Електрохімічна регенерація водних розчинів перйодату натрію у синтезі діальдегідкрохмалю: Автореф. дис… канд. техн. наук / О.О. Слабоспицька, Харк.

OA?EIANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE IIEIOAOII*HEE OIIAA?NEOAO

Neaainieoeueea Ieaia Ieaenaiae?iaia

OAeE 621.357.12

EEAEO?IOIII*HA ?AAAIA?AOeIss AIAeIEO ?IC*EIIA

IA?EIAeAOO IAO?ITH O NEIOACI Ae?AEUeAeAA?AeE?IOIAETH

niaoeiaeueiinoue 05.17.03 — oaoii/ia eeaeo?ioiiiy

Aaoi?aoa?ao aeena?oaoei? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa oaoii/ieo iaoe

Oa?eia — 1999

Aeena?oaoei?th ? ?oeiien

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Oa?eianueeiio aea?aeaaiiio iieioaoii/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi
Iiiinoa?noaa inaioe Oe?a?ie, i.Oa?eia

Iaoeiaee ea?iaiee: aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Ai?aa/ia Aiaoieie Eocueie/,

Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee
iieioaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oaoii/ii?
aeaeo?ioiii?

Ioioeieii iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoii/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Einoii Ieeiea Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Aeiii?iiao?ianueeee aea?aeaaiee
oiiaa?neoao

caeicie/iiai o?ainii?oo,

caaiaeoaa/ eaoaae?e aeaeo?ioaoiiee

eaiaeeaeao oaoii/ieo iaoe

Naiieeaiei Na?aie Ieaenieiae/,

Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y

oaoiieia?? oa i?aai?caoe??
oa?/oaaiiy,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e oiii?

I?iaiaeia onoaiiaa: Oe?a?inueeee aea?aeaaiee oiiiei-oaoiieiai/iee

oiiaa?neoao, eaoaae?a oaoiieiai?
aeaeo?ioiii/ieo

ae?iaieoeoa, Iiiinoa?noai inaioe
Oe?a?ie,

i.Aeiii?iiao?ianuee

Caoeno aiaeaoaeaoueny “ 7 “eaioie 2000 ?. i 1200 aiaeeii ia
caniaeaiii niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 64.050. 03 o Oa?eianueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio iieioaoii/iiio oiiaa?neoaoi ca aae?anith: 61002, i.Oa?eia,
aoe.O?oica,21

C aeena?oaoei?th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o aiaeiioaoei Oa?eianueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai iieioaoii/iiai

oiiaa?neoaoo

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?icineaiee “ 14 “ ni/iy 2000 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?
.

niaoeiaeiciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee
Naoiaiei I.Ae.

1

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeueiinoue oaie. Aeiiiii/ia neooaoeiy, ui neeaeany a Oe?a?ii,
iio?aao? ?ic?iaee aacaiaeoiaeieo oa iaeiaiaeoiaeieo oaoiieiaie. No/aniee
aeieiai/iee noai coiiaeth? iaiaoiaeiinoue ae?iaieoeoaa a Oe?a?ii cia/ii?
eieueeinoi naeaeoeaieo aioa?ini?aaio?a ia iniiai ieneaeiaaieo
iieinaoa?eaeia, cie?aia, ae?aeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth. Aiie
aeei?enoiaothoueny ye aaeaioii caniae aeey aeaaaeaiiy ic i?aaiicio
ethaeeie eaoiiiia aaaeeeo iaoaeia oa ?aaeiiioeeiaeia. Aeey ?o neioaco
iaiao?aei? oae? ieenethaa/i ye eoaeiay eeneioa oa i? niei. A neioaci
aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth aeei?enoiao?oueny ia?eiaeao iao?ith, a ye
aiaeoiaee iaea?aeothoueny ?ic/eie eiaeaoy iao?ith. Niieoee eiaey
eiooiaii oa aeaoioeeoii, oiio aeooaeueiei ieoaiiyi ? ?ic?iaea aoaeoeaieo
iaoiaeia ?aaaia?aoei? ieenethaa/ia.

Aiae?c iaoiae?a ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ic/ei?a ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith oa eiaeenoi?
eeneioe iieacaa, ui iaea?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ? aeaeo?ioiii/iee niinia
?aaaia?aoei?, ai ia iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy iiaeo oiii/ieo ?aaaaioia i
caaacia/o? ye aeieiai/io /enoioo, oae ? ye?noue oe?eueiaiai i?iaeoeoo.

I?ioean oa oaoiieia?y aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ?aaaia?aoe?? aiaeieo ?ic/ei?a
ia?eiaeao?a eoaeieo iaoae?a iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aii, oiio aiie ia ciaeoee
oe?ieiai canoinoaaiiy o oa?iaoeaaoe/i?e i?iieneiaino?. O ca’yceo c oeei
aeooaeueiei ? aeine?aeaeaiiy iniiaieo caeiiii??iinoae aeaeo?io?i?/ii?
?aaaia?aoe?? ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith o neioac? aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie. ?iaioa
aeeiioaaeanue ca eii?aeeiaoe?eiei ieaiii I?i?noa?noaa ina?oe Oe?a?ie ii
iai?yieo N 70 “Iaoeiai iniiae oiii/ii? oaoiieiai? noai?aiiy iiaeo
iai?aaii/ieo ?a/iaei oa iaoa?iaeia eiiieaenii? ia?a?iaee iiia?aeueii?
ne?iaeie Oe?a?ie”, i?iaeoii 3.4/436 aiae 24.10.97 ?. “Aeineiaeaeaiiy
eiiaoeee aeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoeie iiae /an neioaco aeaeo?ieaoaeioe/ieo
iaoa?iaeia” Aea?aeaaiiai oiiaeo ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeineiaeaeaiue
I?i?noa?noaa iaoee Oe?a?ie oa ia ainiaeiaiai?ieo iiaenoaaao c
Aea?aeaaiei iaoeiaei oeaio?ii eiea?nueeeo caniaia (i. Oa?eia).

Iaoa oa caaea/i aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoith ? ?ic?iaea niiniao
aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith o ae?iaieoeoai
ieneaeiaaieo iieinaoa?eaeia, cie?aia aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth, yeee
aeicaiey? noai?eoe caieiaio, aaca?aeoiaeio ca ieenethaa/ai oaoiieia?th
neioaco aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth.

Aeey aeinyaiaiiy oei?? iaoe iaiaoiaeii ae?ioeoe oae? caaaeaiiy:

-aea/eoe eiiaoeeo aiiaeiiai i?ioeano ieeneaiiy eiaeao-?ii?a aei
ia?eiaeao-iiiia ia ieaoeiiaeo oa aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo
aiiaeao;

2

-aecia/eoe iniiai? caeiiii??iino? eeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? ?oc/eiia
ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith a

neioac? aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth;

-iaa?oiooaaoe aea?? aoaeoeaieo aiiaeieo iaoa??ae?a;

-aeiaanoe iiaeeeainoue aaaaoi?aciai? aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei?
?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith aac cieaeaiiy oaoiieiai/ieo iieacieeia;

-?ic?iaeoe iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeey ?ic?aooaaiiy iniiaieo ia?aiao?ia
i?ioeano aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia:

ia?eiaeao-iiie ia ieaoeiiaiio oa aeiieneaenaeioeaaiio oeoaiiaiio
aiiaeao, oa anoaiiaeaii ciioaio eiiaoeeo i?ioeano c oiiaieueiaieie
noaaeiyie ia?aoiaeo aeaeo?iio oa aeeoocii;

— aia?oa iieacaii iioaineoieoth/o aeith aeiiioee oei?eae-iiiia i?e
eiioeaio?aoei? aieueoa 0.01 iieue/aei3 . Ia aiiaei ia?aaiaathoue
i?ioeane ooai?aiiy aeoeaiiai oei?o, yeee i?e ?ic/eiaiii a aeaeo?ieioi
oiii/ii ieeneth? eiaeao-iiie i, o. /. ni?ey? iieaaoaiith i?ioeano
ieeneaiiy.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoaoia iieyaa? o oiio, ui ia
iiaenoaai aeineiaeaeaiiy eiiaoeee ieeneaiiy eiaeao-ioiia ?ic?iaeaii
aeaeo?ioiii/iee niinia ?aaaia?aoei? ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith, yeee
aeicaieea caaacia/eoe iaiaoiaeio /enoioo oeieueiaiai i?iaeoeoo o
noai?aiie aacaiaeoiaeiie oaoiieiai? neioaco aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth c
aeei?enoaiiyi eeoa aeaeo?iaia?ai?. Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeeainoue
aaaaoi?aciai? ?aaaia?aoei? ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith o neioaci
aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth aac cieaeaiiy oaoiieiai/ieo iieacieeia ye ia
noaaei? aeaeo?ieico, oae i a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth. Iieacaii
iiaeeeainoue aeei?enoaiiy ye ieaoeiiaiai aiiaeo, oae i iaeiooiaiiai
aeiieneaenaeioeaaiai oeoaiiaiai aiiaeo a i?ioeani ?aaaia?aoeii
ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith c aenieei aeoiaeii ca no?oiii iniiaiiai i?oaeoeoo ii
caieiaiie oaoiieiai?. Niinia aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? ia?eiaeaoo
iao?ith aeicaiey? ia oieueee aeiiiieoe eiooiaiee eiae, aea e ae?ioeoe
ieoaiiy ooeeicaoei? aiaeoiaeia o neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a:

-eenia?eiaioaeueii aeineiaeaeaii i?ioean aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei?

