.

Техническая подготовка производства

Язык: русский
Формат: дипломна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 4187
Скачать документ

6

Niaea?aeaiea aeeieiiiie ?aaiou.

Aaaaeaiea

I. Oai?aoe/aneea aniaeou i?ioeanna oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

1.1 Iiiyoea nenoaiu oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

1.2 Eiino?oeoi?neay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa

1.3 Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa

1.4 Ieaie?iaaiea i?ioeanna oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

1.5 Ieaie?iaaiea oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa

1.6 Ieaie?iaaiea yia?ainiaaaeaiey

II. I?aeoe/aneay /anoue

2.1 Ioieo 1. Ii?aaeaeaiea oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

2.2 Ioieo 2. ?an/ao iauaia ia?a?aaaouaaaiiai nu?uey

2.3 Ioieo 3. Eiee/anoai e oeiu oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey

2.4 Ioieo 4. ?aciauaiea iai?oaeiaaiey

2.5 Ioieo 5. I?aaiecaoeey i?eaiee e o?aiaiey nu?uey

III. ?an/ao iniiaiuo oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae

3.1 Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey

3.2 Oaeouea cao?aou e naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee

3.3 Aeioiaeiinoue eeiee

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiey

Aaaaeaiea

O?iaaiue iao/ii-oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeyao
yooaeoeaiinoue ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoeoeee iniiaiui i?iecaiaenoaii,
iaoneaaeeaaao aiciiaeiinoue ?eoie/iinoe aa auionea n caaeaiiuie
iio?aaeoaeueneeie naienoaaie.

Oaoie/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue n oi/ee
c?aiey i?iecaiaenoaa eaeiai-eeai i?iaeoeoa ia aaca oaea nouanoaothuaai
eee n oi/ee c?aiey i?aaiecaoeee iiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Oeaeue aeaiiie
?aaiou – ?anniio?aoue oaoie/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa eae
i?aaiecaoeeth iiaiai i?iecaiaenoaa, ioaeaeueiiai i?aaei?eyoey eee oeaoa.
I?e iaienaiee aeaiiie ?aaiou y iinoaaee ia?aae niaie neaaeothuea
caaea/e:

?anniio?aoue iiiyoea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa e aa
niaea?aeaiea;

Ia i?eia?a eiie?aoiiai i?aaei?eyoey ?anniio?aoue oaoie/aneoth
iiaeaioiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa ioaeaeueiiai oeaoa ii i?iecaiaenoao eiie?aoiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

?aoaiea yeiiiie/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo e ae?oaeo caaea/ i?aaei?eyoey
iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii n auno?ui oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii i?iecaiaenoaa
e eniieueciaaiey aai aeinoeaeaiee ai anao iaeanoyo oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia i?aaei?eyoee ii inouanoaeyaony oai yooaeoeaiae, /ai
niaa?oaiiaa ia iai oaoie/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa, iiae eioi?ie
iiieiaaony eiiieaen eiino?oeoi?neeo, oaoiieiae/aneeo e i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee, iaania/eaathueo ?ac?aaioeo e inaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa iiauo
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea niaa?oainoaiaaiea auioneaaiuo ecaeaeee.
Caione a i?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee, i?ioaaeoeo iieioth oaoie/aneoth
iiaeaioiaeo, iicaieyao aeiaeoueny aunieie ?aioaaaeueiinoe eo auionea
oaea /a?ac 1-2 aiaea (ni.?enoiie 1)
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?enoiie 1.

I?iecaiaenoai ecaeaeee aac iaaeeaaeauae oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee (ni .
?enoiie 1, e?eaay 2) oaeeeiyao n?iee inaiaiey (auoiaea ia ieaiiaoth
?aioaaaeueiinoue) a 2 – 2.5 ?aca. A yoii neo/aa ?aioaaaeueiue ia?eiae
nie?auaaony o.e. ianooiaao ii?aeueiia noa?aiea i?iaeoeoeee, iaaeaiea
ni?ina ia iaa e ca/anooth nieaeaiea oeaiu ia iaa.

Iniiaiuie caaea/aie oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ia
i?iiuoeaiiii i?aaei?eyoee yaeythony: oi?ie?iaaiea i?ia?anneaiie
oaoie/aneie iieeoeee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia nicaeaiea aieaa niaa?oaiiuo aeaeia
i?iaeoeoeee e oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia eo ecaioiaeaiey; nicaeaiea
oneiaee aeey aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiie, ?eoie/iie e ?aioaaaeueiie ?aaiou
i?aaei?eyoey; iineaaeiaaoaeueiia nie?auaiea aeeeoaeueiinoe oaoie/aneie
iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, aa o?oaeiaieinoe e noieiinoe i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii iiauoaiee ea/anoaa anao aeaeia ?aaio.

Aeey ia/aea iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue ii?aaeaeaiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa, o.e. iii iiaeoiaeeo e ethaiio aeaeo oaoie/aneie
iiaeaioiaee ia caaeneii, i?iecaiaeei ee iu ioaeaeueiua eciaiaiey a
i?iaeoeoeee eee i?aaiecoai iiaia i?aaei?eyoea. Nouanoaoao neaaeothuaa
ii?aaeaeaiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa:

“oaoie/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa – yoi eiiieaen
ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee , ?aaeaiaioe?othueo eiino?oeoi?neoth,
oaoiieiae/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa e nenoaio iinoaiiaee
i?iaeoeoeee ia i?iecaiaenoai”.

Yoe ia?ii?eyoey iaania/eaatho iieioth aioiaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey e
i?iecaiaenoao ecaeaeee aunieiai ea/anoaa.

Oaoie/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa ii naiaio niaea?aeaieth
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth, eiino?oeoi?neoth
(i?iaeoe?iaaiea ecaeaeee) e oaoiieiae/aneoth noaaeee. Iacia/aiea ia?aie
noaaeee – i?iaaaeaiea i?eeeaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee, yenia?eiaioe?iaaiea,
eco/aiea aiciiaeiinoae eniieueciaaiey iiauo eiino?oeoeaiuo ?aoaiee,
iaoa?eaeia, oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, i?iaiice?iaaiea ni?ina ia
i?iaeoeoeeth e ae?.; aoi?ay ioaaouaaao ana iaiaoiaeeiua aeaeu ?aaio ii
eiino?oe?iaaieth (?ac?aaioea i?iaeoa) iiauo ecaeaeee, ecaioiaeaieth ec
iiuoiuo ia?acoeia, niaa?oainoaiaaieth auioneaaiuo ecaeaeee; o?aouey
noaaeey eiaao naiae caaea/ae ?ac?aaioeo iiauo e niaa?oainoaiaaiea
nouanoaothueo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee,
n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia eiio?iey ea/anoaa, ii?iaoeaia o?oaeiauo e
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao, niaa?oainoaiaaiea i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa a
oeaoao e ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo o/anoeao.

A naith i/a?aaeue oaoie/aneay iiaeaioiaea ninoaaeyao /anoue aeeciaiiiai
oeeeea ecaeaeey, aeeth/athuaai; iao/ioth e oaoie/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo,
nianoaaiii i?iecaiaenoai e yenieoaoaoeeth ecaeaeey.

O?iaaiue oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa caaeneo io iiiaeo
oaeoi?ia. Eo iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia a?oiiu. Aeeth/athuea oaoie/aneea,
yeiiiie/aneea, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e nioeeaeueiua aniaeou.

Oaoie/aneea oaeoi?u – ?ac?aaioea e aiaae?aiea oeiiauo e noaiaea?oiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, eniieueciaaiea noaiaea?oece?iaaiiuo e
oieoeoee?iaaiiuo n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey; i?eiaiaiea nenoai
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee; i?eiaiaiea
ANOI, noaieia n *IO, i?ia?anneaiuo ?aaeeiia iaoaie/aneie e oaoie/aneie
ia?aaioee aeaoaeae; eniieueciaaiea i?ia?anneaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?eaiia
ia?aaioee; aiaae?aiea i?ia?anneaiuo caaioiaie n oeaeueth nieaeaiey
o?oaeiaieinoe ia iaoaie/aneoth ia?aaioeo e iaoa?eaeiaieinoe i?iaeoeoeee,
oeo/oaiea iao?ieiae/aneiai iaania/aiey; i?eiaiaiea n?aaenoa aeoeaiiai e
iauaeoeaiiai oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey ea/anoaa; aaoiiaoecaoeey eiio?iey ca
auiieiaieai naoaauo a?aoeeia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa n?aaenoa
oaoie/aneiai iniauaiey.

Yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u – iiyoaiiia iia?aaeathuaa oeiaine?iaaiea ?aaio
oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa; i?aaeinoaaeaiea eueaioiuo
e?aaeeoia; nicaeaiea oiiaea noeioee?iaaiey inaiaiey iiaie oaoieee.

I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oaeoi?u – ?acaeoea e oaeoaeaiea niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa; aooanoaoeey ea/anoaa oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e
ecaioiaeaiiuo n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey, ianoaiaea?oiiai
iai?oaeiaaiey ii ?acoeueoaoai ea/anoaa iiuoiiai ia?acoea eee ia?aie
i?iiuoeaiiie ia?oee ecaeaeee iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, oeo/oaiea
i?aaiecaoeee aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa; niaa?oainoaiaaiea
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo aniiiiaaoaeueiui e iniiaiui i?iecaiaenoaii; ?anoe?aiea
aioo?ecaaiaeneiai, iaaecaaiaeneiai, aioo?eio?aneaaiai eiiia?e?iaaiey.

Nioeeaeueiua oaeoi?u – iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee eniieieoaeae;
iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo e aniiiiaaoaeueiuo
iia?aoeee n oeaeueth oeo/oaiey oneiaee o?oaea, ?acaeoea nioeeaeueiie
noa?u; oeo/oaiea ineoieiae/aneie aoiinoa?u a eieeaeoeaa. Oaoie/aneay
iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue oaoie/aneia
ia?aaii?oaeaiea, ?aeiino?oeoeeth e ?anoe?aiea ioaeaeueiuo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo o/anoeia, a oaeaea iiaea?iecaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey.

Inouanoaeaieai aaeeiie oaoie/aneie iieeoeee ia i?aaei?eyoee ?oeiaiaeeo
aeaaiue eiaeaia? (ia?aue caianoeoaeue aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a
iauaaeeiaiey), iie?aynue ia aiia?ao oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu e no?oeoo?a aa i?aaiia
ii?aaeaeythony i?eiyoie ia i?aaei?eyoee, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii
iauaaeeiaiee nenoaiie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
?acee/atho o?e i?aaiecaoeeiiiua oi?iu oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee:
oeaio?aeeciaaiioth, aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiioth e niaoaiioth.

Auai? oi?iu caaeneo io ianooaaa e oeia i?iecaiaenoaa, oa?aeoa?a
ecaioiaeyaiie i?iaeoeoeee, /anoiou aa iaiiaeaiey e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.
Aeey e?oiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, iauaaeeiaiee ianniaiai e e?oiiina?eeiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa oa?aeoa?ia oeaio?aeeciaaiiay oi?ia iiaeaioiaee , i?e
eioi?ie any ?aaioa inouanoaeyaony a aiia?aoa caaiaeioi?aaeaiey. N yoie
oeaeueth nicaeathony ioaeaeu aeaaiiai oaoiieiaa, iauacaaiaeneay
eaai?aoi?ey, ioaeae ieaie?iaaiey oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.
Ia iaeioi?uo i?aaei?eyoeyo i?aaiecothony aeaa eiino?oeoi?neeo ioaeaea:
iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neee, caieiathueeny ?ac?aaioeie iiaie i?iaeoeoeee, e
na?eeii-eiino?oeoi?neee, eiathuee caaea/ae niaa?oainoaiaaiea auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia i?aaei?eyoeyo aaeeie/iiai e iaeeina?eeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?eiaiyaony
i?aeiouanoaaiii aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiay eee niaoaiiay oi?ia iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa: i?e ia?aie oi?ia iniiaiay ?aaioa ii oaoie/aneie
iiaeaioiaea aaaeaony niioaaonoaothuei ath?i i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaoia;
i?e aoi?ie – aanue iauai ?aaio ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo caaiaeneeie e
oeaoiauie i?aaiaie. A yoii neo/aa eiino?oeoi?neay iiaeaioiaea /aua anaai
inouanoaeyaony a ioaeaea aeaaiiai eiino?oeoi?a, a oaoiieiae/aneay – a
oeaoiauo ath?i iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa. Ia iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo
any oaoie/aneay iiaeaioiaea nin?aaeioa/eaaaony a aaeeiii oaoie/aneii
ioaeaea.

Oaeei ia?acii iu aeaeei, /oi i?ioeann i?iaaaeaiey oaoie/aneie
iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ia yaeyaony nai ii naaa i?inoi onoaiiaeie
iai?oaeiaaiey, a i?aaenoaaeyao niaie neiaeiue eiiieaen acaeiinaycaiiuo
ia?ii?eyoee. Oaeoe/anee yoi ei?aiiay ia?ano?ieea i?iecaiaenoaa ia/eiay n
iai?oaeiaaiey e caeai/eaay niaoeeaeecaoeeae ?aaioieeia.

Iiiyoea nenoaiu oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

Nouanoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiay nenoaia oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa.
Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo iao/ii-oaoie/aneeo
i?ioeannia, iaania/eaathueo oaoiieiae/aneoth aioiaiinoue i?aaei?eyoey
auioneaoue i?iaeoeoeeth n oaoie/aneeie oneiaeyie ea/anoaa. A oneiaeyo
noaiiaeaiey i?iiuoeaiiinoe a ia?eiae ia?aoiaea e ?uieo iiaeaioiaea
i?aaei?eyoee e auoiaeo ni naiae i?iaeoeoeeae ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ?uiie
aoaeao oneiaeiyoueny. Iauai o?oaea, cao?a/eaaaiue ia iinoaiiaeo iiaie
oaoieee, aoaeao cia/eoaeueii aic?anoaoue a neaaenoaee neiaeiinoe e
iiiaiaeaoaeueiinoe eiia/iiai i?iaeoeoa. Aeey oiai, /oiau oiaiueoeoue
o?oaeicao?aou i?eiaiyaony nenoaia aaeeiie oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ii
oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa – ANOII.

ANOII – yoi onoaiiaeaiiay ainoaea?noaaiiuie noaiaea?oaie nenoaia
i?aaiecaoeee e oi?aaeaiey oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa ,
iai?a?uaii niaa?oainoaoaiay ia iniiaa aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee,
oi?aaeythuay ?acaeoeai oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaii ia
o?iaiyo: ainoaea?noaaiiii, io?aneaaii, i?aaiecaoeee, i?aaei?eyoee.

Iniiaiay oeaeue ANOII – iaania/aiea iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee aeey
aeinoeaeaiey iieiie aioiaiinoe ethaiai oeia i?iecaiaenoaa e auioneo
ecaeaeee caaeaiiiai ea/anoaa, a iioeiaeueiua n?iee i?e iaeiaiueoeo
o?oaeiauo, iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo cao?aoao.

ANOII i?ecaaia iaania/eoue aaeeiue aeey eaaeaeiai i?aaei?eyoey,
i?aaiecaoeee nenoaiiue iiaeoiae e auai?o, i?eiaiaieth iaoiaeia e
n?aaenoa oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, niioaaonoaothueo
ia?aaeiaui aeinoeaeaieyi iaoee, oaoieee e i?iecaiaenoaa; aunieoth
niiniaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaa e iai?a?uaiiio aai niaa?oainoaiaaieth,
auno?ie ia?aiaeaaeea ia auione aieaa niaa?oaiiie i?iaeoeoeee;
?aoeeiiaeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth iaoaiece?iaaiiiai auiieiaiey eiiieaena
eiaeaia?ii-oaoie/aneeo ?aaio , a oii /enea aaoiiaoecaoeeth
eiino?oe?iaaiey iauaeoia e n?aaenoa i?iecaiaenoaa, ?ac?aaioea
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e oi?aaeaiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaeie
i?iecaiaenoaa, acaeiinaycue oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa n
ae?oaeie aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie nenoaiaie e iiaenenoaiaie oi?aaeaiey.

Caaea/e oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ?aoathony ia anao o?iaiyo
e a?oiie?othony ii neaaeothuei /aou?ai i?eioeeiai: iaania/aiea
oaoiieiae/iinoe ecaeaeee; ?ac?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia;
i?iaeoe?iaaiea e ecaioiaeaiea n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey;
i?aaiecaoeey e oi?aaeaiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaeie i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iniiao ANOII ninoaaeytho:

nenoaiii-no?oeoo?iue aiaeec oeeeea OII;

oeiecaoeey e noaiaea?oecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ecaioiaeaiey e
eiio?iey;

noaiaea?oecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee e eino?oiaioa;

aa?aaaoe?iaaiea iai?oaeiaaiey ec noaiaea?oiuo yeaiaioia eiino?oeoeee.

Aeey ?ac?aaioee noaiaea?oiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i?iecaiaeyo
eeanneoeeaoeeth oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee iooai eo ?an/eaiaiey io
neiaeiiai e i?inoiio aei iieo/aiey iaeue/aeoeo iaaeaeeiuo yeaiaioia
oaoiieiaee n niaethaeaieai oaoiieiae/aneie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe anaai
i?ioeanna. Ia eaaeaeue iaaeaeeiue yeaiaio eee oaoiieiae/aneoth
iia?aoeeth ?ac?aaaouaaaony noaiaea?o i?aaei?eyoey ii onoaiiaeaiiie oi?ia
(oaoiieiae/aneay ea?oa), aaea aeaaony en/a?iuaathuaa iienaiea anao
ia?aoiaeia, ec eioi?uo oi?ie?oaony aeaiiay yeaiaioa?iay iia?aoeey, ni
anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie iauyniaieyie e i?eia/aieyie.

Noaiaea?oiua oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu ?acaeaathony ia iia?aoeee
ecaioiaeaiey noaiaea?oiuo eee oieoeoee?iaaiiuo aeaoaeae (ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo iaoeiino?iaiey), io ea/anoaa eioi?uo caaeneo iaaeaaeiinoue
ecaeaeey.

ANOII onoaiaaeeaaao o?e noaaeee ?aaiou iaae aeieoiaioaoeeae ii
i?aaiecaoeee e niaa?oainoaiaaieth oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa:

n ianeaaeiaaiea e aiaeec nouanoaothuae ia i?aaei?eyoee nenoaiu OII;

n ?ac?aaioea oaoie/aneiai i?iaeoa OII (a iai ii?aaeaeyaony iacia/aiea,
oi?ie?othony o?aaiaaiey, eioi?ui aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe eae nenoaia
OII a oeaeii, oae e ioaeaeueiua aa yeaiaiou);

n nicaeaiea ?aai/aai i?iaeoa (ia yoii yoaia ?ac?aaaouaathony
eioi?iaoeeiiiua iiaeaee ?aoaiey anao caaea/; eeanneoeeaoi?u
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie eioi?iaoeee; i?eaeiaeueiua, oeiiaua e noaiaea?oiua
oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu; noaiaea?ou i?aaei?eyoey ia n?aaenoaa
oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey; aeieoiaioaoeey ia i?aaiecaoeeth
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ?aai/eo iano e o/anoeia iniiaiiai e
aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa ia iniiaa oeiiauo e noaiaea?oiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia e iaoiaeia a?oiiiaie ia?aaioee aeaoaeae;
?aai/ay aeieoiaioaoeey aeey ?aoaiey caaea/ n iiiiuueth YAI;
eioi?iaoeeiiiua ianneau; i?aaiecaoeeiiiua iieiaeaiey e aeieaeiinoiua
eino?oeoeee).

Iaeei ec iniiaiuo iieacaoaeae OII – aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea OII.
Iaiaoiaeeii aeey ia/aea onoaiiaeoue no?oeoo?o OII. No?oeoo?a OII – yoi
ioiioaiea cao?ao ia ioaeaeueiua aeaeu ?aaio a ninoaaa OII e iauaio eoiao
cao?ao ia OII, au?aaeaiiia a i?ioeaioao. Aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea OII –
yoi eaeaiaea?iia a?aiy io ia/aea aei ieii/aiey OII iiaiai ecaeaeey eee
oeaeiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

Aeoeoii=q1Ooe1 + q2Ooe2 + q3Ooe3 + … + qnOoen ,

aaea q1,q2,q3 – eiyooeoeeaiou ei??aeoeee a?aiaie , o/eouaathuea
ia?aeeaeueiia e ia?aeeaeueii-iineaaeiaaoaeueiia auiieiaiea ?aaio a
i?ioeanna OII;

Ooe1,Ooe2 – a?aiy ia iieo/aiea eiino?oeoi?neie, ?ac?aaioeo
oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee, ecaioiaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey
, ianoaiaea?oiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, oaoie/aneoth e i?aaiecaoeeiiioth
ia?ano?ieeo i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeaioiaeo e ia?aiiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, ia
ecaioiaeaiea e i?iaaaeaiea eniuoaiey e ae?.

Aeeeoaeueiinoue oeeeea OII ieacuaaao ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia aaee/eio
cao?a/eaaaiuo ?ano?nia, iacaaa?oaiiiai aniiiiaaoaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa,
onei?aiea iai?a/eaaaiinoe iai?ioiuo n?aaenoa, naaanoieiinoue ?aaio ii
OII. Iniiaiuie iai?aaeaieyie aai nie?auaiey yaeythony: oaaee/aiea iauaia
?aaio a ia?aeeaeueiii e ia?aeeaeueii-iineaaeiaaoaeueiii eniieiaiee e
nieaeaiea o?oaeiaieinoe ia eaaeaeii ec yoaiia.

Eiino?oeoi?neay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa

Oaia?ue, eiaaea onoaiiaeaiu iniiaiua yoaiu i?iaaaeaiey OII iiaeii
i?enooiaoue e ia?aie noaaeee – eiino?oeoi?neie iiaeaioiaea
i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiino?oeoi?neay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa caeeth/aaony a
i?iaeoe?iaaiee e inaiaiee iiaie i?iaeoeoeee (a iniiaiii ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
iaoeiino?iaiey, i?eai?ino?iaiey e eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe) e
niaa?oainoaiaaiee auioneaaiie.

