Армія як суб’єкт забезпечення національної безпеки України (соціально-філософський аналіз): Автореф. дис… канд. філос. наук / П.П. Круть, Харк. війс

2

OA?E?ANUeEEE A?ENUeEIAEE OI?AA?NEOAO

E?OOUe IAO?I IAAEIAE*

OAeE 14: (355.1+355.2)+ 351.73

A?I?ss ssE NOA’?EO CAAACIA*AIIss IAOe?IIAEUeII? AACIAEE OE?A?IE

(NIOe?AEUeII-O?EINIONUeEEE AIAE?C)

09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y ?noi???

AAOI?AOA?AO

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

Oa?e?a — 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Oi?aa?neoao? aioo??oi?o ni?aa IAN Oe?a?ie, i.
Oa?e?a.

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee — aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

NIAIE?A Aaneeue
Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Oi?aa?neoao aioo??oi?o ni?aa,

ia/aeueiee eaoaae?e i?eeeaaeii?
nioe?ieia??

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: — aeieoi? o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?

OEIAeA Aieiaeeie? Aaneeueiae/,

Oa?e?anueeee a?enueeiaee oi?aa?neoao,

noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai a?aeae?eo iaoeiaeo i?iaeai
a?enueeiai? ina?oe

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, aeioeaio

IAO?IA Ieaenaiae?
Ieaenaiae?iae/,

Oa?e?anueeee ?inoeooo oaieiaeo a?enuee,

aeioeaio eaoaae?e noni?eueieo iaoe

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: Aeaaeai?y Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, i. Ee?a.

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny » 6 » 05 1999 ?ieo
i 15 aiaeei? ia can?aeaii?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 64.702.05 i?e Oa?e?anueeiio
a?enueeiaiio

oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith:

310043, i. Oa?e?a, iaeaeai Naiaiaee, 6, aoae. .

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoeny a a?ae?ioaoe? Oa?e?anueeiai
a?enueeiaiai

oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith: 310043, i. Oa?e?a, iaeaeai
Naiaiaee.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee » 05 “ 04 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee

eaiaeeaeao o?einionueeeo iaoe, i?ioani?
IAIOEEIA ?.I.

CAAAEUeIA OA?AEOA?ENOEEA ?IAIOE

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iai?ee?ioe? OO no. i?iaeaia aaciaee
iaaoea iiaiai ci?noo. Ii-ia?oa, oea noino?oueny aaciaee ethaenoaa, ui
noaei ia?aae ?aaeueiith aeueoa?iaoeaith ??oo/a ci?ieoe ia?aaeeaio
ae?yeueiino? aai cieueoe naaa. Ii-ae?oaa, oea aaciaea eiioe?eoiaaiieo
?aa?ii?a i?aeia?iaeieo aca?iia?aeiinei. Ii-o?ao?, oea aaciaea iieiaeeo
aea?aeaa, ui ooai?eeenue i?ney cae?i/aiiy «oieiaeii? a?eie», eiee
ianeeuenoaa, iia’ycaiiai c aeei?enoaiiyi ca?i?, ia na?oia?e a?ai? ia
iiiaioaei. Cia/ei?noue i?iaeaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ca?eueoo?oueny ua
e oei, ui ia oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo ??aiyo ?? caaacia/aiiy iaia?
/?oeiai oyaeaiiy i?i aca?iica’ycie oaiaeaioe?e noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo,
ni?yiiaaieo ia ?ioaa?aoe?th e?a?i oa c?inoaiiy aieeao aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo
/eiiee?a ia i?ioeane aea?aeaaioai?aiiy ? oa?aeoa? i?aeia?iaeieo
a?aeiinei. Oe? ianoaaeie aeooae?cothoue ?ic?iaeo iiaeo eiioeaioe?e oa
oai??e aaciaee, noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a caoenoo aaciaeo
oe?iiinoae ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Iaeaaaeeea?oith oiiaith oni?oiiai aoae?aieoeoaa ye noni?eueieo, oae ?
aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a ? no?oeoo? ? ona?aeiieaiiy iaiao?aeiino? nooo?aiai
ooi/iaiiy oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ii? aace aeine?aeaeaiiy i?noey oa ?ie?
a?i?? a nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie. No/ani? eiioeaioe??
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?ic?iaeythoueny i?e iayaiino? oaeaeeeo ci?i
nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e, cae/ieo ii?i aeeooy, ci?ie ?aeaieia?/ieo
oe?iiinoae oa i???ioe??a, eaa?oei?caoe?? i?eoiaaieo aiaieu iai?oaeaiino?
ia aeiiii?/iiio oa nioe?ieoeueoo?iiio a?oio?. O noai?aii? nenoaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aa?ooue o/anoue ??ci?
nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe: aea?aeaaa, a?iiaaenueei-iie?oe/i? ia’?aeiaiiy,
i?aei?e?iieoeuee? no?oeoo?e oa ?i. Aaiiie?oe/ia, aaino?aoaa?/ia
iieiaeaiiy Oe?a?ie a oeaio?? ?a?iie cia/ii caoaeo? ?? ia?niaeoeae ia
caa?aaeaiiy iaeo?ae?oaoo ye iniiaiiai iai?yieo o a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiio
eo?n? ciai?oiuei? iie?oeee, oiio aeey oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa
iniaeeaa i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ia? a?enueeiaa i?oeue aea?aeaae ye iaeei ?c
aaaeeeaeo oaeoi??a o aeinyaiaii? aeiiii?/ieo oa iie?oe/ieo oe?eae.

E??i oiai, aiane?aeie o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa aeieeea
iaaecia/ai?noue ?ioa?an?a a?eueoino? a?iiaaeyi o ?aae?caoe??
a?aeiia?aeieo i?ia?ai o ??cieo noa?ao iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. Iniaeeaa
cia/aiiy ia? ?ic?iaea oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy
aaciaee o ai?ii?e noa??, nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c i?noey oa ?ie?
a?i?? ye aieiaiiai noa’?eoa caoenoo aaciaeo oe?iiinoae
oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

Oe?a?ia i?ioyaii o?eaaeiai ia??iaeo ia iaea iiaeeeaino? ?ic?iaeyoe ?
?aae?ciaoaaoe aeanio eiioeaioe?th noaeiai ?icaeoeo oa o a?aeiia?aeiino?
c iath no?aoaa?th iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. ?noi?e/ia a?aenoaaaiiy a
aeina?ae? eiiieaeniiai caoenoo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a cia/ii
oneeaaeith? i?ioean a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa. Aeey cae?eniaiiy
ia?aoiaeo aei iiaeo ye?nieo ia?aiao??a ca?ieieo nee iaiao?aeii iino?eii
iiaeeaethaaoe nioe?aeueia i?ciaiiy niaoeeo?/ieo aeey ieo caeii?a oa
caeiiii??iinoae, ia ye? ?eieia? a?aeiineie aieeaathoue iia?/ii.

Ia?icaeiai?noue ?inoeooo?a a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa no/anii?
Oe?a?ie, a oaeiae oniaaeeiaaiee a?ae ?aaeyinueeeo Ca?ieieo Nee
“cae?eoee” oa?aeoa? a?enueeiai-nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei oa a?aeiia?aeiee
aei ieo iaoai?ci oi?aae?iiy iaaecae/aeii oneeaaeiththoue i?ioean
i?aeoe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa a?i?? ia i?aenoaa? e?aueo iaoe?iiaeueieo
o?aaeeoe?e ? ca?oa?aeieo iiaaoe?e o noa?? ai?iii? aaciaee.

Iaaeineiiae?noue ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiai? aace ai?iii? iie?oeee aea?aeaae
aeooae?co? iaiao?aei?noue nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co
iioeiaeueiino? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo oe?a?inueei? a?i??, eiai
nooo?aee aieea ia ?inoeoooe?iiaeuei? i?aeaaeeie nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee. Oneeaaeiaiiy caaaeaiue oa ?icoe?aiiy iai?yie?a
ooieoe?iiaeueiiai canoinoaaiiy ca?ieieo nee (ca ?aooiie iaaieiai?
ae?yeueiino? a?i?enueeeo i?ae?icae?e?a), iaoiiaeth? iaiao?aei?noue
i?ioan?eii i?aeaioiaeaieo a?enueeiaeo eaae??a. Aeine?aeieoeueeee
oa?aeoa? iaeaooiuei? neoaeaiai-aieiai? ae?yeueiino? io?oea?a iio?aao?
aaeaeaaoieo ci?i ci?noo a?enueeiai? ina?oe ia i?aenoaa? iaoeiaeo aeiia
aei ?icaoaeiae nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c a?i?? ye iniiaiiai noa’?eoa caoenoo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a ni?ey? iiooeo eiioeaiooaeueieo canaae ooai?aiiy
aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? i??i?eoao?a ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai
aeaeeaaiiy a aacia? oe?iiino? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? ?icaeiooi?
?a?iiaenueei? e?a?ie.

Aeieea? iio?aaa oai?aoe/iiai ?ica’ycaiiy ? i?aeoe/iiai ae??oaiiy
i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? a?i?? o eiioaeno? caoenoo
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo oe?iiinoae iniae, noni?euenoaa, aea?aeaae, aac yeeo
iaiiaeeeaa ?nioaaiiy, naiicaa?aaeaiiy ? i?ia?aneaiee ?icaeoie Oe?a?ie.

