Екзистенційний характер української філософської думки як відображення специфіки національної ментальності: Автореф. дис… д-ра філос. наук / Н.А. Ми

EUeA?ANUeEEE AeA?AEAAIEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?i. ?. O?AIEA

IEOAEEIANUeEA

Iaoae?y Aiaoie??aia

OAeE 10 (09) (47.71) + 141. 001. 32

AECENOAIOe?EIEE OA?AEOA?

OE?A?INUeEI? O?EINIONUeEI? AeOIEE

ssE A?AeIA?AAEAIIss NIAOeEO?EE IAOe?IIAEUeII? IAIOAEUeIINO?

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 09.00.05 — ?noi??y o?einio??

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe

Euea?a – 1998

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oi?aa?neoao? ?i. ?.O?aiea

(Eaoaae?a ?noi??? o?einio??)

Iaoeiaee eiinoeueoaio — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Iaooe
Aiae??e ?aaiiae/, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e ?noi??? o?einio?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i ?. O?aiea.

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe:

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Ae/ei ?ai? Aaeaioeiiae/,
Ee?anueeee oi?aa?neoao ?i. Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, i?ioani? eaoaae?e ?noi???
o?einio??;

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Aey/aiei Ieeiea Aaneeueiae/,
Oa?e?anueea aea?aeaaia aeaaeai?y eoeueoo?e, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
o?einio?? oa iie?oieia??;

— aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani? Eaooaa Ia??y Aanee?aia,
Euea?anueeee aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i ?. O?aiea, caa?aeoaa/ eaoaae?e
oai??? oa ?noi??? eoeueoo?e.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa —

Oeaio? aoiai?oa?ii? ina?oe Iaoe?iiaeueii? Aeaaeai?? Iaoe Oe?a?ie

(i. Ee?a).

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “16” a?oaeiy 1998 ?. i 15 aiae. ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae 35.051.02 o Euea?anueeiio aea?aeaaiiio
oi?aa?neoao? ?i ?. O?aiea (290602, i. Euea?a, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i ?. O?aiea (290005, i. Euea?a, aoe.
Ae?aaiiaiiaa, 5).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “14” eenoiiaaea 1998 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Aeaienaiei A.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nueiaiaei? iniaeeaee aeey Oe?a?ie
/an — a?ae?iaeaeaiiy iiae, eoeueoo?e, oi?ioaaiiy aea?aeaaiino? ia
o?aaeeoe?eieo canaaeao o?enoeyinueei? a??e, eiee i?aaiooue a?aeiaeoe
ni?aaaei? oe?iiino?, inyaiooe ?noeio, aecia/eoe iaa?no?aeueiee iai?yiie
iiooe?a ? ae??. O aaeoc? nooae?thaaiiy ?noi??? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei?
o?einionueei? aeoiee iinoa? caaaeaiiy a?aeiiaeoe noi??iee, niioai?ai?
aai aee?aneai? ca /an?a aacaea?aeaaiiai ?nioaaiiy, eiioi?noe/ii?
aeeeoaoo?e. I?iiiiiaaia ?iaioa ? ni?iaith aeinyaiooe aaaeaio aa?iii?th o
a?aeia?aaeaii? ?icaeoeo o?einionueei? aeoiee a Oe?a?i? ia a?oio? Neiaa
Aiaeiai, ui iei? iiaa?ioeinue aei ian. O ca’yceo c oeei ?nio? i?iaeaia
aecia/aiiy ni?aa?aeiioaiiy a??e ? ?icoio, ?ae?a?? oa iaoee, yea
aeeneoooaaeanue oi?iaeiaae an??? ?noi??? aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo ethaenoaa.
Aaaaoi i?eoeeueiee?a ia? iiaeyae, yeee caia?a/o?
o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eio o?einio?th ? i?iiiio? /eoa/ai ia?aoe aai
a??o c ?? iacaaaiaii?noth aeey ?icoio, aai o?einio?th c ?? iai/i?noth oa
caaaeueiii?eeiyoeie iiiyooyie. I?ioa oe?a?inueea o?einionueea aeoiea,
yea a aieiaieo nai?o aeyaao i?iaeiaaeo? ?a?iiaenueeo aecenoaioe?eio
o?aaeeoe?th a?ae A. Ianeaey ? N. E’??eaai?a, nie?a?oueny ia a?ae?eia
oaa?aeaeaiiy i?i ?nioaaiiy o?einio?? “ca ia?aaeaiiyie ethaenueeeie, ca
noeo?yie na?oo”, oa i?ioeeaaeii? — ca O?enoii [Eie. 2 : 8]. Iaaea?ia N.
E’??eaai? ieoa, ui a?i — ia o?einio, a i?iiia?aeiee, a A. Neiai?iaea
iaceaa? naaa “ethaeoaeai Nayuaiii? A?ae??”. A?eueoa oiai, aeo?aeia
iieiaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee a?oioo?oueny
aaciina?aaeiuei ia aecia/aii?: o?einio?y — oea ethaia aei ioae?ino?.
Inoeiia ioae??noue ? Aia. Ioaea, o?einio?y — ethaia aei Aiaa. I?ioyaii
noie?oue Nayoa Ienueii ye iiaooi? aeaea?aei ?noeie iaaeeoaei
oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoae?a ia oai?aiiy aeii?ioth/iai oeio a?o/eciyiiai
o?einiooaaiiy. I?aee?anethth/e oea, I. Eoe?o ienaa, ui iaoa o?einio?y
“acyoa” i?yi?n?iueei c ?aaiaae??.

C iaeyaeo ia cacia/aia aieiaia oe?ii?noue ?iaioe iieyaa? o i?iaaaeaii?
aiae?co o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eii? o?einionueei? aeoiee o oai?ao
aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a ? ienueiaiiee?a XVIII — XIX no.

Aeooaeueiinoue aeineiaeaeaiiy aecenoaioeieiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei?
oieinionueei? aeoiee ye aiaeia?aaeaiiy niaoeeoiee iaoeiiiaeueii?
iaioaeueiinoi aecia/a?oueny oaeiae ieceith ianooiieo iiiaio?a:

— I?iaaaeaiiyi aiae?co a?o/eciyii? o?einio?? ia iniia? aeei?enoaiiy
iaioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo, cai?iiiiiaaiiai o?aioeocueeeie a/aieie I.Aeieii,
O.A?iaeaeai, E.Oaa?ii, AE. Ea Aiooii a ?noi?e/ieo nooae?yo.

— Iaa?oiooaaiiyi iaiao?aeiino? iiaa?iaiiy aei o?aaeeoe?eiiai,
o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? i?ney
aeiaaio?eaaeiai ia??iaeo ao?aoe ei?aeioeaio?ecio ye neeaaeiai?
oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiino? iai?ee?ioe? O?O — ii/aoeo OO no. o ca’yceo ?c
nooe?eueiei ianooiii iaoa??ae?cio a ?a?ii?.

— ?ice?eooyi niaoeeo?ee aeacaiiai oeio oieiniooaaiiy o oaoiaeo i?aoeyo a
Oe?a?ii XVIII-XIX no., a?aeia?aaeaiiyi aecenoaioeieii-oieinionueei?
aeoiee, ?ai?acaioiaaii? o aio/eciyieo eioa?aoo?ieo oai?ao ii/aoeo —
na?aaeeie XX no., caai?iiaieo ca /ania ?aaeyinueei? aeaaee. Iniaeeaiai
cia/aiiy iiaeiaiee aiaeic iaaoaa? iei?, eiee aecenoaioeieia
oieiniooaaiiy a?aeiiaeth? na?e ?icaeoie, aenooiath/e i?iaeoeoii
iioaa?aoei? eioa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiai i oieinionueeiai ieneaiiy.

Aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy aeey noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaiinoi
ia? oa, ui i?iaaaeaii iiooee aeaee ciiao iieacaoe ia oieueee niaoeeoieo
oe?a?inueeiai aecenoaioeiaeicio, a e iaeaaeiee naioiaee ?iaaiue
oe?a?inueei? oieinioi?, yea c?inoaea a eioa?aoo?iie oai?/inoi. O nai?e
niaaeueii, a?aeoai?thth/e aecenoaioeiei?-iaaeia? neooaoei?, aio/eciyii
ienueiaiieee A.Aeiie/aiei, A.Iiaeiiaeeueiee, I.Oaeeueiaee, O.Inueia/ea
oa iioi iieacaee, ui oaea aeeooy aac ai?e, aac Aiaa, aac Aaoueeiaueie,
ia?aaeaee o?aaici, ii?iaeaeaiee aioo?ioiuei-ineoieiai/ieie
noia?a/iinoyie aeeooy inia, a oaeiae i?ioenoaaeaiiyi nioeiaeueiiai e
iiaeeaiaeoaeueiiai aoooy ethaeae a aeaoeeaeo oiiaao aacaea?aeaaiinoi,
oioaeioa?ecio, eiioiicio a Oe?a?ii. Iaeiei c ianeiaeeia
eioa?aoo?ii-oieinionueeiai aiaeico oaeiai nioeiaeueii-iieioe/iiai,
aeooiaiiai noaiiaeua a e?a?ii aoei iaiaaaiiy ?ica’ycaoe aecenoaioeieii
i?iaeaie nooiinoi oa inioaaiiy o oi?ii aioeoac i ia?aaeienia.
?icai?oath/e aeaia i?ioenoaaeaiiy a ?icieo ?icoeiao — aoooy i iaaoooy,
iiciaiiy i ?icoiiiiy — aeena?oaiio iieaco?, ye oe?a?inueei oieiniooth/i
ienueiaiieee aiaeia?aceee o?aaici inioaaiiy ethaeeie a oiai/aniiio
noniieuenoai e iacaeaaeii aiae nai?o iiaeeeainoae, aaaeaiue, iaoe —
o?aaici aoooy iniae aac Aiaa ia ii/aoeo XX no. A?aaeath/ei oiiaeii
oaeiai aeeooy, eoeueiiiaoei?th, oa?aeoa?iith aeey aaaaoueio
aeineiaeaeaieo oai?ia, noa? naiiaoanoai, aiaeaaieey aai nia?oue aa?i?a,
yei ia aeinyaee aioo?ioiuei? aa?iiii?, ie?o c Aiaii i caeii/eee
ai?ioueao, ia ?ica’ycaaoe eiioeieoe. Iiaeiaiee aiaeic aecenoaioeieieo
?aaeie, caeieniaiee a ?iciiiaiioieo eioa?aoo?ieo aeai?ao, ia? aaaeeeaa
cia/aiiy aeey aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo iniae a iao e?eciaee /an.

I?iaaaeaia ?iaioa aeyaeea iaaecae/aeii ia?niaeoeae i iainyaeii
iiaeeeainoi aiaee?eooia o aecia/aiiio iiooeiaiio i?inoi??.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? neeaaeiaith /anoeiith ieaiiai? oaie «?noi??y
o?einionueei? aeoiee a Oe?a?i?» iaae yeith i?aoeth? i?ae ea??aieoeoaii
i?ioani?a A.Iaooea eieaeoea eaoaae?e ?noi??? o?einio?? Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?i. ?. O?aiea, a oaeiae aaciina?aaeiuei
iia’ycaia c iaoeiaeie ?ic?iaeaie i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy aeooiaiiai na?oo
iniae a no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e aea?aeaa? (eaoaae?a o?einio?? OAeOOAA).

Noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie. O aio/eciyieo oaoiaeo i?aoeyo i?iaeaia
aecenoaioeieiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? oieinionueei? aeoiee ia a?oioi
aeineiaeaeaiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi ia ?icaeyaeaeanue. I?ioa
inoaii?i /anii c’yaeeeny oe?eaa? aeine?aeaeaiiy c ?noi?eei-o?einionueei?
i?iaeaiaoeee (I.Ae/ea, A.Ai?nueeiai, I.Aoca?, ?.Caoa?e, I.Eaooae,
A.Iaooea, A.Oaaa/eianueeiai). Ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie ?icii aniaeoe inoi?i?
aio/eciyii? oieinioi? i?aaaeeai aiaeoai?thaaee Ae.Eicie,
I.Eoeue/eoeueeee, I.Ii?/oe, Ae.*eaeaanueeee, I.Oeaieaae/. O ?o nooaeiyo
i?enooiy aeoiea i?i aecenoaioeieii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iee oa?aeoa?
aio/eciyiiai oieiniooaaiiy, i?ioa iaia? eiioeaiooaeueii? ea?oeie
?icaeoeo. Oea iiynith?oueny oei, ui aiaeia?aaeaiiy aeooi e aeooo iaoei?
a iaoie eoeueoo?i aiaeaoaaeinue iacaeaaeii aiae nooaeithaaiiy nooi
oieinionueeeo ieoaiue. Caaaeaiiy iieyaaei a ii?aeiaiii oeeo ia?aiia,
aianaii aeeooy iaoeiiiaeueiiai aeooo aeey noai?aiiy oeieinii?,
aa?iiiieii? ea?oeie ?icaeoeo oieinioi?, a?aoiaoth/e ?? oa?aeoa?, yeee ?
oi?iith aiaeia?aaeaiiy aeooo i aeooi. Aiaeiii ie?aii i?aoei, i?enay/aii
aeineiaeaeaiith aeooiaiinoi, aoiiineoieiai? oe?a?ioeia, yei ca iaaieo
i?e/ei aoee iaienaii ca iaaeaie Aaoueeiaueie. Naie aianie o ?icaeoie
oeueiai ieoaiiy c?iaeee Ae.Aeiioeia, A.Eiyaeeinueeee, TH.Eeia, I.Ii?/oe,
TH.?onia, I.Oeaieaae/, N.ss?ionue, A.ssiia. ?o i?aoei noaee a?oioii, ia
yeiio aeieeea iaeay “aii?yaeeoaaoe” ni?eeiyooy aio/eciyiiai
oieiniooaaiiy ia canaaeao aeineiaeaeaiiy oe?a?inueei? iaioaeueiinoi.

Ieoaiiy aecia/aiiy i oa?aeoa?enoeee iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi a iao
/an aeeneoooaaeinue o ?iaioao I.Ae/ea, A.Ae/ei, A.Aaneeue?aa, E.Aaiaeue,
ss.Aa?aneia, A.Aei?ioeaae/, I.Noa?iaieo, A.O?aiiai?. Niieueiei iiiaioii
iiaeyaeia aio/eciyieo a/aieo ? aeoeaiooaaiiy ca’yceia aeaiiai iiiyooy c
iiiyooyi aeooi ia?iaeo oa ?? neeaaeiaeie: ineoi/ieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie,
aieath, ?icoiii. Aii?yaeeoaaoe i nenoaiaoecoaaoe ani oyaeaiiy aea? ciiao
aiaeic aeaea?ae eiai aeieeiaiiy, ui caeienith?oueny a aeena?oaoei?.
Io?eiaii a oaeee niinia oa?aeoa?enoeee oe?a?inueei? iaoeiiiaeueii?
iaioaeueiinoi aeania i iiaeoaa?aeaeothoue ?? aecia/aeueio ?ieue o
oi?ioaaiii aeiiiioth/iai oa?aeoa?o aio/eciyiiai oieiniooaaiiy.

Iaeii/anii c aea/aiiyi oieinionueei-e?eoe/ieo i?aoeue, ia?oiaeaea?ae c
inoi?i? oieinioi?, aeieeea iaiaoiaeiinoue i?iaanoe aiaeic
eioa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ieo aeaea?ae oa ooaeiaeiuei-oieinionueeeo oai?ia.
Aeaiaioe oieinionueeiai aiaeico a eioa?aoo?iie e?eoeoei, yei caoeieaaeee
aaoi?a, cono?i/athoueny a no/anieo a/aieo i aeineiaeieeia ii/aoeo —
na?aaeeie XX no. E.Aieaoeueeiai, TH.Aieea, Ae.Ao/einueeiai, A.Aii/a?ee
(Nieiaae), Ae.Aeiioeiaa, N.?o?aiiaa, I.Ca?iaa, A.Eiyaeeinueeiai,
A.Einothea, Ae.Eiciy, TH.Eaa?iiaiea, N.Iaeaithea, N.Iaaee/ei, A.Iethua,
TH.Oa?aoa, A.ssiiaa. Iciaeiieaiiy c i?aoeyie aaoi?ia, a oaeiae
caeieniaiiy a?oioiaiiai aiaeico niaaeueie aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo
ienueiaiieeia aeicaieeei ?icoe?eoe iaaei iiooeia i noai?eoe oeieinio
ea?oeio aecenoaioeieiiai oieiniooaaiiy a Oe?a?ii, yea aeyaeei nooiinoue
cia/iith ii?ith /a?ac eioa?aoo?io oai?/inoue. Oea iiaeoaa?aeeei
iiaeiaiinoue aiaeiiaiaeieo i?ioeania ?icaeoeo naioiai? oa oe?a?inueei?
aecenoaioeieii? oieinionueei? aeoiee.

Iciaeiieaoenue ic inioth/eie iaoa??aeaie, ye? oi?eathoueny ie?aieo
ieoaiue iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie, aeena?oaio ea?oaaeany ianoaiiaith, ui
aecenoaioeieia oieinioiy ? eeoa oai, aea ca ia? ai?thoueny (E.ssnia?n).
Oea aeineiaeaeaiiy — ni?iaa aeaeieeoe eaiioanaioeith oe?a?inueei?
oieinioi? a inoi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo, onaiaeiieoe ?? naioiao cia/eiinoue i
aiaeii/an niaoeeoieo, coiiaeaio iaoeiiiaeueiith iaioaeueiinoth.