Iia inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n Aaeeiie nenoaiie eiino?oeoi?neie
aeieoiaioaoeee (ANEAe , AINO 2.103 – 68), i?aaeoniao?eaathuae
neaaeothuea yoaiu (noaaeee) ?ac?aaioee:

oaoie/aneia caaeaiea, ii?aaeaeythuaa iacia/aiea ecaeaeey (i?iaeoeoeee) ,
aai oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee, iieacaoaee ea/anoaa, oaoiieiae/aneea,
i?aaiecaoeeiiiua e yeiiiie/aneea oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa, o?aaiaaiey e
eiino?oeoi?neie aeieoiaioaoeee. Oaoie/aneia caaeaiea ninoaaeyao caeac/ee
aeey i?aaiecaoeee-?ac?aaio/eea i?iaeoa. ?ac?aaio/eeaie yaeythony
eiino?oeoi?neea ath?i, iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea einoeooou,
eiino?oeoi?neea ioaeaeu i?aaei?eyoee;

oaoie/aneia i?aaeeiaeaiea, niaea?aeauaa oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneia
iainiiaaiea oeaeaniia?aciinoe ?ac?aaioee ecaeaeey ia iniiaaiee aiaeeca
oaoie/aneiai aiaeeca caeac/eea e ano?a/iuo aa?eaioia
i?iaeoii-oaoiieiae/aneeo ?aoaiee ii ecaeaeeth, ananoi?iiiae ioeaiee anao
aiciiaeiuo ?aoaiee n o/aoii nia?aiaiiiai ninoiyiey i?iaeaiu. Iinea
niaeaniaaiey i?aaeeiaeaiey n caeac/eeii e ooaa?aeaeaiee aai a
onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea iii yaeyaony iniiaaieai aeey ?ac?aaioee yneeciiai
i?iaeoa;

yneeciue i?iaeo, ninoieo ec a?aoe/aneie /anoe, i?aaenoaaeythuae niaie
niaieoiiinoue eiino?oeoi?neeo aeieoiaioia (/a?oaaeae), ?ane?uaathuea
eiino?oeoi?neea ?aoaiey n oeacaieai ia?aiao?ia, aaaa?eoiuo ?acia?ia,
aeathueo iauaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i iiaii ecaeaeee, e iiynieoaeueiie caienee
n ?an/aoaie iniiaiuo ia?aiao?ia ecaeaeey, iienaieai i?eioeeiia aai
?aaiou, yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo iniaaiiinoae. Ia iniiaaiee ooaa?aeaeaiiiai
auoanoiyuae i?aaiecaoeeae yneeciiai i?iaeoa ?ac?aaaouaaaony oaoie/aneee
i?iaeo;

oaoie/aneee i?iaeo, oae aea, eae e yneeciue, ninoieo ec a?aoe/aneie
/anoe e iiynieoaeueiie caienee, niaea?aeaueo ieii/aoaeueiua oaoie/aneea
?aoaiey, aeathuea iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea ia ono?ienoaa ?ac?aaaouaaaiiai
ecaeaeey e aai ioaeaeueiuo oceia e enoiaeiuo aeaiiuo aeey ?ac?aaioee
?aai/ae aeieoiaioaoeee. Oeacuaaaony oae aea iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiue
o?iaaiue oieoeeaoeee e i?eiaiaiey noaiaea?oiuo nai?i/iuo aaeeieoe e
aeaoaeae, i?eaiaeyony ?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioaeueiuo ?aaio ii iiauoaieth
oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee. Oaoie/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea /anoi
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ecaioiaeaieai iaeaoa ecaeaeey;

?aai/ee i?iaeo . A iai niaea?aeaony ?aai/ea /a?oaaee ia eaaeaeoth
aeaoaeue ecaeaeey (aeaoaee?iaea) n oeacaieai ia?ee iaoa?eaea, iannu
aeaoaee e ae?oaeo eiino?oeoeaiuo aeaiiuo. ANEAe onoaiaaeeaaao
neaaeothuea iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey e auiieiaieth ?aai/eo /a?oaaeae:

n iioeiaeueiia i?eiaiaiea noaiaea?oiuo e iieoiiuo ecaeaeee, inaiaiiuo
?aiaa i?iecaiaenoaii e niioaaonoaothueo nia?aiaiiiio o?iaith oaoieee;

n ?aoeeiiaeueiia ia?aie/aiea iiiaieeaoo?u ?acia?ia, i?aaeaeueiuo
ioeeiiaiee eiino?oeoeaiuo yeaiaioia, a oaeaea ia?ie e ni?oa iaoa?eaeia e
iie?uoee;

n aeinoeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiie noaiaie acaeiicaiaiyaiinoe aeaoaeae e oceia,
iaeauaiaeiaeoeo niiniaia ecaioiaeaiey e ?aiiioa ecaeaeee, a oaeaea
iaeneiaeueiiai oaeianoaa a yenieoaoaoeee.

?aai/ee i?iaeo nii?iaiaeaeaaony niaoeeoeeaoeeae, ii?aaeaeythuae ninoaa
nai?i/iie aaeeieoeu, ocea eee eiiieaeoa e iaiaoiaeeiie aeey
eiiieaeoiaaiey eiino?oeoi?neeo aeieoiaioia e ieaie?iaaiey caionea a
i?iecaiaenoai oeacaiiuo ecaeaeee.

I?iaeoe?iaaiea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee a ianniaii e na?eeiii i?iecaiaenoaa
caeai/eaaaony ecaioiaeaieai iiuoiuo ia?acoeia e naea/ae oaoie/aneie
aeieoiaioaoeee caeac/eeo. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ana ia?a/eneaiiua noaaeee
eiino?oeoi?neie iiaeaioiaee eniieuecothony i?e nicaeaiee eeoue
i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo eeai iniai ioaaonoaaiiuo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee. A
inoaeueiuo neo/ayo, eae i?aaeei, i?eiaiyaony aeaoonoaaeeeiia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea, i?e eioi?ii niaiauathony ?ac?aaioea oaoie/aneiai e
?aai/aai i?iaeoia, a a ?yaea neo/aaa iioneaaony oaeaea noaaeey yneeciiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey.

Iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai eiino?oeoi?neie iiaeaioiaee yaeyaony niaethaeaiea
o?aaiaaiee noaiaea?oecaoeee e oieoeeaoeee. Noaiaea?ou onoaiaaeeaatho e
?aaeaiaioe?otho ia ii?aaeaeaiiue ia?eiae i?ia?anneaiua o?aaiaaiey,
ii?iu, iaoiaeu, i?aaeea, ?ani?ino?aiyaiua ia naie ecaeaeey, ia oaeoi?u e
oneiaey, aeeythuea ia eo ea/anoai.

Eiino?oeoeaiay oieoeeaoeey i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ia?aie/aiea ?aciiia?acey
ecaioiaeyaiuo oeii?acia?ia aeaoaeae e oceia eiino?oeoeee iooai
caeinoaiaaiey ec ?aiaa auiouaiiuo eiino?oeoeee. Oieoeeaoeey iiaeao
i?iaiaeeony eae a i?aaeaeao iaeiiai caaiaea, niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai ia
auionea ii?aaeaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oae e a ianooaaa anae io?anee a
oeaeii.

I?e aioo?ecaaiaeneie oieoeeaoeee iaeia ec eiino?oeoeee auae?aaony a
ea/anoaa “aaciaie” iiaeaee, a caoai iooai i?eniaaeeiaiey e iae
iaaeinoathueo eee, iaiai?io, ecuyoey ec iaa iaioaeiuo /anoae, oceia,
aeaoaeae nicaeaaony ?yae i?iecaiaeiuo iiaeaeae. A yoii neo/aa ?acei
nie?auaaony /enei i?eaeiaeueiuo aeaoaeae ca n/ao oaaee/aiey
oieoeoee?iaaiiuo e ?aiaa inaiaiiuo i?iecaiaenoaii. Oaeei iooai
inouanoaeyaony eiino?oeoeaiay i?aainoaaiiinoue ecaeaeee, oi?ie?othony eo
eiino?oeoeaiua ?yaeu. O?iaaiue noaiaea?oecaoeee e oieoeeaoeee
ii?aaeaeyaony nenoaiie eiyooeoeeaioia: oieoeeaoeee (Eo), iiaoi?yaiinoe
(Eiiao), eiino?oeoeaiie i?aainoaaiiinoe (Ei?), noaiaea?oecaoeee (Eno).
Oae, aeey ecaeaeey, eiathuaai neaaeothuaa ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaoaeae (oaae
1.1), eiyooeoeeaiou aoaeoo ?aaiu:

Eo=(730+492):1239=0.98; Eiiao=2075:1239=1.68

Ei?=1239:2075=0.59; Eno=823:2075=0.4

Oaaeeoea 1.1

?ani?aaeaeaiea aeaoaeae ii a?oiiaiEiee/anoaiIaeiaiiaaiee
aeaoaeaeNoaiaea?oece?iaaiiua823492Caeinoaiaaiiua1232730I?eaeiaeueiua2017
Eoiai20751239

Iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai ia/aea i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoe?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee
yaeyaony ii?aaeaeaiea aa yeiiiie/aneie yooaeoeaiinoe iooai niiinoaaeaiey
yooaeoa e cao?ao ?aiaa i?iecaiaeeiiai i?iaeoeoa n iiaui.

Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa

Neaaeothuae noaaeeae oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee yaeyaony oaoiieiae/aneay
iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa. Eiaiii iia iaania/eaaao iieioth aioiaiinoue
i?aaei?eyoey e auioneo iiaie i?iaeoeoeee n caaeaiiui ea/anoaii, /oi, eae
i?aaeei iiaeao auoue ?aaeeciaaii ia oaoiieiae/aneii iai?oaeiaaiee,
eiathuai aunieee oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue, iaania/eaathuee ieieiaeueiua
o?oaeiaua e iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou. Oaoiieiae/aneay iiaeaioiaea
i?iecaiaenoaa inouanoaeyaony a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie noaiaea?oia
Aaeeiie nenoaiu oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa (ANOII, AINO
14.001-73) e i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?aoaiea neaaeothueo caaea/:

n iaania/aiea aunieie oaoiieiae/iinoe eiino?oeoeee, /oi aeinoeaaaony
ouaoaeueiui aiaeecii oaoiieiaee ecaioiaeaiey eaaeaeie aeaoaee e
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneie ioeaieie aiciiaeiuo aa?eaioia ecaioiaeaiey;

n i?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia , aeeth/athuaa ?ac?aaioeo
i?ioeannia o?aaeeoeeiiiie (iniiaiie aeey aeaiiiai oeia i?iecaiaenoaa)
ia?aaioee, a oaeaea i?ia?aii aeey noaieia n /eneiaui i?ia?aiiiui
oi?aaeaieai, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, ?ac?aaioeo
oaoie/aneeo caaeaiee ia niaoeinoianoeo e niaoeeaeueiia oaoiieiae/aneia
iai?oaeiaaiea (i?iaeoe?iaaiea n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey
i?iaiaeeony a ii?yaeea, i?eiyoie aeey eiino?oeoi?neie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa);

n no?oeoo?iue aiaeec ecaeaeey e ia aai iniiaa ninoaaeaiea iaaeoeaoiauo
oaoiieiae/aneeo ia?o?ooia ia?aaioee aeaoaeae e nai?ee ecaeaeee;

n oaoiieiae/aneoth ioeaieo aiciiaeiinoae oeaoia, iniiaaiioth ia ?an/aoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe e o.ae.

n ?ac?aaioeo oaoiieiae/aneeo ii?iaoeaia o?oaeiaieinoe, ii?i ?anoiaea
iaoa?eaeia, ?aaeeiia ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey;

n ecaioiaeaiea n?aaenoa oaoiieiae/aneiai iniauaiey;

n ioeaaeeo oaoiieiae/aneiai eiiieaena (i?iecaiaeeony ia onoaiiai/iie
na?ee ecaeaeee) – oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna, inianoee e iai?oaeiaaiey;

n ?ac?aaioeo oi?i e iaoiaeia i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna;

n ?ac?aaioeo iaoiaeia oaoie/aneiai eiio?iey.

Oaoiieiae/iinoue eiino?oeoeee ioeaieaaaony eiee/anoaaiii iin?aaenoaii
nenoaiu oa?aeoa?enoee , aeeth/athuae iieacaoaee o?oaeiaieinoe
ecaioiaeaiey, oaeaeueiie iaoa?eaeiaieinoe, oaoiieiae/aneie
naaanoieiinoe, eiyooeoeeaioia eniieueciaaiey iaoa?eaeia, i?eiaiaiey
oeiiauo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia , noaiaea?oecaoeee, oieoeeaoeee.

Aunieay oaoiieiae/iinoue niinianoaoao nieaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
cao?ao e ii yoiio neoaee e?eoa?eai yeiiiie/anee aieaa auaiaeiiai
oaoiieiae/aneiai aa?eaioa. Oaeie auai? i?iecaiaeeony i?e niaianoiii
?aoaiee aeaoo o?aaiaiee:

1) Co1=n1N+V1; 2) Co2=c2N+V2

io?aaeathueo niioaaonoaaiii oaoiieiae/aneea naaanoieiinoe Co1 e No2
aeaoo aa?eaioia ecaioiaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa ii?aaeaeyaony e?eoe/aneee
iauai i?iecaiaenoaa

Ne?=(n2-n1)/V1-V2, neoaeauee a?aieoeae

yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe eo i?eiaiaiey. I?e yoii n1,n2,V1,V2
niioaaonoaaiii oneiaii-iinoiyiiua e ia?aiaiiua ?anoiaeu a no?oeoo?a
naaanoieiinoe aa?eaioia, N – iauai auionea. I?e iauaia i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiueoai /ai Ne?, aoaeao auaiaeai aa?eaio 1, i?e auionea, aieueoai Ne? –
aa?eaio 2. Iai?eia?, i?e aiciiaeiinoe ecaioiaeaiey aeaoaeae ia oiea?iii
noaiea eee aaoiiaoa n?aaieaatho niioaaonoaothuea cao?aou (ni. oaae.1.2)

Oaaeeoea 1.2. Iieacaoaee i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey

Cao?aou?acia?iinoueNoaiieAaoiiaoCa?aaioiay ieaoa
noaii/ieeaeii/oo102Noieiinoue yenieoaoaoeee no.eii/oo13Noieiinoue
yenieoaoaoeee eino?oiaioaeii/oo11Aii?oecaoeey noaiea?oa./aiae2N?aaeiyy
noieiinoue iaeaaeee?oa./aiae5Noieiinoue yenieoaoaoeee
niaoeinoianoee?oa./aiae6

Iiaenoaaeyy aeaiiua oaaeeoeu a oi?ioeo, iieo/ei, /oi

Ne?=((3+10+6)-(2+5)/(10+1+1)-(2+3+1))*100=200 aeao.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e yoii eee aieueoai cia/aiee Ne? oeaeaniia?acii
i?eiaiyoue oiea?iue aaoiiao. Oeacaiiue iaoiae ?an/aoa i?eaiaeai, eiaaea
ioeaieaathony oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu (ia o?iaia o/anoea, oeaoa), ia
o?aaothuea neieueei-ieaoaeue cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao. A
neo/ayo, naycaiiuo n aiaae?aieai oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, o?aaothueo
nouanoaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, auai? yeiiiie/anee iaeaieaa auaiaeiiai
aa?eaioa i?iecaiaeeony ii iaoiaeo i?eaaaeaiiuo cao?ao.

Aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa
aieueoia cia/aiea eiatho oeiecaoeey e ii?iaeecaoeey yeaiaioia
oaoiieiaee. Oeiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia no?ieony ia iniiaa
oaoiieiae/aneeo ?yaeia. A oaeie ?yae aeeth/athony aeaoaee, eiioeao?aoeey
e iniiaiua ia?aiao?u eioi?uo iicaieytho aanoe eo ecaioiaeaiea eee
ia?aaioeo ii iaeiiio iauaio oaoiieiae/aneiio ia?o?ooo. Oeiecaoeee
i?aaeoanoaoao ?ac?aaioea eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneie eeanneoeeaoeee,
i?e eioi?ie aeaoaee i?aaeaa?eoaeueii a?oiie?othony a eeannu ii i?eciaeo
neoaeaaiiai iacia/aiey. Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeaeaiea ia a?oiiu (iai?eia?, ii
i?eciaeo iauiinoe iaoa?eaea e niiniaa aai ia?aaioee) e iiaea?oiiu
(iai?eia?, ii ?acia?ai aeaoaeae) i?eaiaeeo e iaeneiaeueiie oieoeeaoeee,
iicaieythuae inouanoaeoue i?eioeei a?oiiiaie ia?aaioee, eioi?ue
iniiauaaaony ia eiino?oeoeaii-oaoiieiae/aneii noiaenoaa aeaoaeae n
iineaaeothuei auai?ii ec ieo eiiieaeniie aeaoaee, eiathuae ana
iiaa?oiinoe ia?aaioee, ano?a/athueany a aeaoaeyo aeaiiie a?oiiu. Yoi
iicaieyao nicaeaoue aeey oaeie aeaoaee niaoeeaeueiia i?eniiniaeaiea ni
niaiiuie iaeaaeeaie e n aai iiiiuueth ia?aaioaoue ia iaeiie iano?ieea
noaiea ana aeaoaee aeaiiie a?oiiu. Oaoiieiae/aneea ii?iaee
?ac?aaaouaathony i?eiaieoaeueii e oeiiaui aaiiao?e/aneei yeaiaioai
eiino?oeoeee, iai?eia?, ia ?aaeeonu cae?oaeaiee, i?eionee, aeiionee,
eiioniinoue, ia ninoaa oeoou, ia ?aaeeiu ia?aaioee e i?.

Oeiecaoeey, ii?iaeecaoeey, oaoiieiae/aneay oieoeeaoeey aeatho iniaaiii
aieueoie yooaeo, anee i?iaiaeyony ia o?iaia noaiaea?oia i?aaei?eyoee,
io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey iaania/aiey aunieiai
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaenoaa e ea/anoaa auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao no?iaia niaethaeaiea oaoiieiae/aneie
aeenoeeieeiu, o.a. oi/iiai auiieiaiey ?ac?aaioaiiiai e aiaae?aiiiai ia
anao iia?aoeeyo, o/anoeao e noaaeeyo i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Ieaie?iaaiea i?ioeanna oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

Ieaie?iaaiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ninoieo a
?ani?aaeaeaiee, eii?aeeiaoeee e eiio?iea ?aaio: ai a?aiaie – ii noaaeeyi
e yoaiai, ii niaea?aeaieth e iauaiai – iaaeaeo i?aaiaie oaoie/aneie
iiaeaioiaee. Ieaie?iaaiea i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n caaeaieyie
aiaeiaiai e ia?niaeoeaiiai ieaiia ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey. Aaaeiaeoae
caaea/ae ieaie?iaaiey yaeyaony onei?aiea oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee e
iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae e oaoiieiae/aneei
iniauaieai e ia/aeo caionea ecaeaeey. Iniiaie aeey ?an/aoa ieaia
iiaeaioiaee eae ai a?aiaie, oae e ii iauaio yaeythony caaiaeneea e
io?aneaaua ii?iaoeau o?oaeiaieinoe, iicaieythuea aeaeaoue oe?oiiaiiua
?an/aou i?e eiino?oe?iaaiee ecaeaeee eee ?ac?aaioea iiaie i?iaeoeoeee.

O?oaeiaieinoue, aeeeoaeueiinoue e noieiinoue oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa iiaoo auoue ii?aaeaeaiu ia iniiaa onoaiiaeaiiuo
ei??aeyoeeiiiuo caaeneiinoae ii oaeei oaeoi?ai, eae eiee/anoai aeaoaeae
e oceia a eiino?oeoeee, eaoaai?ey neiaeiinoe ecaeaeey, iiaecia
eiino?oeoeee, noaiaiue oieoeeaoeee, n?aaeiaa eiee/anoai iia?aoeee ia
iaeio aeaoaeue, eiyooeoeeaio iniauaiiinoe, noaiaiue iaoaiecaoeee e
aaoiiaoecaoeee. Iinea ii?aaeaeaiey aeeeoaeueiinoe anao yoaiia
oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee ninoaaeyaony eaeaiaea?iue ieai aa inouanoaeaiey
– a oi?ia eaioi/iiai, eeiaeiiai eee naoaaiai a?aoeea. A oeaeyo onei?aiey
iiaeaioiaee iia aeieaeia ieaie?iaaoueny n aiciiaeii aunieie noaiaiueth
ia?aeeaeueiinoe. Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea ia i?aeoeea iieo/eee
a?aoeee eeiaeiiai oeia, a iniaaiiinoe i?e iaaieueoii iauaia
i?iaeoe?oaiuo ?aaio e e?aoein?i/iinoe yoaiia eo inouanoaeaiey (ni.
i?eeiaeaiea 1). Naycaii yoi n i?inoioie e oaeianoaii eo a?aoe/aneiai
iino?iaiey, iaaeyaeiinoueth ecia?aaeaaiuo i?ioeannia. I?e inaiaiee
neiaeiuo iauaeoia nia?aiaiiie oaoieee ieaie?iaaiea e oi?aaeaiea
?ac?aaioeaie auiieiyaony i?e iiiiue iaoiaeia naoaaiai ieaie?iaaiey e
oi?aaeaiey (NIO). Yoe iaoiaeu iicaieytho iioeiece?iaaoue i?ioeann
nicaeaiey iiaie i?iaeoeoeee eae ii a?aiaie, oae e ii noieiinoe. NIO
iniiaaii ia a?aoe/aneii ecia?aaeaiee ii?aaeaeaiiiai eiiieaena ?aaio,
io?aaeathuai eo eiae/aneoth iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, acaeiinaycue e
aeeeoaeueiinoue, n iioeiecaoeeae ?ac?aaioaiiiai a?aoeea i?e iiiiue
iaoiaeia i?eeeaaeiie iaoaiaoeee e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee e aai
eniieueciaaiey aeey oaeouaai ?oeiaiaenoaa yoeie ?aaioaie.

