiee/Eaaoo?i A.Ae., Ea?e?i I.?., Neaa’the ?.A. oa ?i. — Eooeuee:
?aae.-aeae. a?aeae?e AAeO ?i. E.Oe?a?iee, 1997. — 232 n. (aaoi?o
iaeaaeeoue 42 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: c’yniaai? iniaeeaino? i?eaaoecaoe?eieo i?ioean?a a
Oe?a?i?, aeyaeaia niaoeeo?ea oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?, ?ice?eoa nooi?noue ca?ia?oii? ieaoe a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei
?eieo.

5. ?a?i?aa?ii Aoa: Aieeinueea iaeanoue (Ca ?aae. A.I.Ee?i/oea,
A.I.Eooeeoeia, A.E.Eaaei?ea. — Eooeuee: ?aae.-aeae. a?aeae?e. AAeO ?i.
E.Oe?a?iee, 1997. — 486 n. (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 4 n).

Iniaenoee aianie: c’yniaai? iniaeeaino? oi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaeo ?ano?n?a
aeioaoe?eii? iaeano? oa ?o aeei?enoaiiy.

Noaoo? a niaoe?ae?ciaaieo aeo?iaeao ? ca??ieeao

6. Naaeiaee I.I., Ea?e?i I.?. I?iaeaie ai?iaaaeaeaiiy iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy ? noeioethaaiiy a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo i?aoe?
//A?niee Ee?a. oi-oo. — Aeiiii?ea. — Aei. 1. — E.: Ee?a. oi-o, 1994. —
N. 102-110 (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 6 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: i?iaiae?ciaaiee ci?no ? i?ioe??//y iiaeo oi?i
ainiiaea?thaaiiy a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, ?oi?e aieea ia
?aoi?ioaaiiy o?oaeiaeo a?aeiinei, ia iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe?aiee?a, ?ice?eo? iia? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo iniaenoiai oaeoi?a
ae?iaieoeoaa.

7. Ea?e?i I.?. ?aoi?ioaaiiy iaoa??aeueiiai noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? oa eiai
aoaeoeai?noue a oiiaao o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueei? aeiiii?ee // Ca.
iaoa??ae?a Anaoe?. iaoe. eiio. “Noaiiaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aeiiii?ee
Oe?a?ie”. — Euea?a: Aeae-ai EAeO ?i. ?.O?aiea, 1995. — N. 59-61.

8. Ea?e?i A.?. Iiaeaoeia? iaoiaee ?aaoethaaiiy aeiiii?ee oa ?o aieea ia
aoaeoeai?noue ae?iaieoeoaa //Iiaeaoee a Oe?a?i?: oai??y ? i?aeoeea: Ca.
iaoe. i?. — Eooeuee: AAeO ?i. E.Oe?a?iee, 1995. — N. 18-22.

9. Naaeiaee I.I., Ea?e?i I.?. Noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? ye oaeoi? noaiiaeaiiy
?eieo ?iai/i? neee a Oe?a?i? //A?niee Ee?a. oi-oo. — Aeiiii?ea. — Aei.
2. — E.: Ee?a. oi-o, 1995. — N. 121-131 (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 6 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: c’yniaaia nooi?noue no/anieo oi?i ? aeae?a
noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, i?iaiae?ciaai? iaaeie?ee nenoaie iaoa??aeueiiai
noeioethaaiiy a Oe?a?i?, cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe ?o onoiaiiy.

10. Eaaoo?i A.Ae., Ea?e?i I.?., Ei?ia/oe O.?. ?eiie ?ioaeaeooaeueii?
i?aoe? a Oe?a?i?: i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy oa ia?niaeoeae //Aeiiii?ea
Oe?a?ie. — 1995. — ?2. — N.31-37 (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 3 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: aeaii aecia/aiiy ?eieo ?ioaeaeooaeueii? i?aoe?,
c’yniaai? iniaeeaino? noeioethaaiiy caeiyoeo ?ioaeaeooaeueiith i?aoeath
a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

11. Ea?e?i I.?. O?iainia? aniaeoe noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? //O?iaine
Oe?a?ie.—1996.—?2.— N.42-50.

12. Eaaoo?i A.Ae., Ea?e?i I.?. O?iaine Oe?a?ie oa oeyoe ?o ?aoi?ioaaiiy
//O?iaine Oe?a?ie. — 1996. — ?7. — N.131-132 (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 1,5 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: iieacaii iaaaoeaiee aieea ?nioth/i? o?iainiai? nenoaie
ia i?ioean ?icoe?aiiai a?aeoai?aiiy ?iai/i? neee, cai?iiiiiaai? oeyoe
?aoi?ioaaiiy o?iainiaeo a?aeiinei o ae?iaie/?e ? iaae?iaie/?e noa?ao.