Ca’ycie aeine?aeaeaiiy c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.
Aeena?oaoe?y iia’ycaia ?c caaaeaiiyie iaoeiai-aeine?aeii? i?aoe? (IAeI)
“Oaaea?aoe?y”, ui cae?enithaaeany ca ieaiii Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo
no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e ?aae? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oa iai?iie
Oe?a?ie Aieiaiei oi?aae?iiyi eiiaiaeoaa/a Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae??
Oe?a?ie oa iaoeiai-i?aai?caoe?eiei a?aeae?eii ? eaoaae?aie a?enueeiaiai
?inoeoooo Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae?? Oe?a?ie. Io?eiai? ?acoeueoaoe ciaeoee
a?aeia?aaeaiiy o i?ii?aeieo oa caeeth/iiio ca?oao IAeI. Aeine?aeaeaiiy
ooi/ith? aeaye? iai?yiee ?aae?caoe?? Aea?aeaaii? i?ia?aie aoae?aieoeoaa
? ?icaeoeo Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie ia ia??iae aei 2005 ?ieo.

Nooi?iue iaoeiaiai aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeaie. I?iaeaia i?noey oa ?ie?
a?i?? ciaeoea iaaia a?aeia?aaeaiiy o caeiiiaeaa/eo aeoao, i?aoeyo
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo aeine?aeiee?a. Iacaaaeath/e ia oa, ui
iaoeiaoe? caeiaeeny ?ic?iaeith aeayeeo aniaeo?a aeaii? i?iaeaie, oaia
aeena?oaoe?? ? iaaeinoaoiuei aea/aiith noiniaii ia??iaeo o?ainoi?iaoe??
iinooioae?oa?iiai noni?euenoaa.

Ca oaiaoeeith oa ci?noii an? aeaea?aea, a yeeo ?
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iieiaeaiiy i?i aaciaeo eiie?aoii-?noi?e/ieo
nioe?oi?a ? i?i iniaeeaino? aieiaieo aeae?a nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee
caoenoo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, iiaeia caanoe aei
i’yoe iniiaieo a?oi.

Ia?oo a?oio neeaaeathoue i?aoe? eeanee?a na?oiai? nioe?aeueii? aeoiee:
Ieaoiia, A??noioaey, I.Iae?aaaee?, O.Aiaana, A.Aaaaey, I.Eiioa,
E.Ia?ena, A.Niaina?a, A.Aeth?eaaeia, I.Aaaa?a, A.C?iiaey, E.Iaioaeia,
I.Oaeaeaaaa?a, A.Oieia?, ?.A?iia oa ?i., — ye? noai?eee i?aeaaeeie
iaoeiaeo oyaeaiue i?i i?iaeaie aaciaee ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.
A?aeii? ieneeoae? caeeaee oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? iniiae, ca yeeie
aaciaea ianaiia?aae caaacia/o?oueny neeiaeie caniaaie, ? aieiaiei
?inoeoooii, yeee caoeua? ??, ? aea?aeaaa.

Ae?oao a?oio neeaaeathoue i?aoe? a?o/eciyieo ? ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo
A.Aiae?ouaiea, I.Ao??ca?a, Ae.Aaaeianueeiai, ?.Aieiaaoe,
A.A?aeaeaina, I.Aeaieeiaa, I.A.?eue?ia, A.A.?eue?ia, O.Eiiaea,
A.E?aiaiy, A.Eiea, I.Iieeyea, TH.?eia?aiea, A.Ineiiaa, A.Inianueeiai,
I.Iaia??ia, I.Oiooea?a, N.Oaio?iaoiia, I.Ooiiiee oa ?i., o yeeo
aeine?aeaeothoueny oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie no/anii?
aeeiai?/ii? nioe?aeueii? ?aaeueiino? o eiioaeno? oeea?e?caoe?eiiai
ceaio, nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ?aoi?iaoe?? oa nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, yaeua
? i?ioeane yeeo coiiaeththoue ?nioaaiiy oe?ieiai niaeo?o caa?ic aaciaei
oe?iiinoyi iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae. A?eueo?noue iaoeiaoe?a
noaa?aeaeo?, ui ca a?aenooi?noth aeeeth/ii aeaaioai?iiai aieeao
aeaiie?ao?? ia aaiethoe?th ethaenoaa, aioo??oiueiaea?aeaai?,
noaiaoe?iiaeuei? e ?aa?iiaeuei? eiioe?eoe noaiooue iaea?eueo
a??ia?aeiith oi?iith neeiaiai ae??oaiiy oa?eoi??aeueieo,
aoiiiaoe?iiaeueieo, ?ae?a?eieo, aeiiii?/ieo oa ?ioeo iiaeeeaeo
noia?a/iinoae.

Aei o?aouei? a?oie aeine?aeaeaiue iaeaaeaoue ca?oa?aei? oa a?o/eciyi?
?ic?iaee oai?aoe/ieo ? i?aeoe/ieo iniia nenoaie aaciaee iniae,
noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae A.Aiaiue?ia, I.Aaeueeiaa, I.A?eiaa, ?.A?iueea,
C.Aaeac?inueeiai, E.Aaaeae??aa, A.Ai?aoe?ia, I.Aea?aa/aaa, A.Eieioeia,
I.Iaia/einueeiai, I.Iaeueieea, A.Ii?aaioao, I.Iia?eiai?, A.Iaeaia?/oea,
N.Ie?iaeeiaa, A.I??oiiaa, A.I?iie?ia, Ae.I?iaeoi?a, A.?oaaiiaa,
A.Na?aa?yi?eiaa, ?.I?ao?a oa ?i. Oea — iae/eneaii?oa a?oia aeaea?ae, aea
iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea ?icaeyaea?oueny ye neeaaeiee ia’?eo
noni?eueii-?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee, yeee iiaeia ?ice?eoe o i?ioean?
niaoe?aeueiiai eiiieaeniiai aiae?co. Cie?aia, ? ni?iaa aeine?aeeoe
iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo, aecia/eoe, aeoiaey/e c i??i?eoaoieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a, oeyoe ?? aoae?aieoeoaa, i?noea ? ?ieue o i?e
aeania a?enueeiai? neee.

*aoaa?oo a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue i?aoe? oa ioae?eaoe?? ?aaeyinueeeo
oa cao?aeieo a/aieo, ye? i?enay/ai? ieoaiiyi ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo
a?i?e ??cieo oei?a. Oe? ?ic?iaee iio?aaothoue e?eoe/iiai ia?ainieneaiiy
c iaoith “ciyooy” cia/oueo aeey ae??oaiiy no/anieo i?iaeai
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ?aeae oa iaaieo eiioeaiooaeueieo iieiaeaiue.

Na?aae iaoeiaeo ?ic?iaie ?aaeyinueeiai ia??iaeo caneoaiaothoue ia
na?eicio oaaao i?aoe? E.Ai?iaeiaa, A.Aeueii?ia, ?.Aeieaiiieiaa,
?.Eeeiiaa, I.Eiaaeaiea, A.*e?e?ia oa ?i., ye?, iacaaaeath/e ia
?aeaieia?/io caaiaaaeiaai?noue, aeinoaoiuei iiaii oa ia’?eoeaii iieacaee
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/i? ia?aaeoiiae aeieeiaiiy, ?inoeoooe?iiae?caoe?? ye
noa’?eo?a aca?iiae?? ?c noni?euenoaii ai?iieo i?aai?caoe?e iiaeo
iacaeaaeieo aea?aeaa, a oaeiae cai?iiiioaaee nenoaio ?o oeiieia?caoe??.

Nioe?aeueia ?ieue ? caaaeaiiy a?i??, aea iica eiioaenoii caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, i?iaiae?ciaai? a i?aoeyo a?enueeiaeo a/aieo
O.Ae??aa, C.Aaoo?iaa, I.?uoea, Ae.Aieeiaiiiaa, A.E?an?eiaa,
TH.Iaiiioiaa, A.Naiieeaiea, N.Othoeaae/a oa ?i. O?eaaeee ia??iae caeiii?
ica?i?i? oi?ioaaiiy iaiioeiaeueii ooieoe?iioaaee a oiiaao
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? iai?iii?e ni?yiiaaiino? ai?iii? aeieo?eie oa
ianooiaeueii? no?oeoo?e a?ene ? nee, i?iaieioaiiy aeaiie?aoe/ieo
oe?iiinoae oa a?aenooiino? aoaeoeaiiai nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai iaoai?cio
i?eeiyooy ? ?aae?caoe?? iaeaaaeeea?oeo a?enueeiai-iie?oe/ieo ??oaiue.

A?aenooi?noue aeeaieiai ? anaa?/iiai iaoeiaiai aiae?co ca?ieieo nee
e?a?ie o eiioaeno? noia?a/eeaeo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ?aaeueiinoae nooo?ai
oneeaaeithaaea i?ioean o?ainoi?iaoe?? a?i?? ?c cia?yaeaey
aaei?i?no?aoeaii-eiiaiaeii? nenoaie a a?i?th aeaiie?aoe/ii?, i?aaiai?
aea?aeaae ? a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa. Iaiaaeai?noue
oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iiai cia/aiiy ?aaeyinueeeo
o?einionueei-nioe?ieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue coiiaeaia ?o aeiaiaoeciii,
neaaeith ni?yiiaai?noth ia iaa?oiooaaiiy ae?aaiico ai?iii? noa?e
noni?euenoaa, caeaei oeoia/aiiyi ia?o?eieo ? aea?aeaaieo ??oaiue, ui
i?aei?iyei iiooe iiaeo cania?a iia?e?caoe?? nioe?aeueieo ?ano?n?a oa
aa?aaoaaiiy ae?enii caaaeueiiiaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a. Iica iaaeaie
iaoeiaiai iiaioaaiiy caeeoeany oe?eee eiiieaen i?iaeai, iia’ycaieo ?c
aea/aiiyi oa?aeoa?o nioe?aeueieo ci?i (ia i?aenoaa? aaeaeaaoii?
nioe?aeueii-eeaniai? no?oeoo?e noni?euenoaa), aeine?aeaeaiiyi
noa’?eoiino? aieiaieo nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/ieo ?inoeooo?a o caoeno?
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae.

