Аналітична та експериментальна оцінка впливу складу структури і рельєфу поверхонь тертя на функціональні особливості зносостійких Cr-чавунів: Автореф.

Eooeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao

Ia i?aaao ?oeiieno

Oinoae Aiia Aieiaeeie??aia

OAeE 537.533;528.72

Aiae?oe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ioe?iea aieeao neeaaeo no?oeoo?e ?
?aeue?oo iiaa?oiiue oa?oy ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino? ciinino?eeeo
Cr-/aaoi?a

05.02.01 – iaoa??aeiciaanoai

AAOI?AOA?AOaeena?oaoe?? ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa
oaoi?/ieo iaoe

Eooeuee – 1999

Aeena?oaoe??th ? ?oeiien.

?iaioa aeeiiaia a Eooeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao?,

I?i?noa?noai ina?oe Oe?a?ie, i. Eooeuee

Iaoeiaee ea??aiee: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,i?ioani?Aia?i TH??e
Aai?a?eiae/,Eooeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao,caa?aeoaa/
eaoaae?e iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ? ia?iaee iaoaeo oeneii

Io?oe?ei? iiiiaioe: aeieoi? oaoi?/ieo iaoe,noa?oee iaoeiaee
ni?a?ia?oiee,caa?aeoaa/ a?aeae?eii ciinino?eeeo iie?eoo?aOe?ieia
Aieiaeeie? Aieiaeeie?iae/,o?ceei-iaoai?/iee ?inoeooo ?iai? A.A. Ea?iaiea
IAI Oe?a?ie, i. Euea?aeaiaeeaeao oaoi?/ieo iaoe, aeioeaio ?eeuei?eia
Ai?en Na?a?eiae/,aea?aeaaiee oi?aa?neoao “Euea?anueea
iie?oaoi?ea”aeioeaio eaoaae?e o?ceee iaoae?a.

I?ia?aeia onoaiiaa: ?inoeooo i?iaeai iaoa??aeiciaanoaa ?iai? ?.I.
O?aioeaae/a, i. Ee?a

Caoeno a?aeaoaeaoueny “ _3_“ eeiiy 1999 ?ieo i _1000_ aiaeei? ia
can?aeaii? niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee E 32.075.01 a Eooeueeiio
aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoao? ca aae?anith: 263018, i. Eooeuee,
aoe. Euea?anueea, 75, iaa/aeueiee ei?ion A, aoaeeoi??y 338.

C aeena?oaoe??th iiaeia iciaeiieoenue o a?ae?ioaoe? Eooeueeiai
aea?aeaaiiai oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo ca aae?anith : i. Eooeuee, aoe.
Euea?anueea, 75.

Aaoi?aoa?ao ?ic?neaiee “2“ eeiiy 1999 ?ieo.

A/aiee nae?aoa?

Niaoe?ae?ciaaii? a/aii? ?aaee Ae?aeoo A.O.

Caaaeueia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?iaioe

Aeooaeuei?noue oaie. Aeine?aeaeaiiy i?ioean?a, ui iathoue i?noea i?e
oi?ioaaii? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ?aeue?oo ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi? nieaa?a, i?ae
/an ciiooaaiiy a ??cieo oiiaao caeiathoue iaeia c aaaeo/eo i?noeue a
i?iaeai? oa?oy ? ciiooaaiiy. I?e?iaea i?ioean?a ciiooaaiiy ? iaei??th c
iaea?eueo neeaaeieo i?iaeai a iaeano? o?eaiiaoa??aeiciaanoaa, ine?eueee
aeey ?? ae??oaiiy iio??aii iaoe /?oe? oyaeaiiy i?i o?ce/i?, o?i?/i? ?
aaiiao?e/i? aeanoeaino? aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ?aeue?oo. I?e oeueiio
iniaeeai? oaaae caneoaiaothoue aaiiao?e/i? aeanoeaino?, ine?eueee ?o
aea/aiiy iiaeiii ni?eyoe ?icoe?aiith ?nioth/ei oyaeaiiyi i?i iaoai?ci
oi?ioaaiiy aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ?aeue?oo, yeee aeieea? i?ae /an oa?oy ?
ciiooaaiiy, a oaeiae oi?ioaaiiy ??aiiaaaeii? oi?noeino? iiaa?oi?. A
oeueiio aniaeo? aeieea? iaiao?aei?noue e??i o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoiae?a
canoiniaoaaoe i?eioeeiiai iia? iaoiaee no/anii? ia/enethaaeueii?
oaoi?ee. Aieiaiei iai?yieii a oaeeo aeine?aeaeaiiyo ? iiaeeea?noue
ei?aeyoe?? anoaiiaeaieo caeii?a iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy ?iai/i? iiaa?oi? c
i?e?iaeith no?oeoo?ieo neeaaeiaeo o?eainieaa?a.

Iia? iiaeeeaino? e?euee?nii? o?aeoia?ao?? c’yaeeeny ?c canoinoaaiiyi
?ano?iai? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii?? (?AI), yea aeicaiey? i?iaiaeeoe
o?eaei??ia aea/aiiy i?e?iia’?eo?a oa iaea?aeaiiy ye?nii iiaeo
o?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeaieo.

Aeeiiaiiy aeine?aeaeaiue ca aeiiiiiaith iiaiai
(?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/iiai) iaoiaeo oa iaea?aeaiiy ye?nii iiaeo
o?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeaieo /a?ac e?euee?niee aiae?c o o?eaei??iiio i?inoi??
noaiiaeoue iaoiaeieia?/io aeooaeuei?noue ?iaioe.

A aenia?eiaioaeuei?e /anoei? oe??? ?iaioe aeine?aeaeaiiy iaiaaeeeeny
iaei??th ?c a?oi o?iienoeo /aaoi?a, ye? i?eeiyo? ca iiaeaeuei? nieaae,
ine?eueee oey a?oia a?eeo /aaoi?a ea?a?aeiiai eeano oe?iei a?aeiia a
na?oia?e oaoi?/i?e e?oa?aoo?? ye eeane/i? ciinino?ee? eeaa?i? nieaae.

A oai?aoe/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo c?iaeaia ni?iaa aeei?enoaoe ?yae
iane?aee?a, ui aeieeaathoue c ?acoeueoao?a
?ano?iai-aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ieo, noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ieo oa
o?aaeeoe?eieo iaoaeia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue , c iaoith iai?oeoe oeyoe
i?aeoiaeo aei ae??oaiiy aeayeeo ?iaeaia?ieo caaea/ o noa?? neioaco
no?eeeo i?ioe ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy Cr-/aaoi?a oa ?o canoinoaaiiy aeey
aeaioiaeaiiy eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a.

Ca’ycie ?iaioe c iaoeiaeie i?ia?aiaie, ieaiaie, oaiaie.

?iaioa ? iaeiei ?c cae?i/aieo o?aaiaio?a aeine?aeaeaiue, ye?
aeeiioaaeeny Eooeueeei aea?aeaaiei oaoi?/iei oi?aa?neoaoii ii i?iaeoo
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa Oe?a?ie o ni?aaao iaoee ?
oaoiieia?e ia noai?aiiy iaoeiai-oaoi?/ii? i?iaeoeoe?? ii aeiaiai?o
4.4/445 “?ic?iaea iaoeiaeo i?eioeei?a aeaioiaeaiiy eeoeo ciinino?eeeo
nieaa?a ia aac? Fe–Cr–C nenoai, caeaoieo aei naiii?aai?caoe?? no?oeoo?e
iiaa?oiaaeo oa??a oa?oy” ni?eueii c o?ceei-oaoiieia?/iei ?inoeoooii
iaoae?a ? nieaa?a IAI Oe?a?ie (1996-1998??.), a oaeiae ie?aiei ?icae?eii
o a?aeiia?aeiino? c oaiith ?2-89 iaoeiai-aeine?aeiiai ?inoeoooo “Iieio”
(i.Iineaa) “?ic?iaea iaoiaeeee aea/aiiy oa?aeoa?o ?oeioaaiiy ia iniia?
e?euee?nii? ?ioi?iaoe?? ? noai?aiiy i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy” (1991-1992
?.?.).

Iaoa ?iaioe – ?ic?iaea iaoiae?a ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? aeey aiae?co
oiiia?ao?? oa no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai neeaaeo ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue
ae?iaiiaoaeueieo eiiaoie ? iioei?caoe?y o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ciinino?eeeo
Cr-/aaoi?a aeey ?o aeaioiaeaiiy.

Iniiai? caaea/? aeine?aeaeaiiy ?iaioe ianooii?:

1. ?ic?iaea eiioeaioe?? aiae?co ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeaieo noaio
i?e?i?aeue?oo iiaa?oiiue oa?oy Cr-/aaoi?a.

2. ?ic?iaea ? canoinoaaiiy iaoaiaoe/ieo iiaeaeae, aeai?eoi?a aiae?oe/ii?
? oeeo?iai? ia?iaee aeaeo?iiii-i?e?ineii?/ieo cia?aaeaiue.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii-oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy iaoiae?a oeeo?iai?
noa?aio?aeoia?ao??

4. sse?nia oa e?euee?nia ioe?iea ci?ie oiiia?ao?? ?iai/eo iiaa?oiiue
eiiaoie i?ae ae??th aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a.

5. Aecia/aiiy aieeao o?i?/iiai oa no?oeoo?ii-oaciaiai neeaaeo /aaoio ia
o?eae?noue a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe??.

6. ?ic?iaea neeaaeo ciinino?eeiai /aaoio ia iniia? iaoaiaoe/iiai iaoiaeo
aeoeaiiai ieaioaaiiy aenia?eiaioo.