13. Ea?e?i I.?. ?ieue o?iain?a o noaiiaeaii? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?
?eieiaiai oeio //O?iaine Oe?a?ie i?e ia?aoiae? aei ?eieo: oai??y ?
i?aeoeea: Ca.iaoe. i?. — Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1996. — N.210-216.

14. Ea?e?i I.?. Iaia?a?ai?noue aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe a Oe?a?i?: aeina?ae,
i?iaeaie oa caaaeaiiy ia iaeaooi? // Iaoa??aee i?aei. eiio. “Nenoaia
iaia?a?aii? ina?oe: caeiaooee, iiooee, i?iaeaie”. — Ei.1. — *a?i?aoe?:
Aeae-ai *a?i?a. oi-oo, 1996. — N.76-78.

15. Ea?e?i I.?. Ci?ie o ooieoe?yo ? caaaeaiiyo o?iain?a o ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?: aieea o?iain?a ia a?aeoai?thaaeueiee i?ioean// Iaoe. a?ni.
AAeO. — Na?. Aeiiii?ea. —Aei. 1.— Eooeuee: Aaaea, 1996.— N. 34-38.

16. Ea?e?i I.?. Iaaee/ia no?aooaaiiy a nenoai? aeiiii?/ieo a?aeiinei
ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa// Iaoa??aee i?aei. eiio. “?a?iiaenueeee
aeina?ae no?aoiai? ae?yeueiino? ? aaeineiiaeaiiy ?? eaae?iaiai
caaacia/aiiy”. — E.: Ee?a. aea?ae. aeii. oi-o, 1996. — N.89-92.

17. E?eaaiei E.O., Ea?e?i I.?. Ooieoe??, oi?ie oa ci?no noeioe?a i?aoe?
a ia??iae ?eieiai? o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee Oe?a?ie // I?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee: I?aea?aeii/. iaoe. ca. — Aei. 4. — E.:
EAeAO, 1996. — N.34-37 (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 2 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: ?iciaaeiaai? iiiyooy “oi?ie” ? “aeaee” noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe?, ?ic?iaeaia eeaneo?eaoe?y noeioe?a i?aoe?, aaeaeaaoia ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?; aeyaeaia niaoeeo?ea ?o aeei?enoaiiy ia i?aei?e?inoaao ??cieo
oi?i aeaniino?.

18. Ea?e?i I.?. I?iaeaie i?aai?caoe?? oa iieaoe i?aoe? ia iaaea?aeaaieo
i?aei?e?inoaao //Iaiaaeaeiaio ? i?aei?e?iieoeoai a Oe?a?i?: aoaie
noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo. — A?ni. AeO “Euea?a. iie?oaoi?ea”. —
Euea?a, 1997. — N.86-90.

19. Ea?e?i I.?. Iniaeeaino? noeioethaaiiy ?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe?
caeiyoeo a ina?o? oa iaooe? a ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? //“Eioaa?aoeey
ia?aciaaiey, iaoee e i?iecaiaenoaa”: Na. iaoa?eaeia iaaeaeoi. eiio. —
Eooeuee: A?AI, 1997. — N.90-95.

20. Ea?e?i I.?. Aca?iica’ycie o?iain?a ? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a
ia?ao?aei?e aeiiii?oe? //?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee: Ca. iaoe. i?. — Eooeuee: ?aae. -aeae. a?aeae.
AAeO ?i. E.Oe?a?iee, 1997. — N.331-342.

21. Ea?e?i I.?. I?iaeaie oe?eueii? aeiiii?/ii? ina?oe oa iai?yie ?o
ae??oaiiy //Oai??y ? i?aeoeea i?aei?e?iieoeoaa: i?iaeaie aea/aiiy oa
aeiiii?/ii? i?ina?oe a Oe?a?i?: Iaoa??aee i?aei. iaoe. nai-?o. — Aei. 4.
— — Euea?a: ?ioa?aei, 1997. — N. 122-125.

22. Ea?e?i I.?. I?noea ca?ia?oii? ieaoe o iaoai?ci? noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?
a oiiaao ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee //Iaoe. a?ni. AAeO. — Aeiiii. iaoee. —
?8. — Eooeuee: Aeae-ai AAeO ?i. E.Oe?a?iee, 1997. —N.13-17.