Iaoa i caaaeaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy. Iaoa aeineiaeaeaiiy iieyaaea o
?ice?eoo? eiioeaioe?? aecenoaioeieiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei?
oieinionueei? aeoiee a ?? ?noi?e/iiio ?icaeoeo ia a?oioi inyaiaiiy
Nayoiai Ienueia e iniaeeainoae iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi.

Aeey caeieniaiiy caaeoio aoee aenoiooi ianooiii caaaeaiiy:

— aecia/eoe iinoea oe?a?inueei? aecenoaioeieii? oieinionueei? aeoiee a
eiioaenoi naioiai? oieinioi?;

— aiaeia?aceoe iaaecae/aeio ?ieue o?enoeyinoaa a aeeooi i oieiniooaaiii
oe?a?ioeia;

— ?ice?eoe oa?aeoa? i iniaeeainoi iiiyooy oe?a?inueei? iaoeiiiaeueii?
iaioaeueiinoi;

— i?aeoe/ii i oai?aoe/ii aeiaanoe, ui iaoeiiiaeueia iaioaeueiinoue
coiiaeth? aeiiiioaaiiy aecenoaioeieiiai oeio aio/eciyiiai oieiniooaaiiy;

— i?iaiaeicoaaoe aeya iniaeeainoae iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi o oai?ao
aeaeaoieo aio/eciyieo ieneeoaeia;

— aeineiaeeoe ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei? oieinionueei? aeoiee a eioa?aoo?iie
oai?/inoi oa ?ice?eoe ia a?oioi aiaeico ia?oiaeaea?ae eiioeaioeith
aecenoaioeieiiai oa?aeoa?o iaoeiiiaeueii? oieinioi?;

— ia iiaenoaai caaaeaiiai ?icaeyiooe aieiaii aecenoaioeiaee oa ?o aieea
ia i?ioean aeooiaiiai aiae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?ii.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoei? iieyaa? a eiioeaiooaeueiie iinoaiiaoei e
oai?aoe/iiio aiaeici ieoaiue, iia’ycaieo c aiaeiiaeaiiyi inoi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo i inyaiaiiyi aeeaeiiiai naino aio/eciyii? oieinionueei? aeoiee,
a naia:

— aeyaeaiii niaoeeoi/ieo iniaeeainoae oe?a?inueeiai aecenoaioeieiiai
oieiniooaaiiy;

— ?ice?eooi aeooo i oa?aeoa?o iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi ye iaeii?? c
aieiaieo canaae aeiiiioaaiiy aecenoaioeieiiai oeio oieiniooaaiiy caniaii
aiaeico “iao?eoei iaioaeueiinoae” i aiaeiiaiaeieo i?iyaia o oai?/inoi
oieiniooth/eo aio/eciyieo ieneeoaeia;

— e?eoe/iiio aeya? iaaaoeaiiai aieeao aoa?noe/ii-iaoa?iaeinoe/iiai
naioiaeyaeo ia ?icaeoie iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi oa oieiniooaaiiy;

— aecia/aiii oa nenoaiaoecaoei? aieiaieo iiiyoue c aeaii? i?iaeaie;

— i?iaaaeaiii ii?iaiyeueiiai aiaeico iiaeyaeia aeaeaoieo i?aaenoaaieeia
naioiai? oa oe?a?inueei? aecenoaioeieii? oieinionueei? aeoiee;

— aiaeici aeaeieaieo iioeaia i oa?aeoa?enoe/ieo iciae aecenoaioeieiiai
oieiniooaaiiy aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoaeia XYIII-XIX no.;

— aiaeia?aaeaiii ?icaeoeo aecenoaioeieiiai oieiniooaaiiy ia a?oioi
aea/aiiy iaoeiiiaeueii? iaioaeueiinoi o niaaeueii oe?a?inueeeo “aeooiaeo
aaii?a” XIX-ii/aoeo XX no. (O.Oaa/aiea, Eani Oe?a?iee, I.O?aiea,
A.Noaoaieea);

— ?ice?eoo? oa iaa?oiooaaii? ?nioaaiiy aecnoaioeiaeicio ye oieinionueei?
oa/i? a oe?a?inueeie eioa?aoo?i 20-50 ?ieia XX no. ia iiaenoaai aiaeico
niaaeueie aio/eciyieo ienueiaiieeia (A.Aeiie/aiea, A.Iiaeiiaeeueiiai,
I.Oaeeueiaiai, O.Inueia/ee);

— aeae?eaii? canaae aiae?iaeaeaiiy aecenoaioeieiiai ieneaiiy a Oe?a?ii
ye aeaiaioo aeooiaiiai aiae?iaeaeaiiy iaoei?.

Iaoiaeieiai/ia i oai?aoe/ia iniiaa, aeaea?aeueia aaca aeineiaeaeaiiy.
Aiaeic aecenoaioeieiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? oieinionueei? aeoiee a
?iaio? a?oioo?oueny ia Nayoiio Ienueii ye aeaea?aei aeeooy e inoeie.

A iaoiaeieiai/iiio aia?aoi aeena?oaoei? oiao?othoue i?eioeeie
ia’?eoeaiinoi oa inoi?ecio ye caaaeueii iaoiaeieiai/ii canaaee iaoeiaiai
iiciaiiy. Aeei?enoaii oaei iaoiaee oai?aoe/iiai aeineiaeaeaiiy ye
aiaeic, neioac, ii?iaiyiiy, nenoaiaoecaoeiy, ocaaaeueiaiiy.

Niaoeeoiea ia’?eoa aeineiaeaeaiiy coiiaeea iaiaoiaeiinoue ia?iaee
oe?ieiai eiea iaaeineiaeaeaieo i iaeiaiaeiieo oai?aoeei-oieinionueeeo,
eioa?aoo?ii-e?eoe/ieo oa eioa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiio aeaea?ae, aeaeaieo a
eieeoiueiio N?N?, ca iaaeaie Oe?a?ie, a oiio /enei caai?iiaieo ca /ania
?aaeyinueei? aeaaee.

Oai?aoe/ia i i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoei?. I?iaaaeaia aeineiaeaeaiiy
?ice?eaa? i eiie?aoeco? aecenoaioeieiee oa?aeoa? oe?a?inueei?
oieinionueei? aeoiee. Aeena?oaio iaiaaaeany noai?eoe ia’?eoeaio ea?oeio
inoi?i? ?icaeoeo aio/eciyiiai oieiniooaaiiy c iiceoeie ieneaiiy eiioey
XX no. Aiaeic iinoaaeaieo i?iaeai aeaa ciiao aiae/ooe i?e?iaeo
oe?a?inueei? aeooiaii? eoeueoo?e i oieinioi?, aeyaeoe ?? aeeaeiio
nooiinoue, iioaioeieii iiaeeeainoi, ia?niaeoeae ?icaeoeo.

?acoeueoaoe ?iaioe iiaeooue oe?iei canoiniaoaaoenue o iaa/aeueiiio
i?ioeani, iaoeiaeo aeineiaeaeaiiyo c inoi?i? oe?a?inueei? oieinioi?,
eioa?aoo?e, i?e aea/aiii, aiaeici oa i?iaiicoaaiii aeooiaiiai ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaae i iaoei?.

Cia/ia /anoeia iaoa??aeo aeei?enoaia i?ae /an i?iaaaeaiiy eaeoe?eieo oa
nai?ia?nueeeo caiyoue o OAeOOAA.

Ai?iaaoeiy ?acoeueoao?a. Aieiaii iieiaeaiiy ?iaioe ciaeoee
aiaeia?aaeaiiy a iiiia?aoi? “O?aai/ii iioeiinoe: Aecenoaioeieia
oieiniooaaiiy a oe?a?inueeie eioa?aoo?i XIX- ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no.”, a
oaeiae iioeo ioaeieaoeiyo aaoi?a.

Ie?aii ieoaiiy aeineiaeaeaiiy iaaiai?thaaeenue ia ?aaiiiaeueieo oa
iaeanieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioeiyo: “Eoeueoo?a i ia?aaoaeiaa. Aeiaeaeoeea
aeooiaieo i?ioeania” (Eueaia, 1990); “Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: ieioea i
no/aniinoue” (Oa?eia, 1996); oieinionueei-iaoiaeieiai/ieo /eoaiiyo IOEIN
(Eueaia, 1996, 1997); iaoeiai-iaoiaee/ieo eiioa?aioeiyo (Oa?eia —
OAeOOAA, 1996, 1997); iiaeia?iaeiiio iaoeiaiio naiiia?i “A?iiaaeyinueea
noniieuenoai ye aeya naiaiaee: oeaio?aeueii-noiaeii?a?iiaenueeee
aeinaiae” (Eueaia, 1997).

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe.

Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny ?c anooio, i’yoe ?icae?e?a, a oaeiae
aeniiae?a, a yeeo aeeeaaeaii ocaaaeueithth/? iiiaioe. Ie?aneaii iai?yiee
? ia?niaeoeae iiaeaeueoi? ?ic?iaee i?iaeaie. Ianya ?oeiieno aeena?oaoe??
noaiiaeoue 356 noi??iie eiii’thoa?iiai iaai?o, ia aeeth/ath/e nienie
e?oa?aoo?e, yeee neeaaea?oueny c 256 aeaea?ae.

INIIAIEE CIINO AeENA?OAOeI?

O anooi? iaa?oioiao?oueny aea?? oaie, aeooaeuei?noue, ?ice?eaa?oueny
noai iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, aaoi?nueeee i?aeo?ae aei ?? ?ica’ycaiiy,
aecia/athoueny iaoa ? caaaeaiiy ?iaioe, aeacothoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? ?
oai?aoe/i? iniiae aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iaaieioaii iaoeiao iiaecio ?ic?iaeaii?
aeena?oaioii eiioeaioe?? oa iieiaeaiue, ui ?? eiie?aoecothoue oa
aeiinyoueny ia caoeno, i?aee?aneaii oai?aoe/io oa i?aeoe/io oe?ii?noue
io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iaoa ia?oiai ?icae?eo — “?a?iiaenueea aecenoaioe?eii-o?einionueea aeoiea
oa iniaeeaino? oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?” -iieacaoe, ui
aecenoaioe?eia ieneaiiy — a?aeia?aaeaiiy anacaaaeueiiai aecenoaioe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o ethaenueeiai aoooy, a i?aeeiaeaey ? aeaea?aei
aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iiai oeio oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee
— iaoe?iiaeueia iaioaeuei?noue.

Aenoiooa caaaeaiiy aeeiioaaeinue oeyoii i?iaaaeaiiy ii??aiyeueiiai
aiae?co oai?/ino? aeaeaoieo i?aaenoaaiee?a na?oiai? oa oe?a?inueei?
aecenoaioe?eii? o?einionueei? aeoiee ? ?icai?oaiiy ia oiio oe? oe?e?nii?
ea?oeie ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? (“Aecenoaioe?ae?ci oa aecenoaioe?eia ieneaiiy:
nooi?noue oa iniiai? iiiyooy”) aiae?cothoueny nooi?ni? canaaee ?icaeoeo
aecenoaioe?eiiai oeio o?einiooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. Aa?o/e aei oaaae oyaeaiiy
i?i o?e?aeei?noue iaoe??, yea neeaaea?oueny c aeooo, aeoo? ? o?ea, aaoi?
aeine?aeaeo? aeooiaio neeaaeiao, a?oioiaaio ia o?enoeyinuee?e a??? oa
iiiyoo? aeoo?, yea a oe?a?ioe?a /anoi ioioiaeith?oueny c iaoe?iiaeueiith
iaioaeuei?noth. A oaeee niin?a iaaieioo?oueny ?nioaaiiy aeaio aieiaieo
aeoie?a ?icaeoeo aecenoaioe?eiiai oeio o?einiooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? a?ae
iaeaeaai?oeo /an?a — Nayoiai Ienueia ? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?. A
naith /a?ao, aeaiaio o?enoeyinueei? a??e /anoi noaiiaeoue neeaaeiao
iiiyooy iaioaeueiino?. I?ioa aaaaea?ii ca aeioe?eueia iaaieineoe ia
iacaeaaeiino? aeaiiai aeaea?aea (Nayoiai Ienueia) c iaeyaeo ia eiai
aenieee aeooiaiee ci?no ? caaaeueiiethaenueeee oa?aeoa?. I?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c iiiyooy iaoaeueiino? aea? ciiao ae?noaoenue aeniiaeo, ui
iaoe?iiaeueia iaioaeuei?noue oi?io?oueny i?ae ae??th ?yaeo
nioe?aeueii-eoeueoo?ieo oaeoi??a. Canoinoaaiiy iaioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo a
aeena?oaoe?? ? i?aenoaaith aeine?aeaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee aieeao aeeaeiieo
ineo?/ieo, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo, aieueiaeo /eiiee?a aoiino ia oa?aeoa?
oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee.

Aiaeii/an ?c caaaeueiith oa?aeoa?enoeeith aecenoaioe?ae?cio ye
o?einionueeiai a/aiiy a ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? i?iaaaeaia aeeoa?aioe?aoe?y
iiiyoue aecenoaioe?eia ieneaiiy, aecenoaioe?eia ioae??noue,
aecenoaioe?ae?ci, aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy. Cie?aia, i?ae
aecenoaioe?eiei o?einiooaaiiyi i?iiiio?oueny ?icoi?oe oai?/ee aiae?c
o?einionueeeo i?iaeai aoooy ethaeeie a “iaaeiaeo” aeeoo?aeo neooaoe?yo,
yeee a?aeoai?th? o?aa?/iee noai iniae, noni?eueii? a?oie aai
noni?euenoaa caaaeii ? aie?nii ooea? aeaea?aea “aeoiaeo” c i?iaeaie.
?ice?eaath/e cia/aiiy aeaiiai iiiyooy a aeine?aeaeaii?, aeena?oaio
iieaco?, ui aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy XVIII — XIX no. a Oe?a?i?, ye ?
a ?a?ii? aenooia? ia?aaeoiiaith aecenoaioe?ae?cio OO no. Aiii aeanoeaa
oai?/ino? iaeaeaeaoi?oeo oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoae?a: A. Neiai?iaee, I.
Eoe?oa,

I. TH?eaae/a, I. Aiaiey, O. Oaa/aiea, Ean? Oe?a?iee, I. O?aiea, ui
cana?ae/o? aiae?c ?o niaaeueie. C iaeyaeo ia ?noi??th i?iaeaie, a
ianooiieo i?ae?icae?eao cai?iiiiiaaii ?icaeyiooe o?e ia??iaee ?icaeoeo
aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy ye? caaa?oothoueny noai?aiiyi
aecenoaioe?eii? o?einio?? ye a/aiiy. Ii??aiyeueiee aiae?c o?einionueeeo
iiaeyae?a ia aeae?eaieo /aniaeo i?ii?aeeao aea? ciiao anoaiiaeoe
iiae?ai?noue aecenoaioe?eieo ?aeae a Oe?a?i? oa ?a?ii?.

Oa?aeoa?enoe/i? iiiaioe aecenoaioe?eii-o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy ia?oiai
aeae?eaiiai ia??iaeo ?ice?eaathoueny ia a?oio? a/aiue A. Ianeaey — A.
Neiai?iaee (i?ae?icae?e “Niaoeeo?ea aecenoaioe?eiiai ieneaiiy XVIII — XX
no.”). Aeo?aeia ?aeay — ciaoiaeaeaiiy ieneeoaeyie aa?iii?? /a?ac a??o.
Aeoeaiooaaiiy oai?/iai iioiaeaeaiiy na?oo ? iaiao?aeiino? ni?eeoaaiiy c
Ainiiaeii cana?ae/o? o?enoeyinueeee oa?aeoa? ?o aecenoaioe?eiiai
o?einiooaaiiy. I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiyi Aiaiiaooiaiiino? a/aiue ?
“ia?iaeaeaiiy cai?e” iaeaeaio aai??a, iienaia ?. Aueieeii ? I.
Eiaaeeinueeei. I?ioean niiaiaiiy Nayoei Aeooii oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye
iaaecae/aeia inyyiiy, ui ia?iaeaeo? a?ae/oooy ethaia?, ?aaeino?,
niieith, aeaaeainoaa. Naia aiane?aeie oeueiai c’yaeythoueny e?au? oai?e
i?aaenoaaiee?a aecenoaioe?ae?cio.

C iaeyaeo ia a?/i? oe?iiino? ia?iaeaeo?oueny “o?einio?y na?oey” Ianeaey
— Neiai?iaee, a ye?e i?ia?aeiith aeoieith ? inyaiaiiy ?noeie na?oeai.
Na?oea oa?aeoa?eco?oueny ye ina?aaeie aeeiiaiiy Aiaei? aie?, aeaea?aei
ii?aeueiino?, ii/ooo?a, aeoiie. Aeena?oaio iieaco?, ui ni?aa?aeiioaiiy
“na?oey” ? “?icoio”, -oeaio?aeueia i?iaeaia a/aiiy A. Ianeaey, —
aiaeii/an aenooia? ye oa?aeoa?ia iniaeea?noue oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee.