Iiaeaeue ieaie?oaiiai i?ioeanna ecia?aaeaaony a aeaea i?eaioe?iaaiiiai
a?aoa, iacuaaaiiai naoaaui eee i?inoi naoueth. A?ao ninoieo ec ?aaio e
niauoee. ?aaioie iacuaaaony oio eee eiie i?ioeann (iai?eia?,
ecaioiaeaiea iiuoiiai ia?acoea i?iaeoeoeee), a niauoeai – iiiaio
caaa?oaiey ?aaiou, a aeaiiii neo/aa iiiaio aioiaiinoe ia?acoea, iinea
eioi?iai aeieaeia ia/aoueny neaaeothuay ?aaioa (iai?eia?, aai eniuoaiea
e aeiaiaeea). Ia ?enoiea 1.1 ecia?aaeai i?eia? naoaaiai a?aoeea. Niauoey
iaicia/aiu e?oaeeaie, ?aaiou – no?aeeaie. Aeeeia no?aeee a?aoe/anee ia
au?aaeaao i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe auiieiaiey ?aaiou, iia iaicia/aaony
/eneii aeiae eee iaaeaeue e iaiineony iaae no?aeeie. Iieiue iooue a
naoaaii a?aoeea – yoi ethaay iai?a?uaiay iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue
acaeiicaiaiyaiuo niauoee e ?aaio, aaaeouay io niauoey (0), enoiaeiiai
aeey anaai a?aoeea, e caaa?oathuaio, iineaaeiaio niauoeth naoaaiai
a?aoeea(17). E?iia iieiuo iooae (a eo ianeieueei), neaaeoao ?acee/aoue:
iooue io enoiaeiiai niauoey aei eaeiai-eeai i?iiaaeooi/iiai niauoey,
iai?eia? (5); iooue, niaaeeiythuee aeaiiia i?iiaaeooi/iia niauoea (5) n
caaa?oathuei (17); iooue iaaeaeo aeaoiy niauoeyie, ec eioi?uo ie iaeii
ia yaeyaony enoiaeiui eee caaa?oathuei.

picscalex99010009000003901b000000006e1b000000000400000003010800050000000
b0200000000050000000c02c200260204000000070104006e1b0000430f2000cc000000c
200260200000000c2002602000000002800000026020000c200000001000100000000009
0360000940e0000400e0000020000000200000000000000ffffff00fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000ff800000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000c000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe0ffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff9f3fffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe7fcfffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffd87f7ffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffd33f7ffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffb33fbffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffb33fbffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffb87fbffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffb33fbffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff3fb33fbffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc7b33fbffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1d87f7ffffffffffffff83ff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc1dfff7fffffffffffffe7cff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffe0ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0be7fcffffffffffffff9ff3f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffff9f3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff83bf9f3ffffffffffffff7ffdf
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffe7fcfffffffffffffffffffffffffffe0f7fe0fffffffffffffff4e1df
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffdfff7ffffffffffffffffffffffffff87f7ffff3ffffffffffffecccef
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffdf0f7fffffffffffffffffffffffffe1fefffff1ffffffffffffecccef
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbe67bfffffffffffffffffffffffff07fffffff9ffffffffffffecccef
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbfe7bffffffffffffffffffffffffc1ffffffffcffffffffffffecccef
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbfe7bffffffffffffffffffffffff0fffffffffcffffffffffffe4ccef
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbe67bfffffffffffffffffffffff83fffffffffe7fffffffffffe0ccef
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbe0fb83ffffffffffffffffffffe0ffffffffffe7ffffffffffff0ccdf
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbe7fbfc03ffffffffffffffffff87fffffffffff3ffffffffffff4e1df
f87ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffdf3f7fffc01fffffffffffffffe1ffffffffffff3ffffffffffff9ff3f
f33ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffdf077fffffe01fffffdfffffff07ffffffffffff9fffffffffc03e7cff
ff3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffe7fcffffffffe01fffe7fffffc1fffffffffffff9ffffffffffe1f839f
ff3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffff9f3ffffffffffe00ffbffc1e0ff8fffffffc0c3cffffffffff8bfff8f
f33ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffe0ffffffffffffff00cff3e43ff37ffffffcf99cffffffffff1bfffcf
f07ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffdffffffffffffff07cff8ffff3ffffffe7f9e7ffffffffe77fffe7
f3fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffff07ffff
ffffffffffffffffffeffffffffffffff1fbffefff83fffffff3f9f3ffffffffcf7fffe7
f9fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbfffffffcf9ffff
ffffffffffffffffdff7ffffffffffffcffbc3efff33fffffff999f3ffffffff9efffff3
f83ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbfffffff3fe7fff
ffffffffffffffff8ff9fffffffffffffff799f7ff33fffffffc83f9fffffffe3ffffff9
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffefffbfff
ffffffffffffffff4ffefffffffffffffff799f7ff33fffffffc9ff9fffffffc7ffffff9
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffef0fbfff
fffffffffffffffeb7ff7ffffffffffffff799f7ff33ffffffcccffcfffffff9f3e7fffc
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffde67dfff
ffffffffffffffffb7ffbffffffffffffff799f7ff87ffffffe1c1fcfffffff3f3e7fffc
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffde67dfff
ffffffffffffffffbfffdfffffffffffe7f783f7fffffffffffffffe7fffffc7f3e7fffe
7ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffde67dfff
ffffffffffffffffbfffeffffffffffff8f79ff7fffffffffffffffe7fffff8ff3e7ffff
3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffde67dfff
ffffffffffffffffbffff3ffffffffffff3bd9efffffffffffffffff3dffff3ff3e7ffff
3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffde67dfff
ffffffffffffffffbffffdeffffffffffe3be3efffffffffffffffff3dfffe7fd3a7ffff
9ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffde67dfff
ffffffffffffffff7ffffeeffffffffff81cff9fffffffffffffffff9dfff8ffc387ffff
9ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffee67bfff
ffffffffffffffff7fffff77ffffffffe1bf3e7fffffffffffffffff9dfff1ffe3c7ffff
cffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffef0fbfff
ffffffffffffffff7fffffb7ffffffff877fc1fbfffffffffffffffdcbffe7fff3e7ffff
cffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbfffffff3fe7fff
ffffffffffffffff7fffffcbfffffffc1f7ffffdfffffffffffffffe4bffcfffffffffff
e77ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbfffffffcf87fff
ffffffffffffffff7ffffff3fffffff07efffffe7fffffffffffffff83ff9fffffffffff
f37ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffff041fff
ffffffffffffffff7fffff89ffffffc3fdffffffbfffffffffffffffe3fe3fffffffffff
f37fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc1fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffff87ff
fffffffffffffffefffffff1fffffe0fffffffffdffffffffffffffffffc7fffffffffff
f97fffffffffffffffffffffffffffff3e7ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffe1ff
fffffffffffffffefffffffff07ff83fffffffffefffffffffffffffff01ffffffffffff
d8fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffcff9ffffffffffffec000000ffbfffffffffff87f
fffffffffffffffeffffffffcf9fe1fffffffffff7fffffffffffffffcf9ffffffffffff
e4fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbffeffffffffffffec000000ffbfffffffffffe1f
fffffffffffffffeffffffff3fe707fffffffffff9fffffffffffffff3fe7fffffffffff
f8fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbce0ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffff87
effffffffffffffefffffffef3fa1ffffffffffffeffffffffffffffefffbfffffffffff
fefffffffffffffffffffffffffffff7ccc7fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffe1
f7fffffffffffffefffffffef3fa7fffffffffffff7fffffffffffffee3fbfffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff7cfc7fffffffffffec000000ffbfffffffffffff8
77fffffffffffffdfffffffd81fdfff387ffffffffbfffffffffffffdcdfdfffffffffff
ff83fffffffffffffffffffffffffff7cfc7fffffffffffec000000ffbfffffffffffffe
1bfe0ffffffffffdfffffffdb3fdfff333ffffffffdfffffffffffffdfcfdfffffffffff
fe7cfffffffffffffffffffffffffff7ccc7fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffe70fff
83f9f3fffffffffdfffffffdd3fdfff3f3ffffffffe7ffffffffffffde0fdfffffffffff
f9ff3ffffffffffffffffffffffffff74c17fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffe667ff
e1e7fcfffffffffdfffffffdd3fdfff3f3fffffffffbffffffffffffdccfdfffffffffff
f7ffdffffffffffffffffffffffffff70cf7fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffe667fe
03dfff7ffffffffdfffffffde3fdfff333fffffffffdffffffffffffdccfdfffffffffef
f67cdffffffffffffffffffffffffffb8e6ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffe667ff
ffdf9f7ffffffffdfffffe7de3fdffd307fffffffffeffffffffffffdccfdffffffffff3
ee7ceffffffffffffffffffffffffe03ce0ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffe667ff
ffbf9fbffffffffbffffff9ef3fbffc33fffffffffff3f7fffffffffeccfbe007ffffffd
ee7ceffffffffffffffffffffffffff0ff9ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffa667ff
ffbf9fbffffffffbffffffe6fffbffe39fffffffffffdf7fffffffe02e1fbfff800007fe
6e7ceffffffffffff9ffffffffffffc33e7ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffff8667ff
ffbf9fbffffffffbffffffc73fe7fff383ffffffffffefbfffffffff33fe7ffffffff801
ae7ceffffffffffff9ffffffffffff0bc1fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffc667ff
ffbf9fa3fffffffbffffff07cf9ffffffffffffffffff7bffffffffc7cf9fffffffffffe
6a74effffffffffff9fffffffffffc37fffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffe70fff
ffbe9fa07ffffffffffffc2ff07ffffffffffffffffffbbffffffff2ff07fffffffffff9
e870effffffffffffcfffffffffff0f7e7fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffbe1fbc1ff7fffffffff0effffffffffffffffffffffcbfffffffceffffffffffffffe7
f478dffffffffffffcffffffffffe3efe7fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffdf1f7f83fbff07ffffc3dfffffffffffffffffffffff5fffffff3dffffffffffffff9f
f67cdffffffffffffe7fffffffff8fefe7fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffdf9f7fe07bfcf9ffff0fdfffffffffffffffffffffc79ffffffcffffffffffffffffff
f9ff23fffffffffffe7ffffffffe1fffe7fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffe7fcfffc1df3fe7ffc3ffffffffffffffffffffffff87ffffffbffffffffffffffffff
fe7ce0ffdfffffffff3ffff83ff87fffe7e061fffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fff9f3ffff81efffbff0fffffffffffffffffffffffffff07fffe7ffffffffffffffffff
ff83fc3fdffffffff03fffe7cfe1ffffe7e7ccfffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffe0fffffe0ee1fbfc3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffcf9fff9fffffffffffffffffff
ffffff07efffffffffffff9ff3c7e70fe7f3fcfffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffff8dccfdf0fffffffffffffffffffffffffff3fe7fe7fffffffffffffffffff
ffffffc1efffffffffffff7ffdcfe667e7f9fcfffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffff3e787dfcfd83ffffffffffffffffffffffffffefffbf9ffffffffffffffffffff
fffffff86ff83fffffffff73e5ffe667e7fcccfffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffff3e7ffdfcfd0fffffffffffffffffffffffffffee7fbe7ffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffe07e7cffffffffef3e6ffe667e7fe41fffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffff3e7ffdfcfd3fffffffffffffffffffffffffffde7fddfffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffff879ff3fffffefef302ffe667f3fe4ffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffff3e7ffdf1fdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffde7fdffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffc77ffdffffff3ef366ffa667f3e667fffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffff3e7ffdfcfdffffffffffffffffffffffffffffdf3fdffffffffffffffffffffff
ffff0ffc3f4c0dffffffcef3a6ff8667f3f0e0fffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffd3a7ffeccfbffffffffffffffffffffffffffffdf3fdffffffffffffffffffffff
fffe67fffeccfe00000002d3a6ffc667f3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffc387ffee1fbff303fffffffffffffffffffffffdf9fdffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffe7fffece7e00000006c3c6ffe70ff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffe3c7fff3fe7ff33ffffffffffffffffffffffffdf9fdffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffe7fffecf3e7ffffff363c5fffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffff3e7fffcf9fff39ffffffffffffffffffffffffefcfbffffffffffffffffffffff
fffe67fffecf9effffffcf73e5fffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffff07fff3cffffffffffffffffffffffffec0fbffffffffffffffffffffff
fffe0ffffe4fceffffff3f9ff3fffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffff3e7ffffffffffffffffffffffff3fe7ffffffffffffffffffffff
fffe7ffffe0fceffffffffe7cffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffd3f3ffffffffffffffffffffffffcf9fffffffffffffffffffffff
ffff3fffff0ccdfffffffff83ffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffc3f3fffffffffffffffffffffffff07fffffffffffffffffffffff
ffff07ffff4e1dfffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffe333ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffff9ff3fffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffff387ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffe7cffffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffff83ffffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffff7fffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffbfffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffdfffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffefffffffffffffffffff3fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffff7ffffffffffffffffff9fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffff7ffffffffffffffffff9fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbffffffffffffffffff9fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffffff9fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffeffffffffffffffffff9fffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffff7ffffffffffffffff79effffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffbffffffffffffffffb9dffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffdffffffffffffffffd9bffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffeffffffffffffffffe97ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffedfffffffffffffffe97ffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffff5ffffffffffffffff0ffff9ffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffd9ffffffffffffffff9ffff9ffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffe4fffffffffffffffffffff9ffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffff8fffffffffffffffffffffcffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffe707ffffffffffffc1ffffcffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffcf9ffffffffffff3e7fffe7fffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffff3fe7ffffffffffcff9fffe7fffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffefffbffffffcfffb9c2ffff3fffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffece1bfffffff3ffb998fff03fffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffdcccdfffffffcff79997fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffdcfcdffffffff3f79997fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffdcfcdffffffffcf79997fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffdcfcdfffffffff369837fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffd4f1dc000000003619f7fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffd0fcdffffffffe771d97fffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffe8ccbffffffff9fb9e2fffffbffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffece1bfffffffe7fbffee1fffdffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffff3fe7ffffffffffcff9e03ffdffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffcf9ffffffffffff3e7fe07feffc1ffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffff07ffffffffffffc1fffc07eff3e7fec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff80f7c9c9fec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff807b9cefec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff03b9cefec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe379e77ec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc379e77ec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc3f69f37ec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff61f37ec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff71f97ec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff79817ec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbffefec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbffefec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffcff9fec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff3e7fec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc1ffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ffbffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffec000000ff800000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000c000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc000000fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc00000004000000070101000
30000000000 ?enoiie 1.1. Naoaaie a?aoee

N?aaee yoeo iooae iniaia cia/aiea eiaao e?eoe/aneee iooue –
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aaio io enoiaeiiai aei caaa?oathuaai niauoey,
o?aaothuay iaeaieueoaai a?aiaie aeey eo auiieiaiey. E?eoe/aneee iooue
iaicia/ai aee?iuie no?aeeaie. I?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue ?aaio, eaaeaueo ia
e?eoe/aneii iooe, ii?aaeaeyao iauee oeeee caaa?oaiey anaai eiiieaena
?aaio, ieaie?oaiuo i?e iiiiue naoaaiai a?aoeea. Oiaiueoaiea
aeeeoaeueiinoe e?eoe/aneiai iooe yaeyaony iniiaiie caaea/ae iioeiecaoeee
ieaie?iaaiey. Oa?iei “niauoea” i?eiaiyaony a NIO a niunea aa?iyoiiai e
caaeneiiai niauoey, ianooieaiea eioi?iai iiaeao iaiyoueny io 1 aei 0.
Oa?iei “?aaioa” e aai a?aoe/aneia ecia?aaeaiea a aeaea eeiee
oiio?aaeythony a aieaa oe?ieii iiieiaiee : eae aeaenoaea, o?aaothuaa
cao?ao a?aiaie, a?aiy iaeeaeaiey (iai?eia?, i?e eniuoaieyo iiuoiiai
ia?acoea) e, iaeiiaoe, eae eiae/aneay naycue iaaeaeo niauoeyie
(oeeoeaiay ?aaioa). Iaeeaeaaiia a?aiy auiieiaiey ?aaiou tiae auaiaeeony
ec n?aaiaiey o?ao ioeaiie: iioeienoe/aneie tmin, ianneienoe/aneie tmax,
aa?iyoiie ta. Iii ii?aaeaeyaony eeai yenia?oiui iooai, eeai aa?aony ec
noaoenoe/aneeo aeaiiuo ii aiaeiaiaui i?iaeoai. Iioeienoe/aneay ioeaiea
i?aaeiieaaaao iaee/ea naiuo aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey aa auiieiaiey, a
ianneienoe/aneay – naiuo iaaeaaii?eyoiuo. Iaeaieaa aa?iyoiia a?aiy
aa?aony eae iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/athuaany a aeaiiie noaoenoe/aneie
niaieoiiinoe:

tiae = (tmin + 4ta + tmax)/6.

Aiciiaeiinoue auynieoue ?acieoeo iaaeaeo i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth
e?eoe/aneiai iooe e i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth ethaiai ae?oaiai iooe
iicaieyao ane?uaaoue ?aca?au a?aiaie oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee, /oi
yaeyaony ia?iiiui i?aeiouanoaii NIO ii n?aaiaieth n eeiaeiui a?aoeeii.
E?iia oiai, NIO iicaieyao niioiineoue ethaua i?iiaaeooi/iua ?aaiou e
niauoey, oeacaiiua ai a?aiaie n iniiaiuie yoaiaie. Oae, ec naoaaiai
a?aoeea aeaeii, /oi iiieii ?aaio 3-4 e 4-6 e iiiaioo caaa?oaiey niauoey
6 o?aaoaony ii?aaeaeeoue ?aaiou 3-5 (?aciiiaeaiea e auione ?aai/eo
/a?oaaeae e oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee), 5-4 (ninoaaeaiea oaoie/aneiai
caaeaiey ia i?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee) , 5-6
(oaoiieiae/aneee eiio?ieue /a?oaaeae). ?an/aou a NIO cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eaathony a nayce n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iau/iuo /anouo
ia?aninoaaeaiee a?aoeeia, oae eae iaeioi?ua ?aaiou auiieiythony
aein?i/ii, a /anoue ?aaio caiacaeuaaao. Iiyoiio aeey oniaoiiai
i?eiaiaiey NIO iaiaoiaeeii ?an/aou i?iecaiaeeoue ia YAI n
a?aoiiino?ieoaeai. Yoi iaania/eaaao auno?ia i?iecaiaenoai ?an/aoia ia
oieueei ii a?aiaiiui ia?aiao?ai, ii e a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee ii
cao?aoai. Aeey NIO iaiaoiaeeii iaeiieaiea aieueoiai noaoenoe/aneiai
iaoa?eaea, o?aaoaony o?oae aunieieaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo niaoeeaeenoia.
Ianiio?y ia yoi, yooaeoeaiinoue NIO aaeeea, iniaaiii aeey oaeeo ?aaio,
eae i?iaeoe?iaaiea iiauo aeaeia oaoieee, iniiaaiiuo ia iiauo iao/iuo
i?eioeeiao, ecaioiaeaiea e iiioaae iaeaieaa neiaeiuo aeaeia
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, eaieoaeueiia no?ieoaeuenoai neiaeiuo
iauaeoia, eiiieaeniua ?aaiou, auiieiyaiua iiiaeie i?aaei?eyoeyie
?acee/iuo io?aneae.

N?iee oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa iiaoo auoue cia/eoaeueii
nie?auaiu, anee iaoaiece?iaaoue e aaoiiaoece?iaaoue o?oaeiaieea
au/eneeoaeueiua, a?aoe/aneea, iieneiaua, aeieoiaioaoeeiiii –
iiiaeeoaeueiua e ae?oaea ?aaiou, oa?aeoa?iua aeey aieueoeinoaa yoaiia
eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa.

Yooaeoeaiinoue e noaiaiue aaoiiaoecaoeee e iaoaiecaoeee ?aaio
ii?aaeaeythony eo oa?aeoa?ii e niaea?aeaieai. Oae, i?ioeann
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ecaioiaeaiey i?iaeoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo e
oaoiieiae/aneeo aeieoiaioia caieiaao aei 50% ?aai/aai a?aiaie
niaoeeaeenoia. Iiyoiio oe?ieia eniieueciaaiea ioiineoaeueii i?inouo
n?aaenoa e iaoiaeia, oaeeo, eae /a?/aiea ia ianooaaii-eii?aeeiaoiie
aoiaaa n i?ic?a/iie iniiaie, eniieueciaaiea i?ic?a/iuo oaiieaoia,
aiieeeaoeee aeey oi?ie?iaaiey /a?oaaea, iiaeaeueii-iaeaoiiai
i?iaeoe?iaaiey, oioiiiioaaea aeieoiaioia, /a?oaaeae-caaioiaie oeiiaiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey niinianoaoao iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio nie?auaieth
o?oaeiaieinoe yoeo ?aaio. Ii aeaaiui iai?aaeaieai caeanue yaeyaony
aaoiiaoecaoeey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei eniieuecothony eiiiuethoa?iua
nenoaiu aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey. Ae?oaei nouanoaaiiui
iai?aaeaieai iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
yaeyaony eniieueciaaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiii-iieneiauo
nenoai (EIN). Eiino?oeoi?, i?enooiay e iiaie ?ac?aaioea, eco/aao,
iieuecoynue oiiaeii, iaeiieaiiui a EIN, iaeaieaa nia?aiaiiua yeaiaiou
eiino?oeoeee, i?eioeeiu aeaenoaey, iaoaiou, noaiaea?ou, oai naiui
cia/eoaeueii nie?auay aeeeoaeueiinoue yoaiia i?iaeoe?iaaiey e
iaania/eaay nia?aiaiiua e ia?niaeoeaiua o?aaiaaiey e eiino?oeoeee. I?e
oaoiieiae/aneii i?iaeoe?iaaiee EIN i?aaenoaaeyao iaoa?eaeu aeey ?aoaiey
caaea/: eeanneoeeaoeee aeaoaeae, oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, a?oiie?iaee
aeaoaeae i?eiaieoaeueii e aeaenoaothuei oieoeoee?iaaiiui oaoiieiae/aneei
i?ioeannai. Ia iniiaa eioi?iaoeee i?iecaiaeyony ?an/aou ?acia?ia
iiaa?oiinoe ia?aaioee, ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia, ninoaaeyaony eo
niaoeeoeeaoeey, ii?aaeaeyaony iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue oaoiieiae/aneeo
ia?o?ooia, ia?a/aiue oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Iaeaieueoee yooaeo io iaoaiecaoeee e aaoiiaoecaoeee oaoie/aneie
iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa aeinoeaaaony iauaaeeiaieai NAI?,
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oaoiieiae/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa
(ANOII), aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey oaoiieiae/aneeie
i?ioeannaie (ANOOI) a ?aieao aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii (ANOI). A yoii neo/aa iaania/eaaaony onei?aiea e
iiauoaiea oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy eiino?oeoi?neeo e oaoiieiae/aneeo
?ac?aaioie, auae?athony iioeiaeueiue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann,
?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiuiinoae, iaoa?eaeueiuo
e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, iiauoaiey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e anae
oicyenoaaiii-yeiiiie/aneie ?aaiou.