Na?aae cao?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e, ui i?enay/aia oaiaoeoe? ai?iiiai
aei??o iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, caneoaiaothoue ia oaaao i?aoe? I.Aa?n?a,
E.Aeaiiioeina, Aeae.Aaa?e?, E.Eeaocaa?oea, I.Eaa?,
*.Iineina, N.Ie?eieea, A.Ia??ioa, E.?aena, O.Oaoca?a, I.ssiia?ooea oa
?i.

I’yoo a?oio aeaea?ae neeaaeathoue no/ani? nioe?aeueii-o?einionuee?,
?noi?e/i?, nioe?ieia?/i? ? iie?oieia?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy a?o/eciyieo ?
ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, a yeeo iiaeai? ??ci? aniaeoe nooiino?, ci?noo ? ?ie?
a?i?? a caaacia/aii? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aiae?c nioe?aeueieo ia?aaeoiia oa
iniaeeainoae oi?ioaaiiy Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie cae?eniaii a i?aoeyo
A.Aoii?ia, E.Aii/a?aiea, A.A?oaiaa, A.Ca/aie, N.Cae?i?oea, A.?aiaoaiea,
E.?eue/oea, A.Einoaiea, A.Eioia, A.Ia?aiaeeoe?, A.Niieyithea,
A.Niaie?aa, A.Oaiea, I.O?aa?ia, I.Oeth?oie, A.*i?iiai, A.Oai?ay oa ?i.
Ca iaaeaie aeine?aeaeaiue caeeoeeanue eiiieaenia ?ic?iaea nooiino?,
i?noey ? ?ie? ca?ieieo nee o o?ainoi?iaoe?eieo i?ioeanao oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa, o eiioaeno? ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.
Ioaea, i?iaeaiaoeea noa’?eoiino? a?i?? a i?ioean? caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie aea/a?oueny aocueeei eieii a?enueeiaeo
aeine?aeiee?a, aac iaiao?aeiiai aeey iaaii? ia’?eoeaiino? aeeneoooaaiiy
c aeaaeai?/iith iaoeith, ui coiiaeth? iayai?noue a ?o i?aoeyo eeoa
iaiaaeaiiai aiae?co no?oeoo?ieo ci?i ona?aaeei? a?enueeiaiai iaoai?cio,
iica ?nioth/eie ? iioeiaeueieie ai?iii-nioe?aeueieie a?aeiineiaie.

A?aeaeath/e iaeaaeia iaoeiaiio oa i?aeoe/iiio cia/aiith aeine?aeaeaiue
a?o/eciyieo oa ca?oa?aeieo a/aieo, coneeey yeeo ni?yiiaai? ia aea/aiiy
??cieo aeaea?ae iaaaciaee aeey ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oa ia
ae??oaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy aoaeoeaii? nenoaie caoenoo ?ioa?an?a iniae,
noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae, iaiao?aeii i?aee?aneeoe iaaeinoaoi?
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea inieneaiiy oaie noa’?eoiino? iie?oeee
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ia??iaeo nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??. Aiae?c
oai?aoe/ieo ?ic?iaie aeicaiey? aeacaoe ia iaiaaeai?noue ?nioth/eo
eiioeaiooaeueieo iiaeaeae ai?iii? aaciaee o ?icoi?ii? oiai, ui
iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea caaacia/o?oueny ae?yeuei?noth (noni?eueiith
nenoaiith, ui iino?eii a?aeoai?th?oueny) iaaieo nioe?aeueieo noa’?eo?a,
ye? iathoue /?oeo eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/io i?e?iaeo. Ioaea, a?enueeiaa
ni?aaa ye niaoeeo?/iee ??ciiaeae nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee iio?aao?
niaoe?aeueiiai aiae?co, ui ia?aaeaa/a? aeei?enoaiiy oe?ieeo
iaoiaeieia?/ieo i?aeoiae?a aeey aea/aiiy ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

Ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy aenooia? iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea Oe?a?ie, ui
?icaeyaea?oueny ye nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai.

I?aaeiaoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? a?i?y ye iniiaiee noa’?eo caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoa ? caaaeaiiy aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aeoiaey/e c aeooaeueiino? oa nooiaiy
aea/aiiy i?iaeaie, aieiaiith iaoith aeena?oaoe?? ? ?ic?iaea oai?aoeei-

iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae iioeiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? a?i?? ye
noa’?eoa caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa
(o ia??iae eiai o?ainoi?iaoe??).

?aae?caoe?? iinoaaeaii? iaoe i?aeii?yaeeiaaia ??oaiiy oaeeo
aeine?aeieoeueeeo caaaeaiue:

— aeyaeoe oa ocaaaeueieoe oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? aniaeoe ? i?eioeeie
aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy oa ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie (yea
ae?enii iia’ycaia c ia’?eoeaii-noa’?eoeaiei i?ioeanii ?icai?oaiiy
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?) aaciaee nioe?oio, ui ? iaiao?aeiith
oiiaith ooi/iaiiy nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai ci?noo eaoaai??e
“iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea”, “a?eia”, «a?i?y»;

— noi?ioethaaoe nooi?noue no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i?? ye
niaoeeo?/iiai nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo iinooioae?oa?ii? e?a?ie;

— aecia/eoe i?noea oa ?ieue a?i?? ye iniiaiiai noa’?eoa
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee a no/anieo oiiaao aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?
oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa;

— aeyaeoe iniiai? noia?a/iino? ? iniaeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai aoae?aieoeoaa
Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie;

— oai?aoe/ii iaa?oiooaaoe ? ?ice?eoe aieiai? i?iaeaie iioei?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? a?i?? o eiioaeno? caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
Oe?a?ie.

Oai?aoe/ia ? iaoiaeieia?/ia aaca aeine?aeaeaiiy. Aecia/ath/e
iaoiaeieia?/io iniiao ?iaioe, aeena?oaio aeoiaeea c iaiao?aeiino?
eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo aei aeai?o iaoiae?a aeine?aeaeaiiy i?iaeai
noa’?eoii-ia’?eoieo aca?iia?aeiinei o nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
no/anii? e?a?ie. Ia ??cieo aoaiao aeine?aeaeaiiy aaoi? aeei?enoiaoaaa
oae? iaoiaee: ae?aeaeoe/iee, eia?/iee, nenoaiiee, ii??aiyeueiee,
aiaeii/an ea?oth/enue i?eioeeiaie: ia’?eoeaiino?, ?aeiino? ca’yceo oa
?icaeoeo, oe?e?niino?, nioe?aeueiiai aeaoa?i?i?cio, ae?yeueiino?.

Aeena?oaio iino?eii caa?oaany aei iieiaeaiue Eiinoeoooe?? Oe?a?ie
(1996 ?.), Eiioeaioe?? (iniia aea?aeaaii? iie?oeee) iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie, Ai?iii? aeieo?eie Oe?a?ie, caeiiiaeaa/eo aeo?a
Aa?oiaii? ?aaee Oe?a?ie, ii?iaoeaii-i?aaiaeo aeo?a I?aceaeaioa Oe?a?ie,
Eaa?iaoo I?i?no??a Oe?a?ie.

Aii??e/io aaco aeena?oaoe?? neeaaeathoue aiae?oe/i? iaoa??aee
Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo no?aoaa?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue i?e ?aae?
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? iai?iie Oe?a?ie, iaoeiaiai ? iaoiaee/iiai
oeaio?o I?i?noa?noaa iai?iie Oe?a?ie, Iaoe?iiaeueiiai ?inoeoooo i?iaeai
iieiae?, neoaeae “NIOe?N-Aaeeai”, ui aena?oeththoue oa iiyniththoue
nioe?aeuei? i?iaeaie caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia aeine?aeaeaiiy iieyaa? a oiio, ui aia?oa i?aaeiaoii
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co iinoaee i?iaeaie nooiino?
ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo a?i?? ye noa’?eoa caoenoo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
?ioa?an?a iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae o ?aeo?n? ?? ae?yeuei?nii?
i?e?iaee, yea eiioeaio?iaaii a?aeaeaa?oueny o nenoaiieo yeinoyo ca?ieieo
nee e?a?ie. A ?acoeueoao? aeine?aeaeaiiy aeeeaaeaii ieceo iieiaeaiue, ui
eiie?aoecothoue iaoeiao iiaecio:

— iaa?oioiaaii, ui aaciaea ye nioe?aeueiee oaiiiai iinoa? iaeiei c
iaiao?aeieo cania?a aoooy ethaenueei? noa’?eoiino? oa a?aeia?aaea?
iaaiee ci?no caeaaeiinoae ? ca’yce?a i?ae eiiiiiaioaie noni?euenoaa,
na?aae yeeo a?enueeiaa i?oeue (aecia/a?oueny, ia?o ca ana, ca?ieieie
neeaie e?a?ie) nooo?ai i?aeaeuo? eiia??i?noue eiie?aoii-aea?aeaaiiai
aeaeeaaiiy a oiiaao coaiae?iiy cia/ii? /anoeie na?oiai? ni?eueiioe;

— aeyaeaii, ui iniiaieie aeaiaioaie nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee,
na?aae yeeo a?i?y caa??aa? iniaeeaee noaoon, ?: noa’?eoe nioe?aeueii?
ae?yeueiino? (ia?o ca ana iniaeno?noue, nioe?aeuei? i?aai?caoe?? oa
?inoeoooe); a?aeiia?aei? iniiaiei noa?ai aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? noi?euenoaa
ca’ycee oa a?aeiineie ethaeae; iaai? nioe?ieoeueoo?i? ia?aiao?e
noa’?eo?a caoenoo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a (iio?aae, ?ioa?ane,
oe?iiino?, ??aaiue na?oiaeyaeo);