23. Naaeiaee I.I., Ea?e?i I.?. Iiaa ?icoi?iiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? i?aoe? oa
?? noeioethaaiiy o o?ainoi?iaoe?eiee ia??iae //A?ni. Ee?a. oi-oo. — E.:
Aeae-ai Ee?a. oi-oo, 1997. — N. 91-103 (aaoi?o iaeaaeeoue 7 n.).

Iniaenoee aianie: i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe? ?icaeyaea?oueny c iiceoe?e
aeo?ao i?aoe? ia ia aeaioiaeaio, a ia ?aae?ciaaio i?iaeoeoe?th;
iaa?oioiao?oueny iaiao?aei?noue oe?oiai canoinoaaiiy eii?n?eii? oi?ie
iieaoe i?aoe?.

24. Ea?e?i I.?. Aeei?enoaiiy oiaa?iae?iaieeaie eioo?a a?ae cieaeaiiy
iiaeaoe?a //O?iaine Oe?a?ie. — 1997. — ?1.— N.98-99.

25. Ea?e?i I.?. Caaacia/aiiy aenieiai ??aiy i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa
?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? — iniiaia i?iaeaia iiaiai iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? //A?ni. OOI. — Aeii. iaoee. — *.1. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: Aeae-ai
OOI, 1998.— N.111-115.

26. Ea?e?i I.?. ?ieue o?iain?a o aea?aeaaiiio ?aaoethaaii? noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe? //?aoi?ia o?iainiai-e?aaeeoii? nenoaie ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee: Ca.
iaoe. i?. — Eooeuee: ?aae.- aeae. a?aeae. AAeO ?i. E.Oe?a?iee, 1998. —
N.328-331.

27. Ea?e?i I.?. Iaoiaeieia?/i? oa oai?aoe/i? i?iaeaie noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo
i?aoe? a Oe?a?i? //I?iaeaie i?aoe?, aeiiii?ee oa iiaeaethaaiiy: — Ca.
iaoe. i?. — *.1. — Oiaeueieoeueeee: IAI “Aa??ea” OIA, 1998. — N.
106-108.

28. Ea?e?i I.?. Iaoai?ci noeioethaaiiy aenieii?iaeoeoeaii? i?aoe? //
A?niee AeO “Euea?anueea iie?oaoi?ea”. Iaiaaeaeiaio oa i?aei?e?iieoeoai a
Oe?a?i?: aoaie noaiiaeaiiy ? i?iaeaie ?icaeoeo. — ?4. — Euea?a, 1998. —
N. 120-125.

29. Ea?e?i I.?. Iiaeaoee oa ?o aieea ia aeioiaee caeiyoiai ianaeaiiy
//I?iaeaie oa oeyoe aaeineiiaeaiiy iiaeaoeiai? nenoaie Oe?a?ie: Iaoe.
aeii. iaoe.-i?aeo. eiio. — ??i?iue: OOA?, 1998. — N.45-49.

30. Ea?e?i I.?. Aeaye? iai?yie oaeineiiaeaiiy aeiiii?/iiai iaoai?cio
oi?aae?iiy ina?oith //Oi?aae?iiy iaoe?iiaeueiith ina?oith a oiiaao
noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiino?: Iaoa??aee Anaoe?.
eiio. — E.: II Oe?a?ie. 1998. — N.28-31.

31. Ea?e?i I.?. Ii?ioaaiiy i?aoe? ye iaiao?aeia eaiea a noeioethaaii?
i?iaeoeoeaiino? oa ?ioaineaiino? i?aoe? a i?ioean? ?eieiai?
o?ainoi?iaoe?? aeiiii?ee //Iaoe. a?niee AAeO. Aeii.iaoee. — ?12. —
Eooeuee, 1998. — N.55-63.

32. Ea?e?i I.?. O?iainiaa caaacia/aiiy caeeaae?a nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? noa?e
//O?iaine Oe?a?ie. — 1999. — ?1. — N.43-45.

33. Ea?e?i I.?. Ci?no i?aoe? e iaoieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?? noeioethaaiiy
//Oe?a?ia: aniaeoe i?aoe?. – 1999.- ?1.–N.19-21.