Ii ?ac?aaioaoue i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa e oaoiieiaeth – yoi aua ia ana.
Aeey ii?iaeueiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eeiee iai iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue
ii?iaeueiia oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea e niaaaeaiea anaie iaiaoiaeeiuie
eiiieaeoothueie.

Ieaie?iaaiea oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa

Aeey iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii niaaaeaiea iaoa?eaeaie,
iieooaa?eeaoaie, yia?aeae ?acee/iuo aeaeia, eino?oiaioii, o?ainii?oii.
Auiieiaiea anao yoeo iiiaiia?aciuo ooieoeee ninoaaeyao caaea/o
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey: ?aiiioiiai,
eino?oiaioaeueiiai, yia?aaoe/aneiai, o?ainii?oiiai, neeaaeneiai e o.ae.

Ai aniiiiaaoaeueiii i?iecaiaenoaa e oaoie/aneii ianeoaeeaaiee ia
i?aaei?eyoee iiaeao auoue caiyoi aei 50% anao ?aai/eo. Ec iauaai iauaia
aniiiiaaoaeueiuo e ianeoaeeaathueo ?aaio ia o?ainii?oii-neeaaeneea
i?eoiaeeony i?eaeeceoaeueii 33% , ia ?aiiio e ianeoaeeaaiea iniiaiuo
oiiaeia – 30, ia eino?oiaioaeueiia ianeoaeeaaiea – 27, ia
yia?aiianeoaeeaaiea – 8 e ia i?i/ea ?aaiou – 12. Oaeei ia?acii, ia
?aiiioiia, yia?aaoe/aneia, eino?oiaioaeueiia, o?ainii?oiia e neeaaeneia
ianeoaeeaaiea i?eoiaeeony i?eia?ii 88% iauaai iauaia yoeo ?aaio. Io eo
i?aaeeueiie i?aaiecaoeee e aeaeueiaeoaai niaa?oainoaiaaiey a iaeaieueoae
ia?a caaeneo iiauoaiea yooaeoeaiinoe oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii.

?aiiioiia oicyenoai nicaeaaony ia i?aaei?eyoee aeey oiai, /oiau
iaania/eoue n ieieiaeueiuie cao?aoaie ?aoeeiiaeueioth yenieoaoaoeeth aai
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia . Iniiaiuie caaea/aie ?aiiioiiai
oicyenoaa yaeythony: inouanoaeaiea oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa
iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia; iiioaae aiiaue i?eia?aoaiiiai eee
ecaioiaeaiiiai naiei i?aaei?eyoeai iai?oaeiaaiey; iiaea?iecaoeey
yenieoaoe?oaiiai iai?oaeiaaiey; ecaioiaeaiea caianiuo /anoae e oceia (a
oii /enea aeey iiaea?iecaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey), i?aaiecaoeey eo o?aiaiey;
ieaie?iaaiea anao ?aaio ii oaoie/aneiio ianeoaeeaaieth e ?aiiioo, a
oaeaea ?ac?aaioea ia?ii?eyoee ii iiauoaieth eo yooaeoeaiinoe. A ninoaa
?aiiioiiai oicyenoaa i?aaei?eyoey aoiaeyo: ioaeae aeaaiiai iaoaieea,
?aiiioii-iaoaie/aneee oeao, niaci/iia e yioeueneiiiia oicyenoaa, neeaaeu
iai?oaeiaaiey e caianiuo /anoae. A oeaoao i?aaiecothony oeaoiaua
?aiiioiua neoaeau, aicaeaaeyaiua iaoaieeaie oeaoia. Ioaeae aeaaiiai
iaoaieea eiaao a naiai ninoaaa neaaeothuea iiae?acaeaeaiey:
eiino?oeoi?nei-oaoiieiae/aneia ath?i, inouanoaeythuaa iiaeaioiaeo anae
iaiaoiaeeiie oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ii ?aiiioo, iiaea?iecaoeee e
ooiaeo ca iai?oaeiaaieai; ieaiiai-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia ath?i, caieiathuaany
ieaie?iaaieai e aeeniao/a?ecaoeeae ?aaiou ?aiiioiuo oeaoia, a oaeaea
iaoa?eaeueiie iiaeaioiaeie ?aiiioiuo ?aaio; ath?i
ieaiiai-i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiiai ?aiiioa (II?), inouanoaeythuaa iauaa
?oeiaiaenoai e eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai nenoaiu II? ia i?aaei?eyoee.
?oeiaiaeeo ?aiiioiui oicyenoaii aeaaiue iaoaiee, iiae/eiaiiue aeaaiiio
eiaeaia?o i?aaei?eyoey.

A i?ioeanna ?aaiou ioaeaeueiua /anoe iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey
iiaeaa?aathony eciino. Ainnoaiiaeaiea eo ?aaioiniiniaiinoe e
yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo naienoa aeinoeaaaony iooai ?aiiioa, yenieoaoaoeeae e
ooiaeii ca iai?oaeiaaieai. Iniiao aeey yoiai ia i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo ninoaaeyao nenoaia oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa
iniiaiuo oiiaeia , i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie niaieoiiinoue acaeiinaycaiiuo
iieiaeaiee, n?aaenoa, i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ?aoaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia
iiaeaea?aeaiea e ainnoaiiaeaiea ea/anoaa yenieoaoe?oaiuo iaoei,
iaoaieciia, nii?oaeaiee, caeaiee e ae?oaeo yeaiaioia iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Aaaeouoth oi?io nenoaiu oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa oaoieee ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe ninoaaeyao nenoaia
ieaiiai-i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiiai ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey (II?). Iiae nenoaiie
II? iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue caieaie?iaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii ooiaeo,
iaaeci?o e ?aiiioo iai?oaeiaaiey. ?aaiou ii ianeoaeeaaieth e ?aiiioo
iai?oaeiaaiey i?e nenoaia II? aeeth/atho: ooiae ca iai?oaeiaaieai,
iaae?aiiioiia ianeoaeeaaiea, ia?eiaee/aneea ?aiiioiua iia?aoeee. Ooiae
ca iai?oaeiaaieai ninoieo a niaethaeaiee i?aaee oaoie/aneie
yenieoaoaoeee, iiaeaea?aeaiee ii?yaeea ia ?aai/ai ianoa, /enoea e niacea
?aai/eo iiaa?oiinoae. Inouanoaeyaony ii iaiin?aaenoaaiii
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ?aai/eie, ianeoaeeaathueo aa?aaaou iiae eiio?ieai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ianoa?ia. Iaae?aiiioiia ianeoaeeaaiea caeeth/aaony a
iaaethaeaiee ca ninoiyieai iai?oaeiaaiey, ca auiieiaieai ?aai/eie i?aaee
yenieoaoaoeee, a naiaa?aiaiiii ?aaoee?iaaiee iaoaieciia, ono?aiaiee
iaeeeo iaeni?aaiinoae. Auiieiyaony iii aeaaeo?iuie ?aaioieeaie ?aiiioiie
neoaeau aac i?inoiy iai?oaeiaaiey – a iaaaeaiiua ia?a?uau, ia?aai/ea
niaiu e o.ae. Ia?eiaee/aneea ?aiiioiua iia?aoeee aeeth/atho i?iiuaeo
iai?oaeiaaiey, niaio ianea a niaci/iuo nenoaiao, i?iaa?eo iai?oaeiaaiey
ia oi/iinoue, iniio?u e ieaiiaua ?aiiiou – oaeouee, n?aaeiee e
eaieoaeueiue. Auiieiythony yoe iia?aoeee ?aiiioiui ia?niiaeii
i?aaei?eyoey ii ca?aiaa ?ac?aaioaiiiio a?aoeeo. I?iiuaea eae
naiinoiyoaeueiie iia?aoeee iiaeaa?aaaony ia ana iai?oaeiaaiea, a eeoue
oi, eioi?ia ?aaioaao a oneiaeyo aieueoie caiueaiiinoe e caa?yciaiiinoe,
iai?eia? eeoaeiia iai?oaeiaaiea, iai?oaeiaaiea ii i?iecaiaenoao ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia. Niaia ianea i?iecaiaeeony ai anao niaci/iuo nenoaiao n
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie e ae?oaeie nenoaiaie niacee ii niaoeeaeueiiio a?aoeeo,
oaycaiiiio n a?aoeeii i?iaaaeaiey ieaiiauo ?aiiioia. I?iaa?ea ia
oi/iinoue iiaeaa?aaaony ana iai?oaeiaaiea iinea i?iaaaeaiey i/a?aaeiiai
ieaiiaiai ?aiiioa. Ioaeaeueii ii iniaiio a?aoeeo i?iaa?yaony
ia?eiaee/anee ana i?aoeeceiiiia iai?oaeiaaiea. I?iaa?ea ia oi/iinoue
caeeth/aaony a auyaeaiee niioaaonoaey aeaenoaeoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae
aa?aaaoa o?aaoaiie oi/iinoe aai ?aaiou. I?iaiaeeony yoa iia?aoeey
eiio?iea?ii IOE n iiiiuueth ?aiiioiiai neana?y.

Iniio?ai ia?eiaee/anee iiaeaa?aaaony ana iai?oaeiaaiea. Eo caaea/a –
auyaeaiea noaiaie eciioaiiinoe aeaoaeae, ?aaoee?iaaiea ioaeaeueiuo
iaoaieciia, ono?aiaiea iaeeeo iaeni?aaiinoae, caiaia eciineaoeony eee
ooa?yiiuo e?aiaaeiuo aeaoaeae. I?e iniio?a iai?oaeiaaiey ooi/iyaony
oaeaea iauai i?aaenoiyuaai ?aiiioa e n?iee aai i?iaaaeaiey. Oaeouee
?aiiio i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeiaiueoee ii iauaio aeae ieaiiaiai ?aiiioa,
auiieiyaiue aeey iaania/aiey eee ainnoaiiaeaiey ?aaioiniiniaiinoe
aa?aaaoa. Ii caeeth/aaony a /anoe/iie ?acai?ea iaoeiu, caiaia eee
ainnoaiiaeaiee ioaeaeueiuo aa oceia e aeaoaeae, ?aiiioa ianiaiyaiuo
aeaoaeae.

N?aaeiee ?aiiio ioee/aaony io oaeouaai aieueoei iauaiii ?aaio e /eneii
eciioaiiuo aeaoaeae, iiaeeaaeaueo caiaia.

Eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio – iieiia eee aeeceia e iieiiio ainnoaiiaeaiea
?ano?na aa?aaaoa n caiaiie (ainnoaiiaeaieai) ethauo aai /anoae, aeeth/ay
aaciaua. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, caaea/a eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa – i?eaanoe
aa?aaao a ninoiyiea, iieiinoueth ioaa/athuaa aai iacia/aieth, eeanno
oi/iinoe e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe. I?ia?anneaiua nenoaiu II? enoiaeyo ec
inouanoaeaiey ca ?aiiioiue oeeee oieueei aeaoo aeaeia ieaiiaiai ?aiiioa
– oaeoueo e eaieoaeueiiai, o.a. aac n?aaeieo ?aiiioia. I?e yoii
eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio ca /anooth nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiaea?iecaoeeae
iai?oaeiaaiey . A caaeneiinoe io noaiaie oeaio?aeecaoeee ?aiiioiuo ?aaio
?acee/atho o?e oi?iu eo i?aaiecaoeee: oeaio?aeeciaaiioth,
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiioth e niaoaiioth. Oeaio?aeeciaaiiue ?aiiio
i?aaeoniao?eaaao, /oi ana aeaeu ?aiiioa e iaae?aiiioiiai ianeoaeeaaiey
i?iecaiaeyony neeaie ?aiiioii-iaoaie/aneiai oeaoa, iiae/eiaiiiai
aeaaiiio iaoaieeo i?aaei?eyoey, aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiue – oeaoiauie
?aiiioiuie neoaeaaie iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii iaoaieea oeaoa. Niaoaiiay oi?ia
i?aaiecaoeee ?aiiioa iniiaaia ia ?acee/iuo eiiaeiaoeeyo
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie e aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiie oi?i. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
niaoaiiay oi?ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao inouanoaeaiea anao aeaeia ?aiiioiuo
iia?aoeee e iaae?aiiioiiai ianeoaeeaaiey, e?iia eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa,
oeaoiauie ?aiiioiuie neoaeaaie, eae yoi eiaao ianoi i?e
aeaoeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaia. Eaieoaeueiue aea ?aiiio i?iecaiaeeo
?aiiioii-iaoaie/aneee oeao.

E?iia ?acee/iuo oi?i aioo?ecaaiaeneiai ?aiiioa, i?aaieciaai
aiacaaiaeneie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio iai?oaeiaaiey.
Ia?yaeo n ieaiiai-i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiuie ?aiiioaie , ninoaaeythueie
iniiao oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa iniiaiuo oiiaeia, ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo iiaoo eiaoue ianoi oaeaea aiaieaiiaua (aaa?eeiua) e
ainnoaiiaeoaeueiua ?aiiiou. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue a aaa?eeiii ?aiiioa iiaeao
aicieeiooue a ?acoeueoaoa iai?aaeaeaeaiiiai auoiaea iai?oaeiaaiey ec
no?iy. Ainnoaiiaeoaeueiue ?aiiio eiaao naiei iauaeoii oa yeaiaiou
iniiaiuo oiiaeia , aeaeueiaeoay yenieoaoaoeey eioi?uo aieaa iaaiciiaeia.

Aiaae?aiea nenoaiu II? o?aaoao i?aaeaa?eoaeueiiai i?iaaaeaiey ?yaea
iiaeaioiaeoaeueiuo ?aaio. E iei ioiinyony: eeanneoeeaoeey e
ianii?oecaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey; ninoaaeaiea niaoeeoeeaoeee niaiiuo e
caianiuo aeaoaeae e onoaiiaeaiea ii?i caiana iineaaeieo; ?ac?aaioea
aeueaiiia /a?oaaeae ii eaaeaeiio oeii?acia?o iai?oaeiaaiey; i?aaiecaoeey
o?aiaiey caianiuo aeaoaeae e oceia; ?ac?aaioea eino?oeoeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio e ?aiiioiiio ia?niiaeo ii oaoie/aneiio ianeoaeeaaieth
iai?oaeiaaiey e oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ii aai ?aiiioo.
Eeanneoeeaoeey iai?oaeiaaiey eiaao oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiioth aai
a?oiie?iaeo ii i?eciaeai iaeiioeiiinoe aeey ii?aaeaeaiey /enea
iaeiieiaiiuo niaiiuo aeaoaeae, ninoaaeaieth eino?oeoeee ii oaoie/aneiio
ianeoaeeaaieth iai?oaeiaaiey, ?ac?aaioea oeiiaie oaoiieiaee ?aiiioiuo
?aaio e o.ae.

Iacia/aiea ianii?oecaoeee – eiaoue iieioth oaoie/aneoth oa?aeoa?enoeeo
anao yenieoaoe?oaiuo ia i?aaei?eyoee i?oaeee o?oaea. Ianii?o caaiaeeony
ia eaaeaeoth aaeeieoeo caaiaeneiai iai?oaeiaaiey. A iai oeene?othony aai
oaoie/aneea aeaiiua e eo eciaiaiea, ?aaeeiu ?aaiou, aeiionoeiua
iaa?ocee, ?acoeueoaou iniio?ia e ?aiiioia. Ianii?o iai?oaeiaaiey –
enoiaeiue aeieoiaio i?e i?aaiecaoeee e ieaie?iaaiee aai ?aiiioa e
oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey. Ninoaaeaiea niaoeeoeeaoeee niaiiuo e
caianiuo aeaoaeae , aeueaiiia /a?oaaeae iaiaoiaeeii aeey naiaa?aiaiiiai
eo ecaioiaeaiey e ?ac?aaioee oaoiieiaee ?aiiioiuo ?aaio. Niaiiuie
iacuaathony aeaoaee iaoei, iiaeaa?aathueany eciino e iiaeeaaeauea caiaia
i?e ?aiiioa. N?ie eo neoaeau ia i?aauoaao aeeeoaeueiinoe ?aiiioiiai
oeeeea. Niaiiua aeaoaee, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue a iinoiyiii
aiciaiiaeythuainy caiana, iacuaathony caianiuie aeaoaeyie. Aeey o?aiaiey
caianiuo aeaoaeae nicaeathony iauacaaiaeneie neeaae caianiuo aeaoaeae e
oceia, a a iaiaoiaeeiuo neo/ayo – e eeaaeiaua a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oeaoao.

?ac?aaioea eino?oeoeee i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio e ?aiiioiiio ia?niiaeo , a
oaeaea oaoiieiaee ?aiiioiuo ?aaio eiaao oeaeueth iiauneoue
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneee o?iaaiue oaeouaai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa
iai?oaeiaaiey e oai naiui niinianoaiaaoue aieaa yooaeoeaiiio aai
eniieueciaaieth ia i?aaei?eyoee.

I?aaiecaoeey e ieaie?iaaiea ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey i?e nenoaia II?
iniiauaathony ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo ii?iaoeaao, iicaieythueo ieaie?iaaoue
iauaiu ?aiiioiuo ?aaio, eo i/a?aaeiinoue, n?iee i?iaaaeaiey, eae ii
a?oiiai iaeii?iaeiuo noaieia, oae e a oeaeii ii i?aaei?eyoeth e aai
ioaeaeueiui iiae?acaeaeaieyi. Nenoaia yoeo ii?iaoeaia aeeth/aao:
eaoaai?ee neiaeiinoe ?aiiioa, ?aiiioiua aaeeieoeu, aeeeoaeueiinoue e
no?oeoo?o ?aiiioiuo oeeeeia, aeeeoaeueiinoue iaae?aiiioiuo e
iaaeniio?iauo ia?eiaeia, aeeeoaeueiinoue ?aiiioiiai ia?eiaea. E iei
i?eiueatho oaeaea ii?iaoeau iaae?aiiioiiai ianeoaeeaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey,
ii?iu ?anoiaea iaoa?eaeia, caianiuo /anoae e caiania
auno?ieciaoeaathueony aeaoaeae. Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa ii?iaoeaia e eo
eiie?aoiua aaee/eiu aeey ?aciuo aeaeia iai?oaeiaaiey e oneiaee aai
yenieoaoaoeee ii?aaeaeaiu Aaeeiie nenoaiie II?. Eaaeaeie aaeeieoea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?enaaeaaaony niioaaonoaothuay
eaoaai?ey neiaeiinoe ?aiiioa. *ai neiaeiaa aa?aaao, oai iia auoa, e
iaiai?io. A iaoeiino?iaiee aeey ioeaiee ?aiiioiuo iniaaiiinoae
iai?oaeiaaiey a ea/anoaa aa?aaaoa-yoaeiia i?eiyo oiea?ii-aeioi?aciue
noaiie 1E62 n aunioie oeaio?ia 200 ii e ?annoiyieai iaaeaeo oeaio?aie
1000 ii. Yoiio noaieo i?enaiaia iaeeiiaaeoeaoay eaoaai?ey neiaeiinoe
?aiiioa. Ioianaiea ethaiai aa?aaaoa e eaoaai?ee neiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeeony
ia iniiaa aai niioianaiey n aa?aaaoii-yoaeiiii. Eaoaai?ey neiaeiinoe
?aiiioa iaicia/aaony aoeaie “R”, a aa cia/aiea, i?enaiaiiia aeaiiiio
aa?aaaoo, /eneii ia?aae yoie aoeaie. Iai?eia? 1R iaicia/aao aa?aaao
ia?aie eaoaai?ee neiaeiinoe . A iauai neo/aa eaoaai?ey neiaeiinoe
?aiiioa R ii?aaeaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io eiino?oeoeaiuo e
oaoiieiae/aneeo iniaaiiinoae iai?oaeiaaiey. Iai?eia?, eaoaai?ey
neiaeiinoe ?aiiioa oiea?iuo noaieia Ron ii?aaeaeyaony ii neaaeothuae
oi?ioea

Ron=a(Kh+Kl+Kn)+C1+C2,

aaea a – eiyooeoeeaio, oa?aeoa?ecothuee eiino?oeoeaiua iniaaiiinoe
noaiea; Kh – eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee aunioo oeaio?ia; Kl –
eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aie; Kn –
eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee /enei nooiaiae nei?inoe oieieaey; N1 –
ninoaaeythuay, oa?aeoa?ecothuay iniaaiiinoe e neiaeiinoue ?aiiioa
ioaeaeueiuo iaoaieciia; N2 – ninoaaeythuay, oa?aeoa?ecothuay neiaeiinoue
?aiiioa aeae?inenoaiu. Eaoaai?ey neiaeiinoe, yaeyaony, oaeei ia?acii,
ea/anoaaiiui e?eoa?eai ?aiiioiuo iniaaiiinoae iai?oaeiaaiey.
O?oaeiaieinoue ?aiiioiuo ?aaio aa?aaaoa ecia?yaony a ?aiiioiuo
aaeeieoeao. ?aiiioioth aaeeieoeo i?eiyoi iaicia/aoue aoeaie “r”.
Cia/aiey eaoaai?ee neiaeiinoe e ?aiiioiie aaeeieoeu aeey ethaiai
aa?aaaoa niaiaaeatho.