?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith ia ieaoeiiaeo, aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo
aiiaeao, I?OA;

-aea/aii i?ioeane, yei iathoue iinoea i?e ieeneeiii eiaeao-iiiia ia
ieaoeiiaeo oa aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeao i?e
?icieo nooiaiyo ?aaaia?aoei?, oaiia?aoo?i, iayaiinoi oei?eae-iiiia;

3

-aea/aia eiiaoeea aiiaeieo i?ioeania, ia iniiai yei? cai?iiiiiaaii
aeei?enoiaoaaoe ye aeueoa?iaoeao ieaoeiiaiio aiiaeo oeoaiiaee aiiae c
iie?eooyi ic aeiieneaeo naeioeth, ui ia?

eeoa neiaee ?ooaiith;

-aecia/aii eiiiooth/i noaaei? i?ioeano ia ieaoeiiaiio oa
aeiieneaenaeioeaaiio oeoaiiaiio aiiaeao, ui aeicaiey? aieeaaoe ia
eiiaoeeo i?ioeano c iaoith io?eiaiiy iaeneiaeueii aenieiai aeoiaeo ca
no?oiii;

-aea/aii eioaineoieoth/ee aieea oei?eae-iiiia;

-cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue aeey ?ic?aooieo iniiaieo ia?aiao?ia
aeaeo?ieico — aeoiae ca no?oiii, iai?oao ia aeaeo?ieica?i, ieoiii
aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?ai?;

-?ic?iaeaii i?iaeo aeineiaeii-i?iieneiaiai aeaeo?ieica?o oa ia?aaeaii o
Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiaee oeaio? eiea?nueeeo caniaia,

— aei?iaoaaii cai?iiiiiaaio oaoiieiaith aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei?
?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith ia aeineiaeii-i?iieneiaiio aeaeo?ieica?i c
ianooiiei aeei?enoaiiyi ?ic/eio ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith o neioaci
aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth oa iiaeoaa?aeaeaii iiaeeeainoue aaaaoi?aciaoai
aeei?enoaiiy caieiaii?, aacaiaeoiaeii? ca ieenethaa/ai oaoiieiai?
?aaaia?aoei? ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith ic caa?aaeaiiyi eiai
aeanoeainoae;

-iiaeoaa?aeaeaii ei?icieieie aei?iaoaaiiyie iiaeeeainoue aeei?enoaiiy
aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeia o i?iieneiaiio aeaeo?ieici.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoaoia aeena?oaoei?. Iniiaii ?acoeueoaoe
aeineiaeaeaiue aeiiiaiaeaeenue ia iiaeia?iaeieo iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo
eiioa?aioeiyo “Iioi?iaoeieii oaoiieiai?: iaoea, oaoiiea, oaoiieiaiy,
icaioa, caei?ia’y” (i.Oa?eia, 1997- 1998), iaoeiai-oaoii/ieo
eiioa?aioeiyo anii?aioia i niia?iaioieeia Oa?eianueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
iieioaoie/iiai oiiaa?neoaoo (1994-1997), I Oe?a?inueeiio
aeaeo?ioiii/iiio c’icaei (i.Aeiii?iiao?ianuee, 1999 ?.).

Ioaeieaoei?: ca oaiith aeena?oaoeieii? ?iaioe iioaeieiaaii 7 ?oaio, c
ieo 5 noaoae o i?iaiaeieo oaoiaeo aeaeaiiyo.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoei?: aeena?oaoeiy ia? anooi, 6 ?icaeieia iniiaiiai
ciinoo, aeniiaee oa aeiaeaoie. ?iaioa aeeeaaeaia ia 179 n.
iaoeiiieniiai oaenoo; iinoeoue 131 iaeiaioaaiiy i?aoeue aio/eciyieo oa
caei?aeiiieo aaoi?ia ( 13 n.); 43 iethno?aoei? (43n.), 20 oaaeeoeue
(14 n.), aeiaeaoie (2 n.).

4

INIIAIEE CIINO ?IAIOE

O anooii iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaii iaoo
aeineiaeaeaiue, iaaaaeaii caaaeueio oa?aeoa?enoeeo oa eaaeioieaoeieii
iciaee aeena?oaoei?.

O ia?oiio ?icaeiei iaaaaeaii iaeyae eioa?aoo?e ca oaiith aeena?oaoei?.
I?oaiaeiciaaii niiniae io?eiaiiy ia?eiaeaoia eoaeieo iaoaeia. Aiaeic
eioa?aoo?e iieacaa, ui a i?aaii/iiio neioaci ia?aaaaa iaaeaia
aeaeo?ioiii/iiio niiniao ?aaaia?aoei?, ai aii ia iio?aao? aeei?enoaiiy
iiaeo oiii/ieo ?aaaaioia, yei caa?oaeiththoue oe?eueiaee i?iaeoeo, i
aeinoaoiuei i?inoee o ?aaeicaoei?. O NIAe a oa?iaoeaaoe/iie
i?iieneiainoi ia canoiniaothoue eiaeao iao?ith, yeee io?eiothoue i?e
ieeneaiii aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth. Nenoaiaoe/ii aeineiaeaeaiiy eiiaoeee
i?ioeano aiaenooii, ia iciy? oaoiieiai? aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei?
ia?eiaeaoa iao?ith a ?ic/eiao eiaeaoo iao?ith, yei io?eiothoue ye
aiaeoiaee a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth.

Uiaei aiiaeieo iaoa?iaeia, ia?aaaao iaaeaii ieaoeii, aeiieneaeo
naeioeth, I?OA, aea iaeaaeiei /eiii ieoaiiy aiiaeia ia ae?ioaii.
Aiaenooii aiaeiiinoi i?i iiaeeeainoue aaaaoi?aciaiai aeei?enoaiiy
?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth, i?i
iaoaiici ieeneaiiy eiaeaoia. Iiaeaii no/anii oyaeaiiy i?i iaoaiici oa
eiiaoeeo ieeneaiiy oei?aoia eoaeieo iaoaeia.

Ia iiaenoaai eioa?aoo?iiai iaeyaeo aecia/aii iniiaii caaea/i
aeineiaeaeaiiy.

O ae?oaiio ?icaeiei iaaaaeaii iaoiaeeeo aeaioiaeaiiy
aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeia, oiceei-oiii/ii aeanoeainoi
?ic/eiia, ui aeineiaeaeothoueny (aeaeo?ii?iaiaeiinoue, eiiaiaoe/ia
a’yceinoue, uieueiinoue) oa iaoiaeeee aeineiaeaeaiiy eiiaoeee i?ioeania,
ui ia?aaiaathoue o nenoaii. Aea/aiiy eiiaoeee caeieniaii
aaeueaaiinoaoe/ieie, iioaioeiinoaoe/ieie, iioaioeiiaeeiaii/ieie
iaoiaeaie. Iaeii/anii aoei aeei?enoaii aiaeioe/iee iaoiae, yeee aeaaaa
ciiao iiaoaeiae ia?oeiaeueieo e?eaeo noai?aiiy ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith oa
aeaeieaiiy eenith.

Eiiiooth/o noaaeith i?ioeany aecia/aee ia iaa?oiaiio aeeneiaiio
aeaeo?iaei, ui aeicaieeei cai?iiiioaaoe iiaeeeaee iaoaiici ieeneaiiy
eiaeao-iiiia.

Ei?icieii aei?iaoaaiiy aoei i?iaaaeaii ca aeiiiiiaith a?aaiiao?e/iiai
iaoiaeo a oiiaao aeiaaioa?iiiiai? iiey?ecaoei?.

Aeacaii canoiniaaii i?eeaaee, aeaeo?iaee, oiiae i?iaaaeaiiy
aenia?eiaioia.

Iaaaaeaii niiniae iaoaiaoe/ii? ia?iaee ?acoeueoaoia.