Aiioaoe?y

Ea?e?i I.?. Oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? a ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?: i?iaeaie oai??? ? i?aeoeee. — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a aeiiii?/ieo iaoe ca
niaoe?aeuei?noth 08.01.01 — aeiiii?/ia oai??y. — Ee?anueeee
iaoe?iiaeueiee aeiiii?/iee oi?aa?neoao. Ee?a. — 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? i?iaeaie
oi?ioaaiiy iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy i?aoe? aaeaeaaoiiai ia?ao?aei?e
aeiiii?oe?. Aeiaaaeaia iaiao?aei?noue aeio?eiaiiy aeiia nenoaie
aeiiii?/ieo caeii?a ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee (a oiio /ene? caeiio aa?oino?
?iai/i? neee). Iieacaii, ui a oiiaao ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieiai? aeiiii?ee
i?ioean noaiiaeaiiy ?eieo i?aoe? i?ioiaeeoue oae? aoaie: 1)
o?a?iaioa?iee ?eiie i?aoe?; 2) iaaeineiiaeee ?eiie i?aoe?; 3) aeania
?eiie i?aoe?. ?ic?iaeai? oai?aoe/i? canaaee ? cai?iiiiiaai? i?aeoe/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? ii oaeineiiaeaiith iaoai?cio noeioethaaiiy
?acoeueoaoeaiino? i?aoe? o ae?iaie/?e oa iaae?iaie/?e noa?ao, yeee
neeaany a Oe?a?i? o 90-o ?ieao, ui a?aoiaothoue aaaaoioeeaaei?noue
ia?ao?aeii? aeiiii?ee.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?eiie i?aoe?, noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?, aeaee noeioethaaiiy
i?aoe?, ca?ia?oia ieaoa, ?acoeueoaoeai?noue i?aoe?, ye?noue i?aoe?,
i?iaeoeoeai?noue i?aoe?, ?ioaineai?noue i?aoe?, ci?iiee oa?eo,
aea?aeaaia ?aaoethaaiiy noeioethaaiiy i?aoe?.

Aiiioaoeey

Ea?eei I.E. Oi?ie?iaaiea iaoaiecia noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea a ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea: i?iaeaiu oai?ee e i?aeoeee. — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 08.01.01 — yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey. — Eeaaneee
iaoeeiiaeueiue yeiiiie/aneee oieaa?neoao. Eeaa. — 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee enneaaeothony oai?aoe/aneea e i?aeoe/aneea i?iaeaiu
oi?ie?iaaiey iaoaiecia noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea, aaeaeaaoiiai ia?aoiaeiie
yeiiiieea. ?ac?aaioaiu oai?aoe/aneea iniiau e i?aaeeiaeaiu i?aeoe/aneea
?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii oniaa?oainoaiaaieth iaoaiecia noeioee?iaaiey
?acoeueoaoeaiinoe o?oaea, eioi?ue neiaeeeny a Oe?aeia a 90-o aiaeao,
o/eouaathuea iiiaioeeaaeiinoue ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee.

Iao/iay iiaecia ?aaiou oa?aeoa?ecoaony neaaeothuei:

auyaeaii aeeyiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo eciaiaiee a yeiiiie/aneie nenoaia
ia?aoiaeiiai iauanoaa ia oi?ie?iaaiea aaeaeaaoiiai aio iaoaiecia
noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea, eioi?ue aeieaeai auoue iaoeaeai ia iaeneiaeueiia
aiaea/aiea a iauanoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai anaai o?oaeiniiniaiiai
ianaeaiey, /oi iicaieeo i?aiaeieaoue e?eceniua yaeaiey e aueoe ia
n?aaeiaaa?iiaeneea noaiaea?ou o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea e
aeecie;

aeieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue niaethaeaiey o?aaiaaiee nenoaiu yeiiiie/aneeo
caeiiia ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee (a oii /enea caeiiia noieiinoe ?aai/ae
neeu e ?ani?aaeaeaiey a niioaaonoaee n cao?aoaie e ?acoeueoaoaie o?oaea)
i?e oi?ie?iaaiee iiaiai iaoaiecia noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea;

auyniaii, /oi a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea iaoaieci noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea
neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue eae neiaeioth iiiaio?iaiaaoth niaieoiiinoue
yeiiiie/aneeo (a oii /enea e oeiainiauo) ioiioaiee, aicieeathueo iaaeaeo
ainoaea?noaii, i?ionithcaie, nithcaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, nianoaaiieeaie
i?aaei?eyoee ii iiaiaeo aicaeaenoaey ia eioa?anu ?aaioieeia n oeaeueth
i?eaea/aiey eo ia ?aaiou ?aciiai niaea?aeaiey a niioaaonoaee n
iio?aaiinoueth iauanoaa e ninoiyieai ?uiea o?oaea;

iieacaii, /oi a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey
?uiea o?oaea i?ioiaeeo neaaeothuea yoaiu: 1) o?aaiaioa?iue ?uiie o?oaea;
2) ianiaa?oaiiue ?uiie o?oaea; 3) nianoaaiii ?uiie o?oaea, /oi o?aaoao
aaeaeaaoiuo eciaiaiee a nenoaia noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea;