Iniiaiei ia’?eoii aeine?aeaeaiiy ? aenieoaoaoe?eiee ?aeue?o ?iai/i?
iiaa?oi? eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a , aeaioiaeaieo ?c aeine?aeieo
nieaa?a , yeee iiaeia ?ioa?i?aooaaoe ye a?aeia?aaeaiiy iine?aeiaiino?
iiae?e iaoai?cio ?oeioaaiiy. Iaeiie/aiiy aenia?eiaioaeueieo
?acoeueoao?a, ui iathoue e?euee?nio iniiao, i?i aoiiia ?oeioaaiiy
iaoa??ae?a a ??cieo oiiaao iaaaioaaeaiiy, aacia?a/ii, iaiao?aeii ye aeey
?icaeoeo oai??? aoiiiino?, oae ? aeey ae??oaiiy eiie?aoieo i?aeoe/ieo
caaea/.

Iaoeiaa iiaecia iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a:

– aia?oa i?iaaaeai? ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue
ciiooaaiino? ? ceiio ae?iaiiaoaeueieo eiiaoie ??ciiai ae?iaieoeoaa ?
aenia?eiaioaeueii aea/aiee iaoai?ci ?o ?oeioaaiiy;

– noi?iiaai? iia? iaoiaee ? aeai?eoie iiaoaeiae ia AII oeeo?iaeo
iiaeaeae iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy ? aea?oueny i?ea?iaeueiee ?ica’ycie ?yaeo
niaoe?aeueieo ieoaiue ?o iiaoaeiae, ui i?e iiaeaeueoiio
iaoeiai-i?aeoe/iiio ?icaeoeo a?aee?eaa? ye?nii iiaee iai?yiie
o?eaei??ii? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??;

– ?ic?iaeai? iaoeia? iniiae oai??? ? iaoiaeo oeeo?iai?
noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ii? ia?iaee ?AI-cia?aaeaiue a “on-line” ?aaeei?, a
oaeiae iao?aaeeoe?ei? a o?aeoia?ao?? aeai?eoie iiaoaeiae ? aiae?co
oeeo?iaeo iiaeaeae i?e?i?aeue?oo;

– oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoe/ii iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie o?aeoaeueiino? a
iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy, a oaeiae cai?iiiiiaaii i?ea?iaeueiee iaoiae
aiae?co o??ueiiooai?aiiy ye caaea/? ?ici?ciaaaiiy ia?ac?a;

– aia?oa ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea e?euee?nii? noa?aieiai–noa?aiiao?e/ii?
ioe?iee ai?cio?iiieo no?oeoo?;

– aecia/aii iioeiaeuei? oaoiieia?/i? ia?aiao?e ? neeaae aeaioiaeaiiy
eiiaoie ?c aenieio?iienoiai /aaoio, ye? caaacia/othoue iaeaaeiee ?ano?n
?iaioe ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a.

Iaoiaeieia?y ? iaoiaeeea aeine?aeaeaiue.

?iaioa aeeiiaia c canoinoaaiiyi o?eaiiaoa??aeiciaanoaa /aaoi?a, iaoai?ee
? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea, ui aeaoi?io?oueny, ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?ano?iai?
aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??, oioia?aiiao???, oai??? aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a,
oeeo?iai? ia?iaee cia?aaeaiue ? iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/ieo iaoiae?a
aeine?aeaeaiiy.

Iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ui aeiinyoueny ia caoeno:

1. Noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/i? iaoiaee ?ica’yceo oai?aoe/ieo oa i?eeeaaeieo
caaea/ i?iaeaie ?oeioaaiiy, cie?aia i?eioeeie o?aeoaeueiino? oa
aenia?oii? ioe?iee o??ueiino?eeino? noiniaii iiaa?oi? ciiooaaiiy
aenieio?iienoeo /aaoi?a.

2. I?eioeeiiai iiaee iaoiae eiii’thoa?iiai o?aeoia?ao?/iiai aiae?co
i?e?ino?oeoo?e oaa?aeeo o?e ca ?o ?AI-cia?aaeaiiyie.

3. Aenia?eiaioaeueii – oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy canoinoaaiiiy a
o?eaiiaoa??aeiciaanoa? iaoiae?a aiae?oe/ii? oa oeeo?iai?
noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? a ?aaeeiao “ off-line“ i “ on-line“.

4. ?acoeueoaoe aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue noa?aio?aeoia?ao??
iiaa?oiiue ciiooaaiiy oa ceiio ae?iaiiaoaeueieo eiiaoie ?c Cr-/aaoi?a,
aiae?c yeeo aea? iiaeeea?noue iaaeaoe i?iiiceoe?? uiaei iiaeaeueoiai
aaeineiiaeaiiy no?oeoo?e ? ciinino?eeino? oe??? eaoaai??? nieaa?a,
i?ecia/aieo aeey aeaioiaeaiiy aeeeaie oeio eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo
aia?ao?a , ui aenieoaoothoueny a aiaeia?/ieo oiiaao ciino.

I?aeoe/ia cia/aiiy iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a .

A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaii? ?iaioe ?ic?iaeai? iaoiaee
?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? iiaeia canoiniaoaaoe aeey ?ica’yceo aaaaoueio
caaea/ o?aeoia?ao??. Iaoiaee oa?aeoa?ecothoueny aeinoaoiuei aenieith
oi/i?noth, aeinoia??i?noth oa aeinooii?noth aeey oe?ieiai eiea
niaoe?ae?no?a a iaea?aeaii? e?euee?nii? ?ioi?iaoe?? i?i aeine?aeaeoaai?
ia’?eoe. Noai?ai? oeeo?ia? oioia?aiiao?e/i? iiaeae? i?e?iia’?eo?a,
aeeth/ath/e iaoiaeeee, aeai?eoi?/ia oa i?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy, iiaea
oni?oii canoiniaoaaoeny o iaoeiaeo ? oaoiieia?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiiyo.
Oeeo?iaa oioia?aiiao?e/ia ia?iaea ?AI-cia?aaeaiue aeicaiey? nooo?ai
ca?eueoeoe iiaeeeaino? i?iaaaeaiiy i?e?ineii?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue,
iniaeeai a ?aaeei? “in situ”. Ii?aeiaiiy iaoiae?a ?AI-oioia?aiino??? oa
noa?aieia?? ? ia?niaeoeaiei, ui i?aeoaa?aeaeo?oueny aeaieie
aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ia caaiae? “?iaeeuaoa?iao” aaeineiiaeaia eeaa?ia oaoiieia?y oa oa?i?/ia
ia?iaea i?e ei?aeoe?? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo, ui ni?eyei ca?eueoaiith ?ano?no
?iaioe eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a ia 25-30%.

Oai?aoeei-iaoiaeieia?/i? ?acoeueoaoe aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe ciaeoee nai?
canoinoaaiiy a Eooeueeiio aea?aeaaiiio oaoi?/iiio oi?aa?neoaoo i?e
/eoaii? eo?no “O?eaiiaoa??aeiciaanoai ? eiii’thoa?ia iaoaeia?ao?y”.

Iniaenoee aianie caeiaoaa/a. A aeena?oaoe??th aeeth/aii eeoa o? iaoeia?
?acoeueoaoe, ye? io?eiai? aeena?oaioii iniaenoi. A iioae?eiaaieo ?acii c
ni?aaaoi?aie iaoeiaeo i?aoeyo caeiaoaa/ai aeeiioaaeenue: iinoaiiaea
caaaeaiue, i?iaaaeaiiy aenia?eiaio?a ? aiae?c io?eiaieo ?acoeueoao?a.
Aianie aeena?oaioa a iaea?aeaii? aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, ye?
iioae?eiaai? o ni?aaaoi?noa? , noaiiaeoue 70-80%.

Ai?iaaoe?y ?iaioe. Iniiai? ?acoeueoaoe, i?aaenoaaeai? a aeena?oaoe??,
aeiiia?aeaeeny oa iaaiai?thaaeeny ia iaoeiaeo eiioa?aioe?yo
i?ioani?nueei-aeeeaaeaoeueeiai neeaaeo Eooeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo (1993 – 1998 ??.), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? “sse?noue oa iaae?ei?noue aoce?a oa?oy”, i. Oiaeueieoeueeee
(1992?.), iaeani?e iaoeiai-i?aeoe/i?e eiioa?aioe?? “Iaoeia? ? oaoi?/i?
?ic?iaee – o ae?iaieoeoai” (Eooeuee, 1997 ?.), iaoeiai-oaoi?/i?e
eiioa?aioe?? Oe?a?inueei? aea?aeaaii? aeaaeai?? aiaeiiai ainiiaea?noaa
(??aia, 1996 ?.), i?aeia?iaeiiio nai?ia?? c i?iaeai iiaeaethaaiiy ?
iioei?caoe?? eiiiiceo?a (IIE38, Iaeana, 1999 ?.), ia ia’?aeiaiiio
nai?ia?? eaoaae? o?ceee oaa?aeiai o?ea oa iaoa??aeiciaanoaa (Eooeuee,
1998 ?.). Aeena?oaoe?eia ?iaioa ? /anoeiith eiiieaeniiai caaaeaiiy, ui
aeeiio? Eooeueeee aea?aeaaiee oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao ca i?ia?aiith
ooiaeaiaioaeueieo aeine?aeaeaiue I?i?noa?noaa iaoee oa oaoiieia?e
Oe?a?ie.

Ioae?eaoe??. Ca oaiith aeena?oaoe?? aaoi?ii oa ca eiai o/anoth a
iaoeiaeo aeo?iaeao oa ca??ieeao iioae?eiaaii 8 ?ia?o.

No?oeoo?a oa ianya aeena?oaoe??. Aeena?oaoe?y aeeeaaeaia ia 133
noi??ieao, ? neeaaea?oueny c? anooio, 5 ?icae?e?a, aeniiae?a, nieneo
e?oa?aoo?e ?c 163 iiceoe?e. ?iaioa ia? 48 ?enoie?a, 18 oaaeeoeue,
aeiaeaoie.

Ca /an o?eaaei? ?iaioe iaae aeena?oaoe??th aaoi? iino?eii ni?eeoaaeany c
aaaaoueia i?aaenoaaieeaie iaoee ? ae?iaieoeoaa, ui ie?aeii aieeioei ia
o?ae aeine?aeaeaiue, aeiaeaaaei an?i oai?aoe/iei aeine?aeaeaiiyi
i?aeoe/ii? cia/ouino?.