I?eiaieoaeueii e ?aiiioiie aaeeieoea ?ac?aaaouaathony iaoiaeaie
oaoie/aneiai ii?ie?iaaiey ii?iu cao?ao ?aai/aai a?aiaie ii aeaeai
?aiiioiuo iia?aoeee e oa?aeoa?o ?aaio. A oaaeeoea 1.3 i?eaaaeaiu
niioaaonoaothuea ii?iu ia iaeio ?aiiioioth aaeeieoeo (a /aeiaaei-/anao).

Oaaeeoea 1.3. Ii?iu ?aaiou n iaeiie ?aiiioiie aaeeieoeae

IaeiaiiaaieaNeana?iua ?aaiouNoaii/iua

?aaiouI?i/ea ?aaiouAnaaiI?iiuaea eae naiinoiyoaeueiay
iia?aoeey0.35–0.35I?iaa?ea ia oi/iinoue eae naiinoiyoaeueiay
iia?aoeey0.4–0.4Iniio? ia?aae eaieoaeueiui
?aiiioii1.00.1-1.1Iniio?0.750.1-0.85Oaeouee
?aiiio4.02.00.16.1Eaieoaeueiue ?aiiio23.010.02.035.0

Iieuecoynue i?eaaaeaiiuie ii?iaoeaaie, iiaeii iiaen/eoaoue
o?oaeiaieinoue ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey ii oeaoo, i?aaei?eyoeth e o.ae.
Ii?aaeaeaiea iauaia ?aaio ii iaae?aiiioiiio ianeoaeeaaieth
inouanoaeyaony ii ii?iaoeaai ianeoaeeaaiey. Iai?eia?, aeey aeaaeo?iuo
neana?ae, niaci/ieeia e noaii/ieeia onoaiiaeaiu neaaeothuea ii?iu
ianeoaeeaaiey ia iaeiiai ?aai/aai a niaio a ?aiiioiuo aaeeieoeao:
neana?e – 500, niac/eee – 1000 e noaii/ieee 1500.

Aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea iai?oaeiaaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?iaoeaiay
aeeeoaeueiinoue ?aiiioiiai oeeeea. ?aiiioiui oeeeeii iacuaaaony
iaeiaiueoee iiaoi?ythueeny ia?eiae yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey, a
oa/aiee eioi?iai inouanoaeythony a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe
ana onoaiiaeaiiua aeaeu oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa. Iineieueeo
ana iie inouanoaeythony a ia?eiae io ia/aea yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey
e aei aai ia?aiai eaieoaeueiiai ?aiiioa eeai iaaeaeo aeaoiy
iineaaeothueie eaieoaeueiuie ?aiiioaie, ?aiiioiue oeeee ii?aaeaeytho
oaeaea , eae ia?eiae yenieoaoaoeee iai?oaeiaaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy
neaaeothueie ae?oa ca ae?oaii eaieoaeueiuie ?aiiioaie.

Iaae?aiiioiui ia?eiaeii iacuaaaony ia?eiae ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey iaaeaeo
aeaoiy i/a?aaeiuie ieaiiauie ?aiiioaie. Iaaeiniio?iaue ia?eiae – yoi
ia?eiae ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy i/a?aaeiuie iniio?aie eee
iaaeaeo i/a?aaeiui ieaiiaui ?aiiioii e iniio?ii. ?aiiioiui ia?eiaeii
iacuaaaony a?aiy i?inoiy iai?oaeiaaiey a ?aiiioa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
i?eiyou neaaeothuea ii?iu i?inoiy iai?oaeiaaiey a ?aiiioa ia iaeio
?aiiioioth aaeeieoeo (ni.oaae. 1.4).

Oaaeeoea 1.4. Ii?iaoeau ?aiiioiuo ?aaio

Aeae ?aiiioaa iaeio niaio (nooie)a aeaa niaiu (nooie)a o?e niaiu
(nooie)Oaeouee0.250.140.1Eaieoaeueiue1.00.540.41

A iauai neo/aa a?aiy i?aauaaiey iai?oaeiaaiey a ?aiiioa O?ai iiaeao
auoue ii?aaeaeaii ii oi?ioea

O?ai=t?air/btniEniEi,

aaea t?ai – ii?ia a?aiaie ia neana?iua ?aaiou ia iaeio ?aiiioioth
aaeeieoeo aeaiiiai aeaea ?aiiioa; r – a?oiia neiaeiinoe ?aiiioa
iai?oaeiaaiey; b – /enei iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaioathueo neana?ae a niaia; tni
– i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue niaiu; Eni – eiyooeoeeaio niaiiinoe ?aaiou
?aiiioiuo ?aai/eo; Ei – eiyooeoeeaio auiieiaiey ii?i ?aiiioiuie
?aai/eie.

Aeeeoaeueiinoue ?aiiioiiai oeeeea caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae eiino?oeoeee
iai?oaeiaaiey, oneiaee aai yenieoaoaoeee e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia. Aeey
?acee/iuo aeaeia iai?oaeiaaiey iia iiaeao nouanoaaiii ioee/aoueny.
Iai?eia?, aeey iaoaeei?aaeouaai iai?oaeiaaiey iia ninoaaeyao 26000 /. ,
aeey eiai/iuo iaoei e eocia/ii-i?anniauo aaoiiaoia – 11700 /., aeey
eeoaeiuo e oi?iiai/iuo eiiaaea?ia – 9500 /. , e o.ae.

Eiee/anoai e iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue ?aiiioiuo iia?aoeee, aoiaeyueo a
?aiiioiue oeeee, ia?acotho aai no?oeoo?o. Eaaeaeay a?oiia iai?oaeiaaiey
eiaao naith no?oeoo?o ?aiiioiiai oeeeea. Iai?eia?, no?oeoo?a ?aiiioiiai
oeeeea aeey oiea?iuo, o?aca?iuo e ae?oaeo iaoaeei?aaeoueo noaieia n
iannie io 10 aei 100 o. aeeth/aao : iaeei eaieoaeueiue, iyoue oaeoueo
?aiiioia e 12 iniio?ia, a aeey oao aea noaieia n iannie nauoa 100 o. –
iaeei eaieoaeueiue, oanoue oaeoueo ?aiiioia e 21 iniio?.

Ia iniiaa ?aiiioiuo ii?iaoeaia e ?acoeueoaoia oaoie/aneiai iniio?a
iai?oaeiaaiey ninoaaeythony aiaeiaie, eaa?oaeueiue e iany/iue ieaiu e
a?aoeee ?aiiioiuo ?aaio. A ieaiao ii?aaeaeythony aeaeu oaoie/aneiai
ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioiuo ?aaio, eo o?oaeiaieinoue, ieaiiaua i?inoie ii
eaaeaeiio aeaeo iai?oaeiaaiey, iauai ?aiiioiuo ?aaio ii eaaeaeiio oeaoo
e i?aaei?eyoeth a oeaeii. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoai e
noieiinoue caianiuo /anoae e iaoa?eaeia aeey ?aiiioa iai?oaeiaaiey,
/eneaiiinoue ?aiiioiiai ia?niiaea ii aai eaoaai?eyi. Ieaie?iaaiea
?aiiioiuo ?aaio aaaeaony ieaiiai-i?iecaiaenoaaiiui ath?i (IIA) ioaeaea
aeaaiiai iaoaieea. ?ac?aaioea ieaiia ia/eiaaony n oeaoiauo aiaeiauo
a?aoeeia ?aiiioa, ioaaouaathueo ana iai?oaeiaaiea eaaeaeiai oeaoa. Ia
iniiaa aiaeiaiai e eaa?oaeueiiai ieaiia ninoaaeythony ooi/iaiiua
iany/iua ieaiu e a?aoeee n o/aoii aeaiiuo i?aaeoanoaothueo iniio?ia e
i?iaa?ie. Iie yaeythony iia?aoeaiui caaeaieai oeaoo ia i?iecaiaenoai
?aiiioiuo ?aaio.

Iniiaiuie oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeie iieacaoaeyie oa?aeoa?ecothueie ?aaioo
?aiiioiie neoaeau i?aaei?eyoey, yaeythony: o?oaeiaieinoue e
naaanoieiinoue oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa eaaeaeiai aeaea
iai?oaeiaaiey, oaeaeueiue aan ?aiiioiiai ia?niiaea a iauae /eneaiiinoe
?aaioathueo, i?ioeaio i?inoiy iai?oaeiaaiey a ?aiiioa ii ioiioaieth e
?aaeeiiiio oiiaeo a?aiaie ?aaiou, ?anoiae aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia ia
aaeeieoeo iai?oaeiaaiey.

Aic?anoathuaa cia/aiea yooaeoeaiiai ianeoaeeaaiey e ?aiiioa
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey aania?aaieiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa
o?aaoao aeaeueiaeoaai eo niaa?oainoaiaaiey. Aaaeiaeoeie iooyie yoiai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey yaeythony:

· naiaa?aiaiiia iaania/aiea i?aaei?eyoey caianiuie /anoyie e
e?aiaaeiuie aeaoaeyie, oe?aieaiea aeenoeeieeiu ii niaethaeaieth
aeiaiai?ia iinoaaie iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
i?aaei?eyoeyie i?iecaiaeyueie eiiieaeoothuea aeey eo iai?oaeiaaiey;

· ?acaeoea nenoaiu oeeeaeia ii oaoie/aneiio ianeoaeeaaieth ni noi?iiu
oe?i-i?iecaiaeeoaeae iai?oaeiaaiey;

· i?eiaiaiea ia?aaeiauo iaoiaeia e oaoiieiaee i?iaaaeaiey ?aiiioiuo
?aaio;

· niaa?oainoaiaaiea nenoaiu i?aaiecaoeee o?oaea ?aiiioiiai ia?niiaea,
iiauoaiea eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aiiioiiai ia?niiaea, oaniia acaeiiaeaenoaea a
iaeanoe niaaaeaiey oaoie/aneie eioi?iaoeeae n oe?iaie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Ii a ianoiyuee iiiaio ia aieueoeinoaa i?aaei?eyoee nenoaia II?
i?aeoe/anee aacaeaenoaoao, a inouanoaeyaony eeoue oaeouee ?aiiio ii ia?a
auoiaea iai?oaeiaaiey ec no?iy. Yoi ie a eiae ia?a ia niinianoaoao
ii?iaeueiie ?aaioa iai?oaeiaaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee. Ii oae eae a ia?eiae
aeaceioaa?aoeee yeiiiieee a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue auee ia?ooaiu nayce
iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie a ?aciuo ?aaeiiao, oi nenoaia niaaaeaiey
eiiieaeoothueie i?aeoe/anee ia?anoaea nouanoaiaaoue.

Ieaie?iaaiea yia?ainiaaaeaiey

Aeey aieueoeinoaa i?ioeannia ia i?aaei?eyoee, ia/eiay n iniiaiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e caeai/eaay ?aiiioii iai?oaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeii niaaaeaiea
?acee/iuie aeaeaie yia?aee. Yoo caaea/o aa?ao ia naay yia?aaoe/aneia
oicyenoai i?aaei?eyoey. Iacia/aiea yia?aaoe/aneiai oicyenoaa –
aania?aaieiia iaania/aiea anao iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey
iaiaoiaeeiuie aeaeaie yia?aaoe/aneeo oneoa i?e ieieiaeueiuo cao?aoao ia
niaea?aeaiea aeaiiie neoaeau. Aeey yoiai aa oneeey aeieaeiu auoue
iai?aaeaiu ia ?aoaiea neaaeothueo iniiaiuo caaea/:

· iieo/aiea ni noi?iiu yia?aee iauai?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey e
i?iecaiaenoai nianoaaiiuie neeaie ioaeaeueiuo aa aeaeia;

· i?aaiecaoeeth e ieaie?iaaiea ?aoeeiiaeueiiai iio?aaeaiey yia?aee anaie
iiae?acaeaeaieyie i?aaei?eyoey;

· iaaeci? ca i?aaeeueiie yenieoaoaoeeae yia?aaoe/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey,
aai oaoie/aneei ianeoaeeaaieai e ?aiiioii;

· ?ac?aaioeo e inouanoaeaiea ia?ii?eyoee ii yeiiiiee yia?ai?ano?nia.

Iio?aaiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee a yia?ai?ano?nao iaania/eaathony
ca n/ao o?ao enoi/ieeia: oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai niaaaeaiey, nianoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa yia?aee, eniieueciaaiey aoi?e/iuo yia?ai?ano?nia.

Iniiaiui enoi/ieeii a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo yaeyaony oeaio?aeeciaaiiia
niaaaeaiea i?aaei?eyoey yia?ai?ano?naie iauai?iiuoeaiiiai iacia/aiey:
yeaeo?iyia?aeae, ia?ii, ai?y/ae aiaeie – io ?aeiiiuo
oaieiyeaeo?ioeaio?aeae, i?e?iaeiui aacii – io ainoaea?noaaiiie naoe
aaciniaaaeaiey, oaa?aeui e aeeaeeei oiieeaii – a ii?yaeea iinoaaie io
i?aaei?eyoee oiieeaiaeiauaathueo io?aneae /a?ac nenoaio aeiaiai?ia
caeeth/aiiuo n yoeie i?aaei?eyoeyie. Nianoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai yia?aee
neeaie naiiai i?aaei?eyoey i?aaiecoaony i?eiaieoaeueii e oai aa aeaeai ,
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia iaania/aiea eioi?uie eeai oaoie/anee iaaiciiaeii ,
eeai ia?aoeeiiaeueii ec-ca ooa?e aai iieaciuo naienoa i?e ia?aaea/a ia
aieueoia ?annoiyiea i?e cia/eoaeueiie oaeaeaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoey io
enoi/ieea oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai iaania/aiey. Yoi ioiineony e oaeei
yia?aiiineoaeyi, eae naeaoue aicaeoo , ianuuaiiue ia? e o.ae.

Aaaeiay ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee ?aoeeiiaeueiiai yia?ainiaaaeaiey
i?eiaaeeaaeeo oaeaea eniieueciaaieth aoi?e/iuo yia?ai?ano?nia ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo:

eniieueciaaieth oaiea ia/ae aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ai?y/ae aiaeu, ia?a;
aoi?e/iia eniieueciaaiea ia?a, ai?y/ae aiaeu aeey ioiieaiey iiiauaiee e
oicyenoaaiiuo ioaeae e o.ae. A ninoaa yia?aioicyenoaa i?aaei?eyoey
aoiaeeo oaieineeiaie, yia?aineeiaie, aaciaue, neaaioi/iue,
yeaeo?i?aiiioiue o/anoee e ae?. Oaieineeiaie o/anoie ioaaouaaao
eioaeueiua, eiii?anni?iua onoaiiaee, oaieiaoth e eaiaeecaoeeiiioth naoe,
aiaeiniaaaeaiea. Aai iacia/aiea – iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa ia?ii,
aiaeie , naeaoui aicaeooii. Yeaeo?ineeiaie o/anoie iauaaeeiyao
iiieaeathuea iiaenoaioeee, yeaeo?e/aneea naoe, aaia?aoi?iua e
o?ainoi?iaoi?iua onoaiiaee. Aai caaea/a – ianeoaeeaaiea anao
iiae?acaeaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey yeaeo?iyia?aeae. Aaciaue o/anoie
?aniieaaaao aaciauie naoyie, eenei?iaeiuie e aoeaoeeaiiauie noaioeeyie,
oieiaeeeueiuie onoaiiaeaie, i?iiuoeaiiie aaioeeyoeeae. Ii ioaa/aao ca
iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa eenei?iaeii, aoeaoeeaiii e ae?oaeie aacaie.
Neaaioi/iue o/anoie ioaaouaaao anth caaiaeneoth oaeaoiiioth e
?aaeeio?aineyoeeiiioth naycue, a oaeaea ae?oaea aeaeu nayce e
neaiaeecaoeee, iaania/eaay eo aania?aaieioth ?aaioo a onoaiiaeaiiii
?aaeeia. Yeaeo?i?aiiioiue o/anoie ?aniieaaaao niioaaonoaothueie
n?aaenoaaie e eaae?aie aeey inouanoaeaiey ?aiiioa yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey e
yeaeo?iaiia?aoo?u. ?oeiaiaeeo yia?aaoe/aneei oicyenoaii ia e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo aeaaiue yia?aaoee, iie?athueeny a naiae ?aaioa ia ioaeae
aeaaiiai yia?aaoeea. A ninoaaa ioaeaea iau/ii auaeaeytho ath?i
yia?aieniieueciaaiey e yia?aiiai?oaeiaaiey, a oaeaea eaai?aoi?ee –
yeaeo?e/aneoth e oaieiaoth. Ia iaaieueoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo ?oeiaiaenoai
yia?aioicyenoaii inouanoaeyao caianoeoaeue aeaaiiai iaoaieea ii
yia?aaoe/aneie /anoe.

?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia i?aaeiieaaaao
no?iaia ii?ie?iaaiea eo au?aaioee e ?anoiaea. ?ac?aaioea
niioaaonoaothueo ii?i aaaeaony ioaeaeii aeaaiiai yia?aaoeea aeey neoaea,
au?aaaouaathueo yia?ai?ano?nu, aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaoia e ae?oaeo
iiae?acaeaeaiee, ?anoiaeothueo yia?aeth aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iniiaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, eino?oiaioa, ia oicyenoaaiiua ioaeaeu e o.ae.

?ac?aaioea ii?i ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee, ia?a, naeaoiai aicaeooa, aaca ,
aiaeu, aniiiiaaoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia aaaeaony ia aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee.
Aeey iiae?acaeaeaiee, au?aaaouaathueo yia?ai?ano?nu, ii?iu
onoaiaaeeaathony i?eiaieoaeueii e neaaeothuei aaeeieoeai i?iaeoeoeee.
Aeey yeaeo?inoaioeee – 100 eAo * / au?aaioaiiie yeaeo?iyia?aee, aeey
eioaeueiuo – 1 o ii?iaeueiiai ia?a eee 1 IEae oaiea, aeey eenei?iaeiuo
onoaiiaie – 1 i.eoa aaciia?aciiai eenei?iaea e o.ae. Aeey iniiaiuo
oeaoia ii?iu ?ac?aaaouaathony i?eiaieoaeueii e neaaeothuei aaeeieoeai
i?iaeoeoeee: eeoaeiua e eocia/iua oeaoe – 1 o aiaeiuo ia?oaeaiiuo
ioeeaie, iieiaie eee ooaiiiaie; oeaoe iie?uoee – 1 i.ea iie?uaaaiie
iiaa?oiinoe; iaoaie/aneea oeaoe – iaoeiieiiieaeo aeaoaeae; nai?i/iua
oeaoe – nai?i/iay aaeeieoea, aa?aaao eee iaoeia.

Iaoiaeeea ?an/aoa ii?i ?anoiaea yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ii?aaeaeyaony
io?aneaauie iaoiaee/aneeie oeacaieyie.

Ieaie?iaaiea ?anoiaea yia?aee aaaeaony ioaeaeueii ii eaaeaeiio aeaeo
?ano?nia ia iniiaa ii?i eo ?anoiaea e i?iecaiaenoaaiiie i?ia?aiiu ia
ieaie?oaiue ia?eiae. I?e yoii ?ann/eouaaaony iio?aaiinoue ioaeaeueii ia
iniiaiua e aniiiiaaoaeueiua ioaeaeu. O/eouaathony oaeaea iioa?e yia?aee
a naoyo.

Iai?eia?, ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee iaoaie/aneei oeaoii ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?iaeoeoeee ia ieaiiaue ia?eiae iiaeao auoue ii?aaeaeai ii neaaeothuae
oi?ioea:

?ie=IyeN,

aaea ?ie – ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee ia ieaie?oaiue ia?eiae, eAo*/ ; Iye –
ii?ia ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee ii oeaoo ia iaoeiieiiieaeo, eAo*/; N –
i?ia?aiia ieaiiaiai ia?eiaea a iaoeiieiiieaeoao.

Iio?aaiinoue a yeaeo?iyia?aee ia aniiiiaaoaeueiua ioaeaeu ?ann/eouaaaony
enoiaey ec eiee/anoaa enoi/ieeia ?anoiaea yia?aee, ?aaeeia eo ?aaiou e
niioaaonoaothueo ii?i ?anoiaea. Iioa?e yeaeo?iyia?aee a naoyo
?ann/eouaathony ii ?ac?aaioaiiui ii?iaoeaai. Noiie?iaaiea iio?aaiinoe ii
anai o?ai ninoaaeythuei ii?aaeaeeo iauee ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee ii oeaoo
a ieaiiaii ia?eiaea.

?an/aou ii ioaeaeueiui oeaoai e neoaeaai naiaeyony ioaeaeii aeaaiiai
yia?aaoeea a iauee ieai ?anoiaea yeaeo?iyia?aee ia ieaiiaue ia?eiae ii
i?aaei?eyoeth a oeaeii. Aaaeiay ?ieue a i?aaiecaoeee e ieaie?iaaiee
yia?aioicyenoaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo naiaeiiio yia?aiaaeaino i?aaei?eyoey,
ninoaaeyaiiio a ?ac?aca aeaeia yia?aee. Yia?aiaaeain ninoieo ec
i?eoiaeiie e ?anoiaeiie /anoae. A i?eoiaeiie /anoe oeacuaaaony iauaa
iinooieaiea yia?aee a ?ac?aca aa enoi/ieeia, a ?anoiaeiie – iai?aaeaiea
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee ii aa aeaeai e iio?aaeoaeyi. (ni oaaeeoeo 1.5).