Nii??aeiai?noue aeaio o/aiue ciaoiaeeii ia o?eueee a ci?no?, a e a
caniaao i?ciaiiy, noeeyo o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy. Ia?aaaaa iaaea?oueny
?ioo?oeaiiio, Aiaiiaooiaiiiio inyaiaiith ?noeie. Iniaeeaa oaaaa
i?eae?ey?oueny oya? oa ooaeiaeiuei-ia?aci?e oi?i? aeeeaaeo aeoiie.
Aiaeii/an, yeui oai?/?noue A. Neiai?iaee i?iiiio?ii ?icaeyaeaoe ye
ca?iaeaeaiiy “iiceoeaiiai aecenoaioe?ae?cio” a na?oiaiio o?einionueeiio
i?ioean?, oi caaaeueia eiioeaioe?y aeeooy A. Ianeaey a?aeiia?aea?
“eeane/iiio” aa??aioo — a?aeoai?aiith o?aa?cio aoooy ethaeeie. Aiae?c
cana?ae/ea, ui nooi?noue o?aaaae?eii-aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy
Ianeaey iieyaaea a ona?aeiieaii? ? aeine?aeaeaii? i?ioeano a?ae/oaeaiiy
ethaeeie a?ae nai?? aacaeiaaiii?, noai?aii? Aiaii i?e?iaee aiane?aeie
a??oiiaae?iiy, ?icai?oaii? a/aiiy i?i noia?a/eea?noue iniae,
iaaeineiiae?noue ?icoio, ui aeiea?oueny a??ith o Nianeoaey. Iane?aeeii
o?aa?/iiai na?oini?eeiyooy Ianeaey ? aecenoaioe?ei? iioeae eini?/ii?
aaciaei?, yea a?aaea? iaiaiaaeai?noth, iacaaaiaiiith aeeaeiith,
oa?iie/ith iainyaei?noth ? caaoaeai?noth a i?e ethaeeie ye iaeaiueei?,
aacneei? ?noioe. O oeueiio ni?eeiyoo? o?aioeocueeei a/aiei ethaenueei?
iioieia?/ii? ieoeino?, ii??aiyii? ethaeae c aoiiaie o aaciaaeieo
i?inoi?ao Anana?oo aa/eii a ca?iaeeo ?aea? aecenoaioe?ae?no?a OO no., a
oaeiae iioeae aca?iiae??, ni?aa?aeiioaiiy iae?ieinio ? i?e?ieinio A.
Neiai?iaee. I?aenoieii an?o i??eoaaiue, ea?ioanaioe??th a/aiue Ianeaey —
Neiai?iaee — ethaeae a??e — aaaaea?ii aeoieo, ui aeooa ethaeeie,
aacnia?oia ca nai?i caaeoiii, ia iiaea ciaeoe uanoy na?aae ieioueo
i?aaeiao?a, ye? i?eiaeii? a nia?oio aiaeeio aiie iieeaea?. Inoeiia aeaai
ia? iaeiaeiao o?eaae?noue c aeooath — a?/i?noue. Oiio ae?enii uaneeaith
ethaeeiith ? ni?aaaei?e o?enoeyiei.

Nooi?noue ianooiiiai ia??iaeo ?icaeyaea?oueny o i?ae?icae?e? “Aieiai?
iioeae aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy XIX — ii/aoeo OO no.” ia a?oio?
aeine?aeaeaiiy o?einiooaaiiy ieneeoae?a, ye? i?iaeiaaeeee aecenoaioe?eio
o?aaeeoe?th: N. E’??eaai?a, E. Oanoiaa, I. Aa?aey?aa.

Ai?oeaio? o?einionueei? aeoiee XIX no. iiaeia aeneiaeoe ca aeiiiiiaith
E’??eaai?a — Oanoiaa, eio?? aeyaeyee aoioaioe/i?noue a ia?aeiiaiiyo:
yeui ?aoe?iiaeueia o?einio?y “i?e??ea? ian ia ?aanoai”, oi
o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eia, yea aecia? anaiiaooi?noue Aiaa, icia/a?,
ui iaiiaeeeaa noa? ae?eniei. sseui ?aoe?iiaeueia ieneaiiy
cae?enith?oueny o aeaiaei??i?e ieiuei?, oi o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eia
ieneaiiy cia? o?ao?e aei?? — a??o. ?aoe?iiaeueia o?einio?y
i?aeei?y?oueny iaieio/iio, o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eia neeith a??e eiai
aeiea?.

Iciaeiieaiiy c o?einionueeeie ?aeayie caaaeaieo ieneeoae?a aeaei ciiao
i?iaiae?coaaoe iioeae aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy XIX no.,
nii??aeiai? aeooo oe?a?inueei? iaoaeueiino? a aeiiiaiaiiy aei
aeoeaioiaaii? anaia?aiaaath/i? ae?? o?enoeyinoaa. Eaeaoueny i?i iioeae
ai?ioueae i?ioe oioae?oa?ecio, eieaeoea?cio, aeaaee anacaaaeueiiai ca
iaiiaoi?i?noue oa ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue. ?icaeyaea?ii aecenoaioe?ei?
oaa?aeaeaiiy aaoi??a, ui oe?ii?noue ia? iaeeie/ia; ei??iiy aeeooy — a
i?eno?ano? oa iniaeno?e caoe?eaaeaiino?. Oae, o i?aoe? “E?eoeea no/anii?
aeiae” N. E’??eaai? aenooia? i?ioe i?aaethaaiiy oa ciaoe?iaiiy iniae a
aeiao e?ec ? ao?aoe aeooiaiino?. I. Aa?aey?a caia?a/o? neee, ai?iae?
iaoino iniae, ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino?, eio?? aaaeathoue ana i?aeei?eoe
aeaae? caaaeueiiai ? eieaeoeaiiai (“Naiii?ciaiiy”). E. Oanoia
noaa?aeaeo? aacneeey ?icoio, iaoee ia?aae aeeooyi, ia i?aenoaa? /iai
iaaieioo? ia oe?iiino? aecenoaioe?eii? o?einio??, yea ia ia? i?/iai
ni?eueiiai c “ia?oaeie” iaoeiaeie aeiaiaie (“Aiioaic aaca?oioiaiino?”,
“Aeaaea eeth/?a”).

Aecia/aeueiith iciaeith ?icaeoeo aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy XIX —
ii/aoeo XX no. aeena?oaio aaaaea? o?enoeyinueeo a??o, yea caeiaoaa?oueny
aiaeii/an o c?inoath/iio iai?oaeaii? aeooiaii? ai?ioueae.

O /aoaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? ia?oiai ?icae?eo aeine?aeaeo?oueny aeieeiaiiy
?a?iiaenueeiai aecenoaioe?ae?cio ye o?einionueei? oa/?? XX no.,
ia?aaeon?i eiai naeoey?ii? — aeii?ioth/i? o 30 — 50-o ?ieao
??ciiaeaeiino?. Aieiai? i?iaeaie, ui i?eeoee o na?o — e?eca
oeea?e?caoe?? aiane?aeie ca?eueoaiiy ae?? nee cea, iineeaiiy
a?aeie?aieaiiy a?ae Oai?oey. AEi?noieee, aacaiaeiee na?o ii/aoeo XX no.
c eiai no??ieeie oaiiaie ?icaeoeo oaoi?ee iaiaaaany aaniethoecoaaoe,
caaee/eoe ethaenueeee ?icoi, iniao, oe?aia. E?eaaa? aeaoe a?ei oa
?aaiethoe?e, aeiiii?/i? niaaee ? i?aeianaiiy noaee ni?eyoeeaei a?oioii
aeey ?icaeoeo aecenoaioe?ae?cio, ia?aaeon?i eiai aoa?noe/iiai
a?aeaaeoaeaiiy. ?icaeyaeath/e aecenoaioe?eio o?einio?th AE.-I. Na?o?a ?
A. Eaith, aeena?oaio iaiaaaeany iieacaoe iioeae ?o ?icaeoi?a, ni?euei? c
oe?a?inueeeie ienueiaiieeaie-no/anieeaie: I. Oaeeueiaei, A.
I?aeiiaeeueiei, O. Inueia/eith i?i ?aae?? XX no. — aano?aei?noue aoooy,
ioaeioeea?noue ? a?eaee?noue ?nioaaiiy, a?ae/oaeaiiy ? caaoaeai?noue
ethaeeie a na?o?. Ia i?aenoaa? i?iaaaeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy c?iaeaii
aeniiaie i?i iayai?noue aecenoaioe?ae?cio a oe?a?inuee?e o?einionuee?e
e?oa?aoo?? ii/aoeo — na?aaeeie XX no. ia c?acie na?oiaiai. I?iaaaeaiee
aiae?c e?ece a aeooiai?e ? iaoa??aeuei?e aaeocyo aeeooy cana?ae/o?:
iacaaaeath/e ia /an, e?a?io, ianoaaeie — a?ae/oaeaiiy, a?ae/oooy
aano?aeiino? aoooy iineeth?oueny oiae?, eiee ia ooeathoue Aiaa.
Inioaaiiy noa? aacaeocaeei ? aacci?noiaiei aac a??e, ine?eueee ?noeiio
iiaeeao aeooo, iiaeieaiiy a?ae/oaeaiiy iaaea? aeeiiaiiy Aiaeiai
i?ecia/aiiy ia caie?.

Iioeae aano?aeiino? aoooy, yeo a?ae/oaathoue aa?i? Na?o?a (“Ioaeioa”,
“Ca ca/eiaieie aeaa?eia”), A. Eaith (“I?o i?i N?c?oa”, “Eae?aoea”),
eoiathoue o A. I?aeiiaeeueiiai (“Iia?noue aac iacae”), I. Oaeeueiaiai
(“Naiaoi??eia ciia”), O. Inueia/ee (“?ioiiaea aeooiaoaoe?a”).
“Ioaeioeea?noue” ? “a?eaee?noue” ni?ai??i? c ioioiaeiaiiyi aeeooy c
“ae?aaeenoei” a?eeii o ?iiai? A. I?aeiiaeeueiiai “Iaaaee/ea ae?aia”.
“Caaoaeai?noue” o Anana?o?, caea?noue o oai?ao A. Eaith (“Noi?iii?e”),
a?aeiia?aea? “i?i?eao a oi?aa?noi” o O. Inueia/ee (iia?noue “Noa?oee
aiy?ei”, a??o? “Ieoaaoa?”, “Aania”), iiooeai ao?a/aii? aa?iii?? aoooy a
iiaaeao I. Oaeeueiaiai (“A?aaanee”, “?aaeaeoi? Ea?e”, “Naioeiaioaeueia
?noi??y”). Oaoenonuee? “/oii? uo?e” A. Eaith (“*oia”) iaa?ththoue aeoiee
i?i eiioi?noe/ieo “aeooiaoaoe?a” O. Inueia/ee (“?ioiiaea aeooiaoaoe?a”).
Nionoiooth/ee aieea eaac?eoeueoo?e, ia?aoai?aiiy ethaeeie o
“ia-ieney/ee” aai ieney/ee “ca noaiith” aaoiiao ?ethno?othoue oai?e A.
I?aeiiaeeueiiai (“Iaaaee/ea ae?aia”, “Iia?noue aac iacae”, “Noa?aoeue”),
I. Oaeeueiaiai (“E?o o /iaioyo”, “Uaneeaee nae?aoa?”, “ss (?iiaioeea)”.
Aeo?ae c iaaeiaeo neooaoe?e, cai?iiiiiaaiee aecenoaioe?eieie
ieneeoaeyie-aoa?noaie XX noie?ooy — ae?y, aoio, o aeiaaeeo ii?acee —
naiiaoanoai, nia?oue: ae?aia AE.-I. Na?o?a (“Iooe”), oai?e A. Eaith
(“Aoio?aia ethaeeia”, “*oia”); ae?aie A. Aeiie/aiea (“A??o”,
“I?eaaiaeaeai?”, “*i?ia Iaioa?a oa A?eee Iaaea?aeue”). I?ioa, iaa?oue o
naeoey?iiio aecenoaioe?ae?ci? “i?iaeaathoueny” ia?inoee a??e, ai oea —
a?iaeaeaia iio?aaa aeoo?. Oae, A. Eaith cacia/a?, ui aecenoaioe?eia
aeoiea “cai?oaia” ia aaciaaei?e iaae??, yea ?c ca?noeith i?i
ia?iaeaeaiiy iaiiaeyoe-O?enoa ia?aaa?ioea noa?iaeaai?e na?o (“I?o i?i
N?c?oa”). *eneaii? i?eeeaaee iiae?aieo “ia?inoe?a” ciaoiaeeii a
oe?a?inueeeo ienueiaiiee?a, ui ca eiaeiei ?acii ia?aeiio?: “ethaeeia
aano?aeo” — caaoaeaia, ?c ao?a/aiei nainii aoooy — oea ethaeeia aac
Aiaa, ethaeeia, iicaaaeaia a??e.

A ianooiiiio i?ae?icae?e? (“Iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino? ye
a?oio ?icaeoeo aeii?ioth/i? oaiaeaioe?? oe?a?inueeiai o?einiooaaiiy”)
aeine?aeaeothoueny ia?aaeoiiae aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iiai oeio,
coiiaeai? iaoe?iiaeueiith iaioaeuei?noth. Oea iiiyooy aeena?oaio
aiae?co? a iaaeao caaaeaii? “iao?eoe? iaioaeueiinoae”. ?ice?eooy
ineo?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee oe?a?ioe?a oa aeaiaio?a “iao?eoe?” ia a?oio?
aeaieo aoiiineoieia??, ?noi???, eoeueoo?e iaiiaith? eiie?aoiei ci?noii
iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?. Oea aea? i?aenoaae noaa?aeaeoaaoe,
ui naia oe?a?inueea iaioaeuei?noue ? ni?eyoeeaee a?oio, ia yeiio
?icaeioany aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iee (aeii?ioth/ee) oei
o?einiooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?. A?i ooea? nain aeeooy a ???aoe?iiaeueiiio ?
ciaoiaeeoue o i?ciaii? aie? Aiaei?, aoe/i?e oa anoaoe/i?e aeineiiaeino?
noai?aiiai Iei na?oo. C anoaoe/iiai iiaeyaeo aecenoaioe?eia ni?eeiyooy ?
a?aeia?aaeaiiy ea?oeie na?oo — oea inieneaiiy, ia?aaeeaaiiy aoyiiy e?ane
? a?/iino? aeeooy. C aoe/iiai iiaeyaeo aeoeaio a oe?a?inueeiio
aecenoaioe?eiiio o?einiooaaii? ?iaeii ia “iiceoeai?” aecenoaioe?aee:
a??o a Aiaeo aeaaiaeaoue, ethaia, uanoy, a??i?noue, iiei?o, /ooo?a?noue,
aeanoea? iaoiio ia?iaeia?; i?ioa ?nio? ona?aeiieaiiy iaiiaeeeaino?
iieiooe iaaaoeai?, o?aaaae?ei? aecenoaioe?aee, ye? ue?i iinoa/a? “oeae
na?o”: no?aaeaeaiiy, ooao, a?eue, ceeaei?, aeao, aacneeey, — iane?aeee
a??oiaiino? ethaeeie. A e?ioe? i?aeaaaeaii i?aenoiee ii ia?oiio
?icae?eo, i?aee?aneaii aieiai? ?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? (“Aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iee
oa?aeoa? a?o/eciyii? o?einio?? XVIII — XIX no.”) i?inoaaeo?ii aeya
iniaeeainoae iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino? o o?einionueeeo iiaeyaeao
oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoae?a A. Neiai?iaee, I. Aiaiey, I. Eoe?oa, I.
TH?eaae/a. O. I?oeoa aa/ea o oai?ao Eaeai?oea, Eaioa, Aaaaey aeya
i?iaoeueeiai aeooo. Aeena?oaio iaiaaaeany iieacaoe a?aeoai?aiiy
oe?a?inueei? aeoo?, aeooo o niaaeuei? oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a. Iaoa
?icae?eo — ?ice?eooy aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o ?oiuei? oai?/ino?. Aeey
cae?eniaiiy caaeoio aoee aeae?eai? oa ocaaaeueiai? ni?euei? iciaee
aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy caaaeaieo ieneeoae?a: iiooee
o?ainoeaiaeaioieo iiyniaiue on?o i?iaeai aoooy; i?aeianaiiy
noa’?eoeaiino? oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiino? iniae; iaaeaiiy ia?aaaae
/ooo?aiio, ?ioo?oeaiiio i?ciaiith, aeciaiiy aacneeey iaoee a iaiaaaii?
?ica’ycaoe iaea?/i? ieoaiiy ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy; ianenoaiiee oa?aeoa?
o?einionueeeo a/aiue; aiae?c naiaiaee ethaeeie ye iaeaaaeeea?oi?
i?iaeaie aoooy, ?? iiceoeaia ae??oaiiy ia a?oio? Neiaa; a?aeoai?aiiy
o?aaaae?eiino? aoooy ye iane?aeeo a??oiiaae?iiy; iaiaaaiiy iiynieoe
iiaeieaiiy a?ae/oaeaiiy ethaeeie oeyoii c’?aeiaiiy ?? aeooo c Oai?/ith
neeith.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? (“Niaoeeo?ea o?einionueeiai a/aiiy A. Neiai?iaee
ye ia?aaea?nieea aecenoaioe?eiiai ieneaiiy a Oe?a?i?”) eaeaoueny i?i
o?enoeyinueeee oa?aeoa? a/aiiy A. Neiai?iaee, aeo?aeia iieiaeaiiy yeiai
— i?ciae naaa.