— cai?iiiiiaaii aaoi?nueea ?icoi?iiy oe?ieiai oa aocueeiai ci?noo
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee (oea aeicaiey? noi?ioethaaoe nooi?noue no/anii?
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i?? ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo iacaeaaeii? e?a?ie) ia
i?aenoaa? aecia/aiiy ?aaeueieo oa iioaioe?eieo caa?ic inia?,
noni?euenoao oa aea?aeaa? o eiioaeno? caaino?aiiy iaaaeaeaaoiino?
?nioth/eo nioe?aeueieo ? i?e?iaeieo eiiiiiaio?a iio?aaai naii?icai?oaiiy
nioe?oio, ui nooo?ai aieeaa? ia aeeiai?eo ? ?icaeoie eiai a?enueeiai?
noa?e;

— ?ice?eoi iniiai? noia?a/iino? ? iniaeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai
aoae?aieoeoaa Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, ?icii/aoiai c iaoith noai?aiiy
no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i?? ye iiaiioe?iii? nioe?aeueii? ?inoeoooe??
oa aoaeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai i?aaio, ui anaa?/ii eiio?ieth?oueny
oeea?eueieie no?oeoo?aie aeaaee;

— aeiaaaeaii, ui i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? a?i??
aecia/athoueny ni?aa?aeiioaiiyi ia’?eoeaieo oiia ? noa’?eoeaieo oaeoi??a
o aaia?oaaii? nioe?aeueieo noia?a/iinoae a ia?ao?aeieo nenoaiao
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee, oiio aieiai? caaaeaiiy iaae?eiiai
caaacia/aiiy ai?iii? aaciaee iiaeeeai ae??oeoe ia i?aenoaa? ?ic?iaeaiiy
oaoiieia?e nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino?, o iaaeao yeeo neio?ii?ciaai?
ia?aoai?aiiy o a?enueeia?e noa?? ?c caaaeueieie o?ainoi?iaoe?eieie
ci?iaie a oe?a?inueeiio noni?euenoa?, caeaoieie iaiaaeoaaoe aai?noe/i?
i?eno?ano? oa i?aeii?yaeeiaoaaoe aeoeai?noue ?iaeea?ae?a ?aaeueii
aecia/aiei i??i?eoaoiei iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai.

Oai?aoe/ia ? i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy aeena?oaoe?? aecia/a?oueny, a ia?oo
/a?ao, iiaeciith ? noeoii?noth iieiaeaiue, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno.
Eiai ?acoeueoaoe neeaaeathoue iaaio iaoiaeieia?/io aaco aeey
iiaeaeueoiai aeine?aeaeaiiy oaeiai nioe?aeueiiai oaiiiaia, ye
iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea a oe?eiio, ? a?i?y ye noa’?eo ?? caaacia/aiiy,
cie?aia.

O aeniiaeao aeena?oaoe?? oi?ioeththoueny iaoeia? ?aeiiaiaeaoe??, ye?
ni?eythoue a?eueo aeeaieiio ?icoi?iith i?e/ei ? oiia aeieeiaiiy
nioe?aeueieo noia?a/iinoae o noa?? aaciaee noni?euenoaa (ui
o?ainoi?io?oueny), a oiio /ene? iane?aee?a ?o aieea?a ia ae?yeuei?noue
a?i??.

A oie aea /an iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy ?iaioe aeyaey?oueny ua e o
oiio, ui iaoa??aee aeena?oaoe??, ?? iaeaaaeeea?o? iieiaeaiiy ? aeniiaee
iiaeooue aooe:

— aeei?enoai? ye oai?aoe/i? canaaee i?e ?ic?iaoe? ciai?oiueiiie?oe/ieo
oa a?enueeiaeo no?aoaa?e, a oaeiae eiie?aoieo i?aeoe/ieo ?aeiiaiaeaoe?e
uiaei iioei?caoe?? a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa;

— ao?eai? a iaa/aeueiee i?ioean aoc?a i?e aea/aii? aeayeeo oai
o?einio??, aoiiaea?aeaaiciaanoaa, i?aeia?iaeieo a?aeiinei, a?enueeiaeo
aeenoeeie?i. Oea aeiiiiiaea nooaeaioai aeeaoa ?ic?a?aoeny a nooiino?
no/anieo i?iaeai caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie,
caiia?aaiiy oa a?aaoethaaiiy ai?iii-iie?oe/ieo eiioe?eo?a.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?acoeueoao?a aeine?aeaeaiiy. Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy oa i?aeoe/i?
aeniiaee aeena?oaoe?? ciaeoee a?aeia?aaeaiiy a iioae?eiaaieo i?aoeyo,
aiie aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia Anaoe?a?inuee?e
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Oe?a?iiciaanoai oa aoiai?caoe?y ina?oe”
(Aei?i?iiao?ianuee, 1993), i?aeia?iaei?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie oa caaaeaiiy ai?iii? ?noi??? o no/anieo oiiaao”
(Ee?a, 1998).

Iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeei?enoiaothoueny a oiae? iaa/aeueiiai
i?ioeano a a?enueeiaiio ?inoeooo? Iaoe?iiaeueii? aaa?ae?? Oe?a?ie.
Aeena?oaoe?y iaaiai?thaaeanue ia eaoaae?? nioe?ieia?? Oi?aa?neoaoo
aioo??oi?o ni?aa ? eaoaae?? o?einio?? Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai
oi?aa?neoaoo, io?eiaea iiceoeaio ioe?ieo ? ?aeiiaiaeiaaia aeey caoenoo o
niaoe?ae?ciaai?e a/ai?e ?aae?.

No?oeoo?a aeena?oaoe??. Eia?ea ae??oaiiy caaaeaiue aeine?aeaeaiiy
aecia/eea no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe??, iacao ?icae?e?a oa i?ae?icae?e?a.
Aeena?oaoe?y neeaaea?oueny c anooio, o?ueio ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a oa
nieneo aeei?enoaieo aeaea?ae (282 iaeiaioaaiiy). Aeena?oaoe?y ia? 180
noi??iie oaenoo.

INIIAIEE CI?NO AeINE?AeAEAIIss

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaii aeooaeuei?noue oaie, iiaeaii oa?aeoa?enoeeo
nooiaiy ?? aea/aiiy, aecia/aii ia’?eo, i?aaeiao, iaoo ? caaaeaiiy
aeine?aeaeaiiy, ?ice?eaathoueny iaoiaeieia?/i? oa oai?aoe/i? canaaee,
iiaecia, oai?aoe/ia oa i?aeoe/ia cia/ei?noue ?iaioe e ai?iaaoe?y ??
?acoeueoao?a.

O ia?oiio ?icae?e? “Iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea a aniaeo?
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co”, yeee no?oeoo?ii neeaaea?oueny c
aeaio i?ae?icae?e?a, aeine?aeaeo?oueny aaiaca eiiieaeniiai,
aaaaoi??aiaaiai nioe?aeueiiai i?ciaiiy i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
noiniaii a?enueeiai? ni?aae ye aaaeeeaiai ??ciiaeaeo no/anii?
nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee.

?icae?e ii/eia?oueny c ?icaeyaeo oyaeaiue i?i aaciaeo noni?euenoaa,
aea?aeaae ? iniae, ui ? a ?noi?e/ieo oeiao o?einionoaoaaiiy. I?aeaaeeie
?icoi?iiy aaciaee ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? iiaeia ?ice?eoe o?eueee
oeyoii aea/aiiy i?ioeano ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa ye aaiethoe??
nioe?aeueii? noa’?eoiino?. I?iaeaia aaciaee ia iiaea ia aeieeiooe a
na?o?, ia?aiiaiaiiio ianeeuenoaii, yeiio iiaeia i?ioenoiyoe o?eueee ca
aeiiiiiaith ianeeuenoaa ae. Ioaea, aaciaea nioe?oio caaaeaee
ciaoiaeeeany na?aae iaeaieiai?oeo i?iaeai aoooy oa aeooo.

Iaaieioo?oueny cia/ei?noue o nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiio i?ciaii?
i?iaeai iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee aiae?co aca?iiae?? noa’?eo?a aaciaee a
o?aaeeoe?eiiio (naaiaioa?iiio), no?aoeo?eiaaiiio oa no/aniiio
(ooieoe?iiaeueii aeeoa?aioe?eiaaiiio) noni?euenoa?, aaaii?noue
ae?aeaeoeei-iaoa??ae?noe/ii? ?ic?iaee nioe?aeueii? i?aeoeee, ui
?aae?co?oueny ethaeueie o ??cieo aeaeao ? oi?iao ae?yeueiino?. Aea
ii?yae c oeei aeacaii ia nooo?ao iaiaaeai?noue iaoo?ae?noe/ieo ?
noa’?eoea?nonueeeo eiioeaioe?e a inyaiaii? ??ciiiai?oieo
?inoeoooe?iiaeueieo oa ae?yeuei?nieo noia?a/iinoae i?ioeano iaae?eiiai
caoenoo aaciaeo oe?iiinoae iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae.
I?aee?aneth?oueny aianie iiceoea?cio, aaaaoueio aio?iiieia?/ieo oe?e o
?icoi?iiy yaeu iaaacia/iiai “iai?oaeaiiy” i?ae aaia?ae?caoe??th oa
?iaeea?aeoae?caoe??th ethaenueeiai niiniao aoooy, ui aeicaieeei nooo?ai
?icoe?eoe cia/aiiy o?aaeeoe?eii? aaciaee, i???ioiaaii? ia ci?oeiaiiy
aeaaee oa ca?eueoaiiy aeiiii?/ieo ?ano?n?a, a?eueo aaaeeeaei eiiiiiaioii
— eoeueoo?iei eiino?othaaiiyi nioe?aeueii? ?aeaioe/iino?.