5

O?aoie ?icaeie i?enay/aii oai?aoe/iiio iaa?oiooaaiith iai?yieo
aeineiaeaeaiiy

ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia ia iniiai aiaeico aeiaa?aie Io?aa. I?e
aeei?enoaiii aiaeieo ?ic/eiia

eiaeieo niieoe eoaeieo iaoaeia iiaeia io?eiaoe aaeeeo eieueeinoue
?a/iaei c aiinoii eiaeo. Aeey ieeneaiiy aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth
iaeaieueoee iioa?an i?aaenoaaey? ia?eiaeao-iii, yeee ? aiiiiii
iaoaeiaeiii eeneioe. I?e aeaeo?ieici aiaeieo ?ic/eiia eiaeaoy iao?ith ia
aiiaei iiaea ia?aaiaaoe aeaa i?ioeane ca noia?ieie ?aaeoeiyie:

IO3- + H2O — 2e = IO-4 + 2H+
(1)

2H2O — 4e = O2 + 4H+
(2)

?iaiiaaaeii iioaioeiaee oeeo ?aaeoeie iienythoueny ?iaiyiiyie :

A? IO-3/IO-4 = 1,653 — (2,3RT/2F) pH + 2,3RT/2F lg( a IO-4 /a IO-3 )
(3)

ApI2 = 1,229 -(2,3RT/4F)?I + 2,3RT/4F lg?O2 ,
(4)

aea R — aaciaa noaea; T — aaniethoia oaiia?aoo?a aeaeo?ieico;

F — /enei Oa?aaeay; a IO-4 ,a IO-3 — aeoeaiinoue ia?eiaeao- oa
eiaeao-iiiia;

?O2 — ia?oeiaeueiee oene eenith.

Ca oa?iiaeeiaii/iei aiaeicii c iaoith iiaeaeuaiiy aeoiaeo ca no?oiii
iaiaoiaeii: 1)a aiiaeiiio i?inoi?i eeaeo?ieica?a iiaeo?eioaaoe ?I a
iaaei 1,4-8,3; 2)aeei?enoiaoaaoe aiiaeiee iaoa?iae c aenieith
ia?aiai?oaith eenith. Oaeei oiiaai aiaeiiaiaea? ieaoeia, aeiieneae
naeioeth; 3)canoiniaoaaoe ii?iaiyii aeniey aonoeio no?oio, 4)iaaeieii
?icaeieyoe aiiaeii oa eaoiaeii i?iaeoeoe. O iioiio ?aci, i?e iiiaaeaiii
eeniaaeo niieoe eiaeo a eaoiaeiee i?inoi? iiaeeeai aiaeiiaeaiiy niieoe
eiaeo, ui iinoyoue eenaiue. Eiae aoaea aeaeieyoeny ia oaa?aeeo iiaa?oiyo
oa ia?aoeiaeaeaoe i?ioeano ?aaaia?aoei?.

*aoaa?oee ?icaeie i?enay/aii aecia/aiith eiiaoeee aiiaeiiai i?ioeany
ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia i?e iaeii/aniiio aeaeieaiii eenith ia ieaoeii.

Ianaiia?aae, aoei ?icaeyiooi aoaeoeaiinoue ?iaioe aeineiaeaeoaaieo
iaoa?iaeia aiiaeo, yea aecia/a?oueny aaee/eiith aeoiaeo ca no?oiii
ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith ia ?icieo iaoa?iaeao (oaae.1.). Aoei aecia/aii, ui
i?e i?iaaaeaiii i?ioeano ?aaaia?aoei? ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith, I?OA aeinyaa?
e?eoe/iiai iioaioeiaeo, i?e yeiio ii/eia?oueny ?oeioaaiiy aiiaeo, ui
?iaeoue eiai iai?eaeaoiei aeey aeei?enoaiiy a aeaiiio i?ioeani.

Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui aeoiae ca no?oiii ia ieaoeii aeuee, ioaea, i
iaioi aeo?aoe aeaeo?eee, aeiieneaenaeioeaai oeoaiiai aiiaee aeeeeeathoue
ia iaioee iioa?an ye aiiaeiee iaoa?iae aeey i?iieneiaiai aeei?enoaiiy.

6

Oaaeeoey 1.- Iieacieee aoaeoeaiinoi ?oaioe aiiaeieo iaoa?iaeia

Iaoa?iae aiiaeo Ia?oeiaeueii aonoeie no?oio, A/i2

i?e iioaioeiaeao,A

______________________________

2.1 2.2 2.3

AN, % i?e iioaioeiaeao,A

_____________________________________________

2.1 2.2 2.3

Pt 1050 1390 1495 77 66 50

Ti+PbO2 425 750 1125 65 60 43

I?OA 100 150 225 28 28 28

Eiiaoeeo aiiaeieo i?ioeania ia ieaoeiiaiio aiiaei aea/aee ca
aeiiiiiaith iiey?ecaoeieieo e?eaeo, ui aoee iaea?aeaii noaoeiiia?ieie
oa ianoaoeiiia?ieie iaoiaeaie. Aecia/aee ia?oeiaeueii e?eai coai?aiiy
ia?eiaeaoo oa aeaeieaiiy eenith.

aeieyioei ? i?ioean ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia (aeoiae ca no?oiii aei 90%),
oiio ia?oeiaeueia e?eaa caiaa?oueny ic caaaeueiith. Iiney
i?yiieiiieii? aeieyiee niinoa?iaa?oueny ?icea caieueoaiiy
aiiaeiiai iioaioeiaey, iniaeeai ia ia?oeiaeueieo e?eaeo ieeneeiiy
eiaeao-ioiia. Oeae oaeo iiynith?oueny aeinyaiaiiyi a?aie/iiai
aeeoocieiiai no?oio ii eiaeao-iiio. Ca ia?oeiaeueieie e?eaeie aecia/aii
a?aie/ii aeeoocieii aonoeie no?oio ieeneeiiy IO-3 (oaae.2) a
caeaaeiinoi aiae eiioeaio?aoei? eiaeao-iiiia.