Iciaeiieaoenue c? aeaea?aeaie, aeena?oaio caoaaaeeea, ui, iacaaaeath/e
ia /eneaii? ?ica?aeee, ?ene aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy o i?aoeyo A.
Neiai?iaee aeioaia? ia aeine?aeaeoaaeenue aeinoaoiueith i??ith. Aea/aiiy
ieoaiiy iieacaei, ui eeth/ aei ?ice?eooy ia?aaeaecenoaioe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o oai?/ino? ieneeoaey — o o?einionueeeo iiooeao ?noeie a Neia?
Aiaeiio, a/aii? i?i na?o ? ethaeeio.

O i?ae?icae?e? aeae?eaii i?aenoaae, ia a?oio? yeeo ?ice?eoi
aecenoaioe?eiee oa?aeoa? o?einionueei? aeoiee A. Neiai?iaee: i?ioe??//y
i?ae aeaeeiei ? iaaeaeeiei, ciai?oi?i ? aioo??oi?i, -aioeoaoe/i?noue
a/aiiy, yea ? aieiaiei e?eoa???i nooiino? aecenoaioe?eiiai
o?einiooaaiiy; a oeaio?? a/aiiy ieneeoaey -ethaeeia, caaeeaeaia o aeania
“y”, naith ?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue, yea ioioiaeith?oueny c Aiaeith
nooi?noth iniae; ethaeeia ? na?o ?icaeyaeathoueny a na?oe? eaoaai???
“noa’?eoeai?noue”; o?einio-i?noee “i?iionea?” aieiai? iieiaeaiiy a/aiiy
“e??cue aeooo”, aeeaa ieie, iaaeath/e ia?aaaao ???aoe?iiaeueiiio
i?ciaiith iaae ?aoe?iiaeueiei; ?ice?eaa? oeyo ca?eueiaiiy a?ae
iiieeeiai? aiieoae ca iiaieeaeie i?eiaaeaie na?oo, iiaeieaiiy ieionueeeo
i?eno?anoae, aeinyaiaiiy naiaiaee.

Niaoeeo?eo a/aiiy aaeeeiai ni?aa?o/ecieea aeena?oaio aa/eoue o eiai
aeeaeii?e aa?iii?eiino?. Oyaeei a?aeie?aieoe ieoaiiy a??e ? Aiaii?ciaiiy
a?ae nooi aiinaieia?/ii?, aoe/ii? i?iaeaiaoeee. Iaea?aeii?o? oai?e
ieneeoaey a?oioothoueny ia A?ae??. Ca Neiai?iaeith, nooi?noue aoooy — ca
iaaeaie /ooo?ai? ?aaeueiino? (inyaa?oueny a??ith), ?icoi?iiy /iai
ieneeoaeue ia?aaeea o nai?io aeon?. Inoeiia, aeooiaia ethaeeia
ia?iaeaeo?oueny oiae?, eiee ia ia? noiaeeoue Nayoee Aeoo (“Eieaea/ea i?i
/eoaiiy Nayoiai Ienueia, iacaaia AE?iea Eioiaa”). Naiii?ciaiiy, yea
A?eai??e Naaiae/ ioioiaeith? c Aiaii?ciaiiyi (“Aeoaa?o, aai Aoeaa?
na?oo”), -aeaea?aei, iniiaa ioae?ino?. A i?ioean? inyaiaiiy na?oo
o?einio eaea a?ae Aiaa aei ethaeeie, ? a?ae ethaeeie — aei Aiaa.
Nooi?noue iniae, ?? aeiey, iiooee uanoy, yea a?i aa/eoue o nii??aeiai?e
i?aoe?, -ai?oeaio? ?icaeoi?a. Ia?oaith ? ethaenueea aeooa, eio?a ia
aaeaeanue aei i?e?iaeiiai ae?ea (“?iciiaa, ui iaceaa?oueny Aeoaa?o, aai
Aoeaa? ie?o”). Naia a ian, ye iiaeiaao Aiaeeo, noiaeyoueny an? i?iaeaie
aeeooy ? i?ciaiiy. Ie, ye i?e?ieini, a?aeaeca?eaeth?ii aaeeeee na?o —
iae?ieini. Iaaieioo?oueny ei?aeioeaio?e/iee oa?aeoa? o?einiooaaiiy
ieneeoaey. Iniaeeao oaaao a?i i?eae?ey? oeueiio ieoaiith o i?aoe?
“Ia?oeen. ?iciiae i?i oa: i?ciae naaa”. Aiaeii/an, iacaaaeath/e ia
caaaeueiee iioei?noe/iee oa?aeoa?, a/aiith A. Neiai?iaee aeanoeaa
a?ae/oooy o?aaaae?eiino? oeueiai na?oo, iia’ycaia c ?aaeuei?noth
?nioaaiiy nee cea. Ei??iue a??oiaiino? — a ethaeei?, oiio aoe/iee iaoin
a/aiiy ni?yiiaaiee ia ii?aeueia aaeineiiaeaiiy iniae: iaoa aeeooy a
na?o? — oeyo iiaeieaiiy cea, iiooe?a ?noeie, a?aeiiaeaiiy ethaeeie,
ia?iaeaeaiiy ?? a Inon?.

A ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? aiae?co?ii iniao ? oai?/?noue I. Aiaiey.
Aeine?aeaeaiiy eiai niaaeueie, ia?aaeon?i ai?noiey?ii?, aea? ciiao
ae?eoe aeniiae?a i?i “neiai?iaeeinueeee” oei iniae ieneeoaey,
aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iee oa?aeoa? iiaeyae?a.

Ienueiaiiee i???ioiaaiee ia ia aea?aeaaio i?iaeaiaoeeo, a ia ?iaeea?aea
— ethaia, uanoy, ai?a, a?ae/oaeaiiy, — aecenoaioe?aee iaoiai aoooy. A?i
iiaa/ea o O?eno? Inon? eeth/ aei a?aeiia?ae? ia caaaeee aeeooy, aeoo?
ethaeeie, iaiaaaany oea aeiianoe aei /eoa/a (eeno aei I.
Eiinoaioeiianueeiai a?ae 12.01.1848 ?.) Aiaieue ieoa i?i ceai o nai?io
aeeoo?, iiae?aiee “ia?iaeaeaiith cai?e”, i?ney yeiai a?i ae?noaa
iniaeeaa oai?/a iaooiaiiy, c?icoi?aoe, ui Aia ? ethaia, ? /anii A?i
?aeeiee, ooi ia?aaoaa? c ethaeeiith ? ethaeoue ?? a iaene?ooi?oeo
ianoaaeiao aeeooy (eeno aei A. AEoeianueeiai a?ae 10.05.1842 ?.).

Nii??aeiai?noue o?einionueei? aeoiee I. Aiaiey oa ?ioeo o?enoeyinueeeo
aecenoaioe?eieo ieneeoae?a, cie?aia A. Neiai?iaee, aa/eii o noaaeaii?
aei ethaeeie, iiooeao iath aeaniiai “y”; a iaaeaii? ia?aaaae
???aoe?iiaeueiiio i?ciaiith iaae ?aoe?iiaeueiei; oyaeaiiyo i?i ciai?oith
? aioo??oith i?e?iaeo ?a/ae (aeaiiaoo?i?noue na?oo); a aioeoaoe/iiio
oa?aeoa?? a/aiue oiui. Aecenoaioe?eiee iaoin oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea
aiae?co?oueny ia i?aenoaa? iciaeiieaiiy c eiai oe?a?iiiaioaeueiith
aeooath, i?iyae yei? ia iiaee cieueoe /e iineaaeoe i? neeaaei? ianoaaeie
iniaenoiai aeeooy, i? noni?eueia aeoiea, i? aaeeeiaea?aeaaiee
?iia?nueeee oia?i?ci. Ia?aaoaath/e a ?ioi-iaioaeueiiio ioi/aii?, I.
Aiaieue caeeeea? aeeoe “ia a ?in??, a a Aiaia?”, aeeiioaaoe O?enoiao
caiia?aeue ethaia? aei aeeaeiueiai (eeno aei I. Oienoiai a?ae 2.08.1847
?.). A?ae/oaath/e aeeaeiio o?aaaae?ei?noue naiai /ano ? ethaenueeiai
aoooy, a?i i?eeiaa o?enoeyinueeo a??o ye ?aeeia aeaea?aei ao?oe,
caniiei?iiy, aeaaiaeao? o no?aaeaeaiiiio, iiaiiio cea na?o?. A ??/eu?
a?o/eciyii? o?einionueei? o?aaeeoe?? ienueiaiiee a?aeoai?th? oyaee?
noi??iee eeoi? aeie? Oe?a?ie (“No?aoia iiinoa”); aecenoaioe?ei? iioeae
a?ae/oaeaiiy, naiioe, a?ae/ath a ai?iouea? ca aeeooy (“Oeiaeue”);
?ineeiiiai, aacaeooiiai ?nioaaiiy (“Ia?oa? aeoo?”);
aecenoaioe?eii-i?noe/iiai aeaoo (“A?e”). Ienueiaiiee aenooia? oaeiae
i?iaeiaaeoaa/ai o?aaeeoe?? ei?aeioeaio?ecio a oe?a?inuee?e o?einionuee?e
aeoioe?. A?i ioioiaeith? aeooo ? na?oea ethaeeie, a yeeo aa/eoue
aeaea?aei Aiaeanoaaiii? ?noeie.

A ianooiiiio, o?aoueiio i?ae?icae?e? (“Aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy o
oai?/ino? I. Eoe?oa”), aeena?oaio iaiaaaeany i?inoaaeeoe aieea
iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino? /a?ac iniao aai?y ia ?icaeoie oe?a?inueei?
eoeueoo?e. Aeoeaioiaaia a aaaaoueio aeine?aeaeaiiyo noia?a/eea?noue
aaea/? e oai?/ino? ieooey ni?eyea iiaiio? a?aeoai?aiiy iei oe?a?inueei?
aeooiaiino?, ooaeiaeiuei-o?einionueeiio inieneaiith ae?eniino?. Oea aoee
ca?iaeee, ia?aae/oooy aecenoaioe?eiiai noeeth ieneaiiy, ui oae iioe?eany
o XX no. Iniaeeao oaaao i?eae?eaii aiae?co aieiaii? aeoiee I. Eoe?oa,
yea iieyaaea o ca’yceao oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii? ?aea? c
o?enoeyinoaii. Iiooee Oea?noa?y Aiaeiai aeaaaee ieooeth ianiaao a aeeoo?
e oai?/ino? (iiac?? “Iaae *a?aiiei ii?ai”, “*oi anoue iia e oaaa,
aeaii?”). ?icaeyaea?oueny aecenoaioe?eiee oa?aeoa?
o?ainoeaiaeaioii-aiioe?eieo ia?ani?a?a Nayoiai Ienueia. sse oe?a?iaoeue
— i?aaenoaaiee aiiaeaii? iaoe??, I. Eoe?o iaaeeoaany inaeiaie i?i
ca?eueiaiiy ?oaea?a c ?aeiaonueeiai ?aanoaa. O?aaeeoe?ei? a oe?a?inuee?e
iiac?? iioeae aa?i?/iiai ieioeiai, ni?acao/i? c iiae?yie Nayuaiii?
?noi???, a?ae?eieie nthaeaoaie, eoiathoue o aaaaoueio oai?ao.
Oe?a?ii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iee, aecenoaioe?eiee na?oiaeyae a?oioo?oueny ia
inyaiaii? na?aea/ii?, aeooaaii? aeeaeie. Na?oea Oe?a?ie — ?? iiaa ?
eoeueoo?a. A?ae?iaeeoe aeooiai?noue, caa?aaoe iaoe?iiaeueio
naiiaooi?noue — oea, ca ia?aeiiaiiyi I. Eoe?oa, aeinyaa?oueny ?ice?eooyi
oiai, ui caoiaaii a na?oe?. Ia?ac aine?an?iiy Aaouee?aueie —
oeaio?aeueiee a eiai iiac?yo (“Oooi?i? iaaeiaa?ee”, “Neiai i?aaaee”,
“Aei eiace”).

Iieaco?ii, ui any oai?/?noue I. Eoe?oa i?inyeiooa aecenoaioe?eiei
na?oia?ae/oooyi. Ia ia?oee ieai o eiai i?ic? oa iiac?? aenoaathoueny
???aoe?iiaeuei? ?icaeoie i?i ca’ycie c Aiaii, nian?iiy aeoo?, a?/i?noue.
Ia oe? noni?eueii? aeenaa?iii?? iiao iaaieiooaaa ia aioo??oi?e,
aeooiai?e, iniaeno?ni?e aa?iii??, ui noa? iniaeea?noth eiai
o?einiooaaiiy. Iiac?y — iiea aecenoaioe?eii-ineoieia?/ieo iaaeeoaoe?e I.
Eoe?oa. A e??eoe? a?i aeoiaeeoue ca iaae? aoiia?ao?/ii-iiaooiaiai
cia?aaeaiiy aeeooy, “ae?eaa?oueny” ia i?inoi?e Oi?aa?noio, iaiaaath/enue
inyaiooe eiai na?oeai, a?aeoai?eoe iiaea?ei?noue na?oo, ai?ioueao aeia?a
? cea, o?ainoeaiaeaioi? ?oo?ei? neee ?icaeoeo. Aeena?oaio i?aee?aneth?,
ui naia i?aeianaiiy iiaoe/ieo ?icaeoi?a ia ??aaiue na?oi?icoi?iiy aea?
ieooeaa? iin?noe aaaiia i?noea a eiai?o? i?iaeiaaeoaa/?a
aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/ieo iioea?a oe?a?inueeiai o?einiooaaiiy:
ooo Aia ? na?oiaa aaciaeiy, a?/i?noue Iaaeaeeiiai ? caaoaeai?noue iniae,
a?ae/oaeai?noue aeooiaii?, a??oth/i? ethaeeie a oeueiio na?o?
(“Iieeoaa”, “Nai nia?”, “Noa?aoeue”, “Ethe?-ethe?”). *?eueia i?noea
iin?aeathoue ?icaeoie, ?aoeaen?? iaae ?ieeth na?oey a aeooiaiiio aeeoo?.
“O?einio?y na?oey”, — ea?ioanaioe?y aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy I.
Eoe?oa. Ethaeeia ye i?e?ieini, ?? na?oea, ?noai — iaeoethaeai?o? ia?ace
iiaoa. Na?oea — aiai?eoue, a?uo?, aeaaa?, ?aae?? (“Aeae?iiy”, “Cani?a”,
“Ianoony”, “Nayoeiy”, “C iiac?e Aaeiiai”). Na?aea/ia aeeaeia —
Aiaeanoaaiia. Ic naiiai na?oey Aia caa?oa?oueny aei ethaeeie, aea? iai
/a?ac na?oea aeeooy (“Aeae?iiy”). *enoa ia?aae Aiaii na?oea — oeaio?
ethaeeie ? Anana?oo.

*aoaa?oee, inoaii?e i?ae?icae?e ae?oaiai ?icae?eo aeena?oaoe??
-”Aecenoaioe?ei? neeaaeia? o?enoeyinueei? o?einio?? I. TH?eaae/a”.

“O?einio?y na?oey”, iiooee ii/aoeo ? caaa?oaiiy ethaenueeiai aoooy a
Ainiiae?, i?aeianaiiy oi?eaeueiiai cia/aiiy ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
ethaenueei? iniaenoino? — ana cana?ae/o? i?i oa, ui I. TH?eaae/ aoa
aecenoaioe?eii-o?einiooth/ei ieneeoaeai. Aeine?aeieee eiai oai?/ino?
a?aecia/athoue aieea A. Ianeaey. Aaaaoi ni?eueiiai ciaoiaeyoue o a/aii?
I. TH?eaae/a ? N. E’??eaai?a. O?einio ia o?eueee i?iaeiaaeea
aecenoaioe?eio o?aaeeoe?th a Oe?a?i?, aea e noaa ia?aaea?nieeii
aecenoaioe?ae?cio a ?a?ii?. Eiai iine?aeiaieeaie aoee A. Nieiaeia, I.
Aa?aey?a, /a?ac yeeo oeea?e?ciaaiee Cao?ae iiciaeiieany c i?ia?aeieie
aeoieaie o?einioa. I?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe?? a?o/eciyiiai o?einiooaaiiy,
TH?eaae/ aaeeeiai cia/aiiy iaaea? aioo??oiueiio ?noao ? aacnia?oiiio
aeooo, iiynith? oeyoe i?ciaiiy Aaniethoo, ?aeiaiiy c Iei, aeinyaiaiiy
Oea?noaa Aiaeiai ia caie?. Aeacoth/e ni?aaaei?e oeyo inyaiaiiy ?noeie,
ieneeoaeue ciia ? ciia caa?oa?oueny aei aeoie?a aeeooy ? i?iaieioo?
iaiao?aei?noue ii?aeueiiai aaeineiiaeaiiy, iicaaaeaiiy a??oii?
ieionueei? i?e?iaee, i?aeii?yaeeoaaiiy Aiae?e aie?. TH?eaae/
?icoeoia/o?, ye iiaa?iooe ethaeei? a?ae/oaeai? iaoa??ae?ciii,
iiaiiiaeieie i?e?iaeie/eie iaoeaie ao?eaooe Oai?oey. Inyaath/e nooi?noue
ethaeeie a i?aoeyo i?i iaoa??ae?ci oa ?aeaae?ci, na?oea, aeooiai?noue,
?icoi ? aeina?ae, cia/aiiy ie?iiai ni?a?nioaaiiy, o?einio aea?
a?aeiia?aeue ia ieoaiiy i?i iiooee naino aoooy. Inoeii?noue eiai
aeniiae?a aeieeaa? c? Neiaa.