O ?acoeueoao? cae?eniaiiai aiae?co aaoi? ?iaeoue aeniiaie, ui,
iacaaaeath/e ia nooo?a? eiioeaiooaeuei? a?aei?iiino? a iaaaaeaieo
o?einionueei-na?oiaeyaeieo i?aeoiaeao aei aea/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee, on? aiie caniiaai? ia caaaeuei?e iaoiaeieia?/i?e i?aenoaa?,
oiaoi ui oi?o?eiaaiith aacith aacia/iiai nioe?aeueiiai ?icaeoeo ?
nooo?a? neee ethaeeie, a iaiao?aeiith oa aeinoaoiueith oiiaith caoenoo
aaciaeo oe?iiinoae nioe?oio aenooia? ae?yeuei?noue i?ioan?eii
i?aeaioiaeaieo noa’?eo?a.

Aiae?coth/e ??ci? i?aeoiaee iaoeiaoe?a aei aecia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee, aeena?oaio aaaaea? a?eueo ia?niaeoeaiei ?icaeyae ?? oeoia/aiiy,
ye iaaii? nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee caoenoo aaciaeo oe?iiinoae
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ye? a?aeia?aaeathoue iaiao?aei? oiiae
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo noni?euenoaa. I?iiiio?oueny «oe?iea»
?icoi?iiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ye nenoaiinoai?thth/i? aeanoeaino?,
noaio ? i?ioeano aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa, ui ia?
aooe ni?yiiaaiei ia onoiaiiy (i?i?i?caoe?th) iaaaciae ? caa?ic
noaiiaeaiith noaa?aiii? e?a?ie. C oaei? oi/ee ci?o nenoaia caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee a?aeaeaa? niaoeeo?/i? ?ene eiie?aoiiai nioe?oio.
Aaoi? i?aee?aneth? ?? iino?eiee ca’ycie c aea?aeaaith oa neeiaeie
no?oeoo?aie a eiioeaioe?yo ?iicaiieo ? a?o/eciyieo aeine?aeiee?a, ui
aeicaiey? aeei?enoiaoaaoe “aocueea” cia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee aeey
aaeaeaaoiiai ?icoi?iiy i?ioean?a oa yaeu o ai?ii?e noa?? ethaenueei?
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?aee?aneaii, ui iayai?noue nenoaiieo yeinoae
?iaeea?ae?a, nioe?aeueieo a?oi ? ni?eueiinoae, ye? caoeuathoue aeeoo?ai
aaaeeea? ?ioa?ane iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae, aecia/a? oa?aeoa?
noa’?eoii-ia’?eoieo oa noa’?eoii-noa’?eoieo a?aeiinei o noa??
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie. A?aecia/a?oueny, ui a?aeiineie i?ae
noa’?eoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee iio??aii aea/aoe ia i?aenoaa?
i?eioeei?a ae?aeaeoe/iiai, no?oeoo?ii-ooieoe?iiaeueiiai, ae?yeuei?niiai
i?aeoiae?a c o?aooaaiiyi iiaeeeainoae “i’yei?” nenoaiii? iaoiaeieia??
aeine?aeaeaiiy iniaeeainoae i?ioeano eiiieaeniooai?thaaiiy /eiiee?a
aacia/iiai noni?eueiiai ?icaeoeo. Aieiaiith iniaeea?noth “i’yeiai”
nenoaiiiai i?aeoiaeo aei aea/aiiy i?iaeai aaciaee ? “nioe?aeueia”
noaae?y aiae?co, yea iaeneiae?co? ?ioi?iaoe?eio aca?iiae?th ?acoeueoao?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy ?c ae?eni?noth ia i?aenoaa? oyaeaiue i?i oe?e?nia
?aaoethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? noa’?eoa caoenoo i??i?eoaoieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a.

Ciath/e, ui iaoa, ii/eiath/e ?c caaaeueiii?ciaaaeueii? aei
eiie?aoiio?oaeiai?, ? ?aeaaeueii-?ioi?iaoe?eiei a?aeia?aaeaiiyi
aaaeaiiai ?acoeueoaoo, aeaaaeaiiai nioe?aeueieie iio?aaaie ?
ia’?eoeaieie iiaeeeainoyie, iiaeia c?iaeoe aeniiaee i?i ae??oaeueia
cia/aiiy ciaiue (?ioi?iaoe?eiiai ?ano?no) o no?oeoo?? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee a oe?eiio, a oaeiae aeey oni?oiino? ae?yeueiino? eiaeiiai
noa’?eoa (ia?o ca ana, a?i?? oa ?ioeo aea?aeaaieo i?aai?a) caoenoo
aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo.

?noioia ?icoe?aiiy o?aaeeoe?eiiai oeoia/aiiy iiiyooy “iaoe?iiaeueia
aaciaea” ca ?aooiie aaaaeaiiy aeiaeaoeiaeo aei???a a aeiiii?/i?e,
aeieia?/i?e, nioe?ieoeueoo?i?e oa ?ioeo noa?ao aoooy, a oaeiae ca
?aooiie aecia/aiiy aacoiiaiiai i?eiaoo i?aa ? naiaiae ethaeeie iaae
i?aaaie aea?aeaae ia iiaeiii ciaiooaaoe cia/aiiy a?enueeiai? ni?aae ye
aaaeeeaiai ??ciiaeaeo no/anii? nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee.

C?iaeaii aeniiaee i?i iaiao?aei?noue aeei?enoaiiy
noa’?eoii-aoiai?noe/ii? iiaeae? iaoeiaiai ciaiiy aeey ?aae?caoe??
a?aeiia?aeieo aeieo?ei, no?aoaa?e, eiioeaioe?e ? i?ia?ai o ??cieo noa?ao
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

O ae?oaiio ?icae?e? “A?i?y ye nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo caoenoo aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a noni?euenoaa”, yeee i?noeoue o?e i?ae?icae?ee, ia
i?aenoaa? eiiieaeniiai i?aeoiaeo, c o?aooaaiiyi iaaieo iaoiaeieia?/ieo
iieiaeaiue ae?aeaeoe/iiai a/aiiy i?i a?eio oa a?i?th, iiaea?oueny aiae?c
no/aniiai ?icoi?iiy nooiino? a?i?? ye noa’?eoa caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie, ?ice?eaa?oueny ?? nai???aei?noue.
Aeiaiaeeoueny, ui nooi?noue a?i?? aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie
ae?yeuei?nii? i?e?iaee ethaeeie, an?i eiiieaenii nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo,
aeiiii?/ieo, oa?eoi??aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ? noni?eueiiai aoooy. Aea?aeaieia?caoe?y iaoeiaeo
aeniiae?a i?i noia?a/iino? nioe?aeueii-?noi?e/ii? i?aeoeee ethaenoaa
aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui ca?ieia ianeeuenoai, ye ? aaaeaiiy aaciaee,
? ?iaiaioiith aeanoea?noth noaiiaeaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ??cieo
oeea?e?caoe?eieo ooai?aiue.

Iaeiei ?c aecia/aeueieo iiiaio?a oai?/iai ia?ainieneaiiy aeo?aeieo
nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeeo i?eioeei?a aeine?aeaeaiiy noa’?eoa
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee ? eiai aea/aiiy c iiceoe?e
eiiieaeniiai, aaaaoi??aiaaiai nioe?aeueiiai aiae?co, ui aeicaiey?
io?eiaoe iaoeia? ciaiiy i?i:

· i?e/eie aeieeiaiiy oa ?nioaaiiy a?i?? ye noa’?eoa caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee;

· iio??aio no?oeoo?o eiiieaeno caeiiieo ica?i?ieo oi?ioaaiue
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??;

· ooieoe?iiaeuei? caaaeaiiy ca?ieieo nee oa iaeaaaeeea?o? iai?yiee
ae?yeueiino? ai?iii? i?aai?caoe?? a oe?eiio;

· ?aaeueia iieiaeaiiy oa ?ieue a?i?? na?aae ?ioeo noa’?eo?a nenoaie
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Ine?eueee aeine?aeaeaiiy noa’?eoa ae?yeueiino? o noa?? caoenoo aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a iniae, noni?euenoaa oa aea?aeaae ia iaaoee
aeinoaoiueiai oai?aoe/iiai ii?aoethaaiiy, yea a?aeiia?aeaei a iaeaaei?e
iiaiio? oeueiai oaiiiaia, aaoi? a?aei?/a? iniiai? noa’?eoi?
oa?aeoa?enoeee no/anieo ca?ieieo nee:

— ??aaiue na?aeiiino? (naiina?aeiiino?) iniaiaiai neeaaeo a
aniaeo? oyaeaiue i?i ?aaeuei? oa iioaioe?ei? caa?ice (iaaaciaee)
ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?;

— ia?aiao?e nioe?aeueii? ni?yiiaaiino? a?i?? a noa?? caoenoo aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a iniae, noni?euenoaa ? aea?aeaae;

— aioiai?noue ca?ieieo nee aei iioeiaeueii? ae?yeueiino? a nenoai?
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie;

— caeaoi?noue aei oi?aae?iiy (naiioi?aae?iiy) yaeuaie oa i?ioeanaie
noa?e ai?iii? aaciaee ia i?aenoaa? aaciaeo nioe?aeueieo ?aaoeyoi??a
(nioe?aeueii? no?oeoo?e eiie?aoiiai a?enueeiaiai oi?ioaaiiy,
aeii?ioth/i? oe?ii?nii-ii?iaoeaii? iiaeae? ae?yeueiino? oa iaaii?
nenoaie oi?aae?iiy, ui ae?enii ooieoe?iio?).