?ane?uou iniaaiiinoe acaeiinaycae niaea?aeaiey, oa?aeoa?a e
iauanoaaiiie oi?iu o?oaea a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea, /oi aeaei
aiciiaeiinoue ooi/ieoue no?oeoo?o eaoaai?ee iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea e
iaiaoeoue iooe i?aiaeieaiey iaaaoeaiuo i?iyaeaiee a o?oaeiauo ioiioaieyo
n iiiiuueth eciaiaiee a noeioee?iaaiee o?oaea;

iieacaii, /oi nouanoaothuay a ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea iauanoaaiiay oi?ia
o?oaea ia ioaa/aao o?aaiaaieyi o?ainoi?iaoeee eiiaiaeiie yeiiiieee a
?uii/ioth;

aeieacaii, /oi iniiaiuie oi?iaie i?iyaeaiey ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe o?oaea a
ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieea anoue ea/anoai, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue e
eioaineaiinoue o?oaea, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe oa?aeoa?ecotho
ea/anoaaiiua e eiee/anoaaiiua iieacaoaee aeayoaeueiinoe ?aaioieea e
i?aaei?eyoey;

auyniaiu iniaaiiinoe noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea ia i?aaei?eyoeyo ?aciuo oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe e oicyenoaiaaiey, eioi?ua iaoneiaeaiu yeiiiie/aneeie
i?ioeai?a/eyie yoeo oi?i;

i?iaiaeece?iaaiu e?eoa?ee ioeaiee ?acoeueoaoeaiinoe o?oaea caiyouo a
nioeeieoeueoo?iuo io?aneyo e auyaeaiu iaeaieaa aeaenoaaiiua ec ieo aeey
i?aaiecaoeee noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea a yoeo io?aneyo;

iieacaii, /oi a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaeiie yeiiiieee nioeeieoeueoo?iay noa?a
aeieaeia eiaoue i?aeiouanoaa a oeiaine?iaaiee ec ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa, iineieueeo ?anoe?aiea ieaoiuo oneoa ia iiaeao iaania/eoue
iaiaoiaeeiia oeiaine?iaaiea iio?aaiinoae o/?aaeaeaiee nioeeieoeueoo?iie
noa?u;

aeieacaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey noeioee?iaaiey
?acoeueoaoeaiinoe o?oaea n oeaeueth niyoey i?ioeai?a/ee, aicieeathueo
i?e oi?ie?iaaiee ?uiea o?oaea a Oe?aeia.

Oai?aoe/aneay oeaiiinoue enneaaeiaaiey caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iaiauaiey
e auaiaeu, naeaeaiiua a aeenna?oaoeee, anoue ii?aaeaeaiiui aeeaaeii a
oai?eth noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea, oai?eth e i?aeoeeo i?aaiecaoeee ca?ieaou.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?uiie o?oaea, noeioee?iaaiea o?oaea, aeaeu
noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea, ca?aaioiay ieaoa, ?acoeueoaoeaiinoue o?oaea,
ea/anoai o?oaea, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea, eioaineaiinoue o?oaea,
ia?aiaiiue oa?eo, ainoaea?noaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea noeioee?iaaiey o?oaea.

Annotation

Karlin N. The formation of the mechanism of inducing of labour in
transition economy: problems of theory and practice. — Manuscript.

The thesis is submitted for the doctor’s degree in economic sciences.
Speciality 08.01.01. – Economic theory. — Kyiv Nation Economic
University. 1999.

In the thesis the theoretical and practical problems of the formation of
the mechanism of inducing of labour are investigated, adequate to
transition economy.

It was proved the nessity of the observance of the system of economy
(including the law of value of the labour force). It is shown that under
conditions of transition to market economy the process of introducing of
labour is passing such stages as: 1) fragmentary labour market, 2)
imperfect labour market, 3) properly labour market.

The theoretical fundamentals are developed and the practical
recommendations are offered for improvement of the mechanism of inducing
of productivity of labour in production and non production spheres,
which has been developed in Ukraine in the 90-th years, taking into
account the variety of transition economy.

Key words: labour market, inducing of labour, kinds of inducing of
labour, quality of labour, productivity of labour, intensivity of
labour, variable tariff, state regulation of inducing of labour.

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