Економічний аспект діяльності друкованих ЗМІ України: Автореф. дис… канд. філол. наук / Ю.П. Васьківський, Київ. ун-т ім. Т.Шевченка. — К., 1999. —

5

EE?ANUeEEE OI?AA?NEOAO ?IAI? OA?ANA OAA*AIEA

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Aanuee?anueeee TH??e Iao?iae/

OAeE 070:33(477)

AEIIII?*IEE ANIAEO Ae?ssEUeIINO?

Ae?OEIAAIEO CI? OE?A?IE

Niaoe?aeuei?noue 10.01.08 – aeo?iae?noeea

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai

nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo iaoe

EE?A 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien

?iaioo aeeiiaii ia eaoaae?? oe?a?inueei? i?ane Euea?anueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee – aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

i?ioani? eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? i?ane

oaeoeueoaoo aeo?iae?noeee

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

CAeI?IAAAA Aieiaeeie? Eineiiae/

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe,

noa?oee iaoeiaee ni?a?ia?oiee

?inoeoooo ia?iaeiciaanoaa IAIO (i. Euea?a)

OAIIAAE TH??e A?eai?iae/

eaiaeeaeao aeiiii?/ieo iaoe,

aeioeaio Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea

AOOE?ss ?aai ?aaiiae/

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa – No?aeiioe?a?inueeee oi?aa?neoao (i.Eoaainuee)

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “19” aeiaoiy 1999 ?., i 10 aiaeei?, ia can?aeaii?
niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae.26.001.34. Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, aoe. Iaeueieeiaa, 36/1).

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny o iaoeia?e a?ae?ioaoe? Ee?anueeiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea (Ee?a, aoe. Aieiaeeie??anueea, 58).

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaii “16” eeiiy 1999 ?.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee,

aeieoi? o?eieia?/ieo iaoe A.O.?aaiia

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Nooue, cia/ou?noue iaoeiai? i?iaeaie, iinoaaeaii? o aeena?oaoe??, iiaeia
iiynieoe aeiyoeiaei cia/aiiyi aeiiii?/ii? ni?iiiaeiino? i?ane aeaeeoe a
oiiaao ?eieo.

?icaeoie ia??iaee/ii? i?ane a Oe?a?i? a?aeaoaa?oueny a oiiaao
noni?eueii? o?ainoi?iaoe??: aeanyoee, nioi? aacao ? aeo?iae?a cieeathoue
– iaoii?noue aeieeathoue ?io?. Noai?aiiy iiaeo eiia?oe?eieo
iicaia?o?eieo aeaeaiue ia ciaioo?, a, iaaiaee, iineeth? aieea i?ane ia
noai ? ?icaeoie noni?euenoaa. Aiaeii/an e?ecia? yaeua ia??iaeo ia?aoiaeo
aei aeaiie?ao?? a?ae/ooii iicia/athoueny ia ae?yeueiino? ia??iaee/ii?
i?ane. Iieieaoenue o neeaaei?e aeiiii?/i?e neooaoe??, eiee aeao?oeeo
iaia?o ci?ith?oueny iino?eiei eiai iiaei?iae/aiiyi, a oaeiae
i?aeaeuaiiyi aa?oino? iie?a?ao?/ieo iineoa ? aeaeaoe?a ia
?iciianthaeaeaiiy, aeo?iae?noe ciooai? iino?eii aeaaoe i?i i?aeaeuaiiy
iiieoo ia nai? aeaeaiiy.

Oe?a?inuee? CI? iinooiiai aeoiaeyoue c-i?ae ii?ee aea?aeaae, iiaiiaoth/e
caeiie ?icaeoeo ?eieo. Uia aeaeeoe a oeeo oiiaao, i?aoe?aieeai CI?
iio??aii caaaiooe caaaeueiia?aeii? o na?o? ?noeie, iaa/eoeny
canoiniaoaaoe ia i?aeoeoe? i?eioeeie ia?eaoeiao.

sseui o NOA, a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao Cao?aeii? ?a?iie e?ecia? i?iaeaie
ae??ooaaee i?ioyaii aeanyoee?oue, oi Oe?a?ia oeae oeyo ciooaia i?ieoe ca
e?eueea ?ie?a. Iaeiae, yeui ia?eaoeiaia? coneeey ?aaeaeoe?eieo
eieaeoea?a oe?a?inueeeo aacao ? aeo?iae?a nueiaiaei? ? ia?aaaaeii
caniaii aeaeeaaiiy, oi a ianooiiiio oeny/ie?oo? aiie iiaeooue ia o?eueee
iiiiaieoe aea?aeaaiee, i?noeaaee athaeaeao, a e ni?eyoe ?icaeoeia?
a?eueii?, iacaeaaeii? i?ane Oe?a?ie.

Aia?eeainuee?, ?a?iiaenuee? aeine?aeieee aeo?iae?noeee ua a 50-o ?ieao
aeaaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy aecia/eee aeineoue /?oe? e?eoa???
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? ae?oeiaaieo CI?. O ian aea, a Oe?a?i?,
iacaaaeath/e ia iiyao o?iainiai i?oeieo aeaeaiue, iiee ui ?o iiceoeaiee
? aa?oee iane?aeoaaiiy aeina?ae ia ocaaaeueiaii. A?aenooiy o?einio?y
i?aei?e?iieoeueei? ae?yeueiino? o aeo?iae?noeoe?. Iino?eia
ii?eethaeiaiiy ye?nieo oa?aeoa?enoee aacao, «i?iooiaooaaiiy» nai?o
aeaeaiue aei /eoa/?a iinooiiai o?ainoi?iothoueny o ?icoi?iiy caaaeaiue
ia?eaoeiao: ia o?eueee caaacia/eoe iaiao?aei? aeey aeaeeaaiiy aacaoe
a?io?, a e iiaeaaoe i?i caaeiaieaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo iio?aa /eoa/?a.

I?iaeaia aeaeeaaiiy i?ane a ia??iae noaiiaeaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei ?
i?ia?aeiith, i??i?eoaoiith oaiith a?oioiaieo i?aoeue oe?a?inueeeo a/aieo
??cieo iaoeiaeo aaeocae: iie?oieia?a, aeiiii?no?a, nioe?ieia?a.
Iniaeeai? oaaao aeine?aeiee?a aeo?iae?noeee i?eaa?oa? i?iaeaia
aoaeoeaiino? aeo?iae?noeee c iiyaith iecee caeii?a Oe?a?ie i?i
ae?yeuei?noue cania?a ?ioi?iaoe?? Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i ?ioi?iaoe?th» //
I?aei. Iaae?a oeaio? «?ioa?iuethc», 1995.– N.5–27; Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i
ae?oeiaai? caniae ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? (i?ano) a Oe?a?i?» // I?aei.
Iaae?a oeaio? «?ioa?iuethc», 1995.– N.27–46; Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aeeaio»
// Aiein Oe?a?ie, 1996.– ? 136.– N.4–5..

Ia na?aaeeio aeaa’yiinoeo ?ie?a i?eiaaeathoue ? ia?o? ni?iae aeaoe
aecia/aiiy iiiyooth aeo?iae?nonueeee ia?eaoeia, aei yeeo aaeaeeny
aeioeaio oaeoeueoaoo aeo?iae?noeee Euea?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo A.Aie ?
ee?anuee? iaoeiaoe? Aie A. I?iaeaie aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao:
?aeeaia, iaae?e ??eaeoeic // Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea: oi?ioaaiiy
no/aniiai iaee//y: A?ni. Euea?a. oi-oo.– Na?. aeo?iae?noeee.– 1993.–
Aei.18.– N.12–16; Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea: a/i?a, nueiaiaei?, caao?a:
?noi?eei-oai?aoe/iee ia?en.– E.: ?AOe Ee?a. oi?aa?neoaoo, 1996.– 168 n..

1995 ?ieo a Oa?eia? aeoiaeeoue i?ae?o/iee ?.?iiaoa «?aeeaia a nenoai?
ia?eaoeiao», a yeiio aeineoue iiaii, aea aeaeaei ia ae/a?iii aeaii
oa?aeoa?enoeeo CI? c iiaeyaeo ?o i?eaaaeeaino? aeey ?ici?uaiiy ?aeeaie
i?aei?e?ioe?a, a oaeiae aena?oeaiiy i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy o??iiaiai
noeeth. Iaeiae oea aeaeaiiy i?ecia/aia aeey oiaa?iae?iaiee?a oa?/iai?
i?iieneiaino? ?iiao ?. ?aeeaia a nenoaia ia?eaoeiaa.– Oa?ueeia: AAO
«Nooaeoeaio?», 1995.– 224 n..

Ie?ai? i?iaeaie oi?ioaaiiy ?i?aeaeo ca aeiiiiiaith CI? aeine?aeaeo?
a?aeiiee ee?anueeee oai?aoee «public relations», i?ioani? A.Ii/ai/ia
Ii/aioeia A. I?iaeaie ian-iaae?a // Iie?oe/ia aeoiea.– 1993.– N.33–34;
Oioaeeoa?iue /aeiaae: I/a?ee oioaeeoa?iiai neiaieecia e ieoieiaee.– E.,
1994.– 149 n..

Ia ae?yeuei?noue oe?a?inueei? i?ane a ?eieiaeo oiiaao, aeaea?aea
o?iainoaaiiy ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue ni?iaeoiaai? aeine?aeaeaiiy
aeioeaio?a eaoaae?e ia??iaee/ii? i?ane ?inoeoooo aeo?iae?noeee
Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea O.I?enooiaiei ? ?.Aooe??
I?enooiaiei O. No/ani? iie?oe/i? oa aeiiii?/i? oiiae ae?yeueiino?
aeo?iae?noeee Oe?a?ie.– E.: ?AOe Ee?a. oi?aa?neoaoo, 1997.– 73 n.;
Aooe?y ?. Aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy ia??iaee/ieo aeaeaiue Oe?a?ie a oiiaao
?eieiai? aeiiii?ee // No/ania oa iaeaooi? aeo?iae?noeee a
ieth?ae?noe/iiio noni?euenoa?: Iaoa??aee iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiai
oe?a?inueei-oaaeoea?nueeiai nai?ia?o.– E.: Oeai? a?eueii? i?ane, 1999.–
N.202–208..