Anoaiiaeaii, ui oiae aiiaeieo e?eaeo cia/iith ii?ith caeaaeeoue aiae
eiioeaio?aoei? ia?eiaeao-iiiia (?en.1). Caeaaeiinoue ia?aiai?oae aiae
aonoeie no?oio iineoue i?yiieiiieiee oa?aeoa? i?e iaaenieie nooiaii
?aaaia?aoei? eiaeao-iiiia (<50%) i aonoeiao no?oio aei 1000 A/i2. Iniiaiei i?ioeanii ? noai?aiiy ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith. I?e aeueo aonoeiao no?oio aiaecia/a?oueny ciiia i?yiieiiieii? caeaaeiinoi ia eiaa?eoii/io. Iiaeaeueoee c?ino aiiaeiiai iioaioeiaeo iiynith?oueny caieueoaiiyi eiioeaio?aoeieii? iiey?ecaoei? oa aeinyaiaiiyi a?aie/iiai aeeoocieiiai no?oio. O oeeo oiiaao iniiaiei noa? i?ioean aeaeieaiiy eenith. Aeey oiai, uia iaea?aeaoe iniiaia eiiaoe/ia ?iaiyiiy caeaaeiinoi ia?aiai?oae ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia aiae aonoeie no?oio ?ic?aooaaee ?iaiiaaaeii iioaioeiaee nenoaie IO-3 /IO-4 caiaeii ?iaiyiith (3) a caeaaeiinoi aiae ?I oa eiioeaio?aoei? eiaeao- oa ia?eiaeao-iiiia. Ca ia?oeiaeueieie e?eaeie aecia/eee eiinoaioe a oa b (oaae.2). Eiiaoeea i?ioeany ia ieaoeii iieny?oueny ?iaiyiiyi: 7 ( = a + b lg ia - b lg (1 - ia/ inp), (5) aea ( - ia?aiai?oaa ia?aaiao i?ioeano, A; ia - aonoeia no?oio ia aiiaei, A/ni2; inp - a?aie/ia aonoeia no?oio, A/ni2. I?e iaeiie/aiii o ?ic/eii ia?eiaeao-ioiia aieueoa 0.34 iieue/aei3 cia/ii caieueoo?oueny aaee/eia eiaoioei?ioa a ?iaiyiiy (5), ui naiae/eoue i?i ciiiy noaio iiaa?oii ieaoeiiaiai aiiaey, iiiai?ii, a ?acoeueoaoi aaeni?aoei? ia?eiaeao-iiiia. Ca oi?iith io?eiaieo e?eaeo ayei c?iaeaii i?eiouaiiy i?i ciioaio eiiaoeey i?ioeany, a naia - yiiaieueiaii eeaeo?ioiii/ia ia i?yiieiiieiie aeieyioei (b=0.10-0.12 B) oa i?e iiaeaeueoiio iiaeaeuaiii iioaioeiaeo aeeoocieia noaaei?. Aiaeiai/ii aeniiaee uiaei anoaiiaeaiiy ciioaii? eiiaoeee i?ioeano c oiiaieueiaieie noaaeiyie ia?aoiaeo aeaeo?iio oa aeeooci? ayei io?eiaio ia iaa?oiaiio aeeneiaiio aeaeo?iaei aeey eiioeaio?aoeie 0.05-0.50iieue/aei3 a iaaeao ?I=2-8. Oaeiae oea aeicaieeei aecia/eoe ii?yaeie ?aaeoei? ye ca eiaeao-iiiaie, oae i ca iiiii aiae?ieniiith. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui i?e ciiii eiioeaio?aoei? eiaeao-iiiia ia ii?yaeie aaee/eie cia/aiiy aonoeie no?oio ciiithaaeiny aiaeiiaiaeii. Ciiia ?I a iaaeao 2-8 iacia/ii aaea aei ciaiueoaiiy no?oio, oiio ii?yaeie ?aaeoei? ii eiaeao-iiiai aya aecia/aiee ?iaiei iaeeieoei, ii ioio aiae?ieniiith -ioeth. Oaaeeoey 2. - Iniiaii oiiae oa oa?aeoa?ii iieacieee eiiaoeee i?ioeano ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia i?e O=323E e ?I=2.2 [IO-3]: :[IO-4] [IO-3], iieue/aei3 Ap, B a,B b,B i0 ,A/ni2 ?i?, A/ni2 aeine. ?ic?ao 9:1 0.45 1.552 0.458 0.100 2.51x10-5 0.25 0.26 4:1 0.40. 1.563 0.463 0.100 2.34x10-5 0.22 0.23 2:1 0.35 1.572 0.483 0.103 3.04x10-5 0.20 0.20 1.5:1 0.30 1.576 0.506 0.104 1.35x10-5 0.18 0.18 1:1 0.25 1.582 0.538 0.105 9.55x10-6 0.15 0.15 1:1.5 0.20 1.588 0.630 0.108 1.48x10-6 0.11 0.12 1:2 0.16 1.592 0.681 0.112 8.32x10-7 0.08 0.09 1:4 0.10 1.602 0.732 0.118 6.31x10-7 0.05 0.06 1:9 0.05 1.612 0.783 0.123 4.26x10-7 0.02 0.03 Anoaiiaeaii aieea oaiia?aoo?e ye ia aeaeo?ioiii/io noaaeith (ciaiueoaiiy 8 eiaoioei?ioa a), oae i ia aeeoocieio. I?i oea naiae/aoue iniiaii iieacieee eiiaoeee i?ioeano i?e ?icieo oaiia?aoo?ao(oaae.3). Oaaeeoey 3.-Aieea oaiia?aoo?e ia oa?aeoa?ii iieacieee eiiaoeee ieeneaiiy eiaeao-ioiia i?e [IO-3]:[IO-4]=1:1 T,K Ep, B a,A b,B i0, A/ni2 DT, o10-9 i2/n ?i?, A/ni2 aeine. ?ic?ao. 293 1.589 0.626 0.095 4.89o10-7 2.83 0.130 0.137 303 1.587 0.588 0.100 1.58o10-6 2.93 0.135 0.141 313 1.585 0.575 0.103 2.63o10-6 3.03 0.140 0.146 323 1.582 0.537 0.105 7.76o10-6 3.13 0.147 0.151 333 1.580 0.485 0.108 3.39o10-5 3.23 0.148 0.156 Canoinoaaiiy oaiia?aoo?ii-eiiaoe/iiai iaoiaea aei iiey?ecaoeieieo aeii?ia aeicaieeee aecia/eoe eiiiooth/i noaaei? i?ioeany ?aaaia?aoei? ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith. Aecia/aii cia/aiiy aia?ai? aeoeaaoei? (oaae.4) i oa?aeoa? ?o ciiie iiaeoaa?aeea ciioaio eiiaoeeo i?ioeany. Oaaeeoey 4. - Caeaaeiinoue aia?ai? aeoeaaoei? aiae ia?aiai?oae i?ioeano ooai?aiiy ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith Aao, eAeae/iieue 73 61 42 42 no?oio, aeaeieaiiy eenith oa eiai aeoiae ca no?oiii c?inoa? aei 40%. Cai?ioii e?eai i?ioiaeyoue i?e iioaioeiaeao ia 50-120 iA iaioa ii?iaiyii c i?yieie. Oaea cia/ia c?inoaiiy ia?oeiaeueieo aonoei no?oio, iiaeeeai, iiaeia iiynieoe iaeiie/aiiyi ia iiaa?oii ieaoeie i?iiiaeiiai ?aaaaioo, yeee aa?a o/anoue a iaio ?aaeoeiyo oa ciiiith, o ca,yceo 9 c oeei, noaio ?iai/i? iiaa?oii aiiaeo. Ca o/anoth iiaa?oiaaeo eeniaaeo niieoe ieaoeie ia?aaiaa? i?ioean ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia ca noaiith: PtO + H2O - e = PtO OH + H+ (6) PtO OH - e = PtO O + H+ - niiaieueiaia noaaeiy (7) PtO + IO-3 - e = PtO(IO-3) - ciiaieueieia noaaeiy (8) PtO(IO-3) +H2O- e = PtO + IO-4 +2 H+ (9) I?e aeaeieaiii eenith ia?aaiaa? iiaeaeueoee ia?aoiae eeaeo?iiia ca noaiith : PtO O + H2O - 2e = PtO + O2 + 2H + (10) Ia cai?ioiiio iai?yieo e?eai a iaeanoi aieueo aenieeo aiiaeieo iioaioeiaeia iaea iaeiie/aiiy eenith, yeee aaeni?ao?oueny, aeo?a/a?oueny ia caieueoaiiy ia?oeiaeueieo no?oiia iaio aeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoeie i?e iaioeo aiiaeieo iioaioeiaeao. I?e oeueiio noai?aiiy ia?eiaeao-ioiia, iiiai?ii, iaea oaeei /eiii: PtO O + IO-3 = PtO + IO-4 , (11) a ia iiaa?oii aiiaey iaea aaeni?aoeiy eenith: PtO + H2O- 2e = PtO I + 2H+ (12) A i?ioeani aeineiaeaeaiue aoei aeyaeaii, ui ia?aianaiiy no?oiy /a?ac eaoiiiiiaiiiio iaia?aio caeienith?oueny, a iniiaiiio, iiiaie I3I+ ,ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?icaaaeaiiyi eaoieioy i?e aeineiaeaeaiii eeaeo?ieioy. Aiaeii/an, oea ia noia?a/eoue cai?iiiiiaaiiio iaoaiicio ?aaeoei?. Aiaecia/aii, ui iiie oei?o aieeaaoue ia eiiaoeeo ooai?aiiy ia?eiaeao-iiiia oa aeaeieaiiy eenith ia iaeiaeiai. I?e aaeni?aoei? ia iiaa?oii ieaoeie, oei?eae- iiie cieaeothoue aeoiae ca no?oiii eenith ia 5-12%. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiiioee oei?eae-iiiia caiiaiaathoue c?inoaiith aonoeie co?oio i?e noai?aiii ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith, i?e oeueiio aeoiae ca no?oiii c?inoa? ia 10-12%. Ia aiiaei ia?aaiaathoue i?ioeane noai?aiiy aeoeaiiai oei?o, yeee i?e ?ic/eiaiii a aeaeo?ieioi oiii/ii ieeneth? eiaeao-iiie i iieaaoo? ooai?aiiy ia?eiaeao-iiiia. A?aie/ii aonoeie no?oio ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia c?inoathoue aiae 1500 aei 1680 A/i2. Iiiai?ii, ui iayaiinoue oei?eae-iiiia ciiith? iaoaiici aiiaeiiai ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia. Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?enoi aeiao?aaie ia caaacia/othoue iaaeieia ?icaeieaiiy aiiaeieo i eaoiaeieo ?ic/eiia, iaaioue i?e noai?aiii i?ioieo aeaeo?ieioo. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaaeieia ?icaeieaiiy caaacia/othoue eeoa iiiiiiaiiiii iaia?aie. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoinoaaiiy eaoiiiiiaiiiii? iaia?aie oeio IO-4NE. Ca o/anoth iiaa?oiaaeo eeniaaeo niieoe ieaoeie ia?aaiaa? i?ioean ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia ca noaiith: 10 PtO + H2O - e = PtO OH + H+ (6) PtO OH - e = PtO O + H+ - niiaieueiaia noaaeiy (7) PtO + IO-3 - e = PtO(IO-3) - ciiaieueieia noaaeiy (8) PtO(IO-3) +H2O- e = PtO + IO-4 +2 H+ (9) I?e aeaeieaiii eenith ia?aaiaa? iiaeaeueoee ia?aoiae eeaeo?iiia ca noaiith : PtO O + H2O - 2e = PtO + O2 + 2H + (10) Ia cai?ioiiio iai?yieo e?eai a iaeanoi aieueo aenieeo aiiaeieo iioaioeiaeia iaea iaeiie/aiiy eenith, yeee aaeni?ao?oueny, aeo?a/a?oueny ia caieueoaiiy ia?oeiaeueieo no?oiia iaio aeaeo?iaeieo ?aaeoeie i?e iaioeo aiiaeieo iioaioeiaeao. I?e oeueiio noai?aiiy ia?eiaeao-ioiia, iiiai?ii, iaea oaeei /eiii: PtO O + IO-3 = PtO + IO-4 , (11) a ia iiaa?oii aiiaey iaea aaeni?aoeiy eenith: PtO + H2O- 2e = PtO I + 2H+ (12) A i?ioeani aeineiaeaeaiue aoei aeyaeaii, ui ia?aianaiiy no?oiy /a?ac eaoiiiiiaiiiio iaia?aio caeienith?oueny, a iniiaiiio, iiiaie I3I+ ,ui iiaeoaa?aeaeo?oueny ?icaaaeaiiyi eaoieioy i?e aeineiaeaeaiii eeaeo?ieioy. Aiaeii/an, oea ia noia?a/eoue cai?iiiiiaaiiio iaoaiicio ?aaeoei?. Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeiiioee oei?eae-iiiia caiiaiaathoue c?inoaiith aonoeie co?oio i?e noai?aiii ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith, i?e oeueiio aeoiae ca no?oiii c?inoa? ia 10-12%. Ia aiiaei ia?aaiaathoue i?ioeane noai?aiiy aeoeaiiai oei?o, yeee i?e ?ic/eiaiii a aeaeo?ieioi oiii/ii ieeneth? eiaeao-iiie. Cai?iiiiiaaii iaoaiici aei? oei?eae-iiiia: 2Cl--2e=Cl2 (13) Cl2+H2O = HClO+HCl (14) IO-3+HClO= IO-4 +HNl (15) Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?enoi aeiao?aaie ia caaacia/othoue iaaeieia ?icaeieaiiy aiiaeieo i eaoiaeieo ?ic/eiia. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaaeieia ?icaeieaiiy caaacia/othoue eeoa iiiiiiaiiiii iaia?aie. ?aeiiaiaeiaaii canoinoaaiiy eaoiiiiiaiiiii? iaia?aie oeio IO-4NE. I’yoee ?icaeie i?enay/aii aea/aiith i?ioeania, yei iathoue iinoea ia aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeao i?e ?aaaia?aoei? ieenethaa/a. A i?ioeani aeineiaeaeaiiy aoee io?eiaii iniiaii iieacieee eiiaoeee i?ioeany (oaae.5), ia/eneaii eiao?oe??io E, yeee a?aoiao? ae?aioaaiiy iiaa?oi? eeniai. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iniiaia eiiaoe/ia ?iaiyiiy, aiaeiiaiaeia ca oi?iith ?iaiyiith ia ieaoeiiaiio aiiaei (5) c ??cieoeath cia/aiue eiao?oe??io?a a ? b. 11 Oaaeeoey 5. - Iniiaii iieacieee eiiaoeee i?ioeany ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia i?e O= 323E oa ?I= 2,2 [IO-3]: :[IO-4] [IO-4], iieue/aei3 A?, A a,B b,B i0o106, A/ni2 Inp, A|cm2 aeineiae. ?ic?ao. E 9:1 0.45 1.552 0.598 0.119 9.44 0.115 0.250 0.46 4:1 0.40 1.563 0.606 0.119 8.13 0.108 0.220 0.49 2:1 0.35 1.572 0.613 0.120 7.74 0.102 0.203 0.51 1.5:1 0.30 1.576 0.615 0.120 7.49 0.098 0.181 0.54 1:1 0.25 1.582 0.618 0.120 7.08 0.095 0.153 0.63 1:1.5 0.20 1.588 0.641 0.121 5.67 0.083 0.112 0.75 1:2 0.15 1.592 0.664 0.121 3.24 0.065 0.080 0.81 1:4 0.10 1.602 0.696 0.122 1.97 0.045 0.049 0.90 1:9 0.05 1.612 0.738 0.123 1.00 0.020 0.020 0.77 Iiey?ecaoeieii e?eai ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia ia aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeao iiaeiaii ca oi?iith iiey?ecaoeieiei e?eaei ia ieaoeii, aea i?e aenieeo cia/aiiyo aonoei no?oio noai?ththoue ae?oao i?yiieiiieio aeieyieo-aeaeieaiiy eenith. Aecia/aii eiiiooaaiiy i?ioeano ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia ye ca oiiaieueiaiith oaeaeeinoth ?ic?yaeo (aaee/eia eiaoioei?ioia b) i?e iaaenieeo aonoeiao no?oio, oae i ca aeeooci?th i?e i?enei?aiii i?ioeany . I?e iioaioeiaei 1.8 A i?e c?inoaiii oaeaeeinoae iaa?oaiiy aeeneiaiai aeaeo?iaeo aaee/eia aonoeie no?oio ia ciiithaaeanue. Oea naiaeioeoai i?i aeaeo?ioiii/ia yneeaaeiaiiy i?ioeano. I?e iioaioeiaei 2 A niinoa?iaaee iaeiiieiee c?ino aonoeie no?oio i?e caieueoaiii /enea iaa?oia aeaeo?iaeo - ciioaia eiiaoeea. Aecia/aii ia?oee ii?yaeie ?aaeoei? ii IO-3 -iiiai oa ioeueiaee ii iiio aiae?ieniiith. Aieea oaiia?aoo?e aiaeiae/iee aieeao ia ieaoeiiaeo aiiaeao, aea c iaioeie ciiiaie eiaoioei?ioia a. Oaeei /eiii, iieacieee eiiaoeee ieeneaiiy eoaeao-iiiia ia aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeao iaei /ei iinooiathoueny iieacieeai ia ieaoeiiaiio aiiaei. I?e oeueiio aiie cia/ii aeaoaaoi. C iaoith aecia/aiiy aeioeieueiinoi aeei?enoaiiy aeiieneaenaeioeaaeo aiiaeia a oa?iaoeaaoe/iie i?iieneiainoi, aiie ia i?ioyci 3000 aiae aei?iaoaaeenue ia noeeueiinoue aei ei?ici? c aiiaeiith iiey?ecaoei?th i?e aonoeii no?oio 1000 A/i2 o ?ic/eiao oaeeo eiioeaio?aoeie (a/aei3) : 12 1) NNaIO3=110, NNaIO4=2; 2) CNaIO3=62, CNaIO4=50. Oaeaeeinoue ?oeioaaiiy ciiithaaeanue o /ani, ciiia iineea caoooath/ee oa?aeoa?. O i?ioeani ?oaioe iiaa?oiy aiiaeia noaaaea iaio oi?noeith, ui ni?eyei ciaioaiith ?aaeueii? ieiui aiiaeia, a oiio, i aiaeiinii? oaeaeeinoi ?oeioaaiiy. Ia iniia? oice/ieo oyaeaiue io?eiaii iaoaiaoe/io iiaeaeue, yea aeicaieyea ?ic?aooieiaei oeyoii aecia/eoe iniiaii iieacieee aeaeo?ieicy- iai?oao ia aeaeo?ieica?i oa aeoiae ca no?oiii ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith aeey ?icieo oiia i?iaaaeaiiy aeaeo?ioiii/iiai ieeneaiiy. Iai?oaa ia eiii?oei neeaaea?oueny c ??aiiaaaeieo iioaioeiaeia aiiaeieo i?ioeania i eaoiaeiiai i?ioeania aeaeieaiiy aiaeith, yei ?ic?aoiaothoueny ca ?iaiyiiyi Ia?inoa, a oaeiae iaaeiiiy iai?oae a aiieioi, eaoieioi, iaia?aii, aiiaei, eaoiaei, eiioaeoao. Aeoiae ca no?oiii ?ic?aoiao?ii ca ?iaiyiiyi: AC = in / ( ?n +?O2 ), (13) c o?aooaaiiyi ii={i-exp[(Ea-AT)/ b]}(nFDc0/(), ?O2= [eop(Ea-EO)/bI2] aea AT - aaee/eia aiiaeiiai iioaioe?aeo aeey i?ioeano noai?aiiy ia?eiaeaoo iao?o- AT = a+Aa, a Ea=AT+bO2lniO2. Ciaiiy oeeo iieacieeia aeicaiey? ?ic?aooaaoe eieueeinoue aeaeo?eee, ui iaiaoiaeia aeey io?eiaiiy 1 ea ia?ioaeaoy iao?ith. Aeey iaeaieueo iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeio io?eiaiiy NaIO4 i?ioean iaiaoiaeii aanoe a eaneaaeii ?icoaoiaaieo aeaeo?ie?ca?ao, ia iaio ye o o?e eaneaaee. Ia ia?oie noaaei? i?ioean aaaeaoueny i?e iaeaieueo aenieie aonoeii no?oio ~800 A/i2 i ?aaaia?o? ia?eiaeao-iiie aei ~50%, ia ae?oaie -aonoeia no?oio cieaeo?oueny aei 550-600 A/i2 i ?aaaia?o? aiae 50 aei 70-75%, ia o?aoie - aonoeia no?oio iiieaeo?oueny aei 450-500 A/i2 i ?aaaia?o? a iaaeao 75-90%. I?e eaneaaeiiio ?icoaooaaii? aeaeo?ieica??a ieoii? aeo?aoe aia?a?? noaiiaeyoue: 0,2506 C?1U1 (C?2-C?1) U2 (Np3-Np2)U3 W=w1+w2+w3=----------(---------+------------------ + ---------------- ) (14) Np BN1 BN2 BN3 aea Np1,Np2,Np3,Np-nooi?iue ?aaaia?aoe?? NaIO4 a?aeiia?aeii ia 1,2,3 eaneaae? oa eiioeaaa, /anoeie iaeeieoe?, 13 0,2506 - oai?aoe/ia e?euee?noue aeaeo?eee, ui iaiao?aeia aeey io?eiaiiy 1ea NaIO4, ea/eA./. Oinoee ?icaeie i?enay/aii i?aeoe/iei ?acoeueoaoai. Aecia/aii aeiiae aei iniiaieo ia?aiao?ia aeaeo?ieico, yei aoei aeyaeaii ia iiaenoaai eiiaoe/ieo caeiiiii?iinoae: - aeaeo?ieic iaiaoiaeii aanoe eaneaaeii o aeaeieueea noaaeie, - oaiia?aoo?a aeaeo?ieico 318 -+5E, - iaiaoiaeii i?ioieaiiy eeaeo?ieioy 0.1-0.3 i/n. C iaoith ooi/iaiiy ia?aiao?ia aeaeo?ieico i?iaaaeaii aei?iaoaaiiy ia eaai?aoi?iiio aeaeo?ieica?i c aeiieneaenaeioeaaeie oeoaiiaeie aiiaeaie. Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe aeicaieeee ?ic?iaeoe eiino?oeoeith aeineiaeii-i?iieneiaiai aeaeo?ieica?o, i?iaeo yeiai aoei ia?aaeaii a Aea?aeaaiee iaoeiaee oeaio? eiea?nueeeo caniaia. Oai aea aoee i?iaaaeaii aeineiaeii-i?iieneiai aei?iaoaaiiy. Iniiaii iieacieee aeaeo?ieicy iaaaaeaii a oaae.6. Oaaeeoey 6. - Iniiai? iieacieee i?ioeano aeaeo?ie?co ia noaiaeiaiio aeaeo?ieeca?? c aeiieneaenaeioeaaeie oeoaiiaeie aiiaeaie Iieacieee Aeineiaeii aeai? i?e nooiai? ?aaaia?aoe??,% -------------------------------------------- 50 75 80 - 90 1.Iaaaioaaeaiiy ia aeaeo?ieica??, A 2.Aiiaeia aonoeia no?oio,A/i2 3.Iai?oaa ia aeaeo?ieica?i, A 4.Oaiia?aoo?a aeaeo?ieico,E 5.Ii/aoeiaa eiioeaio?aoeiy ?a/iaei,a/aei3 NaIO3 NaIO4 6.I?ioieaiiy aeaeo?ieioo,ni3// 7.Eiioeaaa eiioeaio?aoeiy ?a/iaei, a/aei3 NaIO3 NaIO4 8.Aeoiae ca no?oiii,% NaIO4 O2 9.Aeo?aoe aeaeo?iaia?aii ia 1 eAo/1ea NaIO4 39 800 6.0 313 104 2 168 56 14 50 60 40 2.5 24 600 5.2 313 56 50 350 37 69 48 52 2.7 15 500 4.6 313 37 69 430 23 83 38 62 3.2 C iaoith ia?aai?ee iiaeeeainoi aaaaoi?aciaiai aeei?enoaiiy ieenethaa/a o neioaci aeiaeueaeaa?aee?ioiaeth ayei 12 ?acia i?iaaaeaii aeineiaeaeaiiy aeei?enoaiiy ieenethaa/a.?acoeueoaoe iieacaee, ui cieaeaiiy oaoiieiai/ieo iieacieeia aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? i?e oeueiio ia niinoa?iaa?oueny. Aiaeic, i?iaaaeaiee ca iaoiaeii aenieiaoaeoeaii? ??aeeiii? o?iiaoia?aoi?, iieacaa, ui aeiiioie naeioeth a eiioeaaiio i?iaeoeoi ia ciaeaeaii. Io?eiaii ?acoeueoaoe noaa?aeaeaii aeoii aei?iaoaaiue aeineiaeii-i?iieneiaiai aeaeo?ieica?a oa aeei?enoaiiy ?acoeueoaoia ?iaioe a Aea?aeaaiiio iaoeiaiio oeaio?i eiea?nueeeo caniaia. Ia iiaenoaai aeineiaeaeaieo i?ioeania ?ic?iaeaii caieiaio noaio a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth: aiaei?aoeueiaaiee ieenethaa/ a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth (aiaeiee ?ic/ei eiaeaoy iao?y) iinooia? a aiiaeio eaia?o aeaeo?ieica?a oa ieeneth?oueny aei ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith (nooiaiue ieeneaiiy 80-90%). Io?eiaiee ?ic/ei, ui ia? eiioeaio?aoeith ~106 a/aei3 NaIO4, iinooia? y cai?iee ?aaaia?iaaiiai ?ic/eio, caiaeee oeaio?iaiaeiei ianinii iiaea?oueny o iaii?iee aae i ciiao iinooia? a oaoiieiai/io eiiith ae?iaieoeoaa aeiaeueaeaa?aee?ioiaeth. Niinia aaaaoi?aciai? aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? ?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiy o ae?iaieoeoaao neioaco aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth oa ieeneaiiy iioeo iieinaoa?eaeia. AENIIAEE 1.?ic?iaeaii oai?aoe/ii iniiae oa oaoiieiaith eeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith a ae?iaieoeoai aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth, yea caaacia/o? iaiaoiaeio /enoioo iaea?aeoaaieo i?iaeoeoia i?e aaaaoi?aciaie ?aaaia?aoei? aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith oa aeicaiey? noai?eoe caieiaio aacaiaeoiaeio ca ieenethaa/ai oaoiieiaith neioaco oeieueiaiai i?iaeoeoo. 2.Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeeainoue aaaaoi?aciai? ?aaaia?aoei? aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth aac cieaeaiiy oaoiieiai/ieo iieacieeia ye ia noaaei? aeaeo?ieicy, oae i a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth. 15 3. Aeiaaaeaii ia iiaenoaa? aeineiaeaeaiiy aieeao iaoa?iaey aiiaeia ia iieacieee aiiaeiiai i?ioeano ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia, ui I?OA iai?eaeaoii aeey oei?? iaoe. Iaeaeuee aeoiae ca 15 no?oiii io?eiaii ia ieaoeiiaeo aiiaeao. I?ioean ?aaeiciaaii ia oaoii/ii aeinooiieo iaoa?iaeao - aeiieneaenaeioeaai oeoaiiai aiiaee aeicaieythoue c i?eeiyoieie aeoiaeaie ca no?oiii i?e cia/iie noyiaii ?aaaia?aoei? ieenethaaoe iiie eoaeaoy aei ia?eiaeaoy. 4.Anoaiiaeaii, ui aeaeo?ioiii/iee i?ioean ieeneaiiy eiaeaoo iao?ith ia ieaoeiiaiio oa aeiieneaenaeioeaaiio oeoaiiaiio aiiaeao ia?aaiaa? ca ciioaiith eiiaoeeoth c oiiaieueiaieie noaaeiyie ia?aoiaeo eeaeo?iio oa aeeooci?. 