Aaoi? aeeaiei aaey/ia nai?io a/eoaeth i?ioani?o aeieoi?o oaoi?/ieo iaoe
TH.A.Aia?i ca iino?eio oai?/o i?aeo?eieo; i?ioani?o Iineianueeiai
aea?aeoi?aa?neoaoo A.I.Nieieiao ca i?aeoe/io aeiiiiiao ii ?AI-ci?iaiith
c?ace?a oa ei?eni? ii?aaee ia ??cieo aoaiao aeeiiaiiy ?iaioe.

O noai?aii? i?ia?aiiiai caaacia/aiiy ?iaioe i?eeiaee o/anoue ani??aioe
A.O.Aieioei oa Ae.I.TH?eiaaoeue. Oe?ii? caoaaaeaiiy oa i?iiiceoe?? a
i?ioean? aeine?aeaeaiiy iaaeaaaee i?ioani?e I.E.Aei?iaeeinueeee,
A.I.Iaeueiee, A.A.Oaee?n, A.Ae. ?oaeue. An?i ?i aaoi? aeneiaeth? ue?o
iiaeyeo.

Aaoi? aeneiaeth? aeeaieo aaey/i?noue nai?i eieaaai–ni?aaaoi?ai ni?eueieo
ioae?eaoe?e, ye? i?eeiaee o/anoue a i?iaaaeaii? aeine?ae?a oa
iaaiai?aii? iaea?aeaieo ?acoeueoao?a.

Iniaeeao aaey/i?noue aaoi? aeneiaeth? ?aeoi?o Eooeueeiai aea?aeaaiiai
oaoi?/iiai oi?aa?neoaoo i?ioani?o A.A.Aiaeeaea?ieeo ca eiinoeueoaoeaio
aeiiiiiao oa noai?aiiy ni?eyoeeaeo oiia aeey caaa?oaiiy aeena?oaoe?eii?
?iaioe.

Iniiaiee ci?no aeena?oaoe??

O anooi? iaa?oioiaaia aeooaeuei?noue oaie, ?? iaoeiaa iiaecia,
ioa?aeoa?eciaaii no/aniee noai i?iaeaie, noi?ioeueiaaia iaoa
aeine?aeaeaiue oa iniiai? iieiaeaiiy, ye? aeiinyoueny ia caoeno,
i?eaaaeai? aeai? i?i i?aeoe/io cia/ei?noue ?iaioe, e?euee?noue
ioae?eaoe?e oa no?oeoo?o aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

Ia?oee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?oe/iiio iaeyaeia? e?oa?aoo?e c i?iaeai
ciiooaaiiy ? oa?oy. Aeaoaeueii ?icaeyioo? caaaeuei? aniaeoe iaoaeaaeo
iiaa?oiiue i?e nooiio oa?o?. A?aei?/a?oueny cia/iee aeeaae a ?ic?iaoe?
oai?aoe/ieo canaae iaoeiaeo oe?e E?aaaeuenueeiai E.N., Iaeaoieea E.N.,
Eaia?/oea A.A., Noaiaiaiea A.A. oa ?i. ?icaeyioo? i?iaeaie ye?nii? oa
e?euee?nii? ioe?iee oaoiieia?/iiai oa aenieoaoaoe?eiiai ?aeue?oo ?iai/i?
iiaa?oi? ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a. C?iaeaii aeniiaie ia
ia?niaeoeai?noue ?ic?iaee iaoiae?a ?ano?iai–aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ii?
(?AI) noa?aio?aeoia?ao??. Aea?oueny anaa?/iee aiae?c no/anieo
oaiaeaioe?e noai?aiiy ciinino?eeeo nieaa?a ia iniia? nenoaie Fe-Cr-C ?
noi?ioeueiaai? caaea/? aeena?oaoe?eii? ?iaioe.

A ae?oaiio ?icae?e? aeeeaaeai? aeai? i?i ia’?eo oa iaoiaee
aeine?aeaeaiue. Noi?ioeueiaai? iniiai? i?eioeeie aei aeai?o o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo Cr-/aaoi?a. Aeaia noenea oa?aeoa?enoeea canoiniaaieo a
aeena?oaoe?? iaoiae?a ioe?iee no?oeoo?iiai neeaaeo, ciinino?eeino? oa
iaoai?/ieo aeanoeainoae. ?icaeyioo? aieiai? caaea/?
?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? ye iiaiai iaoeiaiai iai?yieo. Aeaii oai?aoe/ia
iaa?oiooaaiiy ?ic?iaeaii? aaoi?ii iiai? iaoiaeeee ioe?iee
o?aeoia?ao?/ieo iiaa?oiiue iiaoaeiaith oeeo?iaeo iiaeaeae i?e?i?aeue?oo
(OeII?) ca niiniaii o?eaiaoeyoi?a.

A o?aoueiio ?icae?e? aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeai? noa?aieiai-noa?aiiao?e/i?
iniiae ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao??. ?icaeyioo? iiaeeea? a ?ano?ia?e
aeaeo?iii?e i?e?ineii?? aa??aioe oioia?aiiao?e/ieo iiaeaeae. Io?eiaia a
ocaaaeueiaiiio aeaeyae? oioia?aiiao?e/ia iiaeaeue, ui a?aeiia?aea?
eiioeaioe?? ia?aeaeueiiai a?aeia?aaeaiiy a ?AI:

wmetafile8? ??J???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??¦?? ???&? ?MathType??aea x, y –
eii?aeeiaoe oi/ie ia ci?ieo; X,Y,Z – eii?aeeiaoe oi/ie ia ia’?eo?; X0
,Y0 ,Z0 – eii?aeeiaoe ii/aoeiai? oi/ee a nenoai? eii?aeeiao ia’?eoo;
ai, bi (i=1,2,3) – iai?aaeyth/? eineione, ye? caeaaeaoue a?ae eoo?a , ,
; k – ianooaaiee iiiaeiee acaeiaae in? Y (i?eionea?oueny, ui iiiaeiee
aeey in? O =1).

Noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ia ia?iaea ?AI-cia?aaeaiue iiaea aooe aiae?oe/iith (ia
iniia? noa?aieiiia?aoi?ieo aei??thaaiue) ? eiii’thoa?iith
(iai?aaaoiiaoe/iith aai aaoiiaoe/iith). Ia?oee oeyo anaa?/ii
ii?aoeueiaaiee ? aeinoaoiuei iiaii aena?oeaiee a e?oa?aoo??. Ia
a?aei?io, eiii’thoa?ia ia?iaea ciaoiaeeoueny a ii/aoeia?e oac? ? aaaaoi
ieoaiue oeueiai iaoiaeo iio?aao? ae??oaiiy. Aeey ?ioa?aeoeaii?
oioia?aiiao?e/ii? ia?iaee ?AI-cia?aaeaiue ?ic?iaeaii iaoiae ?
a?aeiia?aeiee aeai?eoi aei??thaaiiy eii?aeeiao oi/ie oeeo?iaeo
cia?aaeaiue ca i?eioeeiii noa?aieiiia?aoi?a ?c oiiae aeei?enoaiiy
noaiaea?oiiai aeenieay IE cai?noue ie?aiiai a?ao?/iiai aeenieay aai
iaaecae/aeii aei?iai? oeeo?iai? oioia?aiiao?e/ii? nenoaie. Oai??y
iaoiaeo ianooiia: aeey aeene?aoiiai cia?aaeaiiy ?ici??ii n m i?enae?a
iiaeia caienaoe :

wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy??????????????????????wmetafile8?
??|??????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? `A»???&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy?»???? ???&?
?MathType???? ???u?????????»????-?????O?O??? — ???O?N
??? –???u?th??????aea fij – cia/aiiy u?eueiino? i?enae?a aai ?o
ooieoe??.

Ae?ace (2) ? oi?aa?naeueieie noiniaii aeai?o aeia?eueieo oi/ie, aea aiie
aeoaea /ooeea? aei ooio. Oiio aeey i?aeaeuaiiy oi/iino? aecia/aiiy
eii?aeeiao xoe, yoe i?iiiio?oueny nii/aoeo aeeiioaaoe ia?iaeo
cia?aaeaiue, aeei?enoiaoth/e iaoiaee i?inoi?iai? cai?oee cia?aaeaiiy ?c
iia?aoi?ii Ia??a:

wmetafile8? ??k???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? 
a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uthY?????aea wmetafile8? ??E???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy@??/?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uthY?????Cia/aiiy G aoaeooue iaeneiaeueieie ia
a?aieoeyo, a ci?ia ciaeo ooieoe?? G a?ae i?enaea aei i?enaea aeaaea ia
iieiaeaiiy a?aieoe?, yea eaaeeoue o i?noe? ia?aoeio a?ao?ea ooieoe?? c
ioeueiaith ieiueiith, oiaoi i?e G=0. Oiae? cia/aiiy eii?aeeiao x,y, ui
iaeaaeaoue a?aieoe? iiaeia ciaeoe oeyoii ?ioa?iiethaaiiy i?ae noi?aeieie
i?enaeaie c ??cieie ciaeaie. sse iieacaee aenia?eiaioaeuei?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, oaeee i?aeo?ae aea? oi?io? ?acoeueoaoe. Oi/i?noue a
e?aueo aeiaaeeao noaiiaeoue 0,1 i?enaea.

I?eeeaae noa?ai?aeiino?oeoe?? iiaa?oi? ceiio ae?iaiiaoaeueii? eiiaoee
aea?oueny ia ?en. 1. Noa?aiaei??thaaiiy aeeiiai? a ?ioa?aeoeaiiio
?aaeei?, noa?aici?iaiiy ia ?AI “O?oa/? N-800” (IAeO ?i. I.A.Eiiiiiniaa)
i?e eooao eiiaa?aaioe?? 0, 5, ca?eueoaiiy 1000 e?ao.