Iaaeinoaoiy ?ic?iaea nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai ??aiy iaa?oiooaaiiy
iiaeeeaeo iai?yie?a ae?yeueiino? a?i?? iaiaaeo? i?ciaiiy ae?enieo
i?aenoaa a?enueeiai-nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei: iio?aa, ioe?iie oa
iioeaaoe?eii? i???ioaoe??, ?aaeueieo nioe?aeueieo ?ioa?an?a, oe?iiinoae,
aaciaeo oa ae?oai?yaeieo oe?eae ae?yeueiino? noa’?eo?a ca?ieiiai caoenoo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo. Oiio a aeine?aeaeaii?
iaa?oioiao?oueny no?oeoo?ii-ia?aiao?e/iee i?aeo?ae aeey ooi/iaiiy
yeinoae a?i?? (caniaaie nioe?aeueii? ae?aaiinoeee) ye noa’?eoa
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee: iniaeno?niee aeie, nioe?aeueiee
aeie, aeie iaoai?ci?a oi?aae?iiy. A aeena?oaoe?? ia i?aenoaa? aecia/aiiy
oe?eueiaeo ? i?aeoe/ieo ooieoe?e no/anii? a?i?? aeaco?oueny ia
aaaeeea?noue aiae?co iiaeeeaeo aeenooieoe?e ca?ieieo nee o nenoai?
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie.

I?e ooi/iaii? i?noeaciaoiaeaeaiiy ? ooieoe?iiaeueii? ?ie? a?i?? a
nenoai? iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee c’yniao?oueny, ui no/ania a?eia, yea
aecia/a?oueny oe?ieei eiiieaenii oaeoi??a ?nioaaiiy ethaenueeeo
ni?eueiio (aea i??i?eoaoia i?noea iaeaaeeoue iie?oe/iei iioeaai
iaiao?aeiino? onoiaiiy iaaaeaeaaoiino? nioe?aeueieo ? i?e?iaeieo
eiiiiiaio?a c?inoath/ei iio?aaai naii?aae?caoe?? iniae, noni?euenoaa ?
aea?aeaae), aeooae?co? cia/ei?noue aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a caiia?aaiiy
iiaeeea?e aa?an?? aai ai?iiiio eiioe?eoo. Aieiaiei noa’?eoii oe???
i?aeoeee iiaeiia aooe a?i?y — aaciaee eiiiiiaio ai?iii? i?aai?caoe??
oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaae.

I?aee?aneth?oueny, ui iniiai? noia?a/iino? ? iniaeeaino? i?aeoe/iiai
aoae?aieoeoaa Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie, ?icii/aoiai c iaoith noai?aiiy
no/anii? iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i?? ye iiaiioe?iii? nioe?aeueii? ?inoeoooe??
oa ?oaeoeaiiai aea?aeaaiiai i?aaio iaoiiaeth?oueny iiaiioith ae??oaiiy
oaeeo caaaeaiue:

— /?oea ona?aeiieaiiy iniaiaei neeaaeii, ia i?aenoaa? ?icoi?iiy
iio?aa aaciaee ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, naiai nioe?aeueiiai
i?ecia/aiiy (ianyao noni?eueieo caaaeaiue, oe?eae oa ooieoe?e no/anii?
a?enueeiai? ni?aae);

— ni?iiiaei?noue ea??aii? eaiee ai?iii? i?aai?caoe?? aea?aeaae aei
aoaeoeaiiai oi?aae?iiy i?ioeanii ca?ieiiai caoenoo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo;

— iayai?noue cania?a ? niinia?a iaae?eiiai caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee.

Noai ? oaiaeaioe?? ?icaeoeo ai?iii? iaaaciaee Oe?a?ie aeooae?cothoue ia
eeoa iio?aao iiaea?i?caoe?? ?? ca?ieieo nee. I??i?eoaoia cia/aiiy
iaaoaa? iaa?oiooaaiiy iniiaieo iai?yie?a o?ainoi?iaoe?? no?oeoo?
iaoe?iiaeueii? a?i??, ye? iiaeooue ia?aoai?eoeny ia aeaea?aei iaaaciaee
ia o?eueee aeey aea?aeaae, aea e aeey noni?euenoaa caaaeii.

O o?aoueiio ?icae?e? “I?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? a?i?? o
eiioaeno? caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie”, yeee i?noeoue
aeaa i?ae?icae?ee, a?aecia/a?oueny, ui noiniaii o?ainoi?iaoe?? ai?iii?
noa?e a oiiaao ia?ao?aeiiai noni?euenoaa, nooi?noue iioei?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? a?i?? ?icoi??oueny ye i?ioean ?ica’ycaiiy nioe?aeueieo
noia?a/iinoae, ui ae?aaeathoue noinoiee i?ae noa’?eoaie nenoaie
caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee (ae?yeuei?noue yeeo no?eio?
iaiaaeai?noue oe?iiinoae, ?ano?n?a ? i?ioeae?y ?ioeo noa’?eo?a),
eiiiiiaioaie naii? ai?iii? nenoaie, oa aeieeathoue c i?e/ei
iaa?aeiia?aeiino? iniaenoeo iio?aa ?iaeea?ae?a, a?oi o neeaae? caeiiieo
ica?i?ieo oi?ioaaiue i??i?eoaoiei iaoe?iiaeueiei ?ioa?anai Oe?a?ie.

Aieiai? i?iaeaie iaae?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ai?iii? aaciaee coiiaeai?
?ica’ycaiiyi i?ioe??//y i?ae ?iiaaoe?eieie, aaaiaa?aeieie oi?iaie
i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino? uiaei onoiaiiy (i?i?i?caoe??)
caa?ic ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio oa noni?eueiiio aoooth ? ?aaeueieie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie noa’?eo?a caoenoo i??i?eoaoieo iaoe?iiaeueieo
?ioa?an?a. Cacia/ai? i?iaeaie iathoue i?iya o oaeeo aeaoi?iaoe?yo
aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? Ca?ieieo Nee Oe?a?ie:

— iineaaeaiiy i?eioeeio ?aeeiiia/aeueiino? (yeee ?ieiee cai?uo?oueny
?aeeiiaeaaeaeyi), oe?iea ?iciianthaeaeaiiy ath?ie?aoecio,
i?ioaeoe?ii?cio, oi?iae?cio, aiethioa?ecio oa ae?enii?
aaca?aeiia?aeaeueiino?;

— nooo?aith aeaoi?iaoe??th a?enueeiai-nioe?aeueieo a?aeiinei, ui
cieaeo? i??i?eoao i?ioan?eii? aioiaiino? oa eiiiaoaioiino?
a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey noiniaii noa’?eoea?nonueeeo iiaeyae?a ia/aeueiee?a
ii a?aeiioaiith aei i?aeeaaeeo, a?aenooi?noth ?aaeueii? i?aaiai? oa
nioe?aeueii? caoeuaiiino? iniaiaiai neeaaeo;

— iineaaeaiiy nenoaie iioeaaoe?? ? noeioethaaiiy ae?yeueiino? uiaei
caaacia/aiiy ai?iii? aaciaee (iino?eia ia?aaaaeaiiy aeooiaieo noeioe?a
iiaea ?nioaaoe eeoa a iaaecae/aeieo neooaoe?yo);

— cia/ia cae?eo?noue a?i?? a?ae a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee, oeea?eueiiai
eiio?ieth oa iaaeinoaoi?e noaoon ca?ieieo nee a nenoai? caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie.

Ia aeoieo aaoi?a, a iniiao noai?aiiy aoaeoeaieo iaoai?ci?a ?
i?iaaaeaiiy eiiieaenieo caoiae?a caiia?aaiiy iiaeeea?e aa?an??
(eiioe?eoo) iathoue noaoe ieoaiiy aeyaeaiiy oa ?aae?caoe??
aoiai?noe/iiai iioaioe?aeo caaacia/aiiy ia aa?aioiaaiiio ??ai?
i?i?iae?caoe?? caa?ic ?nioaaiith iacaeaaeii? e?a?ie.

E?eoa??? oa oaeoi?e iioei?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo a?i??
“i?eoiaai?” a nenoai? ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? ? iaaoaathoue
aaeaeaaoiino? eeoa c o?aooaaiiyi ?aae?noe/ieo ?ioa?an?a ?iaeea?ae?a oa
nioe?aeueieo a?oi. I?ae /an iieno ? iiyniaiiy i?iaeai iioei?caoe??
ae?yeueiino? nioe?aeueiiai noa’?eoa, ui aiae?co?oueny c i?e/ei
aoaeoeaiino? caoenoo aaciaeo oe?iiinoae aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?, ne?ae
a?aecia/eoe aaaeeea?noue oaiaeaioe?? ia?aoiaeo a?ae aeii?ioaaiiy
nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/ieo no?oeoo? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? aei ?o ia?eoaoiino?
c eoeueoo?ii-?noi?e/ieie no?oeoo?aie noni?euenoaa (oea aeicaiey?
oa?aeoa?ecoaaoe iai/i? ci?ie ye nioe?ieoeueoo?io ?aoi?iaoe?th). Aeey
nooo?aiai iie?auaiiy ae?yeueiino? a?i?? ye noa’?eoa ai?iii? aaciaee
e?a?ie iaiao?aeii:

— aecia/eoe ae?aiacii cia/eieo nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo ia?aiao??a
ooieoe?iioaaiiy ? ?icaeoeo ca?ieieo nee (iniaeeai iieacieee
“?aeaaeueii?”, “ii?iaoeaii?” oa “?aaeueii?” iiaeaeae no?oeoo? oe?iiinoae
neoaeaiai-aieiai? ae?yeueiino?), a oaeiae ci?no iniaeno?nii?,
oe?eueiai?, oe?ii?nii? ? ii?iaoeaii? oi?ie ?aaoethaaiiy nioe?aeueii
a?aeiia?aeaeueii? iiaaae?iee a?enueeiaineoaeaiaoey;

— aeyaeoe oa?aeoa? o?a?eoi??? eiia??iiai ?ooo iaaiiai ia?aiao?a, i?ae
eiai a?aie/ieie cia/aiiyie oa anoaiiaeoe /enaeuei?noue aa??aio?a uiaei
oeueiai ?ooo ? oaeaeeino?;

— ?ic?iaeoe eiie?aoio no?aoaa?th aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? oe?a?inueei? a?i??
c iaoith caaacia/aiiy ?? a?aeoai?aiiy ia iniia? ?aaeueii? aioiaiino?
caoeuaoe iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane oa ciaiiy nai?o aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
ia?aiao??a ? oa?aeoa?o ?o ca’yce?a i?ae niaith (iniaeeaa cia/aiiy ia?
ni?iiiaei?noue a?enueeiai-iie?oe/iiai ea??aieoeoaa aei iioeaaoe?? ae?e
noa‘?eo?a nenoaie iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee e?a?ie).