Aiae?c iiioey?ieo aeaeaiue, oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy oni?oo, a oaeiae i?e/ei
iaaaea/ ia cao?aeiiio ?eieo i?ane c?iaeaii a i?ae?o/ieeo «Ianiaa
eiioi?eaoe?y» Iineaeaiei A., Aoaa?nueeee E., ?aaiia A., Aa?aoi A. Ianiaa
eiioi?eaoe?y.– E.: Eea?aeue, 1997.– 216 n.. O 3 i?ae?icae?e? 4 ?icae?eo
«?ioi?iaoe?eia iiea, /e ye aeaeeoe ia ?eieo CI?» iacaaii? aeua i?aoe?
iiioey?i?noue i?ia?aeieo cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aacao iia’ycaii c ?o
oaiaoe/iith no?oeoo?ith, oi?iith aeeeaaeo iaoa??ae?a, oe?iiaith
iie?oeeith, a oaeiae c ?ioa?aeoeaieie iaoiaeaie caeo/aiiy /eoa/?a aei
oi?ioaaiiy ci?noo aacaoe, cie?aia ca aeiiiiiaith ?ic?a?ao?a
??ciiiai?oieo i?ec?a, i?iaaaeaiiy eiieo?n?a, eioa?ae, a?eoi?ei.

Aaaeeea?noue i?ioan?eiiai i?aeoiaeo aei ?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino?
iaiaeii?aciai i?aee?anethaaee oe?a?inuee? aeine?aeieee aeo?iae?noeee
A.Caei?iaaaa, A.Iineaeaiei, A.*?/aiianueeee, A.Oeey? Caei?iaaaa A. I?ana
? aeaaea // Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea: ?noi??y ? no/ani?noue: Oace aeii. oa
iia?ae. Anaoe?. iaoe.-oai?ao. eiio. 9–10 a?oaeiy 1993 ?.– Euea?a, 1993.–
N.8–13; Iineaeaiei A. Iniiae aeo?iae?noeee: Oaenoe eaeoe?e.– E.: ?AOe
Ee?a. oi?aa?neoaoo, 1994.– 167 n.; *?/aiianueeee A., Oeey? A. Iie?oeea.
I?ana. Aeaaea.– Ee?a-Iineaa: Neia’yinueeee ae?aeia.– 1993.– 68 n..

Aaaiiei aianeii o ?icaeoie ?aeeaiii? ni?aae a Oe?a?i? noaa aeo?ae
neiaieea ?aeeaiieo oa?i?i?a, yeee i?aeaiooaaa ?.?aai/aiei ?aai/aiei ?.
?aeeaia: neiaiee ?aeeaiieo oa?i?i?a.– E.: Anaoe?a?inueeee oiiae ni?eyiiy
?icaeoeo eieaiaeaeaiiy oa i?ane.– 1998.– 207 n.. Oii?yaeieeia? oeueiai
aeaeaiiy aaeaeiny aea?aoe ? aeianoe ia noae /eoa/a iaea?eueo eaeii?/i? ?
aeciai? o na?o? iiyniaiiy oa?i?i?a ?aeeaia, ia?eaoeia, i?io?eue ?eieo,
i?yia iiooiaa ?aeeaia oa ?i.

Oia?oa ni?iao inieneeoe aeina?ae CI? a oiiaao oi?ioaaiiy ?eieo c?iaea
eoaainueeee o/aiee A.Aeaaeeie?ia, yeee ia?aeiieeai aeia?a, ui naia
ethaeeia, aeo?iae?no-i?ioan?iiae – aieiaia iaaeaaiiy ?aaeaeoe?eiiai
eieaeoeao, aa?aio eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aeaeaiiy Aeaaeeie?ia A.
Eiia?oe?eia aeo?iae?noeea ye aaeocue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai a?ciano: ?aae.
aeo?iaeo Oe?a?inueeee i?iieneiaaoeue.– 1998.– 141 n..

Aea/aiith ia?eaoeiaiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo
i?enay/aii iiiia?ao?th ?in?enueeiai a/aiiai ?.E?eeiaa «Ia?eaoeia». O i?e
aeineoue a?oioiaii i?iaiae?ciaaii ieoaiiy oaoiieia?? ia?eaoeiao,
aca?iiae?? eiioi?eaoe?eiiai iaoai?cio ? noni?euenoaa E?ueia E.
Ia?eaoeia.– I.: Ecae-ai Oeaio?, 1998.– 192 n..

Ae?iaieoeoao ? caooo a oiiaao ?eieo «iieoioey» i?enay/aii aeanyoee
aeine?aeaeaiue aia?eeainueeeo, aiae?enueeeo, o?aioeocueeeo, yiiinueeeo
o/aieo. I?aoe? O.Iinei, O.Eioea?a aeicaieythoue i?inoaaeeoe aaiethoe?th
oai??? ia?eaoeiao ai?iaeiaae aeanyoee?oue – a?ae aiioe ianiaiai
ae?iaieoeoaa aei aiioe eoeueoo?e niiaeeaaiiy, eiee ia ia?oee ieai
aeoiaeyoue ?ioa?ane niiaeeaa/a Mosco V. Introduction: Information in The
Pay-per Society // In the Political Economy of Information.– Medison,
Wisconsin, 1988.– P.3–26.; Eioea? O. Iniiau ia?eaoeiaa.– I.: I?ia?ann,
1990.– 734 n..

Ie?ai? aniaeoe ?aeeaie a nenoai? ia?eaoeiao noaee aeinooiieie oe?ieiio
eieo /eoa/?a caaaeyee ia?aeeaaeai ?in?enueeith iiaith eiea a?aeiieo o
na?o? ?aeeai?no?a Ae.Ia?ea?, N.Iaaeaea?i, ?.??aca, *.Naiae?aeaea,
A.O?aeao?aa?a, E.?iooeieea, E.Aiaa ? O.A?aina Ieeaae Ae. Eniiaaaeue
?aeeaiiiai aaaioa.– I.: Aiaooi?a?aeeaia, 1964.– 126 n.; Iaaeaea?i N.
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ia?eaoeia.– I.: Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1979.– 264
n.; ?eac ?. ?aaeueiinoue a ?aeeaia.– I.: Aiaooi?a?aeeaia, 1983.– 116 n.;
Nyiaeeaeae *., O?aeao?aa? A., ?iooeiee E. ?aeeaia: oai?ey e i?aeoeea.–
I.: I?ia?ann, 1989.– 630 n.; Aiaa E., A?aic O. Nia?aiaiiay ?aeeaia.–
Oieueyooe: Ecaeaoaeueneee Aeii Aeiaaaiue, 1995.– 661 n. . Iaeiae aaoi?e
oeeo, aac noii?ao, a?oioiaieo i?aoeue ia noaaeee ca iaoo aeaoe e?eoe/iee
aiae?c ?aeeaie a ae?oeiaaieo CI? ia??iaeo oi?ioaaiiy ?eieiaeo a?aeiinei.
Ioaea, a?oioiaiiai eiiieaeniiai aeine?aeaeaiiy, i?enay/aiiai oeyoai
aeaeeaaiiy ae?oeiaaieo CI? a ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei ?eieo, caaacia/aiiy
oiia eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aacao ? aeo?iae?a Oe?a?ie iaia?. A
eiioeaioe?th ia?eaoeiao o?eueee ca?ac ii/eiathoue a?aoe ia ica?i?iiy
ie?ai? ?aaeaeoi?e ae?eiaeo, ?aeeaiii-?ioi?iaoe?eieo,
noni?eueii-iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo aeaeaiue. Aeeaiei aea/eoe ? ocaaaeueieoe
oeth i?iaeaio, ciaeoe iiaeeeaino? canoinoaaiiy ia?eaoeiao o
iianyeaeaii?e i?aeoeoe? ?aeeaiieo eieaeoea?a, ie e iaiaaa?iiny o aeaiiio
iaoeiaiio aeine?aeaeaii?.

Iaa?oiooaaiiy iaiao?aeiino? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Ae?yeuei?noue ae?oeiaaieo CI? o ia??iae ia?aoiaeo aei aeaiie?ao??
aeiaaa? aeoeaiiai iiooeo ?aca?a?a i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino? ?o
ae?yeueiino?. Aacaoe ? aeo?iaee iathoue a/anii iio?aieyoe aei /eoa/?a.
Oe? caaaeaiiy neeaaei? e aeiaaathoue /eiaeeo o?iainiaeo aeo?ao.

Iio??eia eiieo?aioe?y (eiieo?aioe?y i?ae ??ciiaeai?iaeie iaoa??aeaie ia
iiein?, i?ae naieie ae?oeiaaieie CI?, a oaeiae i?ae aacaoaie ?
aeo?iaeaie oa ao??ieie caniaaie ?ioi?iaoe??) noaaeyoue i?iaeaie, aac
ia?oi/a?aiaiai ?ica’ycaiiy yeeo i?ana i?e?a/aia ia iinooiiaa aeie?aiiy.
Aecia/eoe oe? i?iaeaie, ?ic?iaeoe iaoai?ci ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
o i?aeoeeo ? ae?ae iaiao?aeiei caaaeaiiyi ia iei?oiueiio aoai? ?icaeoeo
aeo?iae?noeee.