Aaaaoi aeine?aeiee?a i?eo?eiothoueny eiioeaioe?? oioia?aiiao?e/iiai
nenoaiiiai eae?a?oaaiiy ?AI ye neeaaeii? nenoaie a oe?eiio. Oey
eiioeaioe?y iaie canoiniaoaaeany aeey aeine?aeaeaiiy ?AI “Hitachi S-800”
(IAeO). Anoaiiaeaii: 1) i?e ?aoaeueiiio aeio?eiaii? oiia noa?aici?iaiiy
no/ani? ?AI aeicaieythoue a?aeoai?thaaoe ci?iaeuei? ia?aiao?e ye
noaoenoe/ii no?ee?; 2) caeeoeia? iiieeee aecia/aiiy i?inoi?iaeo
eii?aeeiao i?e ??ai? cia/ouino? 0,05 ?iciiae?eai? ca ii?iaeueiei
caeiiii; 3) na?aaeiueieaaae?aoe/i? iiieeee noa?aieiiia?aoi?iiai
aei??thaaiiy eii?aeeiao ? ia?aeaen?a ?AI-cia?aaeaiue noaiiaeyoue o=50
iei; y =70 iei; ? = 90 iei a?aeiia?aeii; 4) aa??aoe??
ca?eueoaiiy a ae?aiacii? 120012000 e?ao a na?aaeiueiio 0,4%, ui
na?ae/eoue i?i aeineoue aenieo noaa?euei?noue ?iaioe no/anieo ?AI.

No/aniee ?icaeoie iaoa??aeiciaanoaa aeiaaa? iia?aoeaiiai ? ye?niiai
eiio?ieth no?oeoo?e , cie?aia noa?aieia?/ieo aecia/aiue oi?ie, ?ici???a
? ?iciiae?eo ea?a?aeieo aeeth/aiue. Noaiaea?oi? iaoiaee eiio?ieth oaeeo
aeeth/aiue cae?eniththoueny, ye i?aaeei, a?coaeueii oeyoii ii??aiyiiy c?
oeaeaie aoaeiiieo cia?aaeaiue. Canoinoaaiiy cania?a eiii’thoa?iiai
noa?aieia?/iiai aiae?co cia?aaeaiue aeicaiey? nooo?ai ni?inoeoe ??oaiiy
oeeo i?iaeai ? cia/ii ?icoe?eoe iiaeeeaino? eiio?ieth no?oeoo?e.

Aeey ?ica’ycaiiy oe??? caaea/? a ?iaio? io?eiai? a yaiiio aeaeyae?
oi?ioee ia?aiao??a ae?ioe/iiai ?iciiae?eo a, b, , ?ic?iaeaiee
a?aeiia?aeiee aeai?eoi noa?aieiai-ieai?iao?e/ii? ia?iaee
?AI-cia?aaeaiue.

Aeaiee aeai?eoi aeei?enoaiee a iaeao? i?eeeaaeieo i?ia?ai “STIMAN”,
?ic?iaeaiiio a IAeO i?ae ea??aieoeoaii i?io. Nieieiaa A.I.

Ca?aeii III “STIMAN” nii/aoeo i?iaiaeeoueny ca a?ia?iei oeeo?iaei
cia?aaeaiiyi ?aeaioeo?eoaaiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a, iio?i aeey eiaeiiai
no?oeoo?iiai aeaiaioo ?ic?aoiaothoueny i???ioaoe?ei? oa?aeoa?enoeee ?
i?iaiaeeoueny ?o noaoenoe/ia ia?iaea. ?ic?aoiaothoueny ? aoaeothoueny
a?noia?aie ?iciiae?eo no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a ca ae?aiao?ii, ieiuath,
ia?eiao?ii, oaeoi?ii oi?ie ? “?icith i???ioaoe??”. A oaae.1 i?eaaaeai?
ocaaaeueiai? ?acoeueoaoe noa?aieiai-ieai?iao?e/iiai aiae?co o?ueio
c?ace?a (?? 4, 16, 20) Cr-/aaoi?a.

Oaaeeoey 1.

?acoeueoaoe aiae?co ea?a?aeieo aeeth/aiue a Cr-/aaoiao.

?en. 1, a, a, a. O?eaei??ia aeie-ae?aa?aia OeII? iiaa?oi? ceiio c?acea
eiiaoee c Nr-/aaoio (a); ea?oa ?cie?i?e (a); i?io?eue ii e?i?? A–A (a).
Ca?eueoaiiy 1000o.Eooe eiiaa?aaioe?? 0°–5°. ?AI “HITACHI S 800”.

E??i noa?aieiai-ieai?iao?e/iiai aiae?co a aeena?oaoe?? ?ic?iaeaii iiaee
noa?aieiai-noa?aiiao?e/iee iaoiae, yeee aeicaiey? cae?enithaaoe
i?inoi?iaee aiae?c OeII? ca i???ioaoe?eieie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie.

Aeey oeueiai a no?oeoo?iiio eoa? aeae?a?oueny i aaeoi??a-iai?yie?a.
I?ney oeueiai aeey eiaeiiai c aaeoi??a-iai?yie?a ciaoiaeyoueny ?
noiothoueny ieiu? i?iaeoe?e o?eeooieo oanaoie, ye? ae?eyoue ca
aeai?eoiii o?eaiaoeyoi?a aeine?aeaeoaaio iiaa?oith ia ieiueie,
ia?iaiaeeeoey?i? o?eniaaiei aaeoi?ai. Iaea?aeai? i?ney noioaaiiy ieiu?
i?iaeoe?e ae?eyoueny ia caaaeueio ieiuo an?o o?eeooieo oanaoie,
ii?iothoueny a?aeiinii iai?yieo in? OZ ? ia/eneth?oueny u?euei?noue
ia?aoei?a a ?-io iai?yieo (?=1,…,i) ca i/aaeaeiith oi?ioeith:

wmetafile8? ??o???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
`a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy®yyy ???? ???&?
?MathType??a????uAy??????aea Sij– ieiua i?iaeoe?? ?-i? oanaoee ia
j-iio iai?yieo , Si – ieiua ?-i? oanaoee, Ei – ii?ioth/ee iiiaeiee.

Iio?i aoaeo?oueny ia n?ooe? Aoeueoa (?en.2) noa?aia?ao?/ia cia?aaeaiiy
u?eueiinoae ia?aoei?a, a iai?yiee aeacothoueny ?iaeaenaie I?eea?a, ye?
ca cae/ae aeei?enoiaothoueny a e?enoaeia?ao??.

A aeena?oaoe?? io?eiaii iaoiaeaie oai??? aaiiao?e/ii? eiia??iino?
ocaaaeueiaiee iaoaiaoeei-noaoenoe/iee e?eoa??e i?inoi?iai? ai?cio?ii??:

wmetafile8? ??aea rS(l) = 1/2PL(l); PL(l) – ieaia?iee noaoenoe/iee
?iciiae?e.

A /aoaa?oiio ?icae?e? ?icaeyiooa oai??y ? i?aeoeea canoinoaaiiy iaoiae?a
?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? o aea/aii? ? ioe?ioe? aaiiao??? iiaa?oiiue
?oeioaaiiy.

Ca aeiiiiiaith ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? a ?aaeei? “in situ” iiaeia
iaae?eii o?enoaaoe ?oo i?e?io??ueie. I?ioa aecia/aiiy ae?enii?
oaeaeeino? iioe?aiiy o??ueie aeey iaeeo o??uei neeueii oneeaaeiaia
aieeaii ?ici???a ca?ai, i?aeca?aiiith aca?iiae??th, iaaecia/ai?noth iaae
o??uei, oa?aeoa?ii ?oeioaaiiy, aeaeii ?ice?eooy o??uei oa ?i. Aeey
iiaeieaiiy oeueiai oo?oaeiaiiy iio??aii ciaoe ii?oieia?th ? aeanoeaino?
ciie aeoyaoaaiiy. C oe??th iaoith i?iiiio?oueny canoiniaoaaoe
noa?aia?ao?/i? niinoa?aaeaiiy ieie?a ciie aeoyaoaaiiy o??ueie,
aei??thth/e i?io?e? aai noa?aini?yaeai? iiaa?oi? ceiio c?ace?a iiaeeco
ciie aeoyaoaaiiy ? o?enoth/e e?iaiaoeeo i?inoaaiiy i?e?io??ueie. (?en.
3, 4).

Iaoiae noa?aio?aeoia?ao?? iiaeia canoinoaaoe a ?aaeei? “in situ” ia
o?eueee aeey aea/aiiy iioe?aiiy aoiiii? o??ueie, aea e aeey io?eiaiiy
a?aeiiinoae i?i noaae??, ui ia?aaeothoue aeieeiaiith oa ?icaeoeo
i?e?io??ueie. Oai??y ? i?aeoeea oaeiai iaoiaeo ?ic?iaeaia aaoi?ii ?
aeaoaeueii aena?oeaia a aeena?oaoe??. Iiaeaeueiei aenia?eiaioii
i?aeoaa?aeaeaia eiai aeniea oi/i?noue (2mA)

N??? oa a?e? /aaoie, ye neeaaeia? ia’?eoe aaaaoueio o?eainenoai, ca?aeii
?c caaaeueiei aeciaiiyi, a?aeianai? aei neeaaeieo a?aee?eoeo iaoae?/ieo
nenoai. Oaeei nenoaiai aeanoeaa i?e?iaeia caeaoi?noue aei
naiii?aai?caoe?? aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? i?e ciai?oi?o aieeaao, a oiio
/ene? – i?e ni?aoeueiaoaaii?.