Anoaiiaeaii iaai? iaiaaeaiiy a?iiaaenueei? aeoiee (ye? aecia/athoueny
iaaeinoaoiueith ?ieeth oe?ii?nieo ?ioa?i?aoaoe?e i?e?oa?ii? eoeueoo?e
noni?euenoaa o neeaaeiiio i?ioean? iaoe?iaea?aeaaioai?aiiy) uiaei ?aae?e
iaaaciaee Oe?a?ie ye iaaaoeaiee oaeoi? iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino? a?i??.

Iio?aaa noni?eueiiai naiicaa?aaeaiiy o neeaaeieo ai?iii-iie?oe/ieo
?aae?yo e?ioey ae?oaiai oeny/ie?ooy iaaieiii a?aeoai?th? iaiao?aei?noue
aeeaieiai nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aiae?co i?iaeai ae?yeueiino? a?i??
ia ?? ??cieo ??aiyo: aeieiaiio, eiae?oe?eiiio, ?aa?iiaeueiiio,
aea?aeaaiiio.

AENIIAEE

Aiane?aeie aiae?co a?o/eciyii? oa ca?oa?aeii? iaoeiai? e?oa?aoo?e oa
ocaaaeueiaiiy i?aeoe/iiai aeina?aeo c?iaeaii ieceo aeniiae?a:

1. Eiiieaenia, aaaaoi??aiaaa nioe?aeueia i?ciaiiy i?iaeai oi?ioaaiiy oa
ooieoe?iioaaiiy nenoaie (yea ae?enii iiaycaia c ia?eoeaii-noa?eoeaiei
i?ioeanii ?icai?oaiiy ethaenueei? aeeoo?ae?yeueiino?) aaciaee nioe?oio
aeicaiey? noaa?aeaeoaaoe, ui a?enueeiaa i?oeue caeeoa?oueny aaaeeeaei
/eiieeii caaaeueiioeea?e?caoe?eiiai nioe?iaaiaco, a oiio ieoaiiy
iio??aiino? ? aeioe?eueiino? a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa o aeaiie?aoe/ieo
aea?aeaaao ?a?iie (oei a?eueoa a iieiaeeo iacaeaaeieo e?a?iao) iiaeii? ?
iaaeae? ia?aaoaaoe o ia?ae?eo ia?oi/a?aiaeo caoiae?a ?c
aea?aeaaioai?/iai i?ioeano.

2. No/ania nioe?aeueii-o?einionueea aeoiea i?i iaoe?iiaeueio aaciaeo
ii/eia?oueny c ?ic?iaie, aea iniiaith aeine?aeaeaiue ?: i?aeoe/ia ?
i?ciaaaeueia ae?yeuei?noue noa’?eo?a, a?aeiineie ? ca’ycee i?ae ieie;
nioe?aeuei? i?aai?caoe?? oa nioe?aeuei? ?inoeoooe, ui aa?aioothoue
aaciaeo; /eneaii? yaeua eoeueoo?e. Acaaae? ?icoi?iiy nioe?aeueii?
aeoeaiino? ethaeeie, ?iaeeie, aoi?/ii? ni?eueiioe, noni?euenoaa ?
aea?aeaae a noa?? caoenoo ?ioa?an?a aeeoo?ae?yeueiino? neeaaea?
“oe?ieee” nain iiiyooy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee. A oie aea /an iio?aaa
ca?ieiiai caoenoo aaciaeo oe?iiinoae aoooy nioe?oio ?aae?co?oueny
aoaeoeaieie ae?yeuei?nieie nenoaiaie (aea ?nio? ??aaiue i?ioan?eii?
aioiaiino? noa’?eo?a), ui aeioe?eueii a?aeia?aceoe o “aocueeiio” nain?
eaoaai??? “iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea”.

3. Nooi?noue a?i?? aecia/a?oueny iniaeeainoyie ae?yeuei?nii? i?e?iaee
ethaeeie, on?i eiiieaenii nioe?ieoeueoo?ieo, aeiiii?/ieo,
oa?eoi??aeueii-aaia?ao?/ieo, iie?oe/ieo oa ?ioeo oaeoi??a
?iaeea?aeoaeueiiai ? noni?eueiiai aoooy, ui coiiaeththoue i?e/eie
ianiaiai canoinoaaiiy iaeno?ao?oeea?oeo oi?i ianeeueieoeueeiai aeoea?cio
o OO no.

4. Aieiai? i?iaeaie iaae?eiiai caaacia/aiiy ai?iii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie
coiiaeai? ?ica’ycaiiyi i?ioe??//y i?ae ?iiaaoe?eieie, aaaiaa?aeieie
oi?iaie i?aai?caoe?? nioe?aeueii? ae?yeueiino? uiaei onoiaiiy
(i?i?i?caoe??) caa?ic ?iaeea?aeoaeueiiio oa noni?eueiiio aoooth ?
?aaeueieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie a?i?? ye noa?eoa caoenoo i??i?eoaoieo
iaoe?iiaeueieo ?ioa?an?a: ca?iei? neee aoiai?noe/iiai oeio c
ia?ai?aneaieie caniaaie ni?eeoaaiiy — aaaeeeaee aeaiaio iaeaooiueiai
a?iiaaeyinueeiai noni?euenoaa; oaoi?/ii caaacia/aiee, caeaoiee aei
oaeaeei? ?aoeaen?? iiaeo i?iaeai nioe?aeueiee ?inoeooo iaaaeiiai aieeao
ia caa?iceea? neooaoe?? (c aio/eeie no?oeoo?aie, iino?eii aioiaeie aei
iia?aoeaieo oaeineiiaeaiue).

5. E?eoa??? oa oaeoi?e iioei?caoe?? ooieoe?iioaaiiy oa ?icaeoeo a?i??
“i?eoiaai?” a nenoai? ethaenueei? ae?yeueiino? ? iaaoaathoue
aaeaeaaoiino? eeoa c o?aooaaiiyi ?aae?noe/ieo ?ioa?an?a ?iaeea?ae?a oa
nioe?aeueieo a?oi. I?iaeaie o?ainoi?iaoe?? oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa,
eiai ai?iii? noa?e ia a inoaiith /a?ao aecia/athoueny e?ecith
aeooiaiino? oa nioe?aeueii? ni?aaaaeeeaino?. ?? nooi?noue iieyaa? a
oiio, ui aoaeue-yea ae?yeuei?noue ia aieno?oueny a ?aaeueii ?nioth/ee
noai ?noi?e/iiai aoooy iaoe??, yeui aiia eeoa caiaeeoueny aei
aeaiaioa?iiai aeaeeaaiiy. Iniiai? iai?yiee oa i??i?eoaoe a?enueeiaiai
aoae?aieoeoaa oe?a?inueei? a?i?? iiaeii? aeieaoe iaaaoeaiee aieea
iaaecia/aiino? e aacnenoaiiino? nioe?aeueii-aeiiii?/iiai ?icaeoeo,
aeene?aaeeoaoe?? ?aeaieia?/ieo oi?i aeooiaii? ?ioaa?aoe??, aeii?ioaaiiy
?iaeea?aeoaeueii? ni?yiiaaiiino? ia aeaeeaaiiy, ui a?aeaoaathoueny o
ciai?oiueiio na?aaeiaeu?.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy aeena?oaoe?? aeeeaaeai? a ioae?eaoe?yo:

1. E?ooue I.I. Caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai
noni?euenoaa ye ia’?eo nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeiai aeine?aeaeaiiy: Ca.
iaoe. i?. «Iaoeia? caienee Oa?e?anueeiai a?enueeiaiai oi?aa?neoaoo» ? 1.
— Oa?e?a: OAO. — 1998. — N. 145-157.

2. E?ooue I.I. Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue Oe?aeiu eae iaaeo
nioeeieiae/aneiai aiaeeca // Oeeinioey e nioeeieiaey a eiioaenoa
nia?aiaiiie eoeueoo?u. — Aeiai?iiao?iane: AeAO. — 1996. — N. 174-181.

3. E?ooue I.I. Caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie ye nenoaiia
i?iaeaia: Ca. iaoe. i?. «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii? iaoee a
aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo». Aei. 2. — Oa?e?a: Oi-o aioo?. ni?aa. —
1997. — N. 70-73.

4. E?ooue I.I. Eiioeaioe?y iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie:
iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeo: Ca. iaoe. i?. «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie no/anii?
iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo». Aei. 2. — Oa?e?a: Oi-o aioo?.
ni?aa. — 1997. — N. 73-79.