Yia?aiaaeain niaea?aeeo: iauaa iinooieaiea yia?aee (a ?ac?aca aa
enoi/ieeia), iai?aaeaiea eniieueciaaiey yia?aee ii aa aeaeai (iauee
?anoiae), cao?aou ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai yia?aiiineoaeae e yooaeoeaiinoue
eo eniieueciaaiey. Ia aai iniiaa ?ac?aaaouaaaony ieai au?aaioee e
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee, iio?aaiinoue a iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nao e eaae?ao
ia ieaiiaue ia?eiae, yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. Iniiaiuie
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeie iieacaoaeyie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie yooaeoeaiinoue
i?aaiecaoeee yia?aaoe/aneiai oicyenoaa , yaeythony: eiyooeoeeaiou
iioa?ue a naoyo ii aeaeai yia?aee ; yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey
yia?aionoaiiaie ; aaniethoiia iio?aaeaiea oiieeaa e ae?oaeo enoiaeiuo
iaoa?eaeia e oaeaeueiue eo ?anoiae ia au?aaioeo aaeeieoeu ii?aaeaeaiiiai
aeaea yia?aee – yeaeo?iyia?aee, ia?a, aaca, aiaeu, aicaeooa e o.ae.;
naaanoieiinoue eaaeaeiai aeaea yia?aee; eiyooeoeeaio
yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe o?oaea e yia?aiaii?oaeaiiinoe ?aai/eo.

I?iiuoeaiiia i?iecaiaenoai yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei iio?aaeoaeai
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia. Ia aai aeieth i?eoiaeeony aieueoay /anoue
iio?aaeyaiie yeaeo?iyia?aee. Iiyoiio iineaaeiaaoaeueiia i?iaaaeaiea
ia?ii?eyoee ii yeiiiiee yia?aaoe/aneeo ?ano?nia ia i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo eiaao aieueoia cia/aiea.

Ii iai?aaeaieth eniieueciaaiey ?acee/atho oaoiieiae/aneoth,
aeaeaaoaeueioth, inaaoeoaeueioth e ioiieoaeueioth yia?aeth. Iniiaiuie
iooyie ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee iio?aaeaiey yia?aee ii oeacaiiui iai?aaeaieyi
yaeythony: eeeaeaeaoeey i?yiuo iioa?ue oiieeaa e yia?aee; i?aaeeueiue
auai? yia?aiiineoaeae; eniieueciaaiea aoi?e/iuo yia?ai?ano?nia;
niaa?oainoaiaaiea oaoiieiaee e i?aaiecaoeee iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa;
i?iaaaeaiea iauaoicyenoaaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii yeiiiiee oiieeaa e yia?aee.
Ia?ii?eyoey ii eeeaeaeaoeee i?yiuo iioa?ue oiieeaa e yia?aee a naoyo,
o?oaii?iaiaeao, a oaoiieiae/aneii e yia?aaoe/aneii iai?oaeiaaiee.
Aeaaiia caeanue – nenoaiaoe/aneee eiio?ieue ca ninoiyieai naoae,
o?oaii?iaiaeia, inouanoaeaiea i?ioeeaeoe/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee a nayce n
eciaiaieai oneiaee eo yenieoaoaoeee. Iineieueeo iaeie e oa aea i?ioeannu
iiaoo auiieiyoueny n eniieueciaaieai ?aciuo yia?aiiineoaeae , aaaeii
?ac?aaioaoue n?aaieoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee yoiai eniieueciaaiey, n oai
/oiau ia iao/iie iniiaa inouanoaeyoue eo auai? aeey eiie?aoiuo oneiaee.
Auai? yoio caaeneo io ?yaea ia?aiao?ia: iniaaiiinoae oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna, enoi/ieea iaania/aiey (iai?eia?, OYOe eee nianoaaiiay
eioaeueiay) e ae?.

Oaaeeoea 1.5. I?eia? yia?aiaaeaina i?aaei?eyoey

Noaouee aaeainaI?eoiae

oun eAo*/i?ioeaiou?anoiae

oun eAo*/i?ioeaiouIieo/aii ni noi?iiu19373100–Iio?aaeoaee:

caaioiaeoaeueiue oeao

6374

32.9iaoaie/aneee oeao–421621.7nai?i/iue oeao–9805eino?oiaioaeueiue
oeao–287314.8?aiiioii-iaoaie/aneee oeao–9285.1eiii?anni?iay
noaioeey–210010.8aaeieieno?aoeaiue ei?ion–4182.4Eoiai–1788992.7Iioa?e
a naoe

e ia o?ainoi?iaoi?a

1430

7.3Aaeain19373-19373100

I?eia?aie caiaiu iaeieo yia?aiiineoaeae ae?oaeie, aieaa yeiiiie/iuie
aeey eiie?aoiuo oneiaee iiaoo neoaeeoue caiaia naeaoiai aicaeooa e ia?a
aeey neeiauo i?ioeannia yeaeo?e/anoaii, aiaae?aiea yeaeo?iiaa?aaa
iaoaeeia aianoi iaa?aaa a ia/ao n eniieueciaaieai oaa?aeiai e aeeaeeiai
oiieeaa, caiaia yeaeo?iyia?aee eee iacooa ia aac i?e oa?iiia?aaioea
aeaoaeae e o.ae.

Eniieueciaaiea aoi?e/iuo yia?ai?ano?nia, iai?eia? ia/iuo iooiaeyueo
aacia; oece/aneiai oaiea aaia?aoi?iiai aaca, eiiaeainaoa ia?a ,
ioeaaeaeathuae aiaeu, inouaathuae i?iaeoeoeee; eieniaiai e aeiiaiiiai
aacia e ae?.

Iniiaiuie oaoiieiae/aneeie ia?ii?eyoeyie ii ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee
eniieueciaaiey yia?aee yaeythony: eioaineoeeaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannia (nei?inoiua ?aaeeiu ia?aaioee); aiaae?aiea aieaa niaa?oaiiie
oaoiieiaee e oaoieee i?iecaiaenoaa (caiaia ia?aaioee iaoaeeia ?acaieai
oi/iui eeoueai, eiaee – ooaiiiaeie e o.ae.).

Aeey yeiiiiee aeaeaaoaeueiie yia?aee aieueoia cia/aiea eiaao eo/oaa
eniieueciaaiea iiuiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey. A /enea ia?ii?eyoee a yoii
iai?aaeaiee iiaeii iacaaoue iiauoaiea eiyooeoeeaioa eniieueciaaiey
iiuiinoe oieii?eaiieeia iooai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeae a
niioaaonoaee n oa?aeoa?ii auiieiyaiuo ?aaio e iio?aaiie iiuiinoueth;
iiauoaiea caa?ocee iai?oaeiaaiey a niaio.

Oaoie/aneay iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n
i?iaeoii oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee eioi?ue ninoieo ec neaaeothueo ioieoia:

– iiaeai? e ?aciauaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey, nenoai
oieiaeeeueiuo onoaiiaie, yia?ainiaaaeaiey, naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneeo
eiiioieeaoeee;

– ii?aaeaeaiea iaoiaeia oaeaeaiey iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa e eo
ooeeecaoeee;

– ?an/ao /eneaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaoie/aneiaiia?niiaea,
ii?aaeaeaiea n?ieia ieoiaaiinoe i?aae i?eyoey e aai ?aioaaaeueiinoe;

– i?aaiecaoeey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa i?aaei?eyoey a
oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuo aai oeaoia;

– ?ac?aaioea iaueaiii-ieaie?iai/iie noaiu caeaiey, ioaa/athuae
oaoiieiae/aneiio i?ioeanno.

Yoi aeaeaei ia ana ioieou eioi?ua neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue i?e i?iaaaeaiee
oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa, ii yoe yaeythony iniiaie. A yoii
?acaeaea ?aaiou ?anniao?eaaaony i?aeoe/aneee i?eia? i?iaaaeaiey
oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa ia i?eia?a i?aaiecaoeee
ieiecaaiaea ii i?iecaiaenoao ieiaeiiaiuiuo eiina?aia (a aeaiiii neo/aa
eaaa/eiaie ee?u). I?e ?anniio?aiee yoiai i?eia?a iniiaiie oii? naeaeai
ia oaoiieiae/aneoth noi?iio e i?aaiecaoeeth iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna. Aii?inu i?aaiecaoeee aaoiiiiiiai yia?ainiaaaeaiey,
naieoa?ii-oaoie/aneeo eiiioieeaoeee, oaieiniaaaeaiey e o.i. i?aeoe/anee
ia cao?aaeaathony.

I?aaiecaoi? aeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeao yaeyoueny caeac/eeii i?iaeoa
e aai iniiaiay oeaeue – ?ac?aaioaoue iniiaiie i?iaeo i?iecaiaenoaa aeey
ia?aaea/e aai eniieieoaeyi, oae eae i?iaeoiua ?aaiou ii iauaeoo
no?ieoaeuenoaa aoaeao auiieiyoue ioaeaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey (eee
i?aaiecaoeee). Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii naeaeaoue ia ia oa??eoi?ee
i?aaei?eyoey e n oeaeueth eo iioeiecaoeee. Iiae oeaeueth, eae
?anii?yaeeoaey n?aaenoa auaeaeaiiuo aeey i?iaaaeaiey ?aaio e
i?aaiecaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa, yaeyaony ?ac?aaioea iioeiaeueiiai i?iaeoa.
Aeaiiue i?iaeo ia?aaeaaony ia eiia/iui eniieieoaeyi, a aeaaiiio
eiaeaia?o, iineieueeo ii ioaa/aao ca ea/anoai eiia/iiai i?iaeoa,
i?aaeeueiinoue oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae, ca niaethaeaiea
onoaiiaeaiiuo ii?i i?iaeoe?iaaiey e n?iee ?ac?aaioee i?iaeoii-niaoiie
aeieoiaioaoeee.

?ac?aaioai neaaeothuee ieaioaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa:

1.Ii?aaeaeaiea oaoiieiaee (?aoeaioo?u) i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee;

2.Iaueai ia?a?aaaouaaaiiai nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia, a oae aea iooiaeia
i?iecaiaenoaa;

3.Eiee/anoai e oeiu oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa, a?ociiioiee;

4.?annoaiiaea iai?oaeiaaiey a oaoiieiae/aneii i?ioeanna e aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee; ?aciauaiea iai?oaeiaaiey;

5. I?aaiecaoeey i?eaiee e o?aiaiey nu?uey;

Aeiai?iiao?ianeei IEE ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe auea ?ac?aaioaia
neaaeothuay ?aoeaioo?a i?iecaiaenoaa ieiaeiiaiuiuo eiina?aia “ee?a
eaaa/eiaay” e onoaiiaeaiu oaoiieiae/aneea ii?iu i?iecaiaenoaa e
o?aaiaaiey e ea/anoao i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaiiay oaoiieiaey auea ?ac?aaioaia
ii caeaco ieienoa?noaa ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aeey i?aaiecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa ia eiina?aiuo caaiaeao. Aeaiiay ?aaioa iniiaaia ia i?eia?a
oaoiieiae/aneie eeiee aeaenoaothuae ia caaiaea “IAI eiina?aiue caaiae
eiaie Ee?iaa” a. Neioa?iiieue.

Ioieo 1.

Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa e iniiaiua ia?aiao?u i?iaeoeoeee. Aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee o?aaoaony aieueoie ia?a/aiue
?acee/iuo aeaeia nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia. Neaaeoao caiaoeoue, /oi
anni?oeiaio aeaiiie eeiee ninoieo ec iaeiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee ii aeaaea
aeey iaai iaiaoiaeei oaeie ia?a/aiue nu?uey, eaeie i?eaaaeai a oaaeeoea
2.1.

Oaaeeoea 2.1 Oaoie/aneea o?aaiaaiey e nu?ueth e iaoa?eaeai

Iaeiaiiaaiea nu?ueyIa?aiao?ueaaa/ee naaaeeaii AeNO Oe?aeiu 318eoe
?ai/aoue naaaeeeii AINO 1723ii?eiaue noieiaay naaaeayii AINO
1721iao?ooea-caeaiue iieiaeay naaaeayii ?NO ONN? 302naeueaea?ae iieiaeie
naaaeeeii ?NO ONN? 303oe?ii naaaeeeii ?NO ONN? 304caeaiue
eiina?ae?iaaiiay iiaa?aiiie nieueth iieooaa?eeaoii OO 10.244.016caeaiue
iao?ooee, naeueaea?ay, oe?iia auno?icaii?iaeaiiayii INO III-7eoe
?ai/aoue nooaiueii AINO 7587ii?eiaue noieiaay nooaiayii AINO 7588NI2
yeno?aeou i?yiinoaeii OO 10.048549-026ianei iiaenieia/iia
?aoeie?iaaiiiaii AINO 1129ianei oeiieiaia ?aoeie?iaaiiiaii AINO
1128ianei niaaia ?aoeie?iaaiiiaii AINO 7825ia?aoe /a?iue iieioueii AINO
29050ei?eaiae?ii AINO 29055ia?aoe aeooenoueii AINO 29045ia?aoe e?aniue
iieioueii AINO 29053nieue iiaa?aiiay ieuaaayii AINO 13830ianoa
oiiaoiayii AINO 3343ioea ioaie/iay oeaaiiaea?iayii AINO
26574iieooaa?eeaou iaiuiuaii OO 46.12 Oe?aeiu

Aeey oiai, /oiau i?iecaiaeeiay i?iaeoeoeey niioaaonoaiaaea noaiaea?oai
onoaiiaeaiiui oaoiieiaeae i?iecaiaenoaa iia aeieaeia eiaoue neaaeothuea
iieacaoaee. I?aaiieaioe/aneea iieacaoaee (oaaeeoea 2.2) oa?aeoa?ecotho
aiaoiee aeae i?iaeoeoeee e niinianoaotho aecoaeueiiio ii?aaeaeaieth aa
ea/anoaa .

Oaaeeoea 2.2. I?aaiieaioe/aneea iieacaoaee i?iaeoeoeee

Iieacaoaeueia?aiao?uAiaoiee aeae e eiinenoaioeeyiaeii?iaeiay, ?aaiiia?ii
eciaeue/aiiay ianna n aeaeeiuie aeeth/aieyie caeaie e i?yiinoae, aac
naiyi ia?ac?aeuo eaaa/eia, a?oauo aeeth/aiee ieiaeiiiaeee e aac
aeaeeiiai ioaeaeaiey aeeaeeinoe. Eiinenoaioeey iaaeouayny e neaaea
ca?ienoay.Aeon e caiaoNaienoaaiiue ee?a, ecaioiaeaiiie ec niane
aeaioe?iaaiiuo e iaaea?aiiuo iaiuae. Ia aeiioneaaony i?eaeona
i?iai?eeiai ianea e iaee/ea iinoi?iiiaai i?eaeona e
caiaoa.OeaaoIaeii?iaeiue ii anae ianna, io aeaeoiai aei
naaoei-ei?e/iaaiai, ec eaaa/eia ni?oa “Oeoeeie”, n oaiii caeaiuie

ae?aieaieyie. Aeiioneaaony iacia/eoaeueiia iioaiiaiea aa?oiaai neiy
i?iaeoeoa.

Oeceeioeie/aneea iieacaoaee oa?aeoa?ecotho niaea?aeaiea ?acee/iuo
aauanoa a i?iaeoeoa (ni. Oaaeeoeo 2.3).

Oaaeeoea 2.3. Oeceei-oeie/aneea iieacaoaee

Aauanoainiaea?aeaieaIanniaay aeiey nooeo aauanoa a %16Ianniaay aeiey
aee?a a %1.2 – 1.6Ianniaay aeiey oeo?oaiuo eeneio0.5Ianniaay aeiey
ieia?aeueiuo i?eianae0.005I?eiane ?anoeoaeueiiai i?ienoiaeaeaieyia
aeiioneathonyIinoi?iiiea i?eianeia aeiioneathony

Iniaia aieiaiea neaaeoao oaeaeeoue iaee/eth caa?ycieoaeae a auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee iineieueeo a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi iaeii ec iniiaiuo
o?aaiaaiee e ethaiio aeaeo i?iaeoeoa (oaaeeoea 2.4) e iaiaoiaeeii
no?aieony e iaeaieaa ieceiio o?iaith niaea?aeaiey aeaiiuo aauanoa a
i?iaeoeoa. Iiaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaiiue iieacaoaeue a cia/eoaeueiie
noaiaie caaeneo io enoi/ieeia iieo/aaiiai iaie nu?uey. Iiaeii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi i?e iuiaoiai o?iaia ia?aaioee naeueneioicyenoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee ai a?aiy au?aueaaiey e a ia?eiae nai?a o?iaaiue
caa?yciythueo aauanoa iaaeiionoeii aunie. A aeaiiie oaaeeoea oeacaiu
eeoue iniiaiua caa?ycieoaee i?aauoaiea ii?i eioi?uo ia aeiionoeii, a oi
a?aiy eae iniiaiay aeiey i?eoiaeeony ia oeie/aneea aauanoaa eioi?uie
ia?aaaouaaaony naeueneioicyenoaaiiay i?iaeoeoeey.

Oaaeeoea 2.4 Aeiionoeiua ii?iu caa?ycieoaeae ia/ea.

Oiene/iua yeaiaiouaethieieaaay e noaeeyiiay oa?aaeanoyiay
oa?aNaeiaoe0.51.0Eaaeiee0.030.05?oooue0.020.02Iaaeue5.05.0Oeeie10.010.0I
uoueye0.20.2Ieiai-200Aoeaoienei A10.0050.005Iaooeae0.050.05

Auoaiienaiiua ia?aiao?u i?iecaiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeee yaeythony
iaycaoaeueiuie aeey niaethaeaiey. Iniiaiia iacia/aiea yoeo aeaiiuo –
iaania/aiea eiio?iey ea/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee e iiiiuue i?e i?aaiecaoeee
iniiaiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna e iiaeai?ee iai?oaeiaaiey.
Oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ia/eiaaony n ia?aeeaeueiuo i?ioeannia ia?aaioee
nu?uey eioi?ua caoai iauaaeeiythony iinea i?ioiaeaeaiey aaaeouae iaoeiu
eiiaaea?a. A aeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecothony neaaeothuea
oaoiieiae/aneea iia?aoeee (oaaeeoea 2.5)

Oaaeeoea 2.5 Ia?a/aiue oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee i?iecaiaeyueony a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee.

Iia?aoeeyAeae nu?ueyNi?oe?iaaieaIaiueEaeea?iaaieaIi?eiaue, eoe
?ai/aoueNooay
i/enoeaIi?eiaueIoia/eaaieaIi?eiaueIieeaEaaa/eeIieeaIi?eiaueIieeaEoeIieea
CaeaiueIiieaneeaaieaIaiueI/enoeaIi?eiaueI/enoeaEoeI/enoeaEaaa/ee?acaieaE
aaa/ee?acaieaIi?eiaue?acaieaEoe
?ai/aoue?acaieaCaeaiueAe?iaeaieaEaaa/eeIaaea?eaaieaEoe ?ai/aoue,
ii?eiaueI?ieaeeaaiea e ianna?iaaieaIoea, iiaenieia/iia
ianeiAeaioe?iaaieaEaaa/eeI?ioe?aieaEaaa/ee, eoe,
ii?eiaueOaa?eaaieaEaaa/eiaay iannaI?inaeaaieaNieue, naoa?, i?yiinoe,
ioeaNiaoeaaiea e iiaeia?aaAna
eiiiiiaiouOaniaaieaEe?aOeoii?eaaieaNoaeeyiiua aaieeNoa?eeecaoeeyEe?a

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiie oaaeeoeu iu iiaeai i?iecaanoe iino?iaiea ea?o
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia i?ienoiaeyueo i?e ia?a?aaioea nu?uey (ni
i?eeiaeaiea 2-3 , oaoiieiae/aneea ea?ou). Iiaeii caiaoeoue, /oi
aieueoeinoai iia?aoeee iiaoi?ythony n ?aciuie aeaeaie nu?uey, ii
iineieueeo iie aeieaeiu i?ioiaeeoue ioiineoaeueii iaeiia?aiaiii, oi
iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo, /oi iiiaaeiaeony o?e ia?aeeaeueiua eeiee
iai?oaeiaaiey aeey iiaeaioiaee o?ao iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia: eeiey ii
iiaeaioiaea eaaa/eia, eeiey ii iiaeaioiaea ii?eiae, eeiey ii iiaeaioiaea
eoea e caeaie. Aeey iiaeaioiaee yoeo eiiiiiaioia eniieuecoaony ?aciia
iai?oaeiaaiea. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi iia?aoeee iieee, i/enoee, ?acee e
o.ae. i?iecaiaeyony aeey yoeo i?iaeoeoia ii ?aciiio. I?ioeann
i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiiai i?iaeoeoa no?ieony ii neaaeothuae oaoiieiae/aneie
noaia: iiaeaioiaea – niaoeaaiea – ?anoaniaea. Iiaeaioiaea nu?uey
iieooaa?eeaoia e iaoa?eaeia. Iiaeaioiaea eaaa/eia. Eaaa/ee ni?oe?otho ii
ea/anoao, iitho a aeaoo iineaaeiaaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiuo iia/iuo iaoeiao
aa?aaaiiiai e uaoi/iiai oeiia, einiaeoe?otho, iiieaneeaatho iiae aeooai
i?e aeaaeaiee /250 +- 50 EIa/. I?e cia/eoaeueiii caa?yciaiee ia?aae
iieeie eaaa/ee ?aeiiaiaeoaony ioia/eaaoue. Iinea iieee eaaa/ee i/euatho
io ieiaeiiiaeee e inoaoeia caayce, eciaeue/atho ia eoni/ee ?acia?ii io 2
aei 10ii e iai?aaeytho ia aeaioe?iaaiea. E?oiiua eaaa/ee ia?aae
eciaeue/aieai ?aeiiaiaeoaony ?acaoue ia /anoe. Oaeaeaiea ieiaeiiiaeee o
eaaa/eia aeiioneaaony i?iecaiaeeoue iinea eo aeaioe?iaaiey ia
i?ioe?i/iie iaoeia. Iiaeaioiaea eoea. Eoe ni?oe?oaony ii ea/anoao,
oaeaeythony aeaoaeoiua ieiaeu, caoai ia?acatho oaeeo, ei?iaaoth ii/eo e
i/euatho io /aooe. Iieeo eoea ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iecaiaeeoue ia iaoeiao
aaioeeyoi?iiai oeia. Aeaeaa eoe einiaeoe?otho oaeaeyy iai/euaiiua
ieiaeu, iiieaneeaatho iiae aeooai i?e aeaaeaiee aiaeu /250 +- 50 eIa/.
?aaeoo eoe ia e?oaeee oieueiie io 3 aei 5 ii. Iaeeee eoe aeeaiao?ii io
30 aei 50 ii. eniieuecotho a oeaeii aeaea. Iiaeaioiaeaiiue eoe
iai?aaeytho ia iaaea?eaaiea.