5.Aecia/aii iniiaii oa?aeoa?enoeee eiiaoeee i?ioeano aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith - no?oi iaiiiy, eiaoioei?ioe a oa b, a?aie/ii aonoeie co?oio ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia. 6.Aia?oa anoaiiaeaii iioaineoieoth/o aeith aeiiioee oei?eae-iiiia ia i?ioean ieeneaiiy. Iaoaiici aieeao oei?eae-iiiia ia aiiaeiee i?ioean iieyaa? o oiio, ui oei?eae-iiie aaeni?aothoueny ia iiaa?oii aiiaeo, i?eeiathoue o/anoue o ?ic?yaei, a ooai?aiee oei? ?ic/eiy?oueny a ?iaeeii oa ieeneth? eiaeao-iiie. 7.Anoaiiaeaii, ui ii?enoi aeiao?aaie ia caaacia/othoue iaaeieia ?icaeieaiiy aiiaeieo oa eaoiaeieo ?ic/eiia, iaaioue i?e noai?aiii i?ioiey eeaeo?ieioo e?icue aeiao?aaio. Aeiaaaeaii, ui iaaeieia ?icaeieaiiy aiieioy oa eaoieioo caaacia/o? eaoiiiiiaiiiia iaia?aia oeio IO-4NE. 8. Aecia/aii iniiaii oaoiieiai/ii ia?aiao?e aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?o, yei ia?aaeaa/athoue: eaneaaeiee aeaeo?ieic, oaiia?aoo?ia iaiaaeaiiy (< 318 -+ 5E), i?ioieaiiy eeaeo?ieioy 0.1-0.3 i/n. Niinia aaaaoi?aciai? aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? i?ieoia aeineiaeio ia?aai?eo a Aea?aeaaiiio oeaio?i eiea?nueeeo caniaia i?e Aea?aeaaiiio eiiioaoi c iaaee/ii? oa iie?iaiieiai/ii? i?iieneiainoi, ?aeiiaiaeiaaiee aeey ai?iaaaeaeaiiy o ae?iaieoeoaao neioaco aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth oa ieeneaiiy iioeo iieinaoa?eaeia. Iniiai? iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe?? iioae?eiaai? a ?iaioao: 1.Ai?aa/aa A.E., Ooeueneee A.A., Neaainieoeeay A.A., Naieaae/ E.A. Aiiaeiua i?ioeannu ia ieaoeia i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia eiaeaoa iao?ey. // AEo?i. i?eee. oeiee.- 1998.- O.71, aui. 9.-N.1456-1461. Aaoi?ii anoaiiaeai? e?iaoe/i? caeiiii??iino? ieeneaiiy eiaeao-iiiia a caeaaeiino? a?ae oiia aeaeo?ieico, aecia/aiee aeo?ae ca no?oiii. 16 2.Ai?aa/aa A.E., Ooeueneee A.A.,NeaainieoeeayA.A.,Naieaae/ E.A., E?eaioay A.A. Iioeiecaoeey oneiaee yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ?aaaia?aoeee ?anoai?ia ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey. // Na. iao/i. o?. OAIO. “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea”- 1998. - Aui.6, /.3. - Oa?ueeia, OAIO. -N.64-66 Aaoi?ii cai?iiiiiaaia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue, ui aeicaiey? io?eiaoe oaoiieia?/i? iieacieee i?ioeano aeaeo?io?i?/ii? ?aaaia?aoe??. 3.Ai?aa/ea A.E.,Ooeueneee A.A.,Neaainieoeeay A.A., Naieaae/ E.A., Eoeeeiaa O.I. Aeeyiea eiiia oei?a ia eeiaoeeo aiiaeiuo i?ioeannia ia aeeieneaenaeioeiauo oeoaiiauo yeaeo?iaeao.// Aano. Oa?uee. iieeoaoi. oi-oa,- Oa?ueeia: OAIO.- 1998. - Aui. 18.-N.46-48. Aaoi?ii ?icaeyiooee aieea oei?eae-?ii?a ia e?iaoeeo aiiaeieo i?ioean?a o ?ic/eiao, ye? i?noyoue eiaeao- oa ia?eiaeao-?iie. Aoei anoaiiaeaii, ui iayai?noue oei?eae-?ii?a a iaaieo iaaeao i?aeaeuo? aeo?ae ca no?oiii ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith. 4.Neaainieoeeay A.A. Yeaeo?iaeiua i?ioeannu i?e yeaeo?ieeca aiaeieo ?anoai?ia eiaeaoa iao?ey ia aeeieneaenaeioeiauo oeoaiiauo aiiaeao. //Aano. Oa?uee.iieeoaoi.oi-oa.- Oa?ueeia:OAIO.- 1999.-Aui.39.-N.65-67. Aaoi?ii aeine?aeaeaia e?iaoeea aiiaeiiai i?ioeano ieeneaiiy eiaeao-?ii?a i?e iaeii/aniiio aeae?eaii? eenith ia ae?ieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiaeao a caeaaeiino? a?ae ni?aa?aeiioaiiy eiioeaio?aoe?e [IO-3]:[IO-4]. 5.Ai?aa/ea A.E.,Ooeueneee A.A.,Neaainieoeeay A.A., Naieaae/ E.A., Eoeeeiaa O.I. Aeeieneaenaeioeiaue oeoaiiaue aiiae, aiiaeiua i?ioeannu ia iai e aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey aeey yeaeo?ieeca eeneuo ?anoai?ia. //Aii?inu oeiee e oei. oaoiieiaee.- Aeiai?iiao?iane, OAeOOO.-1999.-N1.-N. 89-91. Aaoi?ii iieacaia iiaeeea?noue aeei?enoaiiy ae?ieneaenaeioeaaeo oeoaiiaeo aiiae?a o ?ic/eiao eiaeii? eeneioe oa ?? nieae. 6.Ai?aa/ea A.E.,Ooeueneee A.A.,Neaainieoeeay A.A., Naieaae/ E.A., Eoeeeiaa O.I. Aeeyiea ninoaaa yeaeo?ieeoa ia eeiaoeeo aiiaeiuo niaiauaiiuo ?aaeoeee a eeneuo n?aaeao. //Aii?inu oeiee e oei. oaoiieiaee.- Aeiai?iiao?iane, OAeOOO. -1999.-N1.-N.91-94. Aaoi?ii aea/ai? i?ioeane, ui iathoue i?noea i?e aeaeo?io?i?/i?e ?aaaia?aoe?? ?ic/ei?a ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith, aieea oei?eae-?ii?a, oa cai?iiiiiaaiee iaoai?ci noi?nieo i?ioean?a ia ieaoeiiaiio aiiae?. 7.Ai?aa/aa A.E., Ooeueneee A.A.,Neaainieoeeay A.A., Naieaae/ E.A. Eeiaoeea yeaeo?iaeiuo i?ioeannia ia aeeieneaenaeioeiauo oeoaiiauo aiiaeao a eeneuo n?aaeao. // O?oaeu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee: iaoea, oaoieea, oaoiieiaey, 17 ia?aciaaiea, caei?iauea.” -Oa?ueeia: OAIO.- 1997.-*anoue 4. -N.40-43. Aaoi? aeine?aeea e?iaoeeo ieeneaiiy eiaeao-?ii?a o aiaeieo ?ic/eiao, ui io?eiai? ye a?aeoiaee o neioac? aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth, a caeaaeiino? a?ae ai?noo eiaeao- oa ia?eiaeao-?ii?a i?e aonoei? no?oio 10-3000 A.i-2 oa oaiia?aoo?ao 293-333E. Cai?iiiiiaaiii ??aiyiiy, ui aeicaiey? iienaoe e?iaoeeo i?ioeano. AIIOAOeII Neaainieoeueea I.I. Aeaeo?ioiii/ia ?aaaia?aoeiy aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith o neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth.-?oeiien. Aeena?oaoeiy ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoii/ieo iaoe ca niaoeiaeueiinoth 05.17.03 - oaoii/ia aeaeo?ioiiiy, Oa?eianueeee aea?aeaaiee iieioaoii/iee oiiaa?neoao, Oa?eia, 1999. Aeena?oaoeiy i?enay/aia i?iaeaii noai?aiiy caieiaii? aacaiaeoiaeii? ca ieenethaa/ai oaoiieiai? a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth. C oei?th iaoith aea/aia eiiaoeea i?ioeania, ui ia?aaiaathoue ia aiiaei. Aecia/aii iniiaii oaoiieiai/ii ia?aiao?e aeaeo?ioiii/ii? ?aaaia?aoei? aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoo iao?o, yei ia?aaeaa/athoue: eaneaaeiee aeaeo?ieic, oaiia?aoo?ia iaiaaeaiiy (< 318-+ 5E), i?ioieaiiy eeaeo?ieioy 0.1-0.3 i/n. Aeiaaaeaii iiaeeeainoue aaaaoi?aciai? ?aaaia?aoei? ia?eiaeaoo iao?ith aac cieaeaiiy oaoiieiai/ieo iieacieeia ye ia noaaei? aeaeo?ieicy, oae i a neioaci aeiaeueaeaaiaee?ioiaeth. Niinia caaacia/o? iaiaoiaeio /enoioo iaea?aeoaaieo i?iaeoeoia i?e aaaaoi?aciaie ?aaaia?aoei? aiaeieo ?ic/eiia ia?eiaeaoy iao?ith oa aeicaiey? noai?eoe caieiaio aacaiaeoiaeio ca ieenethaa/ai oaoiieiaith neioaco oeieueiaiai i?iaeoeoo. Eeth/iai neiaa: aeaeo?io?i?/ia ?aaaia?aoe?y, ia?eiaeao iao?ith, ae?ieneaenaeioeaaee oeoaiiaee aiiae, eiiaoeea aiiaeiiai i?ioeano, eiiiooth/a noaaeiy. Slabospitskaya E.A. The electrochemical regeneration of sodium periodate liquid soluthions of in the dialdehidestarch syntethesis.-Manuscript. Thesis for a candidate,s degree by speciality 05.17.03- technical electrochemistry.