Aeey i?aeoeee aiae?co aeeneiaoeaieo no?oeoo? aaaeeeaa caaea/a ioe?iee
aio?ii?? aai a?aeiiniiai nooiaiy aii?yaeeiaaiino? ia iniia?
aenia?eiaioaeueieo aeaieo, iniaeeai, eiee a?aenooiy ?ioi?iaoe?y i?i
no?oeoo?o aeine?aeaeoaaii? nenoaie. A?aeiia?aeii aei oe??? caaea/? a
aeena?oaoe?? cai?iiiiiaaii iaoiae ?ic?aooieo aio?ii??, a iniiao yeiai
iieeaaeaii ii?oiniaeo?aeueiee aiae?c iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy, yeee ii?aeio?
aeei?enoaiiy iaoiae?a ?AI-noa?aineii?/ii? ceiiee i?e?iia’?eo?a,
aiae?oe/io oioia?aiiao?e/io ia?iaeo ?AI-cia?aaeaiue oa niaeo?aeueiee
aiae?c OeII?. Aeey ?ic?aooieo aio?ii?eii? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?e?ino?oeoo?e
i?iiiio?oueny aiae?coaaoe ?iciiae?e a?aei?oie i?e?i?aeue?oo OeII?:
wmetafile8? ??A???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?@???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy???&?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uthY?????yea io?eiaia aaoi?ii ?c i?eiouaiiy, ui
noeoii?noue aenio (z) OeII? ia? ?iciiae?e Eaieana wmetafile8?
????????????? ???????????yyy????.????1??????
??????? ?????&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyyA??&?? ???&?
?MathType??p????uthY?????aea wmetafile8? ??a???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@????&??yyyy?????Ayyy±yyy@??n?? ???&? ?MathType??a?
???u?????????»????-?????O?O???i???????1????‹
???1‹???O?u???iI???u?th??????sse iieacaee aeeiiai?
aeine?aeaeaiiy, eiioeaioe?y aio?ii?? a o?aeoia?ao?/iiio canoinoaaii? ia?
oae? iniaeeaino?: i?i?iaeueia cia/aiiy aio?ii?? a?aeiia?aea? aeineoue
caeaaeaeaiei iiaa?oiyi, iaeneiaeueia – aeiaaeeo ??aiieiia??iiai noaio
nenoaie ? aei??aith? lnN. Aeey OeII? –oea iaeiaeiaa eiia??i?noue
ciaoiaeaeaiiy a?aei?oee aoaeue-yei? oi/ee OeII? o iiia?aaeiuei aea?aiiio
?ioa?aae? ia?aiaaeo aenio. Aeecueea aei a?aie/ii? aaee/eia aio?ii??
aeanoeaa c?aceai c iecueeith ? neeueii ci?ithaaiith i?oei?noth ca’yce?a,
ui coiiaeth? ??aiieiia??ia ii?ooaiiy no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a aoaeue-yeiai
??aiy i?aai?caoe??. Oaea eiioeaioe?y ni?aiaaea? ?c aenia?eiaioaeueii
io?eiaiith (Aaeaieei A., 1991) caeaaei?noth noaoenoe/ii? aio?ii??
iaoae?a (Ni, Cu) a?ae nooiaiy ?o aeaoi?iaoe??.

A aeayeeo ?iaioao (Noaiaiaiei A.A., 1995, Kolednik I., 1985) aoee
cai?iiiiiaai? iaoiaee ?aeaioeo?eoaaiiy i?e?io??uei, ?o ye?nia oa
e?euee?nia oa?aeoa?enoeea ?c canoinoaaiiyi ?AI-o?aeoia?ao?/ieo
aeine?aeaeaiue.

Iaie a ?icaeoie oeeo iaoiae?a ?icaeyiooa iiaeeea?noue eiii’thoa?iiai
?aeaioeo?eoaaiiy i?e?io??uei ca aeaieie oeeo?iai? ia?iaee
?AI-cia?aaeaiue.

Aeo?aeiith ?ioi?iaoe??th aeey ?ic?iaeaiiai iaie aeai?eoio ? iao?eoey
yne?aainoae, yea iaea?aeo?oueny a ?acoeueoao? ioeeo?oaaiiy cia?aaeaiiy
ae?eyiee aeine?aeaeoaaiiai c?acea ca 256 a?aaeaoe?yie n??iai eieuei?o.
?ici??i?noue iao?eoe? ?icaeooy iiaea ci?ithaaoeny a oe?ieeo iaaeao
(a?ae 256o256 aei 1024o1024 aeaiaio?a). I?ioean aeae?eaiiy e?i?? (in?)
i?e?io??ueie ?i?oe?ae?co?oueny ?o/iith ?icnoaiiaeith ia i?e?ici?ieo
ia?ea??a (aoceiaeo aai “ca?iiaeo” oi/ie). ?c cia?aaeaiiy iinooiiai
“ae??cathoue” o?aaiaioe oae, uia /a?aiaee ia?ea? aoa o e?aiio aa?oiueiio
eoo? , a ianooiiee – a i?aaiio ieaeiueiio. Ae?eyiea i?e?io??ueie
eiaeiiai ianooiiiai o?aaiaioa ? i?iaeiaaeaiiyi aeae?eaiiai ?ai?oa. I?e
oaeiio i?aeoiae? aeioe?eueii aeei?enoiaoaaoe aeeiai?/ia i?ia?aioaaiiy,
iaoaiaoe/ii ocaaaeueiaia N-nooiaiaaa oi?ioea yeiai ia? aeaeyae (7):

wmetafile8? ??•???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@a???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy ??ae?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uthY?????aea oe – noai nenoaie ia aoai?
e;wmetafile8? ??o????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
aA???&??yyyy?????Ayyyµyyy???•?? ???&?
?MathType??P????uAth??????O aeiaaeeo, eiee ?AI-cia?aaeaiiy i?noeoue
aaeeeo e?euee?noue i?e?io??uei iacia/ii? i?ioyaeiino?, ?icae?eueia
o?anoaaiiy iiaea aoaee aeoaea oo?oaeiaia. Uia iioei?coaaoe oeae i?ioean,
i?iiiio?oueny a?aeiiaeoeny a?ae i?iaaaeaiiy eiaeii? iiaeeeai?
i?e?io??ueie ie?aii, a caanoe oeth iia?aoe?th aei iiaeeo?eiaaii?
iia?aoe?? caiiaiaiiy ?c “cao?aaeith”. Oey i?ioeaaeo?a aeia?a a?aeiia ?c
?icae?e?a iaoeiii? a?ao?ee, iia’ycaieo ?c a?coae?caoe??th ??cieo
ia’?eo?a ia ?ano?iaeo i?eno?iyo.

A ?aieao iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? , cai?iiiiiaaii? (Iaiaeaeuea?io A.A.
1984), iiaa?oiy ?oeioaaiiy, ie??i caaaeueii? oiiieia?/ii? (Dt=2)
oa?aeoa?eco?oueny aeiaeaoeiai o?aeoaeueiith ?ici??i?noth (2Df 3), yea
iiina?aaeeiaaiei /eiii a?aoiao? ?iciiae?e ? ??no aeaoaeoieo no?oeoo? a
oaa?aeeo o?eao (eeanoa? i?e?io??uei ? ii/aoeiaeo aeaoaeo?a, ia?aaeo
i?e?io??uei oiui), ianooaaiee aoaeo, aia?aaoe/i? oa?aeoa?enoeee i?ioeano
?oeioaaiiy. O?aeoaeuei?noue ia? eiie?aoiee iaoa??aeiciaa/ee aniaeo,
iai?eeeaae, i?e neioac? aaoa?iaaiieo no?oeoo?. A aeena?oaoe?? aea?oueny
oai?aoe/ia iaa?oiooaaiiy on?i ia?ae?/aiei aniaeoai o?aeoaeueii?
aaiiao???. ?icaeyiooi oaeiae ieoaiiy aeei?enoaiiy o?aeoae?a a ooi/iaii?
a?aeiiiai o iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy e?eoa??th ??a?iaa

wmetafile8? ?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
?`???&??yyyy?????AyyyAyyy ??A?? ???&? ?MathType??P?
???u?????????»????-?????H?T????H?:???u`y??????Aiae?c
e?oa?aoo?ieo aeaea?ae ? iao? aeani? aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui aei
oeueiai /ano a iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy ia ia? iaoaiaoe/ii no?iaeo ?
aoaeoeaieo niinia?a o?aeoaeueii? ioe?iee eiie?aoieo i?e?iia’?eo?a, oiio
iio??ai? iaoiaee/i? aeiiiaiaiiy. C oe??th iaoith a aeena?oaoe??
?ic?iaeaii iaoiaee ioe?iee o?aeoaeueieo ?ici??iinoae oi?noeeo
iiaa?oiiue: ia iniia? oeeo?iaeo iiaeaeae i?e?i?aeue?oo ? i?io?eueieo
n?/aiue.

?en. 2. Noa?aia?ao?/ia i?iaeoe?y ?en. 3. ?acoeueoao iiooeo
i?e?io??uei

u?eueiinoae ia?aoei?a ii?iaeae naaiaioaoe??th
?AI-i?e?ioioia?ao??

oanaoie OeII? i?e oaiia?aoo?? 650N. o aa?oeeaeueiiio iai?yieo

?en. 4 a ,a, a, a. Noaia, yea ?ethno?o? o?anoaaiiy (a) ? aecia/aiiy
oe?eie o??ueie (a). Aeaiaioe o??ueie, ui ioe?iththoueny: oaeeyno?noue
(a) oa ?icaaeoaeai?noue (a).

?en. 6. A?ao?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iaoaiaoe/ii? iiaeae? ieaioaaiiy
aenia?eiaioo.

?en. 5,a, a, a, a, ae, a, ae, c. Oa?aeoa? iiaa?oiiue ciiooaaiiy eiiaoie
ae?iaieoeoaa: ?in?y (a, a, a, a, ae), NOA (a), ssiii?y (ae), Oe?a?ia (c)
– aenia?eiaioaeueiee c?acie.