Iiaeaioiaea ii?eiae. Ii?eiaue iiaeaa?aatho i/enoea io i?eianae e
ni?oe?otho ii ea/anoao. ?aeiiaiaeoaony ii?eiaue iuoue a
iineaaeiaaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiuo iaoeiao aa?aaaiiiai e eiianoiiai oeiia
eeai a aeaoo iaoeiao aa?aaaiiiai oeia. I?e cia/eoaeueiii caa?yciaiee
ei?iaieiaeu i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ioia/eaatho. I/enoeo ii?eiae io eiaeeoeu
i?iecaiaeyo iaoaie/aneei eee ia?ioa?ie/aneeie niiniaaie. Iaoaie/aneoth
i/enoeo ei?iaieiaeia inouanoaeytho ia ea?ai?oiaeiauo iaoeiao
iai?a?uaiiai eeai ia?eiaee/aneiai aeaenoaey. Ia?ioa?ie/aneoth i/enoeo
ei?iaieiaeia io eiaeeoeu i?iecaiaeyo iooai ia?aaioee ia?ii i?e aeaaeaiee
/750 +- 50 eIa/ n iineaaeothuei oaeaeaieai eiaeeoeu a aa?aaaiiie eee
eiianoiie iia/iuo iaoeiao. I?e iaoaie/aneie i/enoea ia?aceo ooieuaiiiai
eiioea n inoaoeii aioau i?iaiaeyo iinea i/enoee ei?iaieiaeia io
eiaeeoeu. I?e ia?ioa?ie/aneii niiniaa ia?aceo ooieuaiiiai eiioea
i?iecaiaeyo aei iiaea/e ei?iaieiaeia a ia?ioa?ie/aneee aiia?ao. Iinea
i/enoee ii?eiaue iiaeaa?aatho aei/enoea n oeaeueth iieiiai oaeaeaiey
inoaoeia eiaeeoeu, caa?yciaiee e ii?aaeaiiuo o/anoeia e iiieaneeaatho
iiae aeooai i?e aeaaeaiee aiaeu /250+-50 eIa/. Ii?eiaue ?aaeoo ia
a?oni/ee n ?acia?ii a?aiae a iiia?a/iii na/aiee io 5 aei 7 ii, iinea
/aai i?inaeaatho ia iia/ii-ano?yoeaathuae iaoeia n iaeiia?aiaiiui
aeooaaaieai aeey oaeaeaiey iaei/e e iiaeatho ia iaaea?eaaiea.
Iiaeaioiaea caeaie. Caeaiue naaaeoth ni?oe?otho ii ea/anoao oaeaeyy
aeaeoua e aieeua eenouey , a oae aea oaa?aeoth /anoue noaaey e
iiaeaa?aatho iieea n iineaaeothuei iiieaneeaaieai iiae aeooai i?e
aeaaeaiee aiaeu /250+-50 eIa/. ?anoiae aiaeu ia iieeo caeaie ninoaaeyao
4.5 – 5 I.eoa. ia 1 o. nu?uey. Aeiioneaaony caeaiue iuoue a
iaoaeee/aneeo naoeao ii?oeeyie io 3 aei 4 ea. i?e aunioa neiy io 15 aei
20 ni. iooai ia?eiaee/aneiai iia?oaeaiey i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth io 3
aei 6 iei. a aaiio n i?ioi/iie aiaeie. Caoai caeaiue iiieaneeaatho i?e
aeaaeaiee aiaeu /250+-50 eIa/ e ?anoiaea 1 I.eoa. ia 1 o. nu?uey.
Caeaiue ia?acaiioth e caii?iaeaiioth a aeieao /anoe/ii aeao?inoe?otho ,
ni?oe?otho ii ea/anoao e eniieuecotho. Caeaiue, caii?iaeaiioth aac
eciaeue/aiey, iiaeaioaaeeaatho eae naaaeoth. Caeaiue nooaioth
einiaeoe?otho e, a neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe, ?aaeoo ia eoni/ee. Iuooth
caeaiue eciaeue/atho ia eoni/ee io 3 aei 5 ii. e iai?aaeytho ia
niaoeaaiea. O?aiaiea ia?acaiiie caeaie aieaa 30 iei. ia aeiioneaaony.
Iiaeaioiaea nooaiuo iaiuae. Eoe e ii?eiaue nooaiua iiaeaa?aatho
einiaeoeee, ai a?aiy eioi?ie ioae?atho ii/a?iaaoea, caia?aiiua eoni/ee,
o eoea – ieanoeiee n inoaoeaie /aooe e aeiioea, i?iioneatho /a?ac
iaaieoiue oeaaeeaaoaeue, iinea /aai caia/eaatho a /aou?aoe?aoiii
eiee/anoaa aiaeu a oa/aiee iaeiiai /ana. Iinea naiaiaeiiai noaeaiey
aiaeu iaiue iai?aaeytho ia iaaea?eaaiea.

Iiaeaioiaea ?anoeoaeueiiai ianea. ianei oeeueo?otho /a?ac neoi n
ioaa?noeyie aeeaiao?ii io 0.6 aei 0.8 ii., iinea /aai, n oeaeueth
oaeaeaiey niaea?aeauaeny a iai aeaae ianei i?ieaeeaatho i?e oaiia?aoo?a
io 160 aei 180 a?aaeonia Oeaeueney aei i?ae?auaiey iaiiia?aciaaiey.
Ianei eniieuecotho aeey iaaea?eaaiey eoea e ii?eiae e aeiaaaeytho a ee?o
i?e niaoeaaiee eiiiiiaioia ?aoeaioo?u.

Iiaeaioiaea iieooaa?eeaoia e iaoa?eaeia. I?e eniieueciaaiee
iieooaa?eeaoia, oaniaaiiuo a noaeeyiioth oa?o, aaiee ouaoaeueii iitho,
ane?uaatho a ioaeaeueiii iiiauaiee e i?iaa?ytho oeaeinoiinoue ai?eiaeiu.
I?e iaee/ee neiea ia ai?eiaeia aaiie iieooaa?eeaou a i?iecaiaenoai ia
aeiioneathony. Iieooaa?eeaou ec iaaea?aiiuo ii?eiae e eoea eciaeue/atho
ia aie/ea eee i?ioe?i/iie iaoeia n aeeaiao?ii ioaa?noee ?aoaoee eee neoa
3 ii. Oiiaoioth ianoo iiaeia?aaatho aei oaiia?aoo?u io 50 aei 60
a?aaeonia e i?ioe?atho ia i?ioe?i/iie iaoeia n aeeaiao?ii ioaa?noee neoa
0.8 ii. Naoa?-ianie, nieue e ioeo i?iioneatho /a?ac i?inaeaaoaeue n
iaaieoiui oeaaeeaoaeai. Caoai ioeo ianna?otho i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth io
10 aei 15 ieioo i?e ia?eiaee/aneii ia?aiaoeaaiee aei neaai-e?aiiaiai
oeaaoa, i?e oaiia?aoo?a ieiei 117 a?aaeonia. Ia?aoe /a?iue, aeooenoue e
ei?eaiae? a ca?iao ni?oe?otho, oaeaeyy iinoi?iiiea i?eiane,
caieaniaaaaoea, enii?/aiiua ca?ia, i?iioneatho /a?ac oeiaeoaeue
iaoaeee/aneeo i?eianae e eciaeue/atho ia iee?iiaeueieoea eee iieioeiaie
ae?iaeeueiie iaoeia n iineaaeothuei i?inaeaaieai /a?ac neoi aeeaiao?ii
ia aieaa 2 ii. n iaaieoiui oeaaeeaaoaeai. Aeey nieaeaiey aaeoa?eaeueiie
ianaiaiaiiinoe iieioua i?yiinoe oanotho a noaeeyiiua eee iaoaeee/aneea
aaiee, aa?iaoe/anee oeoii?eaatho e noa?eeecotho ii ?aaeeiai:

Oaaeeoea 2.6 ?aaeeiu noa?eeecaoeee

Aaieeoi?ioea noa?eeecaoeeeaeaaeaiea a aaoieeaaa1-58-250(25-30-25) /
120220+-10eIa1-82-500(25-55-25) / 120250+-10eIa

Aaiee ane?uaatho iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aae oiio?aaeaieai.

Oaieiaay ia?aaioea iaiuae. Iiaeaioiaeaiiua eaaa/ee aeaioe?otho ia?ii i?e
oaiia?aoo?a 198+-2 a?aaeona n i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth io 7 aei 10 iei. e
iai?aaeytho ia eciaeue/aiea. Eoe e ii?eiaue iaaea?eaatho a ?anoeoaeueiii
ianea. Iaaea?eaaiea iaiuae i?iecaiaeyo i?e oaiia?aoo?a ianea io 120 aei
140 a?aaeonia. Eoe i?e iaaea?eaaiee aeieaeai i?eia?anoe cieioenoue
oeaao, ?aciya/eoueny, aeaeeiue i?ioeaio oaea?ee eoea ninoaaeyao ieiei
50%, n?aaeiaa cia/aiea aieouaaaiinoe ianea 27% e ianna iaaea?aiiiai
eoea. Iaaea?aiiay ii?eiaue aeieaeia eiaoue i?aiaeaaue oeaao, auoue
iyaeie ia iuoiue, aeaeeiue i?ioeaio oaea?ee ii?eiae aeieaeai ninoaaeyoue
48+-2%, n?aaeiaa cia/aiea aieouaaaiinoe 12% e aano iaaea?aiiie ii?eiae.
Ia aeiioneaaony eceeoiyy oaea?ea iaiuae eioi?ay oa?aeoa?ecoaony
i?eia?aoaieai iaiuaie oaiii-ei?e/iaaie ie?anee e ai?ueeiai i?eaeona.
Aeaeeiue i?ioeaio oaea?ee, iieacuaathuee oiaiueoaiea iannu nu?uey i?e
iaaea?eaaiee a i?ioeaioao ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

O = (A – A)/A * 100, aaea

A – ianna nu?uey aei iaaea?eaaiey

A – ianna nu?uey iinea iaaea?eaaiey aianoa n iiaeiuaiiui ianeii

Aeaeeiue i?ioeaio oaea?ee ii?aaeaeyaony iooai i?iaiiai iaaea?eaaiey
iaiuae. Aeey yoiai acaaoeaatho ii?oeeth enoiaeiiai nu?uey, caa?oaeatho
aai a naoeo, iaaea?eaatho, aeatho noa/ue ianeo a oa/aiee 3 ieioo, e
niiaa acaaoeaatho. Ianniaay aeiey ianea iiaeiuaiiiai nu?ueai i?e
iaaea?eaaiee ii?aaeaeyaony onei?aiiui iaoiaeii ii AINO 8756.21 Enoeiiue
i?ioeaio oaea?ee

Xi = A – B / A * 100 + B*Y / A aaea,

A – ianna nu?uey aei iaaea?eaaiey

A – ianna nu?uey iinea iaaea?eaaiey aianoa n iiaeiuaiiui ianeii

Y – aieouaaaiinoue ianea iaiuaie %

Eciaeue/aiea iiaeaioiaeaiiuo iaiuae. Aeaioe?iaaiiua aac ieiaeiiiaeee
eaaa/ee, iaaea?aiiua eoe e ii?eiaue eciaeue/atho ia aie/ea eee
i?ioe?i/iie iaoeia n aeeaiao?ii ioaa?noee neoa 3 ii. Aeaioe?iaaiiua n
ieiaeiiiaeeie eaaa/ee eciaeue/atho ia i?ioe?i/iie iaoeia n aeeaiao?ii
ioaa?noee neoa ia?aie nooiaie 3 ii, aoi?ie nooiaie 1.2 ii. I?eaioiaeaiea
ee?u. Eciaeue/aiioth ianno aeaioe?iaaiiuo eaaa/eia oaa?eaatho a
aaeooi-aiia?aoa aei ianniaie aeiee ?anoai?eiuo nooeo aauanoa /9.5 +-
0.5%/. A eiioeaio?e?iaaiioth ianno aeiaaaeytho a niioaaonoaee n
?aoeaioo?ie i?ieaeaiiia ?anoeoaeueiia ianei, iaaea?aiiua e eciaeue/aiiua
eoe e ii?eiaue, oiiaoioth ianoo, nieue, ianne?iaaiioth ioeo, caeaiue,
i?yiinoe, ouaoaeueii ia?aiaoeaatho, iiaeia?aaatho aei oaiia?aoo?u 80+-2
a?aaeona e iiaeatho ia oaniaaiea. Ianniaay aeiey ?anoai?eiuo nooeo
aauanoa a ee?a aeieaeia auoue ia iaiaa 12%. I?e i?iecaiaenoaa ee?u
aeiioneaaony caiaia /a?iiai e aeooenoiai ia?oea yoe?iuie ianeaie. Oae
eae aeica aaiaeeiuo yoe?iuo ianae iacia/eoaeueia, aeey oaeianoaa e
oi/iinoe aeice?iaaiey ?aeiiaiaeoaony aioiaeoue aeey eaaeaeiai
iaeiaiiaaiey yoe?iuo ianae ?aai/oth nianue yoe?iiai ianea n i?ieaeaiiui
e ioeaaeaeaiiui ?anoeoaeueiui ianeii. Caoai ianna iiaeaaony ia
iaiieiaiea e noa?eeecaoeeth.

Ioieo 2.

Iauai ia?a?aaaouaaaiiai nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaou e iooiaeu i?iecaiaenoaa.
Aanue oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann ii i?iecaiaenoao aeaiiiai aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa /anoe. Ia?aay /anoue – yoi
iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoeoeee, oaeoe/anee ec nu?uey iinooiathuaai ia
i?aaei?eyoea i?iecaiaeyo iieooaa?eeao, iaeioi?ua eiiiiiaiou i?eoiaeyo ia
i?aaei?eyoea oaea a aeaea iieooaa?eeaoa (eae iai?eia? niaoeee). Aoi?ay
/anoue – iaiin?aaenoaaiiia i?eaioiaeaiea i?iaeoeoa ec iiaeaioiaeaiiuo
eiiiiiaioia e aai ?anoaniaea. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi ia?aue i?ioeann
i?e i?iecaiaenoaa yoie i?iaeoeoeee caieiaao iniiaioth /anoue
oaoiieiae/aneiai oeeeea, oae eae niaoeaaiea, iiaeia?aa, ?anoaniaea e
noa?eeecaoeey ninoaaeytho naiia iineaaeiaa caaii oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Anee ioneaaeeoue ia?aiauaiea i?iaeoeoeee ii oeaoo oi iiaeii
caiaoeoue, /oi i?aeoe/anee aanue naie iooue iia i?iaeaeuaaao a aeaea
enoiaeiiai nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia. ?an/aoiay iiuiinoue aeaiiie eeiee
ninoaaeyao 30 000 aaiie ca iaeio ?aai/oth niaio. Aeey ?an/aoa aeaiiiai
iieacaoaey ca iniiao auea acyoa i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey
eniieuecothuaainy a aeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue
aaaeouae iaoeiu i?ioeanna. Aeey oiai /oiau i?iecaanoe ?an/ao iauaia
ia?aaaouaaaiiai nu?uey iiaeii i?eaanoe oaaeeoeo i?iii?oeee
eniieueciaaiey nu?uey a eaaeaeie aaiea i?iaeoeoeee. I?e ?an/aoao a
ea/anoaa oa?u aa?aony iaoaeee/aneay eaee?iaaiiay aaiea ii AINO 5981
aianoeiinoueth 0.6 aei.eoa.

Oaaeeoea 2.7 Ii?iu ?anoiaea nu?uey ia iaeio aaeeieoeo i?iaeoeoeee

Nu?uea% niaea?ae.A?.Ea.Ia niaio
ea.Eaaa/ee603600.3610800Ii?eiaue10600.061800Eoe5300.03900Caeaiue5300.039
00Ianei5300.03900I?yiinoe2120.012360Ianoa
oiiao5300.03900Ioea5300.03900Aeoniaua aeiaaaee e
o.ae.3180.018540Eoiai1006000.618000

Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii oaeaeaoue , ca iaeio i?iecaiaenoaaiioth iaio
?anoiaeoaony 18 o. enoiaeiiai nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia. Ii iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue oae aea e oi, /oi aeaiiua iieacaoaee i?eaaaeaiu oaea aeey
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. A aeaiiie oaaeeoea ia o/oaiu iieacaoaee iooiaeia
i?e ia?aaioea e iiaeaioiaea iieooaa?eeaoia. Oaeei ia?acii ?aaeueiia
eiee/anoai nu?uey iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oaaee/eaaaony. Aeaiiia
eiee/anoai nu?uey iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue ia iniiaaiee ieaeai?eaaaeaiiuo
oi?ioe.

Auoiae iieooaa?eeaoia i?e ia?aaioea nu?uey ii?aaeaeytho ii oi?ioea

Qio = Qa?(1-o),

aaea Qa? – eiee/anoai nu?uey a?oooi, ea;

o – aeiey iooiaeia e iioa?ue a iauai eiee/anoaa nu?uey, %. Auoiae
i?iaeoeoa ia ioaeaeueiuo noaaeeyo ia?aaioee niioaaonoaaiii ninoaaeo:

Q1=Qa?(1-o1)

Q2=Qa?[1-(x1+x2)]

Qn=Qa?[1-(x1+x2+…+Xn)],

aaea o1,o2,On – aeiey iooiaeia e iioa?ue a iauai eiee/anoaa nu?uey ia
aeaiiie noaaeee ia?aaioee,%

X1+X2+…+Xn=X

Iaeaieaa cia/eoaeueiay /anoue iooiaeia i?iecaiaenoaa iiyaeyaony a
i?ioeanna i/enoee nu?uey e iiaeaioiaea aai e ?acea e o.ae. *a?ac yoo
noaaeeth i?ioiaeyo neaaeothuea iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou: eaaa/ee, ii?eiaue,
eoe, caeaiue. Aeaiiia nu?uea i?ioiaeeo noaaeee i/enoee iienaiiua a
oaaeeoea 2.8, neaaeoao o/eouaaoue, /oi aeey eaaeaeiai aeaea nu?uey
nouanoaoao naie niinia i/enoee.

Oaaeeoea 2.8 Yoaiu i/enoee enoiaeiiai nu?uey

Nu?ueaI?ioeaio iooiaeia i?e
i/enoea?o/iayI?iiuaeaAicaeooiayIaoaie/aneayEoiaiEaaa/ie8–311Ii?eiaue5–
1520Eoe5-5-10Caeaiue22–4Eoiai20251845

Oaeei ia?acii iniiauaaynue auoai?eaaaeaiiuo oi?ioeao iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue
?aaeueioth iio?aaiinoue a nu?uea ia iaeio ?aai/oth niaio e eiee/anoai
iooiaeia (oaaeeoea 2.9).

Oaaeeoea 2.9 Iooiaeu i?e ia?aaioea

Nu?uea?aaeueiay iio?aaiinoue, eaIooiaeu, %Iooiaeu , eaAuoiae n
i?iaeoeoeeaeEaaa/ee12134.8111334.810800Ii?eiaue2250204501800Eoe100010100
900Caeaiue937.5437.5900Eoiai16322.3441922.314400

Iauay iio?aaiinoue a nu?uea e iieooaa?eeaoao aeey iaeiie ?aai/ae niaiu
ninoaaeo (ni. Oaaeeoeo 2.10)

Oaaeeoea 2.10 ?anoiae nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia ca niaio

Nu?ueaianna,
eaEaaa/ee12134.8Ii?eiaue2250Eoe1000Caeaiue937.5Ianei900i?yiinoe360Ianoa-
oiiao900Ioea900Aeoniaua aeiaaaee e yeno?aeou540

Ioieo 3.

Eae oaea auei oiiiyiooi, a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecothony
?acee/iua oeiu iai?oaeiaaiey. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi eiia/iue i?iaeoeo
niaea?aeeo a naaa aieueoia eiee/anoai eiiiiiaioia eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo
i?ioiaeeo oeaii/eo oaoiieiae/aneeo iia?aoeee iiea ia iiiaaeao ia
eiia/ioth noaaeeth ia?a?aaioee. E aeey eaaeaeiai ec yoeo eiiiiiaioia
o?aaoaony naia iai?oaeiaaiea. Iniiauaaynue ia oaaeeoea oaoiieiae/aneeo
iia?aoeee (2.5) iu iiaeai ninoaaeoue ia?a/aiue iai?oaeiaaiey
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey i?iecaiaenoaa. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue iai?oaeiaaiea ii iacia/aieth. Anee ?anniio?aoue
oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann iiyoaiii oi iiaeii auaeaeeoue neaaeothuea oeiu
iai?oaeiaaiey:

-iai?oaeiaaiea aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee

-iai?oaeiaaiea iniiaiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna

Ia caaiaea o?ainii?oiua ono?ienoai aeieaeiu iaania/eoue ia?aiauaiea
ooo/iuo, nuio/eo e aeeaeeeo i?iaeoeoia. Oaeei ia?acii ia?acothony
a?ociiioiee. A?ociiioiee iiae?acaeaeythony ia aiaoiea e aioo?aiiea. I?e
oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaea i?iecaiaenoaa eaeiai eeai aeaea i?iaeoeoeee
iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue noaio a?ociiioieia. A aeaiiii neo/aa aeey
eiina?aiiai caaiaea a?ociiioiee aoaeoo eiaoue neaaeothuee aeae (ni.
i?eeiaeaiea 15). Ia aioo?aiiai o?iaia a?ociiioieia ?aaioaao aieueoia
eiee/anoai o?ainii?oiuo ono?ienoa. Iie eeanneoeoee?othony neaaeothuei
ia?acii:

– ieaea o?iaiy iiea

– ia o?iaia iiea

– iaae o?iaiai iiea

A neo/aa n aeaiiui oeiii i?iecaiaenoaa oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea
iniiaiiai i?ioeanna naii ea?aao ?ieue n?aaenoa ia?aiauaiey nu?uey e
iieooaa?eeaoia. Ii iaiaoiaeeii oae aea e o?ainii?oiia iai?oaeiaaiea ,
/oiau aeinoaaeyoue nu?uea e ia?aiauaoue aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth.