- Kharkov State Polytecnical University, Kharkov,1998. The dissertation is devoted to the problem of the reserved wasteless oxidizer dialdehidestarch synthesis. The optimum technologocal conditions were brought a light as ones with some stages, everyone with the lowing current yields, temperature limitation (318 -+ 5K), the flowing of working solution with 0/1-0,3 ms velocity. It was evidented the electrochemical regeneration of sodium periodate liquid soluthions many times using is possible in the 18 dialdehidestarch syntethesis. The method of the electrochemical regeneration of sodium periodate liquid soluthions guaranteed the cleanness of product and alloyed to create the reserved wastless oxidizer dialdehidestarch syntethisis. 18 Key words: electrochemical regeneration, sodium periodate, anode with dioxide lead coating on titanium substrate, anode`s processes kinetics, limited stage. Neaainieoeeay A. A. Yeaeo?ioeie/aneay ?aaaia?aoeey aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey a neioaca aeeaeueaeaaeaee?aoiaea. -?oeiienue. Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea iao/iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 05.17.03 - oaoie/aneay yeaeo?ioeiey, Oa?ueeianeee ainoaea?noaaiiue iieeoaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999 a. Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia i?iaeaia nicaeaiey caieiooie aaciooiaeiie ii ieeneeoaeth oaoiieiaee a neioaca aeeaeueaeaaeaee?aoiaea. Aiaeec iaoiaeia iieo/aiey ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey iieacae, /oi iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiui yaeyaony yeaeo?ioeie/aneee iaoiae, iaeiaei, eeoa?aoo?iua aeaiiua ii yoiio aii?ino iinyo io?uai/iue oa?aeoa?. N oeaeueth ?ac?aaioee iao/iuo iniia yeaeo?ioeie/aneie ?aaaia?aoeee eco/aia eeiaoeea i?ioaeathueo ia aiiaea i?ioeannia, aeeyiea ia iaa oaeeo ia?aiao?ia eae noaiaiue ?aaaia?aoeee, oaiia?aoo?a, i?enoonoaea oei?eae-eiiia, ii?aaeaeaiu eeieoe?othuea noaaeee ?aaeoeee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiu ?acee/iuie iaoiaeaie enneaaeiaaiey. Aeey oai?aoe/aneiai iainiiaaiey i?ioeanna ?aaaia?aoeee ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey eniieueciaaee aeeaa?aiio Io?aa. Ii?aaeaeaii, /oi i?eaiaeiuie aeey yoiai i?ioeanna yaeythony ieaoeia e aeeieneaenaeioeiaua oeoaiiaua aiiaeu, ia I?OA aeinoeaaaony e?eoe/aneee iioaioeeae, e ii ?ac?ooaaony. Enneaaeiaaee noaoeeiia?iua oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeanna, i?yiie e ia?aoiue oiae e?eaie noiia?iie e ia?oeeaeueiie e?eauo ia?aciaaiey ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey. Eo aiaeec iieacae iaee/ea aenoa?acena eae ia ieaoeiiauo, oae e ia aeeieneaenaeioeiauo oeoaiiauo aiiaeao, /oi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i noiaeiii iaoaiecia i?ioaeaiey ?aaeoeee ia iiaa?oiinoe aiiaea n ia?aciaaieai neiy eenei?iaeiuo niaaeeiaiee. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia?aciaaiea ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey i?e ieceeo iioaioeeaeao au?aaeaaony i?yiieeiaeiie, a i?e aunieeo - eiaa?eoie/aneie caaeneiinoueth, i?e yoii aeinoeaathony i?aaeaeueiua ieioiinoe oiea ii ia?eiaeaoo iao?ey, a eeieoe?othueie noaaeeyie yaeythony yeaeo?ioeie/aneay e aeeoooceiiiua noaaeee. Eco/aiea iiey?ecaoeeiiiuo e?eauo aeey ?acee/iuo niioiioaiee [IO-3]:[IO-4] io 9:1 aei 1:9, iicaieeei ?ann/eoaoue iniiaiua iieacaoaee eeiaoeee 19 i?ioeanna e iieo/eoue eeiaoe/aneia o?aaiaiea i?ioeanna. Niaoaiiay eeiaoeea i?ioeanna auea iiaeoaa?aeaeaia aeaiiuie ia a?auathuainy aeeneiaii yeaeo?iaea. Caaeneiinoe auee iieo/aiu a aeeaiaciia ?I2-8, /oi iicaieeei ii?aaeaeeoue ii?yaeie paaeoeee. Eco/aii aeeyiea oaiia?aoo?u a i?aaeaeao 20-700 N a ?anoai?ao n niaea?aeaieai 50% eiaeao- e ia?eiaeao-eiiia e ii?aaeaeaii eae yeaeo?ioeie/aneia, oae e aeeoooceiiiia eeieoe?iaaiea i?ioeanna. Onoaiiaeaii eioaineoeoee?othuaa aeeyiea oei?eae-eiia ia i?ioeann ieeneaiey eiaeao-eiiia. I?aaeeiaeai iaoaieci aeeyiey oei?eae-eiiia, eioi?ue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi, aaeni?ae?oynue ia iiaa?oiinoe, oei?eae-eiiu i?eieiatho o/anoea a ?ac?yaea, a, ia?acothueeny oei? a ?anoai?a ?ac?yaeaaony e ieeneyao eiaeao-eiiu. Aeey iieo/aiey aunieeo auoiaeia ii oieo, iaiaoiaeeii iaaeaaeiia ?acaeaeaiea aiiaeiuo e eaoiaeiuo i?iaeoeoia. Auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ii?enoua aeeao?aaiu ia iaania/eaatho iaaeaaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey, a aai iaania/eaatho eaoeiiiiaiaiiua iaia?aiu oeia IO-4NE. Eniuoaiey aeeieneaenaeioeiauo oeoaiiauo aiiaeia i?e aiiaeiie iiey?ecaoeee 1000 A/i2 a oa/aiea 3000 / iieacaee aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey eo a i?ioeanna ieeneaiey io?aaioaiiuo a neioaca aeeaaeueaeaaeaee?aoiaea ?anoai?ia. Ia iniiaaiee oece/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee iieo/aii iaoaiaoe/aneia iienaiea i?ioeannia, iicaieythuaa ii?aaeaeyoue ?an/aoiui iooai iniiaiua iieacaoaee yeaeo?ieeca - iai?yaeaiea ia yeaeo?ieeca?a e auoiae ii oieo ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey i?e ?acee/iuo oneiaeyo i?iaaaeaiey yeaeo?ioeie/aneiai ieeneaiey. Aiaeec eeiaoeee i?ioaeathueo i?ioeannia iieacae, /oi aeey iaeaieaa iioeiaeueiiai ?aaeeia iieo/aiey ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey, i?ioeann iaiaoiaeeii aanoe a o?e noaaeee n iiieaeaieai ieioiinoe oiea io 0.8 ia ia?aie nooiaie eaneaaea aei 0.4-0.5 A/ni2 ia o?aoueae, ia iniiaaiee /aai aue ii?aaeaeai iioeiaeueiue oaoiieiae/aneee ?aaeaiaio e i?iaa?ai ia eaai?aoi?iii yeaeo?ieeca?a. Aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee auei i?iaa?aii iiiaie?aoiia eniieueciaaiea ?anoai?a ia?eiaeaoa iao?ey. Iieacaii, /oi iinea 12-e?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey ?anoai? ia iioa?ye naieo ?aai/eo ea/anoa a neioaca aeeaeueaeaaeaee?aoiaea. Aiaeec, i?iaaaeaiiue iaoiaeii aunieiyooaeoeaiie aeeaeeinoiie o?iiaoia?aoee, iieacae, /oi i?eianae naeioea a eiia/iii i?iaeoeoa ia iaia?oaeaii. Iieiaeeoaeueiua ?acoeueoaou iicaieeee nicaeaoue caieioooth aaciooiaeioth ii ieeneeoaeth oaoiieiaeth neioaca aeeaeueaeaaeae?aoiaea. Eeth/aaua neiaa: yeaeo?ioeie/aneay ?aaaia?aoeey, ia?eiaeao iao?ey, aeeieneaenaeioeiaue oeoaiiaue aiiae, eeiaoeea aiiaeiiai i?ioeanna, eeieoe?othuay noaaeey. PAGE PAGE 21 PAGE PAGE 21 PAGE \# "'No?: '#'

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