Aeey aiae?co o?aeoaeueieo aeanoeainoae i?e?i?aeue?oo iaea?eueo
i?eaeaoiei ? ai?ieneioaaiiy OeII? ca aeiiiiiaith Oo?’?–ia?aoai?aiue o
aeaeyae? noia?iiceoe?? neioni?aeaeueii i?io?eueiaaieo iiaa?oiiue,
ine?eueee ia?aoai?aiiy Oo?’? ia?aaiaeeoue i?inoi?iao ooieoe?th Z(o) a
/anoioio ooieoe?th X(f) /a?ac ?ioaa?aeueia ni?aa?aeiioaiiy

wmetafile8? ??“???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
 `???&??yyyy?????Ayyycyyy ??B?? ???&?
?MathType???????uAy??????I?aeoe/ii i?e ia/eneaiiyo Oo?’? –
ia?aoai?aiue aeei?enoiao?oueny aeai?eoi oaeaeeiai ia?aoai?aiiy Oo?’? ?
iaoiae iie?eooy iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy n?oeith eaaae?ao?a aai iiiaeeiith
i?io?eueieo n?/aiue. A iaio aeiaaeeao o?aeoaeueia ?ici??i?noue
aecia/a?oueny a?aoiaiae?oe/ii ye iaoee i?yii? iaee?auiai iaaeeaeaiiy o
aea?/? eiaa?eoi?/iiio ianooaa? (lnS–lnr). I?ia?aiia caaacia/aiiy oaeiai
i?aeoiaeo ?ic?iaeaia i.i.n. Aieioeiei A.O.

I’yoee ?icae?e i?enay/aiee aiae?co i?iaaaeaieo eiiieaenieo
aeine?aeaeaiue no?oeoo?e ? ciinino?eeino? aaeeei? na??? eiiaoie,
aeaioiaeaieo ca o?aaeeoe?eiith caaiaenueeith oaoiieia??th c iaoith
anoaiiaeaiiy iniiaieo i?e/ei, ui coiiaeththoue oi?ioaaiiy ia ?iai/?e
iiaa?oi? i?e?i?aeue?oo ??ciiai oa?aeoa?o (?en. 5). Aaaaoi/enaeueieie
?AI-o?aeoia?ao?/ieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie anoaiiaeaii ui aenieoaoaoe?eiee
?aeue?o ia ?iai/?e iiaa?oi? eiiaoie oi?io?oueny a i?ioean? ciiooaaiiy a
oiiaao oaea?iiai iaaaioaaeaiiy, oa?oy ei/aiiyi ? i?ieiacoaaiiy iioieo
/aaoiiiai ae?iao. Oeeee?/i?noue i?ioeano aieeao ae?iao aaaea aei
aoiiethaaeueiiai ciiooaaiiy iaoa??aeo eiiaoie aiane?aeie aoaeoo
ia?aci?oeiaiiy ? ao?aoe ieanoe/iino?. I?e oeueiio, /anoeia iaoai?/iiai
iaaaioaaeaiiy o?ainoi?io?oueny a oaiei, yea aeeeeea? iiyao ii?e?a ia
eieaeueieo ae?eyieao iiaa?oi? ? ooai?aiiy oa?i?/ieo i?e?io??uei. A
iiaa?oiaaiio ?iai/iio oa?? eiiaoie a i?ioean? aenieoaoaoe?? iathoue
i?noea ia?aoai?aiiy a no?oeoo??, ye? iia’ycai? c oaciaeie ia?aoiaeaie
wmetafile8? ??T?????????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????  
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyya???AE?? ???&?
?MathType??P????&??yyyy????????????????????oa aeae?eaiiyi
aoi?eiieo ea?a?ae?a Cr23C6 . Ci?ie a ?iai/iio oa?? aecia/athoueny
aieiaiei /eiii i?e?iaeith, oi?iith, ?ici??aie ? ?iciiae?eii ea?a?ae?a, a
oaeiae oaciaei neeaaeii iaoae?/ii? iao?eoe?.

?ic?iaea iioeiaeueiiai neeaaeo o?iienoiai /aaoio i?iaiaeeeanue ia iniia?
?aa?an?eiiai aiae?co ca ieaiii 23. I?e aeai?? e?eoa???a aenieoaoaoe?eii?
na??? eiiaoie, iaiao?aeieo aeey iioei?caoe?? o?i?/iiai neeaaeo aoee
aeei?enoai? ianooii? oa?aeoa?enoeee: iaaea i?oeiino? ia caei ca, oaea?ia
a’yce?noue EN, oaa?ae?noue HRC, no?ee?noue aei ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy ? oa
oaea?ii-aa?aceaia ciiooaaiiy ?OA. Oe? oaeoi?e iienothoue iaoai?/i?
aeanoeaino? ciinino?eeiai /aaoio oa a?aeiia?aeathoue aea?aiei e?eoa??yi
i?aoeacaeaoiino? eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a.

Aieea iniiaieo eaaoth/eo aeaiaio?a (N, Nr, In) aea/aee c aeei?enoaiiyi
i?oiaiiaeueiiai ieaio ae?oaiai ii?yaeeo. Ca?aeii c aiae?cii e?oa?aoo?ieo
aeaieo ai?no aeaiaio?a ci?ithaaee a ianooiieo iaaeao neeaaeo, % ian:
1,8-3,2 N, 13-23 Nr, 1,8-2,0 Mn, 0,5-1,0 Ti, 0,5-0,8 Si, aei 0,02 S,
aei 0,1 P, 0,6-0,8 Ni, 0,4-0,6 Mo, 0,8-1,5 V, 0,8-1,0 Cu.

Iaoaiaoe/ia ia?iaea ?acoeueoao?a aenia?eiaioo aeicaieeea iaea?aeaoe
ianooii? caeaaeiino? aeanoeainoae ciinino?eeiai /aaoio a?ae o?i?/iiai
neeaaeo (o aeine?aeaeoaaieo iaaeao) ? c a?aooaaiiyi 5%-ai ??aiy
iaae?eiino?:

ca=673,1-18,3N-53,3Cr+26,4Mn-111,2CCr-13,8NMn-28,8CrMn-3,0C2,IIa; (9)

KC=0,1-0,2C+0,01Cr+0,01Mn-0,02CMn+0,2C2, Aeae/ni2; (10)

HRC=551+49,3C+38Cr-39,5Mn-30,9Mn2; (11)

? =70,5+19,6C-4,5Cr+11,4C2 – no?ee?noue aei ni?aoeueiaoaaiiy, (aiae)
(12)

IOA = 5,85-2,2N-0,1Cr+1,1Mn-0,4N2+0,01 Cr2, a/(i2a) (13)

Ia ?en.6 aea?oueny a?ao?/ia ?ioa?i?aoaoe?y iiaoaeiaaii? iaoaiaoe/ii?
iiaeae?. I?e oeueiio nieaae iathoue oe?ieee niaeo? aeiaaoaeoe/ieo oa
aaoaeoe/ieo /aaoi?a c? nooiaiai aaoaeoe/iino? a?ae 0,4 aei 1,0.Aaoaeoeea
i?aaenoaaeaia o?iienoei ea?a?aeii oeio (FeCr)7C3.E?euee?noue ea?a?ae?a
ci?ith?oueny a?ae 15% aei 35%.

Ci?ia oa?aeoa?o eaaoaaiiy /aaoi?a ia iieacaea iii?oieo ci?i iaoae?/ii?
iao?eoe? nieaa?a, aea nooo?ai ci?ieeany e?euee?noue ea?a?aeii? oace. Oea
iiynith? cieaeaiiy oaea?ii? a’yceino? oa i?aeaeuaiiy oaa?aeino? ?c
ca?eueoaiiyi ai?noo N ? Cr, ye iniiaieo ea?a?aeiooai?thth/eo aeaiaio?a.
Aieea Mn ia iaaaeee?e e?eueeino? c?ace?a anoaiiaeoe aaaeei. Aeanieo
ea?a?ae?a ia?aaiaoeue ia ooai?th? (o aeine?aeaeoaaieo nieaaao), a eeoa
eaao? ea?a?aee o?iio oa iaoae?/io iniiao, ?ic/eiyth/enue a cae?c?, Mn
?icoe?th? –iaeanoue oa ca?eueoo? e?euee?noue aoaeaoeth a aonoai?o? ? oei
naiei noaa?e?co? aonoai?o a iaeano? ia?e?oiiai ia?aoai?aiiy, i?aeaeuo?
i?ieaethaaiiy /aaoio ? cieaeo? caaaeueio e?euee?noue ea?a?ae?a.

Iaea?aeai? caeaaeiino? aeicaieeee i?iaanoe eiiieaenio iioei?caoe?th
o?i?/iiai neeaaeo ciinino?eeiai /aaoio c aeei?enoaiiyi
a?aoi-aiae?oe/iiai iaoiaeo. Aecia/aii aaciaee neeaae /aaoio, % ian:
2.0-2.4N, 18-22Nr, 2.0In.

Aeeiiai? iaie aeine?aeaeaiiy iieacaee, ui ocaaaeueiaiith i?iaiiciith
iaoaiaoe/iith iiaeaeeth aeey i?ioeano ciiooaaiino? eiiaoie iiaea aooe
noia?iiceoe?y noaiiaeaeae , cie?aia aenieoaoaoe?eieo oaeoi??a; no?oeoo?e
oa o?ineeaaeo iaoa??aeo eiiaoie, ui a caaaeueiiio aeaeyae? iiaeia
caienaoe oaeei oi?iaeueiei ??aiyiiyi:

wmetafile8? ??*???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@ ???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¦yyy`??ae?? ???&?
?MathType??`????uthY?????aea EI – caaaeueiee eiao?oe??io ii?ioaaiiy;
wmetafile8? ??5???#????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ??????? `
???&??yyyy?????Ayyy¤yyya???? ???&?
?MathType??p????uthY?????A?aoiaoth/e aenieoaoaoe?ei? oaeoi?e (eoo
iaoeeo eiiaoie ( , ?aae.), oaa?ae?noue ae?iao (HRC) oa iiia? ae?iao
(NAe)), ?ioaineai?noue ciiooaaiiy (?C), ciinino?ee?noue (CN),
a?aeiia?aeia i?iaiicia iiaeaeue ia? aeaeyae:

wmetafile8? ??Z???????????
???????????yyy????.????1?????? ???????
@A5???&??yyyy?????Ayyy·yyy?5??/?? ???&?
?MathType??°???uthY?????E??i iiaeaethaaiiy, ??aiyiiy (15) aeicaiey?
caienaoe oiiae ii/aoeiai? oace ?oeioaaiiy a e?eoa??aeuei?e oi?i?.
I/aaeaeii, ui ii/aoie iiaa?oiaaiai ?oeioaaiiy eiiaoie a /an? aoaea
a?aeiia?aeaoe cae?i/aiith ia?oiai aeoioeyoe?eiiai ia??iaeo ae ,
a?aie/i?e i?oeiino? ? ae/a?iaiith ieanoe/ieo aeanoeainoae a oeeee?/ii
aeaoi?ioth/eo i?e?iia’?eoao.