O?ainii?oiia iai?oaeiaaiea i?eiaiyaony ia aeaoo noaaeeyo: aeinoaaea
nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia e ianoo ia?a?aaioee; ia?aiauaiea aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee e ianoo neeaaee?iaaiey e o?aiaiey.

Aeey aioo?eoeaoiaiai e iaaeoeaoiaiai ia?aiauaiey a?ocia oe?iei
i?eiaiytho iaiieueiue o?ainii?o: naiioiaeiua e ianaiioiaeiua oaeaaeee,
yeaeo?i- e aaoiiia?oc/eee. Naiioiaeiua oaeaaeee (yeaeo?iea?u)
ecaioiaeytho a?ociiiaeuaiiinoueth 500-3000 ea, yeaeo?iiia?oc/eee n
aeei/iui caoaaoii – 750-1000 ea, aaoiiia?oc/eee – 3000-5000 ea,
ianaiioiaeiua oaeaaeee (o?ao- e /aou?aoeieaniua) – 250-1000 ea.

Eiee/anoai iaiieueiiai o?ainii?oa iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ia?aiauaiey a?ocia
a oeaoa, ?ann/eouaatho ii oi?ioea

I = (E? A Oi)/60D,

aaea E? – eiyooeoeeaio ?aca?aa, o/eouaathuee i?inoie, ?aiiio e o.ae.

A – a?ociiai?io, ea//

D – a?ociiiaeuaiiinoue o?ainii?oiiai n?aaenoaa, ea

Oi – a?aiy e?oaiiai?ioa, iei:

Oi = Oia? + Oa + Oi + O?.

Caeanue Oia?,Oa,Oi,O? – a?aiy niioaaonoaaiii ia?aiauaiey a?oca,

aica?aoa ionoie oaeaaeee, iia?ocee e ?aca?ocee, iei:

Oia? = L/60Va?; Oa = L/60Voie,

aaea L – aeeeia iooe ia?aiauaiey a?oca, i;

Va?, Voie – nei?inoue ia?aiauaiey oaeaaeee niioaaonoaaiii n a?ocii e
i?e oieinoii oiaea, i/n. Nei?inoue ia?aiauaiey ?o/iuo oaeaaeae
ninoaaeyao 0.5-0.8 i/n, yeaeo?e/aneeo 1.5 – 2 i/n.

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo i?eaaaeaiiuo a oaaeeoea 2.10 iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue
a?ociiioie ia i?aaei?eyoee e eiee/anoai iaiaoiaeeiuo o?ainii?oiuo
n?aaenoa. A?ociiioie iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa ninoaaeythueo.
Ia?aay – nu?uea e iieooaa?eeaou ia?aiauaaiua e ianoo i?iecaiaenoaa,
aoi?ia -aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey ia?aiauaaiay e ianoo neeaaee?iaaiey e
o?aiaiey. Ca niaio e ianoo i?iecaiaenoaa iinoaaeyaony 19922.3 ea.
?acee/iiai nu?uey e iieooaa?eeaoia. N o/aoii iooiaeia ianna aioiaie
i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeo niioaaonoaaiii (ec ?an/aoa 30000 aaiie a niaio)
18000 ea. Oaeei ia?acii iauee a?ociiai?io ninoaaeo 37922.3 ea. I?e
ainueie/aniaie ?aai/ae niaia n?aaeiee a?ociiai?io ninoaaeo
37922.3/8=4740.2875 ae//. A?ociiiaeuaiiinoue ?an/aoiiai o?ainii?oiiai
n?aaenoaa i?eiai ?aaiie 2000 ea, iineieueeo ia eiaao niunea i?eiaiyoue
yeaeo?iea?u a?ociiiaeuaiiinoueth 5000 ea, o.e. yoi i?aauoaao /aniaie
a?ociiai?io, a iaoei iiiaaeiaeony ianeieueei i?e aeinoaaea ?acee/iiai
nu?uey. I?e yoii ana ?ano?nu aeaiiuo o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ia aoaeoo
eniieueciaaoueny iieiinoueth, e oiio aea noieiinoue aeaiiuo n?aaenoa
auoa. A?aiy e?oaiiai?ioa ninoaaeo:

Oia? – 26 n (i?e oaeaeaiee neeaaea a 40 iao?ia)

Oa – 20 n

Oi,O? – 5 n (i?e ?aaioa n eiioaeia?ii-ii?ieeaeuaaoaeai)

Oi = 26 + 20 + 5 + 5 = 56 n

Oaeei ia?acii iaiaoiaeeiia eiee/anoai o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa ninoaaeo

(0.8 * 4740.2875 * 56)/(60*2000)= 1.8 oooe

N o/aoii aiciiaeiinoe iieiiee e ia?aiauaiey aeiiieieoaeueiuo a?ocia ii
oa??eoi?ee i?aaei?eyoey eiee/anoai iinoiyiii ooieoeeiie?othueo
yeaeo?iea?ia iiaeii oaaee/eoue aei o?ao oooe.

Aoi?ui e iniiaiui aeaeii iai?oaeiaaiey yaeyaony iniiaiia
oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea eioi?ia i?eiaiyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee. Aeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea iiaeii
eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii oaoiieiae/aneei iia?aoeeyi aeey eioi?uo iii
eniieuecoaony:

1 – ni?oe?iaaiea, eaeea?iaaiiea

2 – iieea, iiieaneeaaiea

3 – i/enoea

4 – ?acaiea, ae?iaeaiea

5 – iaaea?eaaiea, aeaioe?iaaiea

6 – i?ioe?aiea, oaa?eaaiea

7 – niaoeaaiea, iiaeia?aa

8 – i?inaeaaiea

9 – oaniaaiea, oeoii?eaaiea

10 – noa?eeecaoeey

Aeey aeaiiuo iia?aoeee oaoiieiae/aneie aeieoiaioaoeeae i?aaeienaii
eniieueciaaiea neaaeothuaai iai?oaeiaaiey iienaiiiai a oaaeeoea 2.11

Oaaeeoea 2.11 ?ani?aaeaeaiea iai?oaeiaaiey ii oaoiieiae/aneei iia?aoeeyi

?Iai?oaeiaaiea, iaeiaiiaaiea, ia?eaIia?aoeey ?1Eiiaaea? ?ieeeiaue
A9-EEO-1,

eiiaaea?u eaioi/iua A9-EOO12Eaeea?iaaoaeue oieaa?naeueiue A9-EEO,
A9-EEE13Eiioaeia?iii?ieeaeuaaoaeue EOI-100034Iaoeia aeey caii/ee
ei?iaieiaeia ?3-ENE25Aa?aaaiiay iia/iay iaoeia ?3-EI2-A, iaoeia iia/iay
aa?aaaiii-uaoi/iay A9-EssI26iaoeia aeey iieee ei?iaieiaeia ?3-EIO,
iaoeia iia/iay eiianoiay A9-EE2-A1O27aaioeeyoi?iay iia/iay iaoeia
A9-EIE28iia/iay iaoeia O1-EOI

noe?aeueiay iaoeia NI-10A29eiiaaea? eaioi/iue einiaeoeeiiiue
A9-EOO210eiiaaea? eaioi/iue, iai?oaeiaaiiue o?eiia?aie A9-EOE, A9-EEA,
aiia?ao aeey ia?ioa?ie/aneie i/enoee A9-E*ss311iaoeia aeey ia?acee oaeee
e ei?iaaie ii/ee ?3-E**, aa?aaao aeey i/enoee eoea io eiaeo?u
?3-E*I312iaoeia aeey ?acee eaaa/eia e aaeeaaeaiia ?3-EEE, A9-EEss,
?3-EEAE

413iaoeia aeey ?acee ei?iaieiaeia A9-E?-3A414iaoeia aeey ?acee A9-EI-3A
415iaoeia aeey ?acee caeaie A9-EEOe416ae?iaeeea Ae-1-7.5 Aie/ie
E6-OAI-120417iaaea?i/iay ia/ue AIII-1518ieeoa ia?iaay A9-EAEE, eioae
aa?i/iue A9-EAN519aeaioe?iaaoaeue ?3-EAA520iaoeia i?ioe?i/iay
O1-EI2-O621?aaeoi? A9-EAE, aaeooi-auia?iay onoaiiaea “Aaeeinoai”, “Eaia”
ICN-320I622i?inaeaaoaeue n iaaieoiui oeaaeeaaoaeai III-800823?aaeoi?
A9-EAI, A9-EAI724aaoiiao aeice?iai/ii-iaiieieoaeueiue
A*-EAeE-22925aaoiiao aeey oeoii?eaaiey A*-E3E-89A926aaoieeaau
A6-EA2-A-2, A6-EA2-A-410

Ioieo 4.

?annoaiiaea iai?oaeiaaiey a oaoiieiae/aneii i?ioeanna e aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee. ?aciauaiea iai?oaeiaaiey ii oeaoo. Iieo/aiea
aunieiea/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee o?aaoao, n iaeiie noi?iiu,
niioaaonoaaiiiai ea/anoaa nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a n ae?oaie iaeaieaa
?aoeeiiaeueiuo iaoiaeia eo ia?aaioee. Ninoaa eiina?aia ii?aaeaeyaony
?aoeaioo?aie, a eioi?uo ia iniiaa iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ecuneaiee
onoaiiaeaiu aeaeu, ea/anoai e eiee/anoai ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia ,
iiaeeaaeaueo ec?anoiaeiaaieth ia ecaioiaeaiea iaeiie aaeeieoeu
eiie?aoiiai aeaea eiina?aia eee iieooaa?eeaoia. Ii?yaeie e ?aaeeiu
ia?aaioee ii?aaeaeythony oaoiieiae/aneeie noaiaie e eino?oeoeeyie. A
oaoiieiae/aneie noaia e?aoei eceiaeaia a ienueiaiiii aeaea eee
a?aoe/aneii ecia?aaeaiee iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue auiieiaiey ioaeaeueiuo
oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoia e iieooaa?eeaoia.
Noaia oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa oaoiieiae/aneeo
eino?oeoeee n o/aoii iineaaeieo oaoiieiaee. Oaoiieiae/aneea noaiu
aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue aunieia ea/anoai i?iaeoeoeee i?e iaeneiaeueiii
auoiaea aa e ieieiaeueiuo oaeaeueiuo cao?aoao o?oaea, yeaeo?iyia?aee,
aiaeu e oieiaea. Iia aeieaeia auoue ?ann/eoaia ia iai?a?uaiue oeeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e i?aaeoniao?eaaoue aiciiaeiinoue eiiieaeniie iaoaiecaoeee
e aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa. Iai?oaeiaaiea ?aniieaaaaony oae eae
i?aaeiieaaaao oaoiieiae/aneay noaia (ni. i?eeiaeaiea 2,3).

?anniio?ei oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann n oi/ee c?aiey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iai?oaeiaaiey.

1. Ni?oe?iaea e einiaeoeey. Einiaeoeeiiiua i?ioeannu aeieaeiu
iaania/eoue auione noaiaea?oiie i?iaeoeoeee. ?aaioieee, inouanoaeythuea
a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oi/eao oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna eiio?ieueiua iia?aoeee
aii?oaeaiu niioaaonoaothueie ono?ienoaaie. E?iia einiaeoeeiiiuo
ono?ienoa ianeoaeeaaaiuo ?aaioieeaie, eiathony oae aea aaoiiaoe/aneea
einiaeoeeiiiua ono?ienoaa. A aeaiiii neo/aa aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiaoiaeei ?ieeeiaue eee eaioi/iue o?ainii?oa? oeia A9-EEo eee A9-EOO.
Aeeeia o?ainii?oa?a 4070 ii. Aeaiiay iaoeia ?ann/eoaia ia 4 ?aai/eo
ianoa. Nei?inoue ia?aiauaiey i?iaeoeoeee ii iaio ninoaaeyao 0.12-0.16
i/n. Iiuiinoue aai yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey 0.6 eAo. Iai?eaiaeiua ieiaeu
iioneathony ?aai/eie a nai?ieee.

Oaaeeoea 2.12 Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee einiaeoeeiiiuo ?ieeeiauo
o?ainii?oa?ia

IieacaoaeeIa?ea o?ainii?oa?aEOIEOAI?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue

a ea//

a ea/n

Oe?eia ?ieeeiaiai iieioia

?aai/ay aunioa einiaeoeeiiiie /anoe iaae o?iaiai iiea

Nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey

Iiuiinoue aeaeaaoaey

Aaaa?eou a ii

aeeeia

oe?eia

aunioa

2000

0.6

600ii

850ii

0.12i/n

0.6 eAo

4070

1212

170

10000

2.8

900ii

900ii

0.16i/n

1 eAo

5820

1445

1850

Eaeea?iaaiea. Eaeea?iai/iua e ni?oe?iai/iua iaoeiu eiatho iaeeiaeiaia
oaoiieiae/aneia iacia/aiea: iie i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey auaeaeaiey ec
?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey, iinooiathuaai ia eiina?aiua caaiaeu, iaeeiaeiauo
ii ?acia?ai eee iaeeiaeiauo ii ni?oiaui i?eciaeai ieiaeia e iaiuae. Aeey
yoeo oeaeae iaiaoiaeeii eniieueciaaoue oieaa?naeueioth eaeea?iai/ioth
iaoeio oeia A9-EEO. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue iaoeiu 0.28-0.42 ea/n
(1000-1500 ea//). Iiuiinoue yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey 1 eAo. Aaaa?eou: aeeeia
3083 ii, oe?eia 1792 ii, aunioa 2176 ii. Neaaeothuee i?ioeann – nooay
i/enoea e ioia/eaaiea. Ana aeaeu ?anoeoaeueiiai nu?uey iinooiathuaai ia
caaiae iiaeaa?aathony iieea. A caaeneiinoe io naienoa nu?uey aai aeaeyo
ia aeaa iniiaiua eaoaai?ee e niioaaonoaaiii i?eiaiytho aeaa a?oiiu
iia/iuo iaoei: n iyaeei e aeanoeei ?aaeeiaie iieee. A aeaiiii neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeii onoaiaaeeaaoue iaoeiu n aeanoeeie ?aaeeiaie iieee.

Oaaeeoea 2.13 Oaoie/aneea oa?aeoa?enoeee oieoeoee?iaaiiuo iia/iuo iaoei

IieacaoaeeIa?eaEOIEOAI?iecaiaeeoaeueiinouea o//37-10a
ea/n0.841.9-2.8Nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey i/n0.1260.174?anoiae aiaeu
i.eoa.3aei 10Iiuiinoue aeaeaaoaey
eAo11.7Aaaa?eouaeeeia37453945oe?eia17301545aunioa18401950

oaaeeoea 2.13 (i?iaeieaeaiea)

Aeey iieee eoea i?eiaiyaony aaioeeyoi?iay iia/iay iaoeia. Aeey i/enoee
eoea iiaeii i?eiaiyoue niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue aa?aaao A9-E*O. Yoi iniiaiay
/anoue oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna eioi?ay ianao a naaa ioee/ey o.e.
eaaeaeue aeae i?iaeoeoa o?aaoao naieo iaoiaeia ia?aaioee. A aeaeueiaeoai
i?ioeann eaeao oaea ii iaeiie oaoiieiae/aneie eeiee aieioue aei
?anoaniaee e oeoii?ee.

I?ioeann ?anoaniaee iiiaeo ?acee/iuo ii naiei naienoaai i?iaeoeoia a
eiina?aiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaoaiece?iaai. Ecaanoiu aaoiiaoe/aneea e
iieoaaoiiaoe/aneea iaiieieoaee ?acee/iuo eiino?oeoeee: aeey aeeaeeeo,
ith?aia?aciuo e ayceeo aonouo iann; aeey oaa?aeuo, nuio/eo e ianuio/eo
i?iaeoeoia e oieaa?naeueiua iaiieieoaee. A aeaiiii neo/aa aeey eeiee ii
i?iecaiaenoao eaaa/eiaie ee?u i?eiaiythony iauaiiua iaiieieoaee
ii?oiaaiai oeia, eioi?ua aeice?otho i?iaeoeo a ia?aiauathuothny ii
ie?oaeiinoe oa?o.

Neaaeothuae noaaeeae yaeyaony oeoii?ea. Aa?iaoe/iinoue oeoii?ee
yaeyaony iaeiei ec aaaeiaeoeo oneiaee, iaania/eaathueo nio?aiiinoue
i?iaeoeoia i?e eiina?ae?iaaiee oaieiaui niiniaii. Iaiieiaiiua i?iaeoeoii
aaiee aeieaeiu auoue iaiaaeeaiii aa?iaoe/ii oeoii?aiu. Aeey oeoii?ee
iaoaeee/aneie oa?u i?eiaiytho aaoiiaoe/aneea e iieoaaoiiaoe/aneea
caeaoi/iua iaoeiu. Aa?iaoecaoeeth noaeeyiiuo aaiie inouanoaeytho ia
niaoeeaeueiuo oeoii?i/iuo e caeaoi/iuo iaoeiao , eioi?ua a caaeneiinoe
io eiino?oeoeee iiaoo caeaouaaoue e oeoii?eaaoue aaiee n i?iaeoeoii eae
i?e aoiinoa?iii aeaaeaiee, oae e i?e iaoaie/aneii aaeooia. A aeaiiii
neo/aa aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea caeaoi/iiai aaoiiaoa CE5-1-125. Aai
oa?aeoa?enoeee neaaeothuea:

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue, aaiie a ieiooo…………125

Iiuiinoue i?eaiaea yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaey, eAo………3

Aaaa?eou, ii

aeeeia…………………………..1870

oe?eia………………………….1070

aunioa………………………….2070

Noa?eeecaoeey – caaa?oathuee, iaeaieaa neiaeiue e ioaaonoaaiiue
oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann eiina?aiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Io i?aaeeueiiai
auai?a aai oaoie/aneeo ia?aiao?ia e eo niaethaeaiey caaenyo ia oieueei
i?aaiieaioe/aneea iieacaoaee e ieuaaay oeaiiinoue i?iaeoeoa, ii e
noieeinoue aai a ia?eiae o?aiaiey, aaee/eia aaeoa?eieiae/aneiai a?aea e
naiia aeaaiia aeaeaie/aneay aaciianiinoue i?iaeoeoa i?e oiio?aaeaiee a
ieuo. Ia yoii caeeth/eoaeueiii yoaia aa?iaoe/anee oeoii?aiiua aaiee n
i?iaeoeoii iiaeaa?aathony aeaenoaeth aunieie oaiia?aoo?u aeey
oie/oiaeaiey anao iaoiaeyueony a aaiea n i?iaeoeoii iee?ii?aaieciia.
Noa?eeecaoeeth eiina?aia i?iecaiaeyo a aiia?aoao ia?eiaee/aneiai e
iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey. E aiia?aoai ia?eiaee/aneiai aeaenoaey ioiinyony
aa?oeeaeueiua e ai?eciioaeueiua aaoieeaau. Aaiee a ieo iaiiaeaeaeiu. A
aiia?aoao iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey aaiee iaoiaeyony a iinoiyiiii
aeaeaeaiee. Oaoie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea aaoieeaaia neaaeothuay:

aianoeiinoue aaoieeaaa, e…………….1570

/enei naoie……………………….2

?aai/aa aeaaeaiea, IIa………………0.35

*enei aaiie a naoea

aaiie NEI-83-1………………456

aaiie NEI-83-2………………224

Aaaa?eou, ii

aeeeia………………….2200

oe?eia…………………1350

aunioa…………………2500

Eiiioieeaoeee aaoieeaaiiai ioaeaeaiey , a oae aea ?aciauaiea
iai?oaeiaaiey ii oeaoo e aai aiaoiee aeae iiaeii oaeaeaoue a
i?eeiaeaieyo 4-14.

Ioieo 5.

I?aaiecaoeey i?eaiee e o?aiaiey nu?uey.

Aeinoaaea e o?aiaiea nu?uey aeey i?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony iaiaeiaaaeiie
/anoueth oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna. Io oiai, ia neieueei i?aaeeueii
aoaeao i?aaieciaai i?ioeann o?aiaiey e i?eaiee caaenyo ea/anoai nu?uey e
iieooaa?eeaoia eioi?ua iu iieo/ei ia aoiaea iniiaiiai oaoiieiae/aneiai
i?ioeanna. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi i?eaiea e o?aiaiea nu?uey oaea yaeyaony
ia?aie nooiaiueth oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna.

Iaiue o?ainii?oe?otho a aeiuaouo yueeao ii AINO 10131. Aeiioneaaony
o?ainii?oe?iaaiea ianuiueth eaaa/eia, ii?eiae, eoea, aaoio?ainii?oii
iaania/eaathuei nio?aiiinoue ea/anoaa nu?uey. Oa?a, i?aaeiacia/aiiay
aeey o?ainii?oe?iaaiey nu?uey aeieaeia auoue /enoie, nooie, eni?aaiie,
aac iinoi?iiieo caiaoia.

Iieooaa?eeaou e iaoa?eaeu aeinoaaeytho a o?ainii?oiie oa?a a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ia
eaaeaeue aeae iieooaa?eeaoia e iaoa?eaeia.

I?eaieo nu?uey inouanoaeytho ia?oeyie, ianna eioi?uo ia?aie/eaaaony
iaeiie o?ainii?oiie aaeeieoeae. Eaaeaeay ia?oey nu?uey aeieaeia
nii?iaiaeaeaoueny na?oeoeeaoeeae i niaea?aeaiee oieneeaioia a
i?iaeoeoeee ?anoaieaaiaenoaa e niaethaeaiee ?aaeaiaioa i?eiaiaiey
ianoeoeeaeia. I?e ionoonoaee na?oeoeeaoa eee iaiieiuo aeaiiuo a iai
ia?oey nu?uey i?eaiea ia iiaeeaaeeo. Ianno nu?uey ii?aaeaeytho
acaaoeaaieai. Ea/anoai nu?uey, iieooaa?eeaoia e iaoa?eaeia ioeaieaatho a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie ii?iaoeaii