5. E?ooue I.I. Ai?iia i?aai?caoe?y aea?aeaae — noa’?eo caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie: oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/iee aniaeo
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai aiae?co: Ca. iaoe. i?. «Aeooaeuei? i?iaeaie
no/anii? iaoee a aeine?aeaeaiiyo iieiaeeo o/aieo». Aei. 3-4. — Oa?e?a:
Oi-o aioo?. ni?aa. — 1998. — N. 446-450.

6. E?ooue I.I. Iaoiaeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu nenoaiii-ooieoeeiiaeueiiai
aiaeeca nioeeaeueiie noa?u niaaoneiai iauanoaa — iniiaa aeoaieiai
i?aia?aciaaiey Aii?oaeaiiuo Nee NNN?: Nai?iee iao/iuo noaoae
neooaoaeae Aiaiii-iieeoe/aneie aeaaeaiee. — I.: AIA. — 1991. — N.
161-164.

7. E?ooue I.I. Ai?iia i?aai?caoe?y aea?aeaae o eiioaeno? iaoe?iiaeueii?
aaciaee Oe?a?ie: oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? i?iaeaie ?noi?e/iiai oa
nioe?aeueii-iie?oe/iiai aei???a // Iaoa??aee i?aeia?iaeii?
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/ii? eiioa?aioe?? “I?iaeaie oa caaea/? ai?iii? ?noi??? a
no/anieo oiiaao”. — E.: Aeaaeai?y Ca?ieieo Nee. — 1998. — N.
265-270.

E?ooue I.I. A?i?y ye noa’?eo caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee
Oe?a?ie (nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c). — ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo
iaoe ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 09.00.03 — nioe?aeueia o?einio?y oa o?einio?y
?noi???. Oa?e?anueeee a?enueeiaee oi?aa?neoao, Oa?e?a, 1999.

O aeena?oaoe?? cae?eniaii nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c ia?aaeoiia ?
iaoiaeieia?/ieo canaae aea/aiiy a?i?? ye noa’?eoa caaacia/aiiy
iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee oe?a?inueeiai noni?euenoaa o ia??iae eiai
nenoaiii? o?ainoi?iaoe??, ui aea? iiaeeea?noue noi?ioethaaoe ?icoi?iiy
ca?ieieo nee ye nioe?aeueiiai ?inoeoooo caoenoo aeeoo?ai aaaeeeaeo
?ioa?an?a iinooioae?oa?ii? e?a?ie. Aecia/ai? iniiai? noia?a/iino? ?
iniaeeaino? a?enueeiaiai aoae?aieoeoaa, yea iio?aao? naiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy. Iaa?oioiaothoueny i?iaeaie iioei?caoe?? ae?yeueiino?
a?i?? a eiioaeno? caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie. Aieiaiei
eiioeaiooaeueiei iieiaeaiiyi ?iaioe ? ?aeay i?i caeaaei?noue aaciaee
e?a?ie a?ae oe?e?niino? ae?yeueiino? iniiaieo noa’?eo?a caoenoo aeeoo?ai
aaaeeeaeo ?ioa?an?a oe?a?inueeiai ia?iaeo oa caaaeueiiai i?ioeano
nioe?ieoeueoo?ii? ?aoi?iaoe?? noni?euenoaa.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: Iaoe?iiaeueia aaciaea, iaoe?iiaeuei? ?ioa?ane, a?eia,
a?i?y, nioe?aeueiee noa’?eo, nioe?aeueia i?aeoeea, nioe?aeueiee
?inoeooo.

E?ooue I.I. A?iey eae noaaeo iaania/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe
Oe?aeiu (nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aiaeec). — ?oeiienue.

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oeeinioneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe 09.00.03. — nioeeaeueiay oeeinioey e oeeinioey
enoi?ee. — Oa?ueeianeee aiaiiue oieaa?neoao, Oa?ueeia, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee inouanoaeai nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneee aiaeec i?aaeiinueie
e iaoiaeieiae/aneeo iniiaaiee eco/aiey a?iee eae noaaeoa iaania/aiey
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe oe?aeineiai iauanoaa a ia?eiae aai nenoaiiie
o?ainoi?iaoeee, /oi iicaieeei noi?ioee?iaaoue iiieiaiea aii?oaeaiio nee
eae nioeeaeueiiai einoeoooa caueo aeeciaiii aaaeio eioa?ania
iinooioaeeoa?iie no?ai. Ii?aaeaeai iniiaia i?ioeai?a/ey e iniaaiiinoe
aiaiiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa, eioi?ia ioaeaeaaony a aeaeueiaeoai
niaa?oainoaiaaiee. Iainiiaaathony i?iaeai iioeiecaoeee aeayoaeueiinoe
a?iee a eiioaenoa iaania/aiey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe Oe?aei.
Aeaaiui eiioeaiooaeueiui iieiaeaieai ?aaiou yaeyaony eaeay i caaeneiinoe
aaciianiinoe no?aiu io oeaeinoiie aeayoaeueiinoe iniiaiuo noaaeoia
caueou aeeciaiii aaaeiuo eioa?ania oe?aeineiai ia?iaea e iauaai
i?ioeanna nioeeieoeueoo?iie ?aoi?iaoeee iauanoaa.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: Iaoeeiiaeueiay aaciianiinoue, iaoeeiiaeueiua eioa?anu,
aieia, a?iey, nioeeaeueiue noaaeo, nioeeaeueiay i?aeoeea, nioeeaeueiue
einoeooo.

Krut P.P. The Armed Forces of the nation to provide national security
of Ukraine (socio-philosophical analysis). — Manuscript.

The thesis for attaining the degree of Candidate in philosophy,
speniality 09.00.03 — social philosophy and philosophy of history. —
Kharkiv Military University, Kharkiv, 1999.

The plot of the dissertation deals with the analysis of the
prerequisites and methodological principles of studing the Army as the
subject of social practice that provides the national security for
Ukrainian society in time of its internal transformation.

The topicality of the research object is conditioned by the fact that
the concept of opposed and multicivilized world defines the appropriate
measures for all branches as to ukrainian society, particularly in the
context of traditional threats survival (war, aggressions, conflicts),
as well as, appearing of new dangers on the way of mankind lifes work.
Moreover, the indefinition and institutional alienation of the majority
interests in the world appear as a result of social system
transformatoin. The development of theoretical methodological problems
providing national security of Ukraine, the socio-philosophical analysis
of the Armys place and aims as a main subject of the Ukrainian peoples
base values defence play a particular great role.

For a long time, Ukraine didnt have any opportunity to develop and
realize its own concept of steady and balanced development and proper
national security strategy. The historical experience lack in complex
defence of vital national interests blows a negative cloud on the
process of overcoming the state desubjectivisation results and impedes
the process of its Armed Forces formation.

To turn to new quality measures of the contemporary Ukrainian Armed
Forces, even not having proper practical and theoretical experience, we
are to perfect constantly its concept models according to the scientific
programme of the national security provision.

It is well-grounded that security as a social phenomenon is one of the
necessary man subjectivity being way. It reflects the certain plot of
the dependences and relations between the components of society, among
them the military power (which is defined by the Armed Forces, first of
all) enhances essentially the state survival probability under the
sustained threatening conditions of a traditional character (war,
aggression, conflicts), as well as new appearing dangers for steady
vital activity. This allows to define the expediency of complex and
multilevel social cognition elements employment regarding the
possibilities of a «mild» and system methodology of the personal vital
interests investigational problems profection (first of all the armed
one) as well as social and national interests.

The investigation of the Army in socio — philosophical facet as one of
the most important subjects of national security providing, makes it
possible to define the rising tendency of its influence on the
institutional basis of the transforming Ukrainian society under the
conditions of reinforcing the civilized confrontation (in sociocultural,
informational aspects).

It is well — grounded that the subject — object relations play a role of
the main criterion for elaboration of the component structure of the
social security. The main elements contained in the Ukrainian national
security system (where the Army has sustained its high level status) are
the following: the social activitys subjects (personality, social
organizations and institutes, first of all); connections and relations
between people corresponding the main spheres of the social activity;
the certain socio — cultural measures of the vital interests defence
subjects (needs, interests, values, the site of the world — outlook).

The authors comprehension of wide and narrow sense in the national
security is proposed here, basing on the defining of real and potential
threats towards personality, society and state in the context of non —
coincidence of real natural components to the social development needs,
that, in principle, affects the dynamics of its military sphere. The
given attitude makes it possible to formulate the comprehension of the
essence of the contemporary national Army as a specific social institute
of the newly found independent state.

It is well — grounded, that the problems of the Army activity
optimisation are defined by correlation of objective conditions and
subjective factors of social conflicts generating in the transitional
national security providing systems.

The main problems of reliable national security provision are solved
basing the social activity technology development within which the
military sphere measures are synchronized with common transformational
changes in the Ukrainian society. They are able to limit the selfish
purposefulness and to object the individual activity to the really
defined prior national interests.

The main concept position of the work is the idea of depending of the
state national security provision fidelity upon the national vital
interests defence main subjects integral activity and a common process
of the peoples sociocultural reformation.

Key words: the national security, the national interests, war, the
Armed Forces, social subject, social practice, social institution.

E?ooue Iao?i Iaaeiae/

A?i?y ye noaaeo caaacia/aiiy iaoe?iiaeueii? aaciaee Oe?a?ie

(nioe?aeueii-o?einionueeee aiae?c)

Aaoi?aoa?ao

aeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy

eaiaeeaeaoa o?einionueeeo iaoe

A?aeiia?aeaeueiee ca aeione

aeieoi? nioe?ieia?/ieo iaoe, i?ioani?

Niaie?a Aaneeue Ieaenaiae?iae/

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