O neeaaeieo ?eieiaeo oiiaao aaeeei? aaae iaaoaa? ?aeeaia a ae?oeiaaieo
CI?. sseui a?eueo?noue aeine?aeiee?a aeo?iae?noeee aecia/eee, ? ia aac
i?aenoaa, ?aeeaio a ae?oeiaaieo CI? ye a?ae/ooia aeaea?aei iiiiaiaiiy
i?eaooe?a, oi a oiiaao iineeaiiy eiieo?aioe?? aiia iaaoaa? ua iaei???
ooieoe?? – naii?aeeaioaaiiy, aai caaithaaiiy iiioey?iino? o /eoa/?a, aac
yei? aacaoe oa aeo?iaee ia iiaeooue ?ic?aoiaoaaoe ia iaea?aeaiiy
i?eaooe?a. Caaaeyee naii?aeeai?, oi?ioaaiith aeaniiai ?i?aeaeo
ae?oeiaai? CI? niiioeathoue /eoa/?a eoioaaoe aacaoe ? aeo?iaee,
noai?ththoue i?i eieaeoea ?aaeaeoe??, ?? aaoi??a ni?eyoeeao a?iiaaenueeo
aeoieo. Oeei ? coiiaeaia i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaeniiai iaoeiaiai
aeine?aeaeaiiy aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao, ui aeicaiey? aeyaeoe
??aaiue aoaeoeaiino? ie?aieo oe?a?inueeeo aacao ? aeo?iae?a, i?e/eie ?o
oni?o?a /e ii?acie.

Aeooaeuei?noue, cia/aiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Nueiaiaei? aeey aaaaoueio noa?
ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa ia?eaoeia ? nai???aeieie
neeueiiae?th/eie e?eaie a?ae oai?iae «cao?ao», ia yeo oai??? aeiiii?ea
aea?aeaae. O?yaeia? aeioaoe?? aea?aeaaiei caniaai ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??
noaaeyoue o ia??ai? oiiae noa’?eo?a ?ioi?iaoe?eii? ae?yeueiino?,
noai?ththoue na?eici? ia?aiiie ia oeyoo aei ooaa?aeaeaiiy naiaiaee
neiaa. Aeine?aeaeaiiy iniia ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?, ?? niaoeeo?ee
iiaea noaoe caii?oeith aoaeoeaii? i?aai?caoe?? aeo?iae?nonueeiai
ainiiaea?noaa, aeaanoe iao? ae?oeiaai? CI? ye ??aiii?aaieo ia?oia??a ia
na?oiaee ?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie.

?eiie aeeeoo? aeo?iae?noai nai? caaaeaiiy oa oiiae. Uia ia?eaoeia aeaa
a?ae/ooiee aaaeaiee ?acoeueoao, aeo?iae?nonuee? eieaeoeae iiaeii?
i?aaeeueii a?aeiia?noe ia caieoaiiy, /iai /eoa/? /aeathoue a?ae aacaoe
/e aeo?iaeo, yea ?ioi?iaoe?y aaaeeeaa naia iei?, ye iiaeia ci?ieoe
?i?aeae aacaoe, uia c?inea ?? iiioey?i?noue, ye ni?iaiicoaaoe ??aaiue
iiioey?iino? aeaeaiiy o iaeaeeae/iio e a?aeaeaeaiiio iaeaooiueiio. Aeey
oeueiai aa?oi a?aooaaoe aaaaoi aniaeo?a, oiia, na?aae yeeo o?ao?othoue
iie?oe/ia noaa?euei?noue, aeiiii?/ia neooaoe?y, nioe?aeueiee i?ia?an,
ae??oaiiy o?iainiaeo, ?ioaeaeooaeueieo, iieiae?aeieo i?iaeai, niaee,
i?aaiaiiy, iaae?? ie?aieo ethaeae oa a?oi.

?icoi?iiy ia?eaoeiao ye aaaaoianiaeoii?, aeiaaeueii? ?eieiai? no?aoaa??
aea/aiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?eieo aeey ?icoe?aiiy caooo ae?oeiaaiiai CI?,
aeey noai?aiiy oaei? ?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe??, yea a yeiaeiiai?oa
caaeiaieueiyea ?ioi?iaoe?ei? iio?aae /eoa/?a, – c’ynoaaiiy oeeo
caaaeaiue ? coiiaeth? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy.
Ia’?aeiaiiy o ?aeeio nenoaio ie?aieo aeaiaio?a ia?eaoeiao, oaeeo, ye
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieo, ?aeeaia, caoo, eaae?iaa, oe?iiaa, oe?aaeia
iie?oeea, iiaea noaoe i???ioe?ii, ?aaoeyoi?ii ae?e o ?eieiaeo oiiaao ?
aeey aeaeaiiy, yea o?eueee noai?ththoue, ? aeey oiai, ui aeaaii ciaeoei
naith ?ioi?iaoe?eio i?oo.

Ca’ycie c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, oaiaie. Aeena?oaoe?eia aeine?aeaeaiiy
noaei ?acoeueoaoii iiooeo i?aeoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy aeyaeaieo aaoi?ii
i?iaeai i?ae /an ?iaioe ia iinaae? caa?aeoaa/a a?aeae?eo,
a?aeiia?aeaeueiiai nae?aoa?y o ?aeiii?e ? i?nuee?e aacaoao c ianooiiei
?o oai?aoe/iei ? iaoeiaei ocaaaeueiaiiyi i?ae /an ?iaioe anenoaioii
eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? i?ane Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo
?iai? ?aaia O?aiea.

Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa iia’ycaia c iai?yiii aeine?aeaeaiue eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? i?ane oaeoeueoaoo aeo?iae?noeee Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? ?aaia O?aiea «Oe?a?inueea aeo?iae?noeea ?
ioae?oeenoeea a i?aeia?iaeiiio eiioaeno?». Ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy a?aeiia?aea? aea?aeaai?e iaoeia?e i?ia?ai? «I?iaeaie
iiaiai ci?noo ina?oe oa iaoiaeeee iaa/aiiy ? aeoiaaiiy».

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy caaaeaieo aeua
i?iaeai, ye? aecia/eee oaio aeena?oaoe??, aoei i?iaaaeaii eiiieaenia
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae ae?oeiaaieo CI? Oe?a?ie. A?aooaaiiy
niaoeeo?ee ia?eaoeiaiaeo eiioi?eaoe?e aeicaieeei i?iaanoe nenoaiiee
aiae?c ?eieiai? no?aoaa?? aacao ? aeo?iae?a, ui coiiaeth? ?o
aoaeoeai?noue ? aieeaia?noue, aeaei ciiao c’ynoaaoe iio?aao, noai,
iane?aeee ai?iaaaeaeaiiy ia?eaoeiao, aecia/eoe ia?niaeoeao ?icaeoeo
aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao.

Iaeaieiai?oeie caaaeaiiyie a?aeiia?aeii aei iniiaii? iaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy
?:

1) aeyaeaiiy iniiaieo i?eioeei?a ia?eaoeiao, ye? canoiniaothoue o
i?aeoe/i?e ae?yeueiino? aacaoe ? aeo?iaee ia aoai? ?icaoaeiae ?
ooaa?aeaeaiiy iieiaei? oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae;

2) aecia/aiiy aoaeoeaieo i?eeii?a aea/aiiy /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi???,
oeyo?a noai?aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai ia?aco /eoa/a caeaaeii a?ae e?eueeino?
ianaeaiiy o o?e /e ?io?e i?noeaaino?, ??aiy ina?/aiino?, eoi?aaeueii?
ni?iiiaeiino?;

3) ii??aiyiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo i?o ??cieo oei?a aeaeaiue, ia iniia?
oeueiai aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueii? i?o? aacaoe;

4) aeine?aeaeaiiy niinia?a ?icoe?aiiy /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi??? caaaeyee
?ici?uaiith aeeaaeie, ci?iieo noi??iie, ?aa?iiaeueieo noi??iie;

5) c’ynoaaiiy oaeoi??a, ui coiiaeththoue eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue
ae?oeiaaieo CI?;

6) aecia/aiiy ?aaeueieo iiaeeeainoae ?aeeaie aeey i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiue ia iniia? ii??aiyiiy ?o
?aeeaiii? ae?yeueiino? c ae?oeiaaieie CI? ?icaeiooeo e?a?i na?oo;

7) aeyaeaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo iniaeeainoae ?aeeaie a ae?oeiaaieo CI?,
oeyo?a i?aeaeuaiiy ?? aoaeoeaiino?;

8) c’ynoaaiiy iniaeeainoae i?ioeano eaiaiiy noa?aioei?a oi?ioaaiiy
o??iiaiai noeeth ae?oeiaaieo CI? Oe?a?ie.

Iniiaia iaoa oa caaaeaiiy aecia/eee canoinoaaiiy oaeeo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy: ii??aiyeueiiai, aeaaeoeoeaiiai, ?iaeoeoeaiiai,
eiie?aoii-?noi?e/iiai, niinoa?aaeaiiy, noaoenoe/iiai aiae?co, aiae?co
aeieoiaio?a, nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iiai. Aeey aecia/aiiy i??e aeia??e
/eoa/?a aei ?aeeaie, niinia?a oi?ioaaiiy ?aaeaeoe?eiiai eieaeoeao
canoiniaaii nioe?ieia?/i? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy: aieaooaaiiy,
iieooaaiiy, ?ioa?a’th.

Aea?? iai?yi?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. A?aenooi?noue nenoaiiiai aeeeaaeo iniia
aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao ni?e/eieei iio?aao a ?ic?iaoe? nenoaiieo
oai?aoe/ieo canaae oeueiai aaaaoiooieoe?iiaeueiiai yaeua o ae?oeiaaieo
CI?.