O i?aenoieao ii ae?oaiio ?icae?eo aeoeaioiaaii aecia/aeuei? iiiaioe
aecenoaioe?eii-ei?aeioeaio?e/iiai oa?aeoa?o o?einiooaaiiy caaaeaieo
ieneeoae?a.

O?einionueea aeoiea, ?ice?eoa o oai?ao ooaeiaeiuei? e?oa?aoo?e, iaaoaa?
a XIX no. aaaiiiai cia/aiiy. Aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy /anii
?icaeyaea?oueny ye iaeei c iai?yi?a ?ioaa?aoe??
e?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaeiueiai ? o?einionueeiai ieneaiiy. C iaeyaeo ia
cacia/aia, iaoa o?aoueiai ?icae?eo (“Ia?aaeeaaiiy aeie? iniae ? iaoe?? o
a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo?? O?O – ii/aoeo OO no.”), -i?iaiae?coaaoe ?icaeoie
aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy o oai?/ino? aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo
ienueiaiiee?a, iieacaoe eiai iaioaeueio coiiaeai?noue.

Ia?oee i?ae?icae?e i?enay/aii aiae?co aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy o
oai?/ino? O. Oaa/aiea. Eiai niaoeeo?eith aaaaeath oa, ui a?ae aiae?co
aeanieo, ?iaeea?aeoaeueieo aeooaaieo ia?aaeeaaiue, a oaeiae ii/ooo?a ?
aaaeaiue ethaenueeeo iaeeieoeue a?i i?aeiineoueny aei ioe?iee,
a?aeoai?aiiy nioe?aeueieo ? iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai aeeooy ia?iaeo,
Oe?a?ie.

Aeine?aeaeoth/e niaaeueio iiaoa, aeena?oaio aeae?eeea “o?e noiaeeiee”
eiai aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy. Oae, caaeeaeaiiy o aeanio
aecenoaioe?th, ui aeaei ciiao a?aeoai?eoe o?aa?ci ?iaeea?aeoaeueii?
aeeoo?ai? ae?aie, — ia?oa ? aeo?aeia noiaeeiea ?icai?oaiiy oaeaioo
ieooey (aiae?c iiac?e “Ii?iaeeea iaia iaoe…”, “Ia iieeeany ca
iaia…”, “Ie, oia? noa?ee aaoueei…” oiui). I?aai?/ia ia?a?inoaiiy
iniaenoi? ae?aie e??e/iiai aa?iy o o?einionuee? ?icaeoie iaae o?aa?/iith
aeieath no/aniee?a, ia?aaeon?i ae?iie, — ae?oaa noiaeeiea
aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy iiaoa ?, aiaeii/an, iaoe?iiaeueia
iniaeea?noue o?einiooaaiiy a Oe?a?i? (“Ia??y”, “Eaoa?eia”, “A?aeueia”,
“Iaeaiuee?e Ia?’yi?” oiui).

I?ioa o nai?e oai?/ino? O. Oaa/aiei ao?eea ia o?eueee aeeaeie
iniaeno?nii? aecenoaioe??, iae?ioeii?o? ia?aaeeaaiiy no/aniee?a, aea e
aecenoaioe?eio o?aaaae?th Oe?a?ie, ia?iaeo a /eneaiieo oai?ao (“Nii”,
“Eaaeac”, “Iaio?oe”, “I ia?oaei, ? aeeaei, ? iaia?iaeaeaiei…
Iineai??”, “Aaeaeaiaee”, “Inaeie Aeaaeaeia?”, “?ic?eoa iiaeea”). Oea
o?aoy noiaeeiea. Iiaeia noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?ooi a na?o? e??i Oaa/aiea
oae ia “iieaeaa” ? ia ia?aaeea ia?iaeia ai?a ye aeania. Naia oea c?iaeei
iiac?th iaoe?iiaeueiiai aai?y iaiiaoi?ii-aecenoaioe?eiith a ieai?
iac??aiyiii? i? c /ei neee aeni?an?? ? ae?aiaoecio. A i?ioean? ?ice?eooy
aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o o?einionueei? oai?/ino? Oaa/aiea
aeoeaioothoueny nooo?a? ?ene iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?, ye? ? a?oioii
a?aeoai?aiiy aioo??oiueiai ineo?/iiai noaio e??e/iiai “y”, ui
ceeaa?oueny c ia?iaeiei. Aiane?aeie oeueiai Oaa/aiei c oaeei iaoinii
a?aeoai?th? iaoe?iiaeueia ye caaaeueiiethaenueea: ia?iaeia oai?/?noue
aenooia? a iueiai aeaea?aeii oi?ie ? ci?noo.

Aaaeeeaa iciaea aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy iiaoa, i?iaiae?ciaaia a
i?ae?icae?e?, — a?aeoai?aiiy eiioe?eoo c iaaeieeoi?i na?oii
???aoe?iiaeueiiai cea (“*iai iai? oyaeei, /iai iai? ioaeii…”, “*e oi
iaaeiey oa iaaiey…”). Iieaco?ii ye o?einionueei-aecenoaioe?eia
i?iaeaiaoeea ooai?th?oueny ca aeiiiiiaith nenoaie
eaoaai??e-aecenoaioe?ae?a — a??a, no?aaeaeaiiy, ooaa, aeao, nia?oue.
Oae, — naiioa, a?ae/oaeaiiy, a?eue aeoo?, — aieiai? aecenoaioe?aee o
a??oao “iaaieueie/iai” oeeeeo (“A iaaie?, a naiio? iaia?…”, “*e oi
iaaeiey oa iaaiey…”, “Ia iieeeany ca iaia…”). Aiae?c niaaeueie iiaoa
aea? ciiao c oe?eeiaeoith aiaaiai?noth noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui i?ooi aei
iueiai ia cae?enithaaa oaei? ioe?iee iniae ? aeie? a iaaeia?e aeeoo?a?e
neooaoe??.

Aeeoieaiee c e??iaoeueei? iaaie? ae?ocyie-/oaeeioeyie, Oaa/aiei ia
a?aeoeo?aany iaoa?einueei? iiae, eicaoeueei? neaae, o?aaeeoe?e ?
o?aaaae?? ia?iaeo ? iaoe??. A?i iino?eii niia?aeoaaany o aaciaaei?e
ethaia? aei ciaaeieaii? Aaouee?aueie. Aeena?oaio iaiaaaeany iieacaoe a
aeine?aeaeaii?, ui caaaeyee aacoiiai?e Aiae?e Ethaia?, yea ieiiai?ea a
na?oe? iiaoa, a?iiaaeyinueea e??eea eoiaea ?ioeiii, aecenoaioe?eii, a
iniaeno?nieo ia?aaeeaaiiyo iinoaaaei iaaeiniaeno?nia. Iiao a??ea o nai?
i?ecia/aiiy, a??ea a Oe?a?io. Ii?aeiaaoe oeth a??o c a??ith a Ian?th,
a?i noaa iaoe?iiaeueiei aai??i ? i?i?ieii.

Iai?ee?ioe? XIX no. oe?a?inueea iiac?y, ae?aiaoo?a?y ?ioaineaii i?aaea
?a?iiaenueeiai ??aiy, ia?aaeon?i oeyoii iiaeeaeaiiy ae?aiaoe/iiai
ineoieia?cio. A aaaiaa?ae? — Eany Oe?a?iea, niaaeueia yei? ia?
aacia?a/ii aecenoaioe?eiee oa?aeoa? (“O?aa?ci aecenoaioe?eii? niaaeueie
Ean? Oe?a?iee”).

A iiac?yo Ean? Oe?a?iee aace?/ ianei?noe/ieo iioea?a ooae, ?icia/o,
“c?aiaii?” aeoo? oa na?oey, “e?eaaaeo ne?c” (“Oeth aei oaaa iaeee nae
eenoi/ie…”, “Ai?eoue ii? na?oea…”, “Ooi aeanoue ii?i i/ai iioiee
ne?c?”). I?noa??y ethaenueeiai aeeooy c eiai iaea?/iei o?aa?ciii,
ai?iaoth/eie a ethaeei? iniiaaie — aaee/iei ? i?ae?aniei, c iaeiiai
aieo, ae??a’yceiaei ? i?e/aiiei — c ae?oaiai, i?aaenoaaeaia a on?e nai?e
iiaiio? ? ??ciiiai?oiino?. A?eue ? no?aaeaeaiiy — ia ianeai? aeaiaioe
oai?/ino?. Ooaa — iiiaio ai?ioueae, “i?iaiee eai?iue”, yeee /a?ac
no?aaeaeaiiy aaaea aei i/euaiiy aeoo?. Oae? neeaaeia? anoaoe/iiai
na?oini?eeiyooy iiaoane ye neueice, ioea, a?eue, ia?a?inoathoue o aoio,
ai?aiee i?ioano. Eany Oe?a?iea a?aeoai?th? ia oe? Anana?oo
aecenoaioe?eii-o?aaaae?ei? noaie aeoo?. Eini?/ia aaciaeiy — eieenea ??
naiioe (“A iaa? i?nyoeue caoiaeeoue niooiee…”), aiaeii/an “/i?ia
oai?yaa”, ca yeith caoiaaeenue oa?iieoe? aoooy, caaaaeee a?/iino? (“Inue
oii/? i?iaoaeeeenue aeoiee…”). Niaoeeo?eo aecenoaioe?eii? e??eee
i?inoaaeo?ii o c?noaaeaii? ?iaeea?aeoaeueii? na?aeiiino? c noni?eueiith,
ui aeyaey? ?o eiioe?eo, yeee aiia ?ice?eaa? a ieiuei? aeooiaiiai “y”.
Oea a?aeaoaa?oueny oeyoii ?iaeea?aeoae?noe/iiai naiicaaeeaeaiiy,
a?aeoai?aiiy aecenoaioe?eieo noai?a aeoo? in?a ia iaae? aeeooy ? nia?o?,
na?aeiiiai ? i?aena?aeiiiai a iiiaioe i?eeiyooy aeieaiinieo ??oaiue.
Ae?aiaoe/i? neooaoe??, a ye? iio?aieythoue aa?i? Ean? Oe?a?iee,
i?ecaiaeyoue ?o aei aei?noiei? iaiao?aeiino? aeai?o, ui a
aecenoaioe?eiiio o?einiooaaii? iia’ycaii c oi?iith naii?aae?caoe?? iniae
(ae?aiaoe/i? iiaie “Eannaiae?a”, “I?a?y”, “E?niaa i?niy”). Iae/ano?oa
aa?i? aaoi?ee ia iiaeooue iiaeieaoe aeanio aeooaaio ae?aio,
ia?aaoaathoue a o?aa?/i?e aeenaa?iii?? c iaaeieeoi?i na?oii ianeeuenoaa
? cea, i?ioenoiyoue eiio oe?iith naiioe ? a?ae/oaeaiiy. Aecenoaioe?eia
o?aaaae?y a?aeie?aieaiiy ethaeeie a?ae noanoaioe?eieo canaae aoooy,
ii?ooaiiy aa?iii?? i?ae iniaeno?noth ? nioe?oiii iaeae?aci?oa eoia? a
ae?aiao “Eannaiae?a”, “O iou?”.

Cia/iith i??ith niaoeeo?ea aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy iiaoane, c
iiaeyaeo aeena?oaioa, coiiaeaia oei, ui iaeaea an? aieth/? i?iaeaie
aeai?o “ia iaae?” — aeeooy ? nia?o?, aie? ? ?aanoaa, ethaia? ?
iaiaaeno?, — iia’ycai? c iaoe?iiaeueiei ieoaiiyi.
Iaoe?iiaeueii-aecenoaioe?ei? iiooee ? a?aee?eooy iiaoane aeae?eaii aeey
aiae?co ie?aii.

Ine?eueee oai?/?noue Ean? Oe?a?iee ciaiaio? a?aenooieaiiy a?ae
o?aaeeoe?eii-o?enoeyinueeiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee, aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? ?? ye i?aaenoaaieoeth aoa?noe/iiai
(naeoey?iiai) aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?.
Aioeo?enoeyinueea nooi?noue oai?/ino? ?ice?eaa?oueny a o?aa?ci? iaaeiaeo
neooaoe?e ae?aiaoe/ieo oai??a “Iaea?aeeia”, “A eaoaeiiaao”, “Aaeaieao
Ia?o?ai”, “Eiaaiia, ae?iea Ooniaa” oiui. Aeaea?aeii eiioe?eo?a o oeeo
oai?ao Ean? Oe?a?iee /anoi noa? iai?eeiyooy aea?oae Inona ia Aieaio?,
a?aeeoieaiiy Eiai e?ia’th a??o?a ethaenoaa, oiaoi caia?a/aiiy
o?enoeyinoaa a nooiino?. Ethaenueea ia?iioa, iiieeee, ia?icoi?iiy
Nayoiai Ienueia i?aaenoaaeai? ye “iaieeina?aeia” aiey Aiaea. Nueiaiaei?
iiaoano iiaeia ni?eeiaoe ye i?iia?ac ?? Iaea?aeeii? c iaeiieiaiii?
ae?aie, yea ia iiaea c?icoi?oe ethaia? Aiaei?, ia oi/a i?eeiyoe na?o
oaeei, yeei eiai noai?aii, iaoii?noue i?aaia anoaiiaeoe nai? “i?aaeea
a?e”. Naia a oeueiio aa/o aieiai? aeaea?aea ?? o?aa?cio.

Iaia?an?/iei i?aaenoaaieeii aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy a Oe?a?i?
e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo OO no. aoa I. O?aiei (“Iiooee o?ainoeaiaeaioieo
aeaea?ae ?nioaaiiy ?noeie a iiac?yo oa iiaiao I. O?aiea”).

Aecenoaioe?eii-o?einionueea niaaeueia iiaoa ? ienueiaiieea, a/aiiai ?
a?iiaaenueeiai ae?y/a cana?ae/o? i?i ia?aiiao a??e iaae ciaiiyi, na?oey
iaae ?icoiii. I. O?aiei iaeaaeeoue aei eiai?oe “o?aa?/ieo iioei?no?a”.
Ia oe? ciai?oi?o ? aioo??oi?o e?eciaeo neooaoe?e a oe?a?inuee?e ?noi???
— nioe?aeueiiai ?icoa?oaaiiy, ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ia?enecio, ?aoe?iiae?cio
— iiao oaeaiiaeoi a?aeaeaa? o nai?e oai?/ino? noia?a/iino? aeiae,
o?aa?ci iieie?iiy “?icoio aac a??e ? eoeueoo iaoa???”. Aoaeo/e
aiieiaaoii ?icoio, ooeath/e a?aeiia?aeue ia caaaaeee aeeooy o nai?o
o?einionueei-e?oa?aoo?ieo oai?ao, O?aiei aeioiaeeoue aeniiaeo i?i eiai
ii?aceo, o?ainoeaiaeaioi? aeaea?aea ?nioaaiiy ?noeie (iiaie “Iienae”,
“Iaai Aeoainueeee”, “No?aoiee noae”, iiac?? “Iaii i?e?iaei”, “I?eo/a i?i
aeeooy” oiui).

Aeinoaoith oaaao i?eae?eaii a aeine?aeaeaii? aeaea?aeai oai?/iai
iaooiaiiy ieooey — iaioaeueiiio i?aeeiaeaeth eiai aecenoaioe?eieo iiac?e
? iiai. Ethaia aei ??aeii? caie?, ia?iaeiiai aeeooy, i?euaieaia ciaeeo,
i?eaiaeeoue aei i?iaieioaiiy ?aeaaeo iaoe?iiaeueii? naiino?eiino?
caiia?oiith i???th aeey Oe?a?ie. ?icaeyaeath/e o?e aoaie oi?ioaaiiy
na?oiaeyaeo I. O?aiea, aeena?oaio aeieeaaeii coieiy?oueny ia
inoaiiueiio, yeee iiaiith i??ith ?ice?eaa? eiai aecenoaioe?eiee aai?e.
Oeae aoai oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aaaaonoaii aioo??oi?o, ?ioeiieo
ia?aaeeaaiue, i?aaiaiiyi e??cue “/aniaa e o?eania” i?iieeiooe a
“aeooiaia e a?/ia”, ?aea?th ceeooy c Aeooii Nayoei — nian?iiyi,
o?aaeeoe?iiae?ciii, ae?aiaoeciii. Aeine?aeaeaiiy aecenoaioe?eii?
nooiino? o?einionueeeo iiai I. O?aiea (“Iienae”, “Iaai Aeoainueeee”,
“Nia?oue Ea?ia”) a?aee?eei, ui aiia i?iyaey?oueny a aiae?c? aca?iiae??
nioe?aeueiiai oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aoooy i?e cae?eniaii? Aiaeiai
I?iieneo aeey in?a ? iaoe?e. Noaaey/e nai?o aa?i?a ia?aae eeoeai Aiaeei,
oneeaaeithth/e iaaeia? neooaoe?? aeai?o, iiao a?aeoai?th? aeani?
ineo?/i?, aeooaai?, aeooiai? ia?aaeeaaiiy, no?aaeaeaiiy, noii?ae a
neoae?ii? Aaouee?auei? oa ia?iaeo. O?aiei-a/aiee, ieneeoaeue ooo
iinooia?oueny aecenoaioe?eii-o?einiooth/iio ieooeth, yeee aeaaa?
Ainiiaea ia iicaaaeoe eiai Nai?? aeaaiaeao?. Aaaaoa iae?o?a o?aaaae?eieo
aecenoaioe?ae?a: no?aaeaeaiiy, aeao, ooaa, naiioa, a?ae/oaeaiiy, a?eue
iaiothoue o oeeo oai?ao. Aecenoaioe?eiee oa?aeoa? o?einiooaaiiy
a?aeaeca?eaeththoue ? ci?no, ? oi?ia ae?aiaoe/ieo iiai I. O?aiea.

?ice?eaath/e canaaee oai?/ino? A. Noaoaieea a inoaiiueiio i?ae?icae?e?
(“Eai?iiee o?ano”, aai i?iaeaia no?aoo ? aieth a iiaaeao A. Noaoaieea”),
aeena?oaio iieaco? aecenoaioe?eio iaaeia?noue ienueiaiieea a onueiio:
a?aeoai?aii? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo noia?a/iinoae ? eiioe?eo?a a
Oe?a?i? e?ioey XIX — ii/aoeo OOno., aeno?aiaeueieo noai?a aeooaaiiai
aieth, a?ae/ath ? ?icioee ?iaeea?aeooi?a,iioea?a “iaaeiaiai” aacneeey,
?icia/o, aano?aeiino? aoooy o “na?oiaiio oain?”. Iaaieioo?oueny, ui
aecenoaioe?eiee ianei?ci aaoi?a a?oioo?oueny ia iaoe?iiaeuei?e
iaioaeueiino?, caa?aaeaii? oa a?aeoai?aii? ia?aaeon?i oe?a?inueeiai
o?aaeeoe?iiae?cio. Oe?a?ia ? caiey, ai?ioueaa ca ieo, — eaeoiioea
oai?/ino? A. Noaoaieea. Iaaea?ia eiai iaceaathoue “naeyinueeei
Aaooiaaiii”. Iiia?aeaiiy ienueiaiieea — oea ioceea ? iiac?y
oe?a?inueeiai naea, ioaea, anueiai ia?iaeo, iaoe??.

Aeaea?aeii o?aaaae?e ? eiioe?eo?a o iiaaeao noa? “aeaaea” caie?
-a?aeiineie aeaniino?, noia?a/ee iaaeiei ia?. Naia a oeeo aca?iiae?yo ia
ia?oee ieai aenooiathoue ineo?/i? iniaeeaino? ethaeae, aaea/a —
i?aea?oioy iaioaeueiino?. Aeath/e i?ino?? nai?io aai?th, ienueiaiiee
Aiaiiaooiaiii, aenoaoe/ii, e?eueeiia ?yaeeaie iaeth? oe?e? aeeoo?a?
ae?aie. Aiaeii/an, ia aeoieo aeena?oaioa, iiieeeiai “i?ea’ycoaaoe “ oe?
o?aaaae?? naia aei aaeeoeueeiai naeyieia. ?o iaia?an?/ia oe?ii?noue
iieyaa? a oiio, ui aiie ia caaaeaee coiiaeai? iaoa??aeueiei noaiiaeuai
naeyieia. Ae?aie, a?aeoai?ai? A. Noaoaieeii, iiaee a?aeaoaaoenue a aeoo?
aoaeue-yeiai oe?a?ioey ? ia iaia’yceiai ia aeiiii?/iiio a?oio?. Oae,
nai???aeia iiia?aeaiiy “Aana?aae” — oea ia?aae/oooy iioea?a aano?aeiino?
aoooy ethaeeie a na?o?, ye? noaee iai?aieie a aecenoaioe?ae?ci? OO no.
Iai iac?icoi?e? o?aa?/i? aeoiee aieiaiiai aa?iy, ui ?iaeyoue eiai
aiaeaa?eueiei, i?ecaiaeyoue aei naiiaoanoaa — oea ???aoe?iiaeueia
a?ae/oooy “na?oiaiai aaceaaeaey” a aeoo?, iaiiaeeea?noue inyaiooe ?
iiaeieaoe eiai aac Aiaa. ?icia/eea? ?ica’ycee aaaaoueio iiaae ieooey —
neiaie a?/ieo iiooe?a ethaeueie naino aeeooy ? uanoy a na?o?.

O aeniiaeao c aeaiiai ?icae?eo noenei ?ice?eaa?oueny niaoeeo?ea yaeua
aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?? XIX no.,
i?aee?aneaii iaaeine?aeaeai?noue ? iiaecio ?ica’ycoaaii? i?iaeaie.

Aiae?co caiia/oaaieo noi??iie a?o/eciyiiai o?einiooaaiiy i?enay/aii
/aoaa?oee ?icae?e aeena?oaoe?? — “I?iaeaia ?nioaaiiy oe?a?inueei?
ethaeeie o oai?/ino? ienueiaiiee?a ia?oi? iieiaeie XX no.”. Iacaaaeath/e
ia caaaeueio oaiaeaioe?th aei eieaeoea?noe/iino? a e?oa?aoo?? oeo ?ie?a,
i?iaieioaiiy aioe?iaeea?aeoae?cio ? aioeineoieia?cio o oi?i? ? ci?no?,
oai?/? iaaeaaiiy ienueiaiiee?a-aea?oa eiioi?noe/iiai oa?i?o yaeee
aa?oeio o ?icaeoeo iniaeno?nii-ineoieia?/ii? o?aaaae?? a eiie?aoiiio
?noi?eei-eoeueoo?iiio eiioaeno?.

A ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? (“I?iaeaia aeai?o “ia iaae?” a ae?aiaoe/ieo
oai?ao A. Aeiie/aiea”) aeena?oaio iieaco?, ye, caaeeaethth/enue a
aeooiaiee na?o aa?i?a, A. Aeiie/aiei aiae?co? ??ci? aniaeoe ethaenueeiai
?nioaaiiy. Ienueiaiiee aeyaey? aeeaeii? aeaea?aea oaeeo aecenoaioe?ae?a
ye “oaeethaaiiy”, “eayooy”, “aeao”, “iaiaaenoue”, “ethaia”, “ooaa”,
“nia?oue”, aeine?aeaeoth/e aeaoeeao aeenaa?iii?th i?ae ?aoe?iiaeueiei oa
???aoe?iiaeueiei, noi?eueiei oa ?iaeea?aeoaeueiei, iaia’yceii oa
ii/oooyi, a??ith oa ?icoiii. Aeae?eaii o?e a?oie aecenoaioe?eieo
i?iaeai, iaaeiei yeeo cina?aaeaeai? oai?e A. Aeiie/aiea. Ia?oa —
i?iaeaie ia iaae? aeeooy ? nia?o? (iiia?aeaiiy “Aeoi”, “Ae??aieoey”,
ae?aie “*i?ia Iaioa?a ? A?eee Iaaea?aeue”, “I?eaaiaeaeai?”); ae?oaa —
i?iaeaie iane?aee?a eiioe?eoo aie? iniae, yea ii/oaa? naaa
“iaaeethaeeiith”, ? ?aaeueiiai aoooy (ae?aie “Caeii”, “Memento”, “Uaae?
uanoy”); o?aoy — i?iaeaie eiioe?eoo noni?eueii-aano?aeoii? ?aea? oa
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aoooy (ae?aie “Aaca?”, “Aeenaa?iii?y”, “A??o”,
“Aei/ea aeaiaea?ia”). Ni?eueia, ui ia’?aeio? aeuacaaaeai? oa ?io?
“aecenoaioe?ei?” ae?aie ? iiia?aeaiiy ieooey — e?eciaee noai ethaenueei?
aeoo?, yea i?ae oeneii iaaecae/aeieo aeey ia? ianoaaei ciooaia aeeoe “ca
iaae?” aoaeaiiiai ?nioaaiiy ? c?iaeoe na?e aea??. Ienueiaiiee caeeoa?
oaea i?aai ca nai?ie aa?iyie — i?aai ia naiiaecia/aiiy, aoio, i?ioano,
iaa?oue naiiaoanoai. Ae?acii eoiathoue o eiai oai?ao iioeae naiioe ?
a?ae/oaeaiiy, iaiaaaiiy iiaeieaoe oie noai. I?aaiaiiy ?ica’ycaoe an?
aecenoaioe?ei? i?iaeaie caiaeeoueny aei ae?? — iiooeo oeyo?a aei uanoy ?
aa?iii?? c ioi/oth/ei na?oii.

Caaeeaeaiiy a aeooiaiee na?o iniae, i?ciaiiy ineo?ee ieney/i?,
co?eaiaeaii? ?noioe ii/aoeo OO no. — oeyo aie?nieo ooeaiue oaeaiiaeoiai
ni?aa?o/ecieea, yeee aeine?aeaeo?oueny a i?ae?icae?e? “A. I?aeiiaeeueiee
i?i aano?aei?noue aoooy oe?a?inueei? ethaeeie ii/aoeo OO no.”. I.
Aieueoa? ? Ae. Ae?ae?i, A. Athai ? I. Aaeuecae, A. Iiiannai ? A. O?ain,
Ni?iica ? Eaio, Oiiaiaaoa? ? Oiaiaea?, I?oeoa ? O?aeae, — ?a?iiaenuee?
aeooiai? a/eoae? aaoi?a, iciaeiieaiiy c? niaaeueiith yeeo i?aeianei
ienueiaiieea ia ??aaiue na?oiai? o?einionueei? ? e?oa?aoo?ii? aeoiee.
?acii c oei, iaoe?iiaeueia iaioaeuei?noue — aieiaia i?aeaaeeia eiai
na?oiaeyaeo, aeaea?aei oai?/ino?. Oe?a?inueeeie ianoaaieeaie iaeno?a
aoee I. Eioethaeinueeee, I. O?aiei, A. Noaoaiee, A. Aeiie/aiei. I?ioa
yne?aaiio i?iyao iaioaeueiino? a eiai oai?ao ie caaaey/o?ii ei??iith —
i?ino?e oe?a?inuee?e ae?ioe?-iaoa??, yea ana aeeooy i?aoethaaea eiei
caie?.

Aeena?oaio aeine?aeaeo? iiaeeaeaiiy iaoe?iiaeueieo i?iaeai ia oe?
caaaeueiiethaenueeeo i?ioean?a OO no.: o?aai?caoe??, ?iaeono??ae?caoe??,
iineeaiiy aano?aeiino? aoooy iniae aeiae nioe?aeueieo ?
iaoeiai-oaoi?/ieo ?aaiethoe?e ? e?ec, oaeaiiaeoi a?aeoai?aia A.
I?aeiiaeeueiei (?iiai “I?noi”). Ienueiaiiee iaia?aaa?oaii ia?aaea?
ci?ie: a?eaie noi?iiaaiiai noaiiaiai e?a?aeaeo — ia ci?iao iaiaaeai?noue
nioiyie aoae?aaeue; iia?eueieo aie?a — ia oaeaee?ni? aaoi; iaae?th ia
Aiaa — iaae?th ia naaa; iaeaaieea?noue — iaoooiath ? caeeiiioai?noth.
Aiae?c iieaco?, ui aeeneon?? a ia/eneaiieo, i?ioa /oaeiaeo iiia?aeaiiyo
? ?iiaiao I?aeiiaeeueiiai ?icai?oathoueny iaaeiei iaea?/ieo ieoaiue:
aeeooy ? nia?o?, a??e ? ?icoio, aeooiaiino?, ii?aeueiino? oiui. O
c?oeiaii? noia?a/eeaeo noaeaeaiue ? a/eie?a aa?i?a aaoi? noaa?aeaeo?
ia?aaaao ???aoe?iiaeueiiai iaae ?aoe?iiaeueiei, /oooy iaae ?icoiii,
iaoe?iiaeueiiai, oe?a?inueeiai iaae ?in?enueeei, ?aeaae?cio iaae
iaoa??ae?ciii. Nyaath/e na?oiaiai ??aiy aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy,
A. I?aeiiaeeueiee aeiaiaeeoue iani?iiiaei?noue ethaenueeiai ?icoio, ui,
ye aiae?enueeee ei?ieue iaio?, ia ea?oth/e; iaoee, yea i?ioyaii oeny/
?ie?a ia caeaoia ?ica’ycaoe i?iaeaie ethaenueeiai aoooy, iacaaaeath/e ia
an? nai? aeinyaiaiiy ? ? “i?ui” i?ioe iaae?? ia ?ae (“I?noi”).
I?iaeiaaeoth/e o?aaeeoe?? Ianeaey, ienueiaiiee aiaeth? aei
ii?aeueii-ineoieia?/ii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie, i?aeiineoue iniaeno?nia,
?iaeea?aeoaeueia iiiaae ona ?, ?acii c oei, ciaeueiao? iniao ye “eaieo ?
iaaeieoao ?noioo” (“Iia?noue aac iacae”).

Aiae?c oai??a A. I?aeiiaeeueiiai ?ice?eaa?, ui, i?ieeaaeath/e oeyoe a
“iiao” oe?a?inueeo e?oa?aoo?o, ienueiaiiee, iiae?aii cao?aeiei eieaaai,
cia?aaea? i?ioean oi?ioaaiiy “oe?a?inueeiai” das Man, -na?aaeiuei?
ethaeeie-aaoiiaoa, i?inoiai ? aaaeuei?iai ?iaioa (“Iaaaee/ea ae?aia”,
“Iia?noue aac iacae”). No/ania i?nueea aeeooy ienueiaiiee ii??aith? c
a?ieia?/iei iai?iii ?a/iaei, neecueeei ? ia?caiiei. A?aeiia?aei? iiene
niiaiai? na?o??anueeei iaoo?ae?ciii ? a?eaee?noth (“I?noi, “Iaaaee/ea
ae?aia”). Naia a oeueiio aeon? A. I?aeiiaeeueiee ciaeueiao?
iaoo?ae?noe/i? a?aaeaiiy: iaeaeo noaoaaiai aeoo, iicaaaeaiiai
aeooiaiino?, nooi aecenoaioe?eia ni?eeiyooy ethaenueeiai o?ea ye neeco,
ioioiaeiaiiy aeeooy c “ae?aaeenoei” a?eeii (?iiaie “Iaaaee/ea ae?aia”,
“Iia?noue aac iacae”, iiia?aeaiiy “Noa?aoeue”).Oaeaiiaeoi a?aeoai?th?
ieoaoeue a?aaeaiiy a?ae aacaiaeieoeoaa aeeooy, eiai ?aoe?iiae?caoe??, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i c?inoath/o aano?aei?noue aoooy ye ?aae?th ii/aoeo
noie?ooy.

I?e/eie aeuaaeacaieo yaeu aeey iueiai i/aaeaei?, — “aieaea ?iceioo?” ia
ieaiao? (iiia?aeaiiy “Noa?aoeue”), ae?oe Aioeo?enoa, ui ieneyoue naaa
aeuei a?ae Aiaa, “neaeyoue ia iieoo?” a e?a?i?, ia?oeyth/e eiioi?noe/iee
?ae (“Iaai Ainee”). Naia aiie caii?aeoaaee ia Nieiaeao aecenoaioe?eiai
neia Oe?a?ie, aea ia caoaeee eiai aeoo?, yea e ca?ac i?iiiaey? c eiai
oai??a: “aeeooy oi/a aooe!”

Nooi?noue oai?/ino? ianooiiiai ieneeoaey aeine?aeaeo?oueny o
i?ae?icae?e? “Aecenoaioe?eiee aoio ethaenueeiai “y” a iiaaeao I.
Oaeeueiaiai”.

“Iio?e na?aeiiino?”, “Iiac?y a i?ic?”, ao?oeea?noue, eiei?eoi?noue,
e?iaiaoia?ao?/ia o?aaiaioa?i?noue, ioce/i?noue, — aieiai? oa?aeoa?enoeee
niaaeueie Oaeeueiaiai, ye? na?ae/aoue ia ei?enoue
aecenoaioe?eii-o?einionueeiai aeooo eiai iaooiaiiy. Ethaia’th aei aoooy,
ethaeae i?inyeiaia any oai?/?noue ienueiaiieea. Iaoe?iiaeueia
iaioaeuei?noue, yea i?iyaeeanue a oe?e ethaia?, aeicaiey? c?icoi?oe nain
iniae ? niaaeueie ienueiaiieea.

Aeeaiaeaeii, ye ieaoeai a?aaanie, o oai?/ino? I. Oaeeueiaiai ethaia aei
Oe?a?ie ii?aeiaeanue c ethaia’th aei ae?iee, ethaia aei ??aeiiai i?noa —
c ethaia’th aei ??aeii? iiae, “?aae?noue aoioo i?ioe eia?ee” c
“?aae?noth ?nioaaiiy” (“Aeaa?y”, “A?aaanee”). Oaeeueiaee iaia?aaa?oaii
a?aeoai?th? a iiaaeao aecenoaioe?eio ai?ioueao ethaenueeiai “y”, ui
?ic/aaeth?oueny iaeaeiith ae?eni?noth. A?i iieaco?, ye “na?oiaa naiei/”,
“oa?y iaia?aiiaeaiiai oaia” nei?enoaeanue a??eeie ieiaeaie ?aaiethoe??,
cae?eniaii? ca aeiiiiiaith iaaeo?aieo i??eiee?a ? io/aiee?a, na?aae yeeo
aoa nai aaoi?. Aecenoaioe?eia o?aaaae?ei?noue aoooy e?aueo ethaeae
iieie?iiy 20-o ?ie?a — caeiiii??i?noue iiaae?noeee Oaeeueiaiai.
I??aoe?iiaeuei? i?iaeaie ethaenoaa ii/aoeo noie?ooy, a?aeoai?ai?
cao?aeieie eieaaaie, aeiiiaiai? ? iineeai? o oai?/ino? ienueiaiieea
a?ae/oooyi ii?aeueiiai ?iceeaaeo, ?ic/a?oaaiiy, a?ae/oaeaiiy
i?neyo?iioiaiai ii?aaiethoe?eiiai iai?anueeiai i?ae/anny. Oe?eaai, ui
“caeaeie”, “/oaeeie” a N?N? noathoue “aaca?oioiai? ?iiaioeee”, ye? nayoi
a??eee a “caa??io eiioio”. AEi?noiea ae?eni?noue, iaioaaiiy nee cea
ii?iaeeee e?oo?iiy ?ethc?e, nionoioaiiy aeoo? ? n??a, aacci?noiaia
?nioaaiiy cai?noue i/?eoaaiiai eiioi?noe/iiai ?ath (“Nei?e eenoiiaae”,
“Iia?noue i?i naiaoi??eio ciio”). Oae, aecenoaioe?eii-aano?aeiei,
iac?icoi?eei noa? eiioi?noe/ia aeeooy aac Aiaa aeey A’yiee
(“Naioeiaioaeueia ?noi??y”); aacci?noiaiei ? eeoei aeey /ae?noee
Ia?’yie, yea i?enayoeea naaa ?aaiethoe?? ?, a?aoo?-?aoo, i?ae?eoea aei
naiiaoanoaa (“Caaoeie”); “caeaeie” noathoue ?aaeaeoi? Ea?e, yeee
“aacoiii” ethaeoue Oe?a?io (“?aaeaeoi? Ea?e”); i??eeeaa ? /enoa na?oeai
iaiia Ia?a, yea ia ao?aoeea a??o o nayoo Aiaeo ethaia (“A?aaanee”) oiui.
Iaoii?noue i?ioea?oathoue iaeaaoae?, i?uooe, eeoeai??e, i?enoinoaaioe?,
— neiaii, aanue a?oae, yeee ?aaiethoe?eiith oaeeath aoei i?aeianaii ia
iiaa?oith aeeooy. Naia aiie ? “ainiiaea?yie” noaiiaeua a N?N?.
Oaeeueiaee-?iiaioee noa? naoe?eeii. Aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? naoe?o
ienueiaiieea ye “aecenoaioe?eiee aoio”. Aacaeaeueii ? c iaeaeith
aee?eaa? ieoaoeue iiaea?eio ii?aeue ? niaeoeyoe?th ?aeayie, eeoeai??noai
? ieacoaaiiy ca oa??eeo thoee ia?aae iiae?aieie aei ieo iaaeiethaeeaie
(iiaaee “Naeiy”, “Iaai Iaaiiae/”).

Ienueiaiiee iieaco?, iane?eueee aeaoeeai ii/oaaea naaa
ethaeeia-no/aniee, aa/a/e ia noiai? aeaa iaiene: “I?aeao iai?aai
-caa?eca aiae. I?aeao iae?ai — oa’?ony a y?eo… Oea ae?eni?noue (“Nei?e
eenoiiaae”). I?aaaea, aoea ua iaeia iiaeeea?noue -ia?aoai?eoenue ia
ia?an?/io ethaeeio — das Man, — noaoe “iaoei?ciaaiei”, ui a?aeiia?aeaei
?aeaaeo eiioie: “iaooeeueii eaea i?ioean iaoei?caoe??” (“Iia?noue i?i
naiaoi??eio ciio”, “E?o o /iaioyo”, “Uaneeaee nae?aoa?”).

Aeine?aeaeaiiy cana?ae/eei, ui ?icae?eaiiy na?aae ethaeae ? ?icae?eaiiy,
?icaeai?iiy a aeooao, — aieiai? aecenoaioe?ei? ?aae??, iaaeiei yeeo
cina?aaeaeai? oai?e aaoi?a.

O?aaaae?eii-aecenoaioe?eiee ceai, yeee i?ieoia ii na?oeth eiaeiiai c
ian, ii na?oeth Oe?a?ie, i?ieoia iaaaee/eith ca ianyaii, aea “?acth/ith
ye niee?a” oai?/?noth Iiaoa (“O. Inueia/ea i?i eini?/i? aei??e
iacaaaiaiii? oe?a?inueei? o?aaaae??”).

Aia ? aeeyaie, Oe?a?ia ? iaaiey, a?/i?noue ? ethaenueea aeeooy, aeooa ?
einiin, ai?ioueaa ? no?aaeaeaiiy, ai?a ? ?aae?noue, ea?a ? nian?iiy, —
i?iaeaie aecenoaioe?eieo nooae?e ieooey, aiae?co yeeo i?enay/aii aeaiee
i?ae?icae?e. Ia iniaeea?e, o?aa?/i?e iio? ?icai?oa? Inueia/ea ea?oeio
aano?aeiiai, aiieae?ioe/iiai ?nioaaiiy ca /an?a “Anana???” a Oe?a?i? —
na?oo ?oeioaaiiy a?eiaeo oe?iiinoae, o?aaeeoe?e, ae?iaeaeaiiy
oe?a?inueeiai aeiio. Cieueoe aeooiai?noue, o?aaeeoe?iiae?ci,
?iaeea?aeoaeuei?noue ?, a oaeee niin?a, iaoe?iiaeueio iaioaeuei?noue ye
i?aeeiaeaey aecenoaioe?? oe?a?inueei? ethaeeie — iaoa “nia?o?a”. Ana
c??aiyoe, eieaeoea?coaaoe, ona?aaeieoe, niiaieoe a?/iei, oaa?eiiei
aeaoii. O oai?ao “Iiao”, “?ioiiaea aeooiaoaoe?a”, “Ineo?/ia ?ic?yaeea”
Inueia/ea a?aeaa?oi ?iciia?aea?, ye aioo??oi? ? ciai?oi? ai?iae
cae?enithaaee aaiioeeae iaoiai ia?iaeo, ui, e??i i?iaiae?ciaaieo a
e?oa?aoo?i?e e?eoeoe? iane?aee?a, ni?e/eieei a?ae/oaeai?noue,
aaoiiaoecaoe?th, aano?aei?noue aoooy, — neiaii, i?ecaaei aei
aecenoaioe?eieo neooaoe?e, o?aaaae?ei?oeo a?ae ciaeueiaaieo cao?aeieie
eieaaaie: “Oe?a?ia neae?/aia. Ia ?? ia ia?aa’ycaieo ?aiao eacyoue
aaaee…” (“?ioiiaea aeooiaoaoe?a”).

Ie??i cacia/aiiai, niaoeeo?eo aecenoaioe?eii? oai?/ino? O. Inueia/ee
aeena?oaio aa/eoue oaeiae a oiio, ui oaio Oe?a?ie ienueiaiiee
i?aeiineoue ye eini?/io. Iacaaaiaiia oe?a?inueea o?aaaae?y, — “caaooa”
Aiaii Oe?a?ia ? iaeaiueea, aecenoaioe?eii-naiioiy ethaeeia, — oea
aecenoaioe?eii-o?einionueeee na?o Inueia/ee. Aeena?oaio ?ice?eaa?, ye
na?o??anuee? iioeae naiioe, caaoaeaiino? o Anana?o? ii?aeiothoueny c
o?aaaae??th oe?a?inueeiai naea a oain? iaoe?iiaeueiiai ieaaio iaiaaeno?
? a?ae/ath. Iioeae i?ca?iino? ethaeeie i?ioe einiino eoiathoue o
“Noa?oiio aiy?ei?”. O. Inueia/ea ieoa i?i “a?/io aaeaeoae?noue eini?/ii?
ic??”, ui nai?th oa?iie/?noth iaaaaeo? iaeaiueeo naiioith ethaenueeo
aeooo, yea aei iac?icoi?eiai o?aio?iiy i?aaia ceeoenue c a?/i?noth
(“Iiao”). E?eaaea Oe?a?ie oaea no?aoia, ni?eueia oe?a?inueea ai?a oaea
aaeeea, ye Aiaea ci?yia iaai (“Ieai aei aeai?o”). I?ioa iiaoiaa aieaiiy
aei einiino ? a?/iino? /anii i?aeiineoueny aei ona?aeiieaiiy oiai, ui
einiin — ia oain, ui o Anana?o? iin?aea? /?eueia i?noea a?/ii aeeaa
ii?yaeeoth/a neea, aaniethoia I?aaaea ? Nayo?noue — Ainiiaeue (“Ineo?/ia
?ic?yaeea”).

Iaioaeueii-coiiaeaio iniaeea?noue oaeaioo ieooey aa/eii a ioioiaeiaii?
na?oo c “cieioith” Oe?a?iith, naeyinueeei ?a?i. Inueia//eia Oe?a?ia
“aeeoa?” a?eiaith eoeueoo?ith, o?aaeeoe?yie oe?ai?ianueeiai naeyinueeiai
e?ath (“Iiao”). Ia?iaeiee iiaoo c on?ia eiai i?eiaaeaie, ??aeieie
cae/ayie, /a??aieie eaceaie, iia??’yie, caaiaiiaie “aoiaeeoue a aeooo” c
i?iciaiai “Noa?oiai aiy?eia”. Ienueiaiiee aeii?n aei iaoiai ?icoi?iiy,
ui iaoe?iiaeueia iaioaeuei?noue, ieaaey/enue a ai?iee? OO no., ia
ao?aoeea niaoeeo?eo, noaaoe i?aea?oioyi aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o
iaoe?iiaeueii? eoeueoo?e (o?einio??). A?i cacia/aa, ui a??a,
ethaeyi?noue, aeia?ioa, /oe?noue, na?aea/i?noue, i?naii?noue, ue??noue,
aeniea ii?aeuei?noue — aieiai? ?ene, ye? “caaaaeaee” ?icaeoeo
aea?aeaaioai?/eo i?ioean?a, aea, ia i?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy Aiaeanoaaiii?
iacaaaiaiiino?, oaia? noai?eee iniaeeaee aeooiaiee a?oio aeey oeueiai.

O i?aenoieao aei ?icae?eo i?aee?aneaii aeooaeuei?noue ?
iaaeine?aeaeai?noue iinoaaeaii? i?iaeaie, aeae?eaii eeth/ia? iiiaioe.

Ianooiiee, i’yoee ?icae?e ?iaioe — “Inieneaiiy aieiaieo aecenoaioe?ae?a
ye i?iya?a naino ethaenueeiai aoooy”. Eiai iaoa -aeneiaeoe aaoi?nueea
noaaeaiiy aei a?/ieo i?iaeai ethaenueeiai ?nioaaiiy ? i?ioean?a, ye?
a?aeaoaathoueny a iao?e iieiae?e aea?aeaa?. sse canaaee a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
aecenoaioe?eiiai ieneaiiy a Oe?a?i? aeena?oaio ?icaeyaea? c?inoaiiy
ni?aa?o/eciee?a o O?enoia?e a???, aea?aeaaio iacaeaaei?noue, ci?ie a
aeiiii?oe?.

O ia?oiio i?ae?icae?e? — “Iiooee naino aoooy a no?aaeaeaiiyo ye aieiaia
a ?nioaaii? iniae ? aecia/aeueia oaia aiae?oe/ieo ai?aa aecenoaioe?eiiai
ieneaiiy”, — aeena?oaio noaa?aeaeo?, ui ?icaeoie iaae i?iaeaiith iiooe?a
naino aoooy — ea?ioanaioe?y aecenoaioe?ae?cio. AEeooy iana a nia? aaaaoi
aecenoaioe?eieo neooaoe?e ooae, aieth, a?ae/ath, iiiaa??yiue. Ethaee
no?aaeaeathoue iaeiaeiai, i?ioa ??ciei ? noaaeaiiy aei “oeiiaeo”
iaaeiaeo noai?a aeoo? ? o?ea ? oeyo?a aeoiaeo c e?ece. A oaeeo oiiaao
ciaoiaeaeaiiy naino ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai aoooy noa? aeooiaiith iiaeeaith,
aieiaiei caaaeaiiyi, aac aeeiiaiiy yeiai iaia? aeeooy ? nian?iiy.
Aeniiaee iieyaathoue a oiio, ui aaniethoio iiaiioo eiaeiee, ooi i?aaia
i?ciaoe ?noeio, iaaoaa? o O?eno? Inon?. Aeey Ainiiaea iaia? aacaeo?aeieo
neooaoe?e, iaiiaeeeaiai. A?i eiaeiiio aea? oain ciaeoe ni?aaaei?
iieeeeaiiy a na?o?, nii??aeiaio i?aoeth, nain aeeooy.

O ae?oaiio i?ae?icae?e? (“O?enoeyinueea a??a ye aieiaia canaaea
aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? aeooiaiino?”) eaeaoueny i?i
aieea o?enoeyinoaa ia oe?a?inueea aeooiaia aeeooy a i?ioean? ?noi?e/iiai
?icaeoeo, aeoeaioiaaii no/ania cia/aiiy o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eiiai
ieneaiiy a aea?aeaa?. Cie?aia, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?ieue Oea?eae a aeeoo?
ia?iaeo, o?aaeeoe?ei?noue o?enoeyinueei? i?iaeaiaoeee o o?einionueeeo
iiooeao: aca?iia?aeiineie Oai?oey-ethaeeie, i?aeianaiiy aeooiaiiai
aeeooy a Ainiiae? iaae o?eaniei, ooieoe?iioaaiiy na?oey ye ina?aaeeo
“aioo??oiuei? ethaeeie”. C iaeyaeo ia no/aniee e?eciaee noai aeooiaiiai
? iaoa??aeueiiai aeeooy a Oe?a?i? aiae?co?oueny nooi?noue o?enoeyinueei?
a??e ia o?eueee ye “ia?aionoee” o a?/ia aeeooy, a e aeaaee iaae
ne?i/aiiei, ui noa? iiaooi?i cia?yaeaeyi ia?aoai?aiiy, a?ae?iaeaeaiiy
caiiiai aoooy. Aeiaiaeeoueny iaiao?aei?noue iiaa?iaiiy aei
o?aaeeoe?eiiai, o?enoeyinueei-aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueeiai
o?einiooaaiiy, a yeiio aecia?oueny iina?aaeieoeueea ?ieue o?einionueeiai
ieneaiiy i?ae a??ith ? ?icoiii.

Aieiaia ?aeay o?aoueiai i?ae?icae?eo (“Iiceoeaiee aecenoaioe?ae?ci ?
eiai aieiai? eaoaai???”) iieyaa? a iaa?oiooaaii? iaiao?aeiino?
aeiiiaiaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e o?einionuee?e aeoioe? aecenoaioe?ae?cio ye
o?einionueeiai a/aiiy (eeane/iiai — iiceoeaiei); aiae?c? oaeeo
aecenoaioe?ae?a ye ethaia, uanoy, a??a. Aeena?oaio iiynith? oea iiaeie
ia?niaeoeaaie ?icaeoeo aea?aeaaiino? a Oe?a?i?. O ca’yceo c oeei iei?
iiaa?oa?iinue aei eiioeaioe?? uanoy, yeo ?icaeioa A. Neiai?iaea a ?yae?
i?aoeue ua o OYIII no. Uanoy, — noaa?aeaeoaaa o?einio, — ia a Aia?eoe?.
Oea — noai aeoo?, yeee ia caeaaeeoue a?ae ianoaaei. Oea?noai Aiaea — a
ian. AEeoe o caiae? c Aiaii, ooeaoe nii??aeiaio i?aoeth, aeeiioaaoe nai?
i?ecia/aiiy ia caie?, — a?/iee ? ?aeeiee oeyo aei uanoy, yeee ?ice?eaa?
Nayoa Ienueii.

A /a?oaa?oiio i?ae?icae?e? (“Iaeay i?eaaoecio ye a?oio ?icaeoeo
aecenoaioe?eiiai ieneaiiy”) eaeaoueny i?i ia??ai?noue ye Aiaeo aieth
aeey ian. I?eaaoia aeani?noue a oeueiio ?icoi?ii? — ia ooo/ia ooai?aiiy.
Aiia ia iiaea aooe cieuaia, ine?eueee caeeaaeaia a iniia? ?icaeoeo
oeea?e?caoe??. I?ioyaii ?noi??? ethaenoaa i?eaaoia aeani?noue oi?ioaaea
no?ooo?o noni?euenoaa. Aeena?oaio ?ice?eaa? oaa?aeaeaiiy, ui ia i?eaaoia
aeani?noue ii?iaeaeo? cei. Ceii noaei caia?a/aiiy i?eaaoii? aeaniino? ye
i?aaa a?eueii? iniae. Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui ?icaeoie o?einio??
aecenoaioe?ae?cio iiaeeeaee o?eueee o a?eueiiio noni?euenoa?, aea
ethaeeia ia? i?aai ia i?eaaoio aeani?noue. Naia a oaeeo oiiaao noa?
iiaeeeaei ? ?aaeueiei ?icai?oaiiy ia o?aaaae?eiiai, a iiceoeaiiai
aecenoaioe?ae?cio, aeinyaiaiiy uanoy a on?e iiaiio?.

O aeniiaeao ocaaaeueiaii aanue eiiiean iaoeiaeo aeine?aeieoeueeeo
caeiaooe?a ye ?acoeueoao?a ?ice?eooy aaoi?nueei? eiioeaioe??.

A E N I I A E E

1. Aeii?ioaaiiy aecenoaioe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee a /an? ?? ?ioaineaiiai oa ie?aeiiai ?icaeoeo (OYIII — ia?oa
iieiaeia OO no.) coiiaeaii iniaeeainoyie iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino? ?
?ice?eaa?oueny ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co oai?/ino? ?yaeo aecia/ieo iinoaoae a
aeooiaiiio aeeoo? iaoe?? oeyoii canoinoaaiiy iaioaeueiiai i?aeoiaeo.

2. O?enoeyinoai — i?aeaaeeia, caaaeyee ye?e aecia/aeueiith aeey
oe?a?inueeeo o?einio?a ? ienueiaiiee?a aoea aecenoaioe?eia i?iaeaiaoeea.

I?aeoaa?aeaeaiiy iniaeeai? aaae O?enoiaiai a/aiiy a aeeoo? ? aeooiai?e
eoeueoo?? oe?a?ioe?a ye aieiaia oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioaeueiino? i?ioiaeeoue e??cue ana aeine?aeaeaiiy.

3. Oe?a?inueea aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy — i?aai?/ia neeaaeiaa
na?oiaiai o?einionueeiai i?ioeano.

Iieiaeaiiy a?oioo?oueny ia ?ice?eoo? nii??aeiaiino? ?a?iiaenueeiai ?
oe?a?inueeiai aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy o aieiaieo i?iyaao ia
aeae?eaieo aeena?oaioii /aniaeo ia??iaeao ?icaeoeo.

4. Oe?ea iecea aia?oa aeae?eaieo ni?eueieo ?en aecenoaioe?eiiai
o?einiooaaiiy i?ia?aeieo oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoae?a (A. Neiai?iaee, I.
Eoe?oa, I. TH?eaae/a, I. Aiaiey) i?aeoaa?aeaeo? niaoeeo?eo ? iaioaaiiy
oeueiai oeio ieneaiiy o a?o/eciyi?e eoeueoo??.

5. Aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?? OIO -ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO no. — aaaeeeaa eaiea a?o/eciyiiai o?einiooaaiiy, ui ia? nai?
iniaeeaino? ? noaiiaeoue iiaee i?ino?? aeey aeine?aeieoeueei? oaaae.

6. Inio? “oe?a?inueeee aecenoaioe?ae?ci” ye o?einionueea oa/?y OO no.,
ui caeiaoaa/ aeiaiaeeoue ia a?oio? aea/aiiy ? aiae?co caai?iiaii? oa
iaeia?aeiii? ca ?aaeyinueeeo /an?a niaaeueie oe?a?inueeeo iiao?a ?
ienueiaiiee?a.

7.Aeae?eaii canaaee a?aeiiaeaiiy ?icaeoeo aecenoaioe?eiiai
o?einiooaaiiy. Iaa?oioiaaii, ui aeaiee oei ieneaiiy ye iaa?ae’?iia
neeaaeiaa aeooiaiiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a Oe?a?i? ia? iaaeae? caa??aaoe
iaea?/io o?enoeyinueeo nooi?noue, a /iio aeena?oaio aa/eoue aaaeeeao
oiiao ?icea?oo aea?aeaae.

NIENIE IIOAEIEIAAIEO CA OAIITH AeINEIAeAEAIIss I?AOeUe

Iiiia?ao?y:

Ieoaeeianueea I. O?aa?/i? iioei?noe: Aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy a
oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo?? OIO — ia?oi? iieiaeie OO no.. -Euea?a: Na?o,
1998. — 215 n.

Iio? iaoeia? i?aoe? oa iaa/aeueii-iaoiaee/i? iaoa??aee:

Ieoaeeianueea I. Aieiai? i?iyae anacaaaeueiiai oa?aeoa?o
aecenoaioe?eiiai o?einiooaaiiy oa niaoeeo?ea eiai a?ae?iaeaeaiiy a
Oe?a?i?. — Oa?e?a, 1996. — 39 n. (a?ioo?a)

Ieoaeeianueea I. Iniaeeaino? o?einionueeiai a/aiiy A. Neiai?iaee.
-Oa?e?a, 1996. — 20 n. (a?ioo?a)

Ieoaeeianueea I. A. Noaoaiee ye aecenoaioe?aeueiee ieneeoaeue ? aoiai?no
//Aeooiaiee na?o ethaeeie oa ?icaeoie iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino? a
Oe?a?i?/ A?niee EAeO ?i. I. O?aiea. — Na??y noni?eueieo iaoe. — Aei. 33.
— Euea?a, 1995. — N. 169 — 174.

Ieoaeeianueea I. A. Neiai?iaea — O. Oaa/aiei: iniaeeaino? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioaeueiino? //Neiaiaeaiueia: E?oa?aoo?ii-ooaeiaei?e,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/iee oa oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aeo?iae. — ?7. —
Oa?e?a, 1998. — N. 102 — 109.

Ieoaeeianueea I. Aeooiaiee na?o iniae a e?oa?aoo?i?e niaaeuei? A.
Aeiie/aiea //Ethaeeia, ?? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie/ O?einionuee? iiooee. —
Aei. IY. — Euea?a — Iaeana, 1998. — N. 59 — 68.

Ieoaeeianueea I. Aecenoaioe?ae?ci oa aecenoaioe?aeueia ieneaiiy:
nooi?noue oa iniiai? iiiyooy // Ethaeeia oa ?? ae?eni?noue:
o?einionueei-aio?iiie?a?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy/ O?einionuee? iiooee. -Aei.
III. — Euea?a — Iaeana, 1997. — N. 106 — 110.

Ieoaeeianueea I. Aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy a oe?a?inuee?e e?oa?aoo??
ye yaeua iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?ioaeaeoo // Iioaeaeo o aeca?eae? o?einionueei?
iaoiaeieia?? / O?einionuee? iiooee. — Aei. Y. — Euea?a — Iaeana, 1998. —
N.78 — 86.

Ieoaeeianueea I. I?iaeaie ethaeeie a naeoey?iiio aecenoaioe?ae?ci? OO
no. // Ethaeeia, ?? noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoie / O?einionuee? iiooee. — Aei.
IY. — Euea?a — Iaeana, 1998. — N. 303 — 312.

Ieoaeeianeay I. Eaeay i?eaaoecia eae iniiaa ?acaeoey yecenoaioeeaeueiiai
iuoeaiey a OO aaea (Aiaeec i?iaeaiu ia iniiaa enneaaeiaaiey iniaaiiinoae
oe?aeineie oeeinioneie iunee) //Nioeeieiae/aneea e iaoiaeieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?u ie?iiiieiaiey: Nai?iee noaoae eaoaae?u oeeinioee
OAOONA. -Oa?ueeia, 1995. — Aeai. a EIEII ?AI io 11.07.1995 a., ? 50586.
-N. 16 — 38.

Ieoaeeianeay I. I?iaeaia /aeiaaea a oe?aeineie oeeinioee // Oeeinioneea
i?iaeaiu /aeiaaea a eiioaenoa nia?aiaiiie nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneie
neooaoeee: Nai?iee noaoae eaoaae?u oeeinioee OENE. — Oa?ueeia, 1992. —
Aeai. a EIEII ?AI io 8.06.92 a., ? 46596. — N. 15 — 21.

Ieoaeeianeay I. I?ioeai?a/eainoue i?ioeanna eoeueoo?iiai aic?iaeaeaiey
ia caiaaeiioe?aeineeo caieyo e aai aeeyiea ia ee/iinoue // Oi?ie?iaaiea
aeooiaiiai ie?a ee/iinoe a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo: Nai?iee noaoae eaoaae?u
oeeinioee OENE. — Oa?ueeia, 1991. — Aeai. a EIEII ?AI io 23.09.91 a., ?
145359. — N. 107 — 114.

Ieoaeeianeay I. Oeeinioneia iniuneaiea “oe?aeineiai iiaea?iecia” ia/aea
OO aaea (ia iaoa?eaeao aiaeeca oe?aeineie eeoa?aoo?u) // Iniaaiiinoe
noaiiaeaiey e ?acaeoey ie?iiiieiaiey /aeiaaea ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia:
Nai?iee noaoae eaoaae?u oeeinioee OENE. -Oa?ueeia, 1993. — Aeai. a EIEII
?AI io 1.07.93 a., ? 48356. — N. 13 – 23.

Ieoaeeianeay I. Oeeinioey oai?/anoaa Ooeoc Eio?aea eae i?aaeiinueea
ca?iaeaeaiey o?aioeocneiai yecenoaioeeaeecia OO aaea // Ie?iiiieiaiea
ee/iinoe e nioeeaeueiay eoeueoo?a: Nai?iee noaoae eaoaae?u oeeinioee
OENE. — Oa?ueeia, 1994. — Aeai. a EIEII ?AI io 15.09.94 a., ? 49599. —
N. 56 — 62.

Ieoaeeianeay I. Yecenoaioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? oe?aeineiai
ie?iaicc?ai/aneiai iaioaeeoaoa // Nioeeieiae/aneea e iaoiaeieiae/aneea
i?iaeaiu eoeueoo?u ie?iiiieiaiey: Nai?iee noaoae eaoaae?u oeeinioee
OAOONA. — Oa?ueeia, 1995. — Aeai. a EIEII ?AI io 11.07.95 a. ? 50586. —
N. 95 — 101.

Ieoaeeianueea I. Aeaye? ieoaiiy a?ae?iaeaeaiiy eoeueoo?e
cao?aeiioe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo // Eoeueoo?a ? ia?aaoaeiaa: ae?aeaeoeea
aeooiaieo i?ioean?a / Oace aenooi?a iaeanii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii?
eiioa?aioe?? 21-22 aa?aniy 1990 ?. — Euea?a, 1990. — N. 83-84.

Ieoaeeianueea I. Cia/aiiy iniae ? oai?/ino? I. Eoe?oa a ?icai?oaii?
eoeueoo?iiai iinooio iaoe?? //Eoeueoo?a Oe?a?ie: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue
/Anaoe?a?inueea iaoeiai-oai?aoe/ia eiioa?aioe?y 19-20 eenoiiaaea 1996
?.: iaoa??aee. — Oa?e?a: OAeIE, 1996. — N. 14.

Ieoaeeianueea I., Eenaieiaa I. Iaoiaeeea oi?ioaaiiy aeooiaii?, ineo?/ii
a??aiiaaaeaii? iniae o e?eciaiio ia??iae? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa //
Eoeueoo?a oa aeooiai?noue/ Oace aenooi?a iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe??
25-26 aeiaoiy 1991 ?. — Euea?a, 1991. — N. 66.

Ieoaeeianeay I. O?aaeci e yecenoaioeeaeeci // Oacenu 51
iao/ii-iaoiaee/aneie eiioa?aioeee i?aiiaeaaaoaeae OAOONA 16 — 19 ai?aey
1996 a. — Oa?ueeia, 1996. — N. 169.

Ieoaeeianeay I. Yecenoaioeeaeueiua iioeau a oai?/anoaa Eane Oe?aeiee //
Oai aea. — N. 169-170.

Ieoaeeianueea I. O?einionueea aeoiea a Oe?a?i?: Iaoiaee/i?
?aeiiaiaeaoe?? aei niaoeeo?no. — Oa?e?a, 1992. — 24 n.

A I I O A Oe I ss

Ieoaeeianueea I. Aecenoaioe?eiee oa?aeoa? oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei?
aeoiee ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy niaoeeo?ee iaoe?iiaeueii? iaioaeueiino?. —
?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy aeieoi?a o?einionueeeo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.05 — ?noi??y o?einio??. — Euea?anueeee
aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao ?i. I. O?aiea, Euea?a, 1998.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii ?ice?eooth eiioeaioe?? aecenoaioe?eiiai
oa?aeoa?o oe?a?inueei? o?einionueei? aeoiee ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
niaaeueie ?yaeo aeaeaoieo oe?a?inueeeo ieneeoae?a OYIII — ia?oi?
iieiaeie OO no. Iaa?oioiao?oueny ?ieue oe?a?inueei? iaoe?iiaeueii?
iaioaeueiino? ye i?aeeiaeaey oeueiai oaiiiaio. ?ic?iaeaii iiaee iai?yiie
a aaeoc? ?noi??? oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? — aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy o
a?o/eciyi?e e?oa?aoo??. Anoaiiaeaia iiae?ai?noue ? aecia/aia niaoeeo?ea
a?aeiia?aeieo ia??iae?a ?icaeoeo ?a?iiaenueei? ? oe?a?inueei?
aecenoaioe?eii? o?einionueei? aeoiee. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeicaieeei noai?eoe oe?e?nio ea?oeio ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? o?einio?? a
?noeii?e aa?iii??, aeaea?aeii yei? aenooia? Nayoa Ienueii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: eiioeaioe?y, aecenoaioe?eia o?einiooaaiiy, iaoe?iiaeueia
iaioaeuei?noue, o?aaeeoe?ei?noue, oe?a?inueea, niaoeeo?ea, Nayoa
Ienueii.

A I I I O A Oe E ss

Ieoaeeianeay I. A. Yecenoaioeeaeueiue oa?aeoa? oe?aeineie oeeinioneie
iunee eae io?aaeaiea niaoeeoeee iaoeeiiaeueiie iaioaeueiinoe. —
?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie aeieoi?a oeeinioneeo iaoe ii
niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.05 — enoi?ey oeeinioee. — Eueaianeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao ei. E. O?aiei, Eueaia, 1998.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia ?ane?uoeth eiioeaioeee yecenoaioeeaeueiiai
oa?aeoa?a oe?aeineie oeeinioneie iunee ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca oai?/aneiai
ianeaaeey ?yaea auaeathueony oe?aeineeo iuneeoaeae XYIII — ia?aie
iieiaeiu OO a. Iainiiauaaaony ?ieue oe?aeineie iaoeeiiaeueiie
iaioaeueiinoe eae iniiaaiey yoiai oaiiiaia. ?ac?aaioaii iiaia
iai?aaeaiea a iaeanoe enoi?ee oe?aeineie oeeinioee — yecenoaioeeaeueiia
oeeinionoaiaaiea a ioa/anoaaiiie eeoa?aoa. Onoaiiaeaii iiaeiaea e
ii?aaeaeaia niaoeeoeea niioaaonoaothueo ia?eiaeia ?acaeoey aa?iiaeneie e
oe?aeineie yecenoaioeeaeueiie oeeinioneie iunee. I?iaaaeaiiia
enneaaeiaaiea iicaieeei nicaeaoue oeaeinoioth ea?oeio ?acaeoey
oe?aeineie oeeinioee a enoeiiie aa?iiiee, enoi/ieeii eioi?ie aunooiaao
Nayuaiiia Ienaiea.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: eiioeaioeey, yecenoaioeeaeueiia oeeinionoaiaaiea,
iaoeeiiaeueiay iaioaeueiinoue, o?aaeeoeeiiiinoue, oe?aeineay,
niaoeeoeea, Nayuaiiia Ienaiea.

S U M M A R Y

Mihailovska N. A. The Existentional Character of Ukrainian Philosophical
Thought as Reflection of Natiinal Mental Specifity. — Ianuscript.

Thesis for a doctor’s degree by speciality 09.00.05 — History of
Philosophy. — Lviv State University named after I. Franko, Lviv, 1998.

The Dissertation is davoted to the opening out of conception of
existentional character of Ukrainian philosophical thought on the basis
of analysis of the creative heritage of some outstanding Ukrainian
thinkers of OYIII — the first half of XX cent. The role of Ukrainian
national mentality as the basis of this phenomena is based in this
thesis. The new direction in the field of Ukrainian Philosophical
history, i. e. the existentional philosophizing in the native literature
is worked out. The likeness and specificity of corresponding periods of
development of European and Ukrainian existentional philosophical
thought is established and determined. The research which is made
allowed to create an integral scene of Ukrainian philosophical
development in a real harmony the source of which is Holy Writ.

Key words: conception, existentional philosophizing, national mentality,
traditional nature, Ukrainian, specifity, Holy Writ.

.

Ae?oe ia ??cia?ao?. Oiiai. ae?oe. a?e. 2.0,

Iae. – aeae. a?e. 2.0 Iaeeaae 100.Cai.?77

Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio? Oa?e?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo aoae?aieoeoaa oa a?o?oaeoo?e

(310002, Oa?e?a, aoe. Noinueea, 40.)

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