Ca ?acoeueoaoaie aeanieo ?ic?iaie iioei?ciaaii neeaae o?iienoiai /aaoio,
% ian: 2.0–2.4N, 18.0–22.0Cr, 1.8–2.0Mn, 0.6–0.8Ti, 0.6–0.8Si, 0.02S,
0.01P, 0.6–0.8Ni, 0.4–0.6Mo, 0.8–1.5V, 0.8–1.0Cu oa i?ae?a?aia
iioeiaeueia oaiia?aoo?a ii?iae?caoe??. Io?eiaia no?oeoo?a aeine?aeiiai
/aaoio iaaeeaeaeanue aei i?eioeeio neie?aoe/ii? iiaoaeiae ca?aeii c
caeiiaie neiao??? ye ii ia’?iiiio a?aeiioaiith ea?a?aeii? oace ?
iaoae?/ii? iao?eoe?, oae ? ii ni?aa?aeiioaiith oa -oac o i?e.
Aeine?aei? eiiaoee a?ae??ciyeeny a?eueo aenieith ciinino?ee?noth
ii??aiyii c? an?ia aeine?aeaeoaaieie eiiaoeaie a oe?e ?iaio?.

Aeniiaee.

Iniiai? oai?aoe/i? ? i?aeoe/i? ?acoeueoaoe, iaea?aeai? a aeena?oaoe?ei?e
?iaio?, caiaeyoueny aei ianooiiiai.

1. Oai?aoe/ii iaa?oioiaaia eiioeaioe?y iiaiai iai?yieo o?eaei??ii?
?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao??, ui aaco?oueny ia iiaoaeia? oeeo?iaeo iiaeaeae
iiaa?oiiue ?oeioaaiiy, oai??? aeiaaeeiaeo i?ioean?a ? ?ici?ciaaaiiy
ia?ac?a. ?ic?iaeaii ?yae iaoiae?a ? aeai?eoi?a iiaoaeiae oeeo?iaeo
iiaeaeae, ui noaiiaeyoue iniiao aaoiiaoeciaaieo eiiieaen?a
noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ii? ia?iaee ?AI-cia?aaeaiue. ?ic?iaeaii
aenieiaoaeoeaiee ?ioa?aeoeaiee eiii’thoa?iee iaoiae, yeee nooo?ai
ni?iuo? ?ooeiiee i?ioean oioia?aiiao?e/ii? ia?iaee, ia iio?aao? aeniei?
eaae?o?eaoe?? iia?aoi?a ? i???ioiaaiee ia canoinoaaiiy na??eieo IE.
Iaa?oioiaai? iaeano? ? a?aieoe? canoinoaaiiy ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao??.

2. I?iaaaeai? eiiieaeni? aeine?aeaeaiiy, ia iniia? yeeo noai?ai?
i?eioeeiiai iia? iaoiaee aiae?oe/ii? ? aenia?eiaioaeueii? ioe?iee aieeao
no?oeoo?e ? ?aeue?oo iiaa?oi? oa?oy ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
ciinino?eeeo Cr-/aaoi?a. ?ic?iaeaia iaoiaeeea noa?aieiai-ieai?iao?e/ii?
ioe?iee ?iciiae?eo ?ici???a, oi?ie ? i???ioaoe?? no?oeoo?ieo aeaiaio?a
Cr-/aaoi?a. I?e oeueiio io?eiothoueny ia iniia? ia?iaee 5-10 ca?eueoaiue
?ioaa?aeuei? oa?aeoa?enoeee. Oaeee i?aeo?ae i?eioeeiiai a?ae??ciy?oueny
a?ae caaaeueiii?eeiyoeo, ui aacothoueny ia canoinoaaii? aiae?caoi??a
cia?aaeaiue oeio Eaaio?iao-720. Ia iniia? oai??? aaiiao?e/ii?
eiia??iino? io?eiaii ocaaaeueiaiee noa?aieiai-noa?aiiao?e/iee e?eoa??e
i?inoi?iai? ai?cio?ii??

3. Aia?oa i?iaaaeai? c aeiiiiiaith ?ano?iaia? aeaeo?iiii? i?e?ineii??
cia/i? ca ianyaii noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/i? aeine?aeaeaiiy iiaa?oiiue
ciiooaaiiy ae?iaiiaoaeueieo eiiaoie a?o/eciyiiai ? ca?oa?aeiiai
ae?iaieoeoaa, ye? aeicaieeee anoaiiaeoe iaoai?ci ? i?e?iaeo ?o
?oeioaaiiy. Anoaiiaeaii, ui iiaa?oiaaa iaaaioaaeaiiy a i?ioean?
aenieoaoaoe?? aeaoaeae ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a i?ecaiaeeoue aei
?icaeoeo a iiaa?oiaaiio oa?? iino?eii? aeaoi?iaoe?? oa oaciaeo
ia?aoai?aiue, i?e/iio e?iaoeea ? iaoai?ci aeyaeaieo oaciaeo ia?aoai?aiue
a ?iai/iio oa?? iaoiiaeai? aeanoeainoyie aonoai?oo, ui caeaaeeoue a?ae
oa?iiia?iaee.

4. Cai?iiiiiaai? iia? iao?aaeeoe?ei? iaoiaee noa?aio?aeoia?ao?/ii?
ia?iaee ?AI-cia?aaeaiue a ?aaeei? “in situ”. ?ic?iaeaii aeae?eueea
aa??aio?a eiii’thoa?iiai aiae?co o??ueiino?eeino?.

5. ?ic?iaeaii niin?a aio?ii?eii? ioe?iee /aaoi?a ye aeeneiaoeaieo
o?eainenoai, ye? i?e eaai?aoi?ieo ai?iaaaeaeaiiyo nooo?ai ?icoe?ththoue
niaeo? o?aeoia?ao?/ieo aeine?aeaeaiue.

6. Iaoeiai iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie o?aeoaeueiino? a eiioaeno? i?iaeai
iaoai?ee ?oeioaaiiy, a naia: ioe?iee ianooaaiiai aoaeoo, neaee?iaiaiai
aia?aaoe/iiai i?ioeano ?oeioaaiiy; iaoa??aeiciaa/ee aniaeo o?aeoaeueii?
aaiiao??? aaoa?iaaiieo iaoa??ae?a (eiiiiceo?a); ei?aeueiaaiino?
iaoai?/ieo oa?aeoa?enoee eiino?oeoe?eieo iaoa??ae?a c o?aeoaeueiith
?ici??i?noth. Cai?iiiiiaaii aeae?eueea aeai?eoi?a ?ic?aooieo
o?aeoaeueiino? ca aeaieie ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao??

7. A ?acoeueoao? i?iaaaeaieo aenia?eiaioaeueieo ?ia?o aecia/aii
iioe–iaeueiee neeaae ciinino?eeiai /aaoio aeey eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo
aia?ao?a, % ian: 2.0 – 2.4 N, 18.0 – 22.0 Cr, 1.8 – 2.0 Mn, 0.6–0.8 Ti,
0.6–0.8 Si, 0.02 S, 0.01 P, 0.6–0.8 Ni, 0.4–0.6 Mo, 0.8–1.5 V,
0.8–1.0Cu; oa ?ic?iaeaii nooi?i/aoee ?aaeei oa?i?/ii? ia?iaee:
iaa??aaiiy aei oaiia?aoo?e 650-680N, ii?iae?caoe?y i?e oaiia?aoo??
1100N, aeo?eiea 45-60 oa., ioieiaeaeaiiy iia?o?yia.

8. Cai?iiiiiaaia ocaaaeueiaia i?iaiicia iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaeue aeey
i?ioeano ciiooaaiiy eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo aia?ao?a ye noia?iiceoe?y
aeii?ioth/eo aieea?a: no?oeoo?e, o?i?/iiai neeaaeo oa aenieoaoaoe?eieo
oaeoi??a.

NIENIE IOAE?EAOe?E

1. Aia?i TH.A., Iaeueiee A.I., Oinoae A.A., Aieioei A.O. I?eioeeisu
o?aeoaeueiinoe a iaoaieea ?ac?ooaiey iaoaeeia // Iaoaeeu. –I.: Iaoea.
–1997. –?2. –N.119-122.

2. Oinoae A.A. Iaoaiaoe/ia iiaeaethaaiiy oi?noeeo iiaa?oiiue ca
aeiiiiiaith aeene?aoiiai ia?aoai?aiiy Oo?’? (AeIO) //Iaoeia? iioaoee:
I?aeaoc?anueeee ca??i. iaoe. no., iai?yiie “?iaeaia?ia iaoai?ea”. –Aei.
4. –Eooeuee, –1998. –N.194-201.

3. Aia?i TH.A., Oinoae A.A., Iaeueiee A.I. Noa?aieiai-noa?aiiao?e/ia
ioe?iea ai?cio?iiieo no?oeoo? //Iaoeia? iioaoee: I?aeaoc?anueeee ca??i.
iaoe. no., iai?yiie “?iaeaia?ia iaoai?ea”. –Aei. 4. –Eooeuee, –1998.
–N.10-19.

4. Oinoae A.A., Aia?i TH.A. Iiaue iaoiae eiiiuethoa?iiai
o?aeoia?aoe/aneiai aiaeeca iee?ino?oeoo?u oaa?aeuo oae ii eo
?YI-ecia?aaeaieyi //Iaoa?eaeu 38-ai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai naieia?a ii
iiaeaee?iaaieth e iioeiecaoeee eiiiiceoia. –Iaeanna, –1999. – n.36.

5. Oinoae A.A. Aeaye? aniaeoe ei?aeyoe?eii-aeno?aiaeueiiai iaoiaeo
iiooeo ia?ac?a aeaiaio?a oeeo?iaiai cia?aaeaiiy 3-D-iiaa?oiiue
//Iaoeiaee a?niee AAeO, iai?yiie “Aaia?.iaoee”. –Eooeuee. –1997. –?5.
–N.27-29.

6. Oinoae A.A. Aei ieoaiue ioe?iee i?oeiino? iaoae?a c o?aooaaiiyi
aio?ii?? 3-D oeeo?iai? iiaeae? iiaa?oi? ?oeioaaiiy // Ca. iaoe. i?aoeue.
EAeOO. –Eooeuee. –1998. –N.261-263.

7. Aia?i TH.A., Oinoae A.A. ?AI-noa?aio?aeoia?ao?y iiaa?oiiue ciino oa
ceiio ae?iaiiaoaeueieo eiiaoie // Iaoeia? iioaoee: I?aeaoc?anueeee
ca??i. iaoe. no., iai?yiie “?iaeaia?ia iaoai?ea”. –Aei. 5. –Eooeuee,
–1999. –N.4-16.

8. Oinoae A.A. Iiaeaethaaiiy i?e?i?aeue?oo o?aeoia?ao?/ieo iiaa?oiiue
iaoiaeaie o??aiaoeyoi?a, ne?i/aiieo aeaiaio?a // Iaoeia? iioaoee:
I?aeaoc?anueeee ca??i. iaoe. no., iai?yiie “?iaeaia?ia iaoai?ea”. –Aei.
5. –Eooeuee, –1999. –N.285-291.

Aiioaoe??

Oinoae A.A. Aiae?oe/ia oa aenia?eiaioaeueia ioe?iea aieeao neeaaeo
no?oeoo?e ? ?aeue?oo iiaa?oiiue oa?oy ia ooieoe?iiaeuei? iniaeeaino?
ciinino?eeeo Cr-/aaoi?a. – ?oeiien.

Aeena?oaoe?y ia caeiaoooy iaoeiaiai nooiaiy eaiaeeaeaoa oaoi?/ieo iaoe
ca niaoe?aeuei?noth 05.02.01 – iaoa??aeiciaanoai. Eooeueeee aea?aeaaiee
oaoi?/iee oi?aa?neoao, Eooeuee, 1999.

A aeena?oaoe?? i?aaenoaaeai? iaoeia? iniiae oai??? ? i?aeoeee
o?eaei??ii? ?ano?iai-aeaeo?iiiii?e?ineii?/ii? noa?aio?aeoia?ao??. Aiie
a?oioothoueny ia eiii’thoa?i?e oioia?aiiao?e/i?e ia?iaoe?
noa?aicia?aaeaiue, iiaoaeia? oa noa?aieiai-noa?aiiao?e/i?e ioe?ieao
oeeo?iaeo iiaeaeae o?aeoia?ao?/ieo iiaa?oiiue. Oai?aoe/ii ? i?aeoe/ii
iaa?oioiaai? i?eioeeie o?aeoaeueiino? a iaoai?oe? ?oeioaaiiy..
Aenia?eiaioaeueieie aeine?aeaeaiiyie ? iaoaiaoe/iei iiaeaethaaiiyi
aecia/aii iioeiaeueiee o?ineeaae aeaioiaeaieo eiiaoie ae?iaiiaoaeueieo
aia?ao?a.

Eeth/ia? neiaa: ?ano?iaa aeaeo?iiia i?e?ineii?y, oioia?aiiao??y,
noa?aieia?y, noa?aiiao??y, o?aeoia?ao?y, ciiooaaiiy, ceii, o?aeoaee.

Shostak A.V. Analytical and experimental evaluation the influence
composition structure and relief of surfaces friction on the functional
pecuticular commutative Cr-cast iron. On the rights of manuscript.

Thesis for a scientific degree of candidate of technical sciences in
speciality 05.02.01 – material, Lutsk State technical university, Lutsk,
1999.

In this thesis suggests the scientific bases the theory and practice 3-D
scanning electron microscopy stereofractography. They based on the
computer photogrammetry treatment stereopicture, construction and
stereological – stereometry evaluations figures models fractography
surface. Practically and theoretically based principles fractal in the
mechanics destruction. Experimentals investigations and mathematics
models defined optimal chemical structure manufacture spades
fraction-throw apparatus.

Key words: scanning electron microscopy, photogrammetry, stereological,
stereometry, fractography, wear out scrap, fractal.

Oinoae A.A. Aiaeeoe/aneay e yenia?eiaioaeueiay ioeaiea aeeyiey ninoaaa
no?oeoo?u e ?aeueaoa iiaa?oiinoae o?aiey ia ooieoeeiiaeueiua iniaaiiinoe
eciininoieeeo Nr-/oaoiia. – ?oeiienue

Aeenna?oaoeey ia nieneaiea o/aiie noaiaie eaiaeeaeaoa oaoie/aneeo iaoe
ii niaoeeaeueiinoe i5.02.01 – iaoa?eaeiaaaeaiea. Eooeeee
ainoaea?noaaiiue oaoie/aneee oieaa?neoao, Eooee, 1999.

A aeenna?oaoeee i?aaenoaaeaiu iao/iua iniiau oai?ee e i?aeoeee
o?aoia?iie ?ano?iai-yeaeo?iiiiiee?ineiie/aneie noa?aio?aeoia?aoee. Iie
iniiaaiu ia eiiiuethoa?iie oioia?aiiao?e/aneie ia?aaioea
noa?aiecia?aaeaiee, iino?iaiee e ioeaieao oeeo?iauo iiaeaeae
iee?i?aeueaoa enneaaeoaiuo iiaa?oiinoae. A ?aaioa ?ac?aaioai aeai?eoi
iino?iaiey oeeo?iaie iiaeaee iee?i?aeueaoa ii iaoiaeo o?eaiaoeyoi?a,
i?aaeiieaaathuaai aeaeaiea iiaa?oiinoe ia o?aoaieueiua iaeanoe (oanaoee)
e iieeiiieaeueiia aii?ieneie?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo oanaoie. Aeey
iia?aoeaiiai auiieiaiey noa?aiecia?aiee ?ac?aaioai aa?eaio
eioa?aeoeaiiai eiiiuethoa?iiai ecia?aiey oeeo?iauo ecia?aaeaiee.

A aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu iaoiaeu noa?aieiai-ieaieiao?e/aneie e
noa?aieiai-noa?aiiao?e/aneie ioeaiie oa?ioiaaouo iiaa?oiinoae.
I?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea i?aaeeaaaaiuo iaoiaeia io iauai?eiyouo – yoi
aiciiaeiinoue iaeiia?aiaiii aiaeece?iaaoue 5-10 ecia?aaeaiee. Iaoiaeaie
oai?ee aaiiao?e/aneie aa?iyoiinoe iieo/ai iaiauaiiue e?eoa?ee
i?ino?ainoaaiiie aiecio?iiee.

?anniao?eaay /oaoiu eae aeenneiaoeaiua o?eainenoaiu, ?ac?aaioai niinia
ii?aaeaeaiey yio?iiee. Yio?iieeiue iiaeoiae i?e eaai?aoi?iii aiaae?aiee
iicaieeo nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eoue niaeo? o?aeoia?aoe/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee.

Oai?aoe/anee e aeai?eoie/anee iainiiaaiu iaoiaeu eiiiuethoa?iiai aiaeeca
o?aueiinoieeinoe a ?aaeeia “in situ”. Aeai?eoiu iniiaaiu ia i?eioeeiao
aeeiaie/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey e iaoiaeia iaoeiiie a?aoeee. Aia?aua
iaoaiaoe/anee ei??aeoii iainiiaaii i?eiaiaiea i?eioeeiia o?aeoaeueiinoe
e enneaaeiaaieth iiaa?oiinoae ?ac?ooaiey. O/eouaay ionoonoaea a iaoaieea
?ac?ooaiey yooaeoeaiuo iaoiaeia ii?aaeaeaiey o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe, a
aeenna?oaoeee ?ac?aaioaiu aeinoiaa?iua e ianeiaeiua aeai?eoiu ?an/aoa
o?aeoaeueiie ?acia?iinoe ii aeaiiui oeeo?iauo iiaeaeae iee?i?aeueaoa.
I?iaaaeaiu n iiiiuueth ?ano?iaie yeaeo?iiiie iee?ineiiee cia/eoaeueiua
eiiieaeniua enneaaeiaaiey i?ioeanna eciaoeaaiey eiiaoie ae?iaaiaoiuo
aiia?aoia. Onoaiiaeai iaoaieci eo eciina. Ii?aaeaeaiea iioeiaeueiiai
ninoaaa eciininoieeiai Cr-/oaoia auiieiaii ia iniiaa ?aa?anneiiiiai
aiaeeca a niioaaonoaee n i?oiaiiaeueiui ieaiii aoi?iai ii?yaeea.

A aeenna?oaoeee ii ?acoeueoaoai yenia?eiaioaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee eciina
eiiaoie ioa/anoaaiiiai e ca?oaaaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e aeaiiuo
iaoaiaoe/aneiai iiaeaee?iaaiey ii?aaeaeai iioeiaeueiue oeininoaa
eciininoieeiai /oaoia, ?aeiiaiaeoaiiai aeey ecaioiaeaiey eiiaoie
ae?iaaiaoiuo aiia?aoia.

Aia?aua iieo/aia iaiauaiiay iaoaiaoe/aneay iiaeaeue eciina eiiaoie,
o/eouaathuay iniiaiua yenieoaoaoeeiiiua oaeoi?u, oeininoaa e
eciininoieeinoue.

Eeth/aaua neiaa: ?ano?iaay yeaeo?iiiay iee?ineiiey, oioia?aiiao?ey,
noa?aieiaey, noa?aiiao?ey, o?aeoia?aoey, eciin, eceii, o?aeoaeu.

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