Nioe?ieia?/ia iieooaaiiy ?aaeaeoi??a 20 aacao ??cieo oei?a a?ae
caaaeueiiaea?aeaaieo aei ?aa?iiaeueieo oa i?noeaaeo aeicaieeei
i?eionoeoe, ui a aaaaoueio oe?a?inueeeo aeaeaiiyo c a?eueoei /e iaioei
oni?oii canoiniaothoue ie?ai? i?eioeeie ia?eaoeiao. Oea oe?ieia?aeii?
aeo?iaeuei? aeaeaiiy «Aecian», «Aaeeoeuee? eiio?aeoe», «Oi?aa?noi»,
«Aeiiii?ea Oe?a?ie», a oaeiae aacaoi? aeaeaiiy «Aiein Oe?a?ie»,
«O?yaeiaee eo?’??», «Iieiaeue Oe?a?ie», «Aenieee caiie», «Iieiaea
Aaee/eia», «Eeaaneea aaaeiiinoe», «Iino-iinooi» oa ?io?.

I?ae /an aeine?aeaeaiiy aoei aeyaeaii /eiaei oea o aecia/aii?
?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?o? aeaeaiue, o oe?iia?e oa eaae?ia?e iie?oeoe?, caoo?,
?ici?uaii? ?aeeaie. Aiaeii/an aeaye? aacaoi? ? aeo?iaeuei? aeaeaiiy
iaaoee oe?iiiai aeina?aeo ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?, yeee iio??aii
oe?iei ocaaaeueieoe. Noeioeii aei aeoeaiiai iiooeo, oi?ioaaiiy
ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa?? aacaoii-aeo?iaeueieo aeaeaiue noaei caaino?aiiy
eiieo?aioii? ai?ioueae aeaeaiue. Niaoeeo?ea eiieo?aioe?? na?aae
ae?oeiaaieo cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? coiiaeea i?iaeiaaeaiiy iiooeo
iai?yi?a aecia/aiiy iioeiaeueieo oeyo?a aeinyaiaiiy e?aea?noaa,
ia?iuoaaiiy oe?aaeo, caeo/aiiy yeiiiaa a?eueoi? e?eueeino?
?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a.

O ?eieiaeo oiiaao aeaeaiiy iaa?oue c aaeeeei oe?aaeai iiaea aeyaeoeny
iaaoaeoeaiei aeey ?ici?uaiiy ?aeeaie. Iaieioaiiy iiaea caaoaeoeny ia
eiai noi??ieao, yeui ia i?iaeoiaii ?aeeaiio no?aoaa?th aai yeui aacaoa
ci???ioiaaia ia ?ioo a?eiao eaoaai??th /eoa/?a, i?ae oa, ia yeo
?ic?aoiao? ?aeeaiiaeaaaoeue.

A aeiiii?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? cai?iiiiiaaii /eiaei niinia?a aecia/aiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ?aeeaiiiai iaieioaiiy, iaeiae on? aiie ?ic?aoiaai? ia
i?aei?e?ioe?a ? a?cianiai?a. AEo?iae?nonueeee ia?eaoeia ca an???
iaaeeaeaiino? aei i?iieneiaiai, oi?aiaaeueiiai ia? iaai? a?aei?iiino?,
ye? ie iaiaaaeeny c’ynoaaoe o aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?. Oea
noino?oueny ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai niiini?noaa, aacia?aa?eiiai iino?eiiai
ca’yceo c /eoaoeueeith aoaeeoi???th.

Niinoa?aaeaiiy ca ae?oeiaaieie CI? aeicaieeee aeie?aieoe ieceo oni?oieo
i?iaeo?a, ui aeiaiaeyoue iiaeeea?noue oni?oii? ae?yeueiino? aacao a
oiiaao iineeaii? eiieo?aioe??. Canoinoaaiiy a ?aaeaeoe?ei?e i?aeoeoe?
cacia/aieo aeua aacao eiiieaeno aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao aeicaieeei
ii-?ioiio ioe?ieoe i?iaeaio aea?aeaaieo aeioaoe?e, c?noaaeoe ??ai?
i?aeo?eiee i?ane a Oe?a?i? oa a cao?aeii?a?iiaenueeeo aea?aeaaao, o
Niieo/aieo Ooaoao Aia?eee.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeena?oaoe?? iieyaa? o oiio, ui a i?e oia?oa a?aeoai?aii
eiiieaenia aeine?aeaeaiiy aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao, eiai ooieoe?e,
ni?yiiaaieo ia aoaeoeaia ainiiaea?thaaiiy ?aaeaeoe?? ae?oeiaaiiai caniao
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??.

O aeena?oaoe?eiiio aeine?aeaeaii?:

– aia?oa iaaieioaii ia oiio, ui aeo?iae?nonueeee ia?eaoeia – iiooaeia
cia?yaeaey iaea?aeaiiy i?eaooe?a aeey ae?oeiaaieo CI?;

– ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co ?iaioe oe?a?inueeeo aacao ? aeo?iae?a aia?oa
iiaeaii aecia/aiiy ?o eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino?;

– c’yniaaii ?ieue oa cia/aiiy aca?iiaieea?a /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi??? ?
ae?oeiaaieo CI?;

– ?icaeyiooi e e?eoe/ii ioe?iaii c iiaeyaeo aeiiii?ee ? nioe?ieia??,
oai??? ? i?aeoeee aeo?iae?noeee aaaeeea? oaeoi?e i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ae?oeiaaieo CI? o ?eieiaeo oiiaao, cie?aia
naii?aeeaio oa ?ioi?iaoe?eia niiini?noai;

– c’yniaaii ?ieue oa cia/aiiy neeaaeiee?a aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao
aeey iiaeaeueoiai ?icaeoeo ae?oeiaaieo CI? Oe?a?ie ia i?aenoaa? aiae?co
ae?yeueiino? aacao ? aeo?iae?a ?icaeiooeo e?a?i oia?oa ni?iaiiciaaii
ia?niaeoeae oe?a?inueeeo aacao ?o iiaeeeaino? a oo?eioaaii? caaieiaaieo
?ai?oa iiceoe?e o eiieo?aioe?? c ao??ieie CI?;

– ie?aneaii iniiai? ia’?eoeai? oa noa’?eoeai? iiieeee oe?a?inueeeo aacao
? aeo?iae?a o i?iaaaeaii? ia?eaoeiaiai? ae?yeueiino?;

– ae?iaeaii eiie?aoi? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ni?yiiaai? ia i?aeaeuaiiy
aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? ae?oeiaaieo CI?.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ? canoinoaaiiy iaoeiaeo ?acoeueoao?a ?iaioe
aaa/a?oueny a iiaeeeaino? aeei?enoaiiy ?? iniiaieo iieiaeaiue ?
aeniiae?a o a?aeiia?aeieo ?icae?eao eo?n?a «Iniiae aeiiii?/iiai
aiae?co», «I?aai?caoe?y ?iaioe ?aaeaeoe??», a oaeiae niaoeeo?n?a aeey
nooaeaio?a oaeoeueoaoo aeo?iae?noeee «Iniiai? aeaea?aea o?iainoaaiiy
cania?a ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe??», «Naiaiaea neiaa: aeiiii?/iee aniaeo», o
i?aeaioiaoe? caaaeueieo eaeoe?eieo eo?n?a c oai??? ? i?aeoeee
oe?a?inueei? i?ane.

?acoeueoaoe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaee a caoe?eaaeoe ?aaeaeoi??a oe?a?inueeeo
ian-iaae?a, ea??aiee?a oa ni?a?ia?oiee?a ?aeeaiieo a?aeae?e?a aacao ?
aeo?iae?a, ?aeeaiieo aaaionoa, nooaeaio?a, ye? aea/athoue
niaoe?aeuei?noue «Eiia?oe?y», «Ia?eaoeia», a oaeiae
iaoeiaoe?a-oai?aoee?a aeo?iae?noeee, ?noi?ee?a, aeiiii?no?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe: ci?no aeena?oaoe?? aoa i?aaeiaoii iaaiai?aiiy ?
i?ieoia ai?iaaoe?th ia 2 i?aeia?iaeieo iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo («Caniae
ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ye oi?ia a?ciano» (Ee?a, 1992 ?.), «I?aoey
aeo?iae?noa» (Ee?a, 1999 ?.), a oaeiae ia i’yo?e anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-oai?aoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? «Oe?a?inueea ia??iaeeea: ?noi??y ?
no/ani?noue». ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?? noaee i?aea?oioyi aeey oaenoo
eaeoe?? «Oe?aaeia iie?oeea aacaoe», aeey iaoeiaeo noaoae aeioneo ? ? ??
«Ca??ieea i?aoeue eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? i?ane», aeaio noaoae o aeo?iae?
«AEo?iae?no Oe?a?ie».

No?oeoo?a ?iaioe: aeena?oaoe?y (190 n.) neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, o?ueio
?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (209 iiceoe?e ).

INIIAIEE CI?NO ?IAIOE

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aea?? oaie, ?? aeooaeuei?noue, aecia/aii iaoo oa
caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiai iaiao?aei?noue, a?aeia?aaeaii iaoeiao
?ic?iaeo oaie, i?aee?aneaii ?? iiaecio oa iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy,
cacia/aii oai?aoe/io e iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao aeena?oaoe??, iniaeeao
oaaao i?eae?eaii aeaea?aeuei?e aac? ?iaioe oa c’ynoaaiith i??e
?ic?iaeaiino? i?iaeaie.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? – «AEo?iae?nonueeee ia?eaoeia ye aoaeoeaiee can?a
aeaeeaaiiy no/anieo ae?oeiaaieo CI? Oe?a?ie a oiiaao ?eieo» – /a?ac
i?ecio aeiiii?/ii? neooaoe?? a aea?aeaa? aeine?aeaeaii oai?aoe/i?
canaaee aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao. Ia iniia? ii??aiyeueiiai aiae?co
aia?eeainueeiai, yiiinueeiai, o?aioeocueeiai aeina?aeo ia?eaoeiaiaeo
caoiae?a c?iaeaii ni?iao aeaoe nai? aecia/aiiy oe?a?inueeiai
aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? – «Ooieoe?? ? ?ieue ia?eaoeiao a ?icaeiooeo e?a?iao
? Oe?a?i?» – aeiaaaeaii, ui, iacaaaeath/e ia a?aenooi?noue eiieo?aioe??
o ia??iae oioae?oa?ecio, oe?a?inuee? ae?oeiaai? CI? a ii??aiyii ei?ioeee
i?ii?aeie /ano iiaioaaee iniiae ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??. Ca a?aenooiino?
/?oeiai ieaioaaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a?eueo?noue oe?a?inueeeo
aacao ? aeo?iae?a aeaoaeoaaea aeanio ia?eaoeiaiao no?aoaa?th, ui
caiaeeoueny aei iino?eiiai, oe?eani?yiiaaiiai aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo
iiaeeeainoae aacaoe /e aeo?iaeo, ii/eiath/e a?ae aea/aiiy aoaeeoi???,
?ioi?iaoe?eii? iane/aiino? iaoa??ae?a, ni?yiiaaieo ia i?inoaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe?? a oiiaao aeaaeae? aeui? eiieo?aioe??. Ie??i
oeueiai, aeyaeaii iiaeeeaino? aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aacaoii? ieiu?
aeey oni?oii? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ?eieo e caaeiaieaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eieo
iio?aa ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie. Cai?iiiiiaaia aecia/aiiy aeo?iae?nonueeiai
ia?eaoeiao noaaeoue ia ia?oee ieai oo /anoeio ?ioi?iaoe??, yea ia ia?
eiia?oe?eiiai oa?aeoa?o.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? – «Aea/aiiy /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi??? ye iniiaa
aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao» – c’yniaaii i?eeiie, yeeie ei?enoothoueny
aeo?iae?noe no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo aacao c iaoith aea/aiiy aoaeeoi???,
noai?aiiy ocaaaeueiaiiai ia?aco /eoa/a. Na?aae iaea?eueo aoaeoeaieo –
aieaooaaiiy o oi?i? eenoa, i?yia aae?ania ?icneeea, i?iaeaae ia?oiai
iiia?a ca neiaie?/io oe?io. Ia?eaoieiae ?aaeaeoe?? iiaeii? caaaeaoe, ia
yeo aoaeeoi??th aiie ?ic?aoiaothoue: ia i?nueea /e n?euenueea ianaeaiiy,
ia /eoa/?a c aeuith /e na?aaeiueith ina?oith, ia caaacia/aieo /e
iaeicaaacia/aieo.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? – «I?eeiie ?icoe?aiiy /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi???»
–ii?yae c aeaaii a?aeiieie niiniaaie – ioae?eaoe??th ai?ineii?a,
e?inai?ae?a, oaoiaeo caaaeaiue – aeine?aeaeaii ii??aiyii iia?:
i?iaaaeaiiy ?aaeaeoe?yie ??ciiiai?oieo eiieo?n?a, ?ic?a?ao?a i?ec?a
na?aae ia?aaeieaoiee?a. Aeioiaeeii aeniiaeo, ui an? caoiaee uiaei
caaithaaiiy ?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?o?, ?? ?icoe?aiiy i?aeii?yaeeiaai?
i?aaiaiith ?aaeaeoe?eiiai eieaeoeao caaacia/eoe /eoa/a aaaeeeaith naia
aeey iueiai ?ioi?iaoe??th.

Nooo?a? ci?ie o aecia/aii? iaeeaae?a aacao ? aeo?iae?a c’yniaaii o
/aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao? – «Oe?aaeia iie?oeea aacaoe». Cie?aia c’yniaaii, ui
ioe?ieoe ??aaiue iiioey?iino? ie?aiiai iiia?a, oieeiooe caeaeo aeo?ao
iiaeia cacaeaeaa?aeue, aecia/eaoe ??aaiue iiioey?iino? iaoa??ae?a,
i?aaeeueii ioe?ieaoe ??aaiue noni?eueiee ?ioa?an aei iiaei, ui
i?iiiiothoueny /eoa/aa?.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? ?iaioe – «?ieue ?aeeaie a nenoai? aeo?iae?nonueeiai
ia?eaoeiao» – aeiaaaeaii, ui aeo?ae ia oe?a?inueeee ?aeeaiiee ?eiie
caei?aeiiieo oiaa?iae?iaiee?a, aeoea?caoe?y iaoe?iiaeueieo a?cianiai?a ?
i?aei?e?ioe?a ia o?eueee ?icoe?th? iiaeeeaino? ?aaeaeoe?e iaoe?iiaeueieo
aacao ? aeo?iae?a o oiio, uia ca?iaeoe eiooe, iaiao?aei? aeey oni?oii?
ae?yeueiino?, a e noa? caii?oeith ?o aeiiii?/ii? iacaeaaeiino?.

O ia?oiio ia?aa?ao? aecia/aii iniiai? iai?yie aeine?aeaeaiiy: c’ynoaaiiy
oaiaeaioe?e oaeineiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ?aeeaie a Oe?a?i?, ii??aiyiiy
iiaeeeainoae aacaoe ye caniao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aeeaie ?ioeie CI?.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? – «Ca?iaeaeaiiy oa ?icaeoie ?aeeaie a Oe?a?i?»
–aeiaaaeaii, ui aeieeiaiiy oe?a?inueei? aacaoii? ?aeeaie nyaa? ii/aoeo
aeaa’yoiaaeoeyoiai noie?ooy. ??ciiiai?oi? oiaa?e oe?a?inueeeo ae?iaiee?a
aeoeaii ?aeeaioaaee aaeeoeuee? aacaoe «Iiaa ci?y» oa «Ae?ei». Aeey
oe?a?inueei? ?aeeaie /an?a oioae?oa?ecio, ?icaaeainiaaiino? iiieoo ?
i?iiiceoe?? aoee oa?aeoa?ieie o?aaiaioa?i?noue, aacnenoaii?noue,
oi?iae?ci. ?icaeoie ?aeeaie a ?anioae?eao eieeoiueiai N?N? ooo/ii
no?eioaaee, ca?iaeyoe a?io? aeicaieyee o?eueee i?aoe?aieeai
«Oe?oi?a?aeeaie». Cae/a?, niin?a aeeooy, o?aaeeoe?? ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie
ii/aee a?aeoai?thaaoe o ?aeeaiieo oaenoao ae?oeiaaieo CI? eeoa c
?iciaaeii ?aaeyinueeiai Nithco.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? – «?aeeaia c oi/ee ci?o niiaeeaa/a ?
?aeeaiiaeaaoey» – ia i?aenoaa? nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue aeiaaaeaii,
ui ae?oeiaai? CI? caeeoathoueny aoaeoeaiei caniaii ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
?aeeaie. ?aca?ae oe?a?inueei? ?aeeaie aa?oi ooeaoe o i?aeaeuaii? aeia??e
/eoa/?a aei ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a, aei aacaoe ye caniao ?iciianthaeaeaiiy
?aeeaie.

Aeey aeoeai?oiai aeei?enoaiiy aacaoii? iieine aaaeeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
aaeaea aeei?enoaiiy ia?aaaa, ye? iaaea? aacaoa ye can?a
?iciianthaeaeaiiy ?aeeaie. «Niaoeeo?/i? iniaeeaino? ?aeeaie a aacao?»
aeine?aeaeaii o /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao?. Cieaeaiiy ia??iaee/iino? aaaaoueio
aacao Oe?a?ie – yaeua oei/aniaa. sse na?ae/eoue i?iaaaeaia
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?aaeaeoe?ei? eieaeoeae, ye? aeinyaee oni?oo ia
?ioi?iaoe?eiiio ?eieo, oni?oii aeieathoue oeae aa?’??, ca?eueoothoue
ia??iaee/i?noue, iaiaaathoueny caaacia/eoe /eoa/?a iia?aoeaiith
aioo??oiueith ? i?aeia?iaeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th.

Ia?aaaae aacaoe iaae ?ioeie caniaaie ianiai? eiioi?eaoe?? c?inoathoue ca
oai?/iai i?aeoiaeo aei canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a ia?eaoeiao. Iac?y/o
aoaeeoi??th ioiieee ieioeiai ?ieo aeo?iae?noe euea?anueei? aacaoe
«Aeni?an», ao?eeaoe i?iaeo eiii’thoa?ecaoe?? ia??iaeeee aeey ne?ieo.
Na?aae ia?niaeoeaieo aacaoieo i?iaeo?a iaeaooiueiai – aacaoa aeey
iaeicaaacia/aieo, ui eioooaaoeia cia/ii aeaoaaoa, i?ae aeey a?ioiaeoeo
/eoa/?a. Aacaoa i?e iio?aa? iiaea cieceoe cao?aoe ia ae?iaieoeoai,
iiaea?oaoaaoe eieuei?iaeie iieinaie, cieceaoe oaeei /eiii oe?io iiia?a.

O i’yoiio ia?aa?ao? – «Cia/aiiy ?aeeaie o oi?ioaaii? ?i?aeaeo aacaoe» –
aeine?aeaeaii neaae? noi?iie ae?oeiaaieo CI?, ye? iaaeeaeathoue aacaoo
/e aeo?iae aei «iaaacia/ii? ciie» a eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea? – iioneathoue
aei iaae?, ca yeith aeieea? caa?ica ?nioaaiith aeey ?aaeaeoe?eiiai
eieaeoeao. Aeiaaaeaii, ui i?ia?aei? oe?a?inuee? aacaoe iaai?ei
ei?enoothoueny iniiaieie iieiaeaiiyie Caeiio Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aeeaio»,
/anii Caeii Oe?a?ie «I?i ?aeeaio» ia a?aeiia?aea? ?ioa?anai oe?a?inueeeo
ae?oeiaaieo CI?. Aeaye? iieiaeaiiy cacia/aiiai aeua caeiio caoeuathoue
?ioa?ane ?aeeaiiaeaaoe?a, a ia aacao ? aeo?iae?a. Ia?an?/iee /eoa/ ia
ia? ciiae ia?aa??eoe aeinoia??i?noue ?aeeaie, a?ae /iai iioa?ia? ?i?aeae
ae?oeiaaieo CI?.

O?ao?e ?icae?e – «?ioi?iaoe?eiee ?eiie ye ia’?eo aeo?iae?nonueeiai
ia?eaoeiao» – ? eia?/iei aene?aeii iiia?aaei?o. sseui o iiia?aaei?o
?icae?eao aeine?aeaeaii ie?ai? aniaeoe aeaeeaaiiy ae?oeiaaieo CI? a
oiiaao ?eieo, oi a o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aecia/aii oeyoe i?aeaeuaiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aacao ? aeo?iae?a, ia?niaeoeae ?o ?icaeoeo o
ianooiiiio oeny/ie?oo?.

Iniiai? iai?yie ? iaoiaee aeine?aeaeaiiy aecia/aii o ia?oiio ia?aa?ao?.
Oea ??ci? aeaee ? no?aoaa?? eiieo?aioe??, ye? canoiniaothoue a
oe?a?inueeeo ae?oeiaaieo CI?.

O ae?oaiio ia?aa?ao? – «sse?noue aacaoe ? «ye?nia i?ana» – c’yniaaii
??cieoeth i?ae oeeie aeaiia iiiyooyie, oiiai?noue iiae?eo ia ye?nio ?
aoeueaa?io i?ano, c?iaeaii aeoeaio ia iaaeiionoeiino? ?o i?ioenoaaeaiiy.
Aacaoiee ?eiie, ye ? ?eiie aoaeue-yeeo ?ioeo oiaa??a, caeaaeeoue a?ae
cae/ie, iio?aa, ian?i?a, ?ethc?e, i/?eoaaiue ethaeae. Iane?eueee iiaii
caaeiaieueiy? ?o i?ana, iano?eueee aiia ye?nia ye oiaa?. Aeiaaaeaii, ui
iino?eia ci?ia ?i?aeaeo aacaoe aeaeaei ia caaaeaee aea? i/?eoaaiee
?acoeueoao, cia/ii e?aua ni?eeiathoueny iinooiia? aeiciaai? ci?ie a
ioi?ieaii? ? ci?no? aeaeaiiy.

O o?aoueiio ia?aa?ao? – «I?ioan?iiae?ci – iniiaa oni?oii? ?aae?caoe??
ia?eaoeiaiai? no?aoaa??» – aeena?oaio aiae?co? ci?ie o eaae?ia?e
iie?oeoe?. Cae/iei yaeuai o ?eieiaeo oiiaao noathoue /ano? ia?aoiaee
aeo?iae?no?a c aacaoe a aacaoo. Iieooaaiiy iiiaae noa ?aaeaeoi??a
oe?a?inueeeo aacao aeicaieeei aeyaeoe iaea?eueo iioe?ai? i?eioeeie
?aoi?ioaaiiy ?aaeaeoe?eieo eieaeoea?a: ia i?aenoaa? oaiaea?o,
?aeiiaiaeaoe?e a?aeiieo oao?aoe?a, oeyoii ia?aiaithaaiiy aeina?ae/aieo
aeo?iae?no?a a?ae aeaeaiue-eiieo?aio?a.

O /aoaa?oiio ia?aa?ao? – «Aecia/aiiy eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aacaoe» –
c’yniao?ii iniaeeaino? eiieo?aioe?? ia aacaoiiio ?eieo Oe?a?ie. O
e?eoe/iiio noai? iieieeeny iaeioe?aaei? ?aa?iiaeuei? aeaeaiiy, na?aae
yeeo o?eueee iaaaeeea e?euee?noue ia? aeanio iie?a?ao?/io aaco. ?aeiii?
aacaoe a?aenoathoue ca an?ia ia?aiao?aie, ui aecia/athoue
eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue: ca oaoi?/ieie, aeiiii?/ieie ?
nioe?aeueii-i?aai?caoe?eieie iieacieeaie. sseui e?aea?e ae?eiai? i?ane
Oe?a?ie i?ioyaii inoaii?o i’yoe-oanoe ?ie?a ni?iiiaeeny noai?eoe
aeineoue ?icaaeoaeai? a?aeae?ee ia?eaoeiao, iaaaeee? ca ooaoii ?aeiii?
aacaoe oaei? iiaeeeaino? iicaaaeai?: o ieo iaia? i? eaae??a, i? eioo?a,
ai? /ano, uia i?iaiaeeoe ia?eaoeiaia? aeine?aeaeaiiy.

O i’yoiio ia?aa?ao? – «Iino?ei?noue ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue ye
iaiao?aeia ia?aaeoiiaa aeaeeaaiiy aacaoe» – c’yniaaii ??aaiue
i?iaaaeaiiy ia?eaoeiaiaeo aeine?aeaeaiue a oe?a?inueeeo aacaoao. Eeoa a
eiaei?e aeanyo?e aacao? eiiieaenii aea/athoue ?eiie, iiaaae?ieo /eoa/?a,
iiceoe?? eiieo?aio?a. Ia ci?ie a iie?a?ao?/iiio ioi?ieaii? iaaaaeeeeny o
eiaei?e i’yo?e ?c noa ?aaeaeoe?e. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui ?aaeueii
ioe?iththoue aeani? iiaeeeaino? ? ae?iaie/ee iioaioe?ae o an?o
?aaeaeoe?yo, iaeiae oe?eani?yiiaaii i?aoeththoue iaae aaeineiiaeaiiy
aeaniiai ?i?aeaeo eeoa a eiaei?e /aoaa?o?e ?aaeaeoe??, a ?aoo? ae
aeaeaiue oeth ?iaioo i?iaiaeyoue a?ae ia?aaeieaoe aei ia?aaeieaoe.

O oinoiio ia?aa?ao? – «Aeiiii?/i? noeioee i?aeaeuaiiy aoaeoeaiino?
ae?yeueiino? aacaoe» – aeiaaaeaii, ui a Oe?a?i? a?aenooi? iaiao?aeia
aeey eiieo?aioe?? ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaa iiea. A ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi??
Oe?a?ie aeaaii ? oni?oii ooieoe?iiothoue «Eiiniiieueneay i?aaaea»,
«AeO». Iiee ia?eaiaioa?? aeeneooothoue aeiaeiea iiaiiai ieoaiiy,
oi?ioaaiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? na?aeiiino?, iiooaei? ?in?enuee? aeaeaiiy
i?ae?aoiaothoue i?eaooee, iaea?aeai? a?ae ?aeeaie a oe?a?inueeiio
?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi??. ? oi/a a?eueo?noue oiia aeey oni?oii?
eiieo?aioe?? noai?ththoue ia ??ai? i?aei?e?inoa ? aaeocae, aea?aeaaia
iie?oeea oaeiae iiaea a?ae?a?aoe ?noioio ?ieue o oe?e noa??: i?aeaeueoe
iiaeaoie c ?aeeaie aeey ca?oa?aeieo aeaeaiue, a io?eiai? a?ae oeueiai
a?io? ni?yioaaoe ia i?aeo?eieo ?aeiiieo oa i?nueeeo aacao.

Aaoi? ae?eoia aeniiae?a, ui:

1. AEo?iae?nonueeee ia?eaoeia – oea eiiieaen caoiae?a aeey
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?eieiaeo iiaeeeainoae aacaoii-aeo?iaeueii? ia??iaeeee,
?aae?i-, oaeai?ia?ai, ii/eiath/e a?ae aea/aiiy aoaeeoi???, caaacia/aiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? iane/aiino? iaoa??ae?a, ni?yiiaaiee ia i?inoaaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eii? i?iaeoeoe?? a oiiaao aeaaeae? aeui? eiieo?aioe??. Oea
aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaeeeainoae aoaeoeaiiai aeei?enoaiiy aacaoii? ieiu? c
iaoith caaacia/aiiy oni?oii? ae?yeueiino? a oiiaao ?eieo ? caaeiaieaiiy
?ioi?iaoe?eieo iio?aa ianaeaiiy Oe?a?ie.

2. Iai/i?noue ? iiioey?i?noue o aeeeaae?, iaaaaeaiiy oe?eaaeo ?noi?e/ieo
? no/anieo i?eeeaae?a oa?aeoa?i?, ia aeaeue, ia aeey oe?a?inueeeo, a
aeey aia?eeainueeeo i?ae?o/iee?a c ia?eaoeiao ? iaiaaeaeiaioo.
Aacoiiaii, ana oea i?eaeaeiny a ? iaoei aeaeaiiyi ?c aeo?iae?noeee,
iniaeeai ca iei?oiuei? no?oeoo?e i?ane.

3. Aeina?ae iaea?eueo aaeaeeo aacaoieo i?iaeo?a, ?aae?ciaaieo inoaii?i
/anii a Oe?a?i?, oaeeo, ye «Oaeou», «Eeaaneea aaaeiiinoe», «Aeni?an»,
«Aeaiue» oa ?ioeo, na?ae/eoue, ui, i?aaio/e ia’?eoeaii aena?oethaaoe
iiae?? ? yaeua aeeooy, aeo?iae?noe aeuaiacaaieo aeaeaiue ia
caiia?aathoue ia?aae niaeaie e ?ioa?anaie /eoa/?a, a oaeoiaii e
iaiaa’yceeai aea/athoue naith aoaeeoi??th.

4. Aeine?aeaeaiiy oni?oieo aacaoieo i?iaeo?a a Oe?a?i? i?aeoaa?aeaeo?,
ui noai?aiiy iiai? ?aaeaeoe?? o?nii iia’ycaia c i?iaeaiith eaae??a.
I?iaeaia aeiai?o eaae??a – aeaeaei ia inoaiiy o ia?eaoeiaia?e no?aoaa??
?aaeaeoe??, oei a?eueoa, ui, ye aeiaaaeaii o iaoiio aeine?aeaeaii?,
i?aeoiaee aei oi?ioaaiiy aeo?iae?nonueeiai eieaeoeao ea?aeeiaeueii
ci?ieeeny.

sse aeyaeeiny o i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy, cia/ii aeua oaia? oe?iothoue
aeina?ae, aeaaeae? /ano?oa ?aaeaeoi?e oi?iothoue eieaeoeae ?aaeaeoe?e ia
iniia? oaiaea?-eiieo?no, iniiaiei caaaeaiiyi yeiai ? ia o?eueee
aeyaeaiiy i?ioan?eieo iaae/ie i?aoaiaeaio?a, a e c’ynoaaiiy ?o aa/aiiy
eiioeaioe?? aacaoe, naiai i?noey o ae??oaii? caaaeaiue, ui noaaeoue
ia?aae ?aaeaeoe??th caniiaiee. ?aaeaeoe?? no/anieo oe?a?inueeeo aacao
aaa/athoue aoaeoeai?noue ae?yeueiino? ca ?eieiaeo oiia o iaoe?eaiino?
eieaeoeao ia iino?eia oai?/a c?inoaiiy, o aioiaiino? aei ci?i
(e?eueeino? iiein, oi?iaoo aacaoe, ?oa?ee oa ?i.), o noai?aii?
ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey oai?/ino?, ?aae?caoe?? iiaeo ?aeae.

5. Ii??aiyiiy o?iainiaiai noaiiaeua ?in?enueeeo ? a?o/eciyieo aacao
cana?ae/o? ??cieoeth a oiiaao ?o ooieoe?iioaaiiy ia oa?aiao Oe?a?ie.
?in?enuee? ae?oeiaai? CI? a?eueii ii/oaathoueny a ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio
i?inoi?? iieiaei? iacaeaaeii? aea?aeaae. Ia aeaeue, oaeeo i?ea?ea?a
oe?a?inuee? aacaoe ? aeo?iaee a ?in?? ia iathoue. Ae??oaiiy aeaii?
i?iaeaie, ia iao iiaeyae, iiaeeeaa aeeeth/ii ia aea?aeaaiiio ??ai?.
Ii-ia?oa, iio??aii aaeineiiaeeoe ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiao aaco ?icaeoeo
eiieo?aioiiai na?aaeiaeua. Ii-ae?oaa, o?aaa onoiooe i?iyae iiiiiie?cio
ia aioo??oiueiio ?eieo ?, ii-o?ao?, iaiao?aeii noai?eoe iaeiaeia? oiiae
aeey aeaeaiue-eiieo?aio?a.

6. Eiieo?aioia ai?ioueaa i?ae ae?oeiaaieie CI? ia o?eueee ni?ey?
oi?ioaaiith o?iainiai i?oeieo eieaeoea?a aenieii?ioan?eieo aeo?iae?no?a,
a e niiioea? caaacia/aiiy aeanii? /eoaoeueei? aoaeeoi??? ??ciiiai?oieie
?ioi?iaoe?eieie iineoaaie: aoe/iith ?ioi?iaoe??th, a?ao?eaie, aoae?i- oa
a?aeaii?iaeoeoe??th. Oaeee i?aeo?ae aeineoue iaeiia?/iee ? ia aeicaiey?
?icoe?eoe /eoaoeueeo aoaeeoi??th. ?aaeaeoe?? aacaoe, ui i?aoaiaeo? ia
iiioey?i?noue, iiaeia ii?aeiiaiaeoaaoe /ano?oa iaieiooaaoe eiieo?ne aeey
nai?o /eoa/?a, ?ic?a?oaaoe ??ciiiai?oi? i?ece. Ii?yae c o?aaeeoe?eieie
nii?oeaieie, oaoiaeie iiaeia cai?iiiioaaoe e /eiaei ?ioeo ?ai?, ye oea
i?aeoeeothoue aeo?iae?noe «Oaeoia», «Aeiy», «Aenieiai caieo» oa ?ioeo
aacao. Oe?eeii ?aaeueii ?icoe?eoe /eoaoeueeo aoaeeoi??th, iaieineaoe
eiieo?ne aeey /eoa/?a ??cieo a?eiaeo eaoaai??e, ??cieo i?ioan?e. Eeoa
aeae?eueea aacao Oe?a?ie oni?oii ?icoe?ththoue noni?eueii-iie?oe/i?
aeiee ?ioi?iaoe?? caaaeyee iioae?eoaaiith eeno?a /eoa/?a. Aei ieo iiaeia
a?aeianoe aacaoo «Aeaiue» ? oeaeiaaee «Oe?a?inueeee oeyo» (Euea?a). Naia
o?niee ca’ycie c /eoaoeueeith aoaeeoi???th aeicaiey? oi/ii aecia/eoe
iaeeaae iiia?a. Aeey ni?aaae? iioeiaeueiiai aecia/aiiy oe?aaeo iiaea
noaoe a i?eaiae? ioe?iea e aeieeaaeiee aiae?c iaoa??ae?a ia aoai?
iaeaooaaiiy iiein.

7. Aeaiiino?aoe?y nie?aeiino? aeaeaiiy, eiai ?i?aeaeo iaiiaeeeaa, yeui
ia c?iaeoe aeoeaio ia ae??aino? eiai aenooi?a, iino?ei?e,
oe?eani?yiiaai?e ?iaio? aeo?iae?no?a aeey aeinyaiaiiy iiceoeaieo
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo ia?aoai?aiue o noni?euenoa?. Aaciina?aaei?e
caeeee aei i?eaeaaiiy naiai aeaeaiiy, ye na?ae/eoue aeina?ae oni?oieo
aacaoieo i?iaeo?a, o?aaa ii?aeioaaoe c iia?aeiieaiiyie i?i oa?aeoa?i?
ia?aaaae, ye? /eoa/ iaoeia, eoieaoe aacaoo.

8. Ia i?aenoaa? nioe?ieia?/iiai aieaooaaiiy, aiae?co oai?aoe/ieo
ocaaaeueiaiue aeiiii?no?a ? aeine?aeiee?a aeo?iae?noeee, aeanieo
niinoa?aaeaiue ? aeniiae?a, cai?iiiiiaaii aecia/aiiy
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aacaoe ye i??o ia?aaaaeaiiy ae?oeiaaiiai
aeaeaiiy iaae iaeiioeiieie oa ?ioeie caniaaie ianiai? ?ioi?iaoe?? ca
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie (iciaeaie, aeanoeainoyie), ui i?eaaaeththoue /eoa/?a, a
oaeiae caeaoi?noue ?aaeaeoe?eiiai eieaeoeao oni?oii ieaioaaoe caoo a
iaoe?iiaeueiiio ?ioi?iaoe?eiiio i?inoi??. Cia/io ?ieue o aecia/aii?
eiieo?aioini?iiiaeiino? aacaoe a?ae?a?a? ?? ?i?aeae ? i?anoeae, ui
aaciina?aaeiuei caeaaeaoue a?ae oni?oii? ae?yeueiino? eiia?oe?eiiai
aee?aeoi?a, ia?eaoieia?a.

9. I?iaaaeaia aeine?aeaeaiiy ae?oeiaaieo CI? na?ae/eoue i?i oa, ui
i?aeaeuaiith aoaeoeaiino? ae?yeueiino? aacao ? aeo?iae?a Oe?a?ie a
?eieiaeo oiiaao ni?eyoeia canoinoaaiiy i?eioeei?a, ye? iaaeathoue
eiieo?aioieo ia?aaaa o iianyeaeaii?e i?aeoeoe?: iaoe?eai?noue on?o ?
eiaeiiai ia ae?th, ia i?iaeiaaeaiiy ?icii/aoi? ni?aae, ia iino?eio
iaaeeaeai?noue aei /eoa/a, noai?aiiy oai?/i? aoiinoa?e, c?inoaiiy
i?iaeoeoeaiino? caaaeyee aeioe?eueiiio aeei?enoaiith cae?aiinoae
i?aoe?aiee?a, ?o aaaeaiith i?aoethaaoe, aeaiiino?aoe?? c aieo
ea??aieoeoaa ?aaeaeoe?? aaaeeeaino? aeinyaiaiiy caaeaeea?iaaii? iaoe.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? a?aeaeoi a oaeeo ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. I?i no/ania aeiiii?/ia noaiiaeua oe?a?inueei? aacaoe // Oace ?
aenooie i?aeia?iaeii? iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? «Caniae ianiai?
eiioi?eaoe?? ye oi?ia a?ciano».– Ee?a, 1992. – N.51.

2. Ia?eaoeia o no/ani?e oe?a?inuee?e aacao? // Ca. i?aoeue eaoaae?e
oe?a?inueei? i?ane.– Euea?a, 1995.– Aei.1.– N.15–20.

3. Iaaaoeai? oaiaeaioe?? o ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? i?ane // Ca. i?aoeue
eaoaae?e oe?a?inueei? i?ane.– Euea?a, 1996.– Aei. 2.– N.3–9.

4. Oe?aaeia iie?oeea aacaoe: Oaeno eaeoe??. – Euea?a: EAeO.– 1999.– 16
n.

AIIOAOe?ss

Aanuee?anueeee TH.I. Aeiiii?/iee aniaeo ae?yeueiino? ae?oeiaaieo CI?
Oe?a?ie.– ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?eieia?/ieo
iaoe c? niaoe?aeueiino? 10.01.08 – aeo?iae?noeea. – ?inoeooo
aeo?iae?noeee Ee?anueeiai oi?aa?neoaoo ?iai? Oa?ana Oaa/aiea, Ee?a,
1999.

Aeena?oaoe?th i?enay/aii aeine?aeaeaiith aeo?iae?nonueeiai ia?eaoeiao ye
iaei??? c ia?aaeoiia aeiiii?/iiai aeaeeaaiiy i?ane a ?eieiaeo oiiaao.
Anoaiiaeaii, ui nenoaiia canoinoaaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ?ioi?iaoe?eiiai
?eieo, i?iaeoiaia ?aeeaiia, eaae?iaa, oe?iiaa iie?oeea aeaeaiiy
aeicaiey? ?aaeaeoe?eiei eieaeoeaai ia?iuoaaoe oe?aae?, ci?oeithaaoe
iaoa??aeueii-oaoi?/io aaco, ia?aiaaaoe o eiieo?aioi?e ai?iouea?. O
?iaio? aeine?aeaeaii niaoeeo?/i? i?iyae ia?eaoeiao o aacaoi?e i?aeoeoe?.
Aeoeaioiaaii oaaao ia oeyoao iiaeieaiiy e?ece a caniaao ianiai?
?ioi?iaoe??. Cai?iiiiiaaii oe?iei aeei?enoiaoaaoe o ae?yeueiino?
ae?oeiaaieo CI? eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaiaeo caoiae?a, aoaeoeai?noue yeeo
iaa?oioiaaia oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/ii.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: aeo?iae?nonueeee ia?eaoeia, ?ioi?iaoe?eia i?oa, ?aeeaia
? naii?aeeaia, ?ioi?iaoe?eia niiini?noai, eiieo?aioini?iiiaei?noue
aacaoe.

AIIIOAOeEss

Aanueeeaneee TH.I. eiiiie/aneee aniaeo aeayoaeueiinoe ia/aoiuo NIE
Oe?aeiu.– ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/?iie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeieiae/aneeo
iaoe ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 10.01.08 – aeo?iaeenoeea. – Einoeooo
aeo?iaeenoeee Eeaaneiai oieaa?neoaoa eiaie Oa?ana Oaa/aiei, Eeaa, 1999.

Aeenna?oaoeey iinayuaia enneaaeiaaieth aeo?iaeenoneiai ia?eaoeiaa eae
iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?aaeiinueie yeiiiie/aneiai auaeeaaiey i?annu a
?uii/iuo oneiaeyo. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi nenoaiiia eniieueciaaiea
enneaaeiaaiee eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ?uiea, i?iaeoiaiiay ?aeeaiiay, eaae?iaay
oeaiiaay iieeoeea ecaeaiey iicaiee ?aaeaeoeeiiiui eieeaeoeaai
ia?aueaaoue oe?aaee, oe?aieyoue iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneoth aaco,
iiaaaeaeaoue a eiieo?aioiie ai?ueaa. A ?aaioa enneaaeiaaiu
niaoeeoe/aneea i?iyaeaiey ia?eaoeiaa a aacaoiie i?aeoeea. Aeoeaioe?oaony
aieiaiea ia iooyo i?aiaeieaiey e?ecena a n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee. I?aaeeiaeaii oe?iei eniieueciaaoue a aeayoaeueiinoe
ia/aoiuo NIE eiiieaen ia?eaoeiaiauo ia?ii?eyoee, yooaeoeaiinoue eioi?uo
iainiiaaia oai?aoe/anee e iiaeoaa?aeaeaia i?aeoe/anee.

A i?ioeanna enneaaeiaaiey ii?aaeaeaii, /oi a i?aeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe
nia?aiaiiie ?aaeaeoeee aic?anoaao ?ieue aeo?iaeenoa-i?ioanneiiaea.
Iaino?aiea i?iaeaiu iienea oaeaioeeauo ?aaioieeia naycaii n
?aaeeeaeueiuie eciaiaieyie a ioiioaiee oi?ie?iaaiey aeo?iaeenoneiai
eieeaeoeaa.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaeaeoeee nia?aiaiiie oe?aeineie aacaou ana /aua
iniiauaaaony ia i?iaaaeaiee oaiaea?-eiieo?na, aeaaiie caaea/ae eioi?iai
yaeyaony ia oieueei ii?aaeaeaiea i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia
i?aoaiaeaioia, ii e auyniaiea eo i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia, aiaeec eo
aeaeaiey eiioeaioeee aacaou, eo ianoa a ?aoaiee caaea/, eioi?ua noaaeo
ia?aae ?aaeaeoeeae iniiaaoaeue. Ana aieaa aic?anoaao cia/aiea
oai?/aneiai iioaioeeaea, aioiaiinoe e eciaiaieyi (eiee/anoaa iiein,
oi?iaoa aacaou, ?oa?eeaoeee), e oi?ie?iaaieth aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey
?aaeecaoeee iiauo eaeae.

N?aaiaiea oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey ?inneeneeo e oe?aeineeo aacao
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ?acieoea a oneiaeyo eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ia
oa??eoi?ee Oe?aeiu. ?inneeneea ia/aoiua NIE naiaiaeii /oanoaotho naay a
eioi?iaoeeiiiii i?ino?ainoaa iieiaeiai iacaaeneiiai ainoaea?noaa.
?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu aiciiaeii eneeth/eoaeueii ia ainoaea?noaaiiii
o?iaia. Ai ia?auo, iaiaoiaeeii oniaa?oainoaiaaoue ii?iaoeaioth e
i?aaiaoth aaco ?acaeoey eiieo?aioiie n?aaeu. Ai-aoi?uo, iaiaoiaeeii
enei?aieoue ?aoeeaeeau iiiiiieecia ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea e, a o?aoueeo,
iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue iaeeiaeiaua oneiaey aeey ecaeaiee-eiieo?aioia.

A aeenna?oaoeee aia?aua eiiieaenii enneaaeiaaiu ninoaaiua /anoe
aeo?iaeenoneiai ia?eaoeiaa, aai ooieoeee, niaeaenoaothuea yooaeoeaiiio
oicyenoaiaaieth ?aaeaeoeee ia/aoiiai n?aaenoaa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee.

Iiae?iaiue aiaeec aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineeo aacao e aeo?iaeia iicaieee
aia?aua ii?aaeaeeoue eo eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue. E?iia oiai, a
aeenna?oaoeee iiae?iaii enneaaeiaaia aeayoaeueiinoue oe?aeineeo ia/aoiuo
NIE n oi/ee c?aiey eo aeeyiey ia /eoaoaeueneoth aoaeeoi?eth.

N yeiiiie/aneie oi/ee c?aiey ?anniio?aia e aeaia e?eoe/aneay ioeaiea
aaaeiaeoeo oaeoi?ia iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeayoaeueiinoe ia/aoiuo NIE
Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo ?uiea.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii?aaeaeaia ?ieue e cia/aiea ninoaaiuo /anoae
aeo?iaeenoneiai ia?eaoeiaa aeey aoaeouaai ?acaeoey ia/aoiuo NIE Oe?aeiu.

Ia i?eia?a aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe oe?aeineeo aacao e aeo?iaeia, ecaeaiee
?acaeouo no?ai aia?aua naeaeai i?iaiic ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey oe?aeineeo
aacao, eo aiciiaeiinoae aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey ?aiaa caai?aaiiuo iiceoeee a
eiieo?aioeee n yoe?iuie NIE.

A aeenna?oaoeeiiiii enneaaeiaaiee ii?aaeaeaiu iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiua iooe
aeayoaeueiinoe ia/aoiuo NIE Oe?aeiu a oneiaeyo ?uiea: oi?ie?iaaiea
«oeeinioee» i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe ia/aoiuo NIE,
i?eaioaoeey ia /eoaoaeueneoth aoaeeoi?eth, eioi?ay naia auae?aao
iii?aaeaoaany ecaeaiea.

Aeaiiia enneaaeiaaiea – iiiuoea ioaaoeoue ia aii?in i iaoaiecia
oi?ie?iaaiey e ?acaeoey oe?aeineiai eioi?iaoeeiiiiai ?uiea, aai
nia?aiaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoyo, a oaeaea i i?aeoe/aneeo i?eaiao e iaoiaeao
?aaiou ia iai n oeaeueth i?aiaeieaiey o?oaeiinoae ia?eiaea oi?ie?iaaiey
iiioey?iiai ecaeaiey.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: aeo?iaeenoneee ia?eaoeia, eioi?iaoeeiiiay ieoa, ?aeeaia
e naii?aeeaia, eioi?iaoeeiiiia niiini?noai, eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoue
ia/aoiuo NIE.

ANNOTATION

Vaskivsky Y.P. The Economic Aspect of The Activity of The Ukrainian
Published Mass Media.– Manuscript.

Dissertation for Bachelor of Science degree of philological sciences by
speciality 10.01.08 – journalism. – Journalism Institute of Kiev
University named after Taras Shevchenko, Kiev, 1999.

Dicertation devoted to researching journalistic marketing as one of main
preconditions of economic survival the press in market conditions. There
is established, that systematic use researches of information market,
well-thought-out advertisement, basic personnel and price policy of
edition, allows editorial collective to increase circulation, to
strengthen material and technical base, to win in competition wrestling.
Dissertation devoted to analyses specific features of marketing in
practice of newspaper-issue. Attention accents on ways of overcoming
crisis in Mass Media. It is offered widely use in activity of published
Mass Media complex of marketing arrangements, effectiveness of which is
substantiated in theory and endorsed practically.

Key words: journalistic marketing, information niche, advertising and
selfadvertiement, information sponsor, newspaper competitiveness.

I?aeienaii aei ae?oeo 24.06.1999. Oi?iao 60o84/16.

Aeae?oeiaaii c aioiaeo i?ea?iae?a

Niin?a ae?oeo — ??cia?ao?/iee

Ianya 1,2 ae?oe. a?e.. Oe?aae 100 i?ei.

Cai. 278

Aeaeaaie/ee oeaio?

Euea?anueeiai aea?aeaaiiai oi?aa?neoaoo

?iai? ?aaia O?aiea

290602, Euea?a, aoe. Oi?aa?neoaonueea, 1

oae.(0322) 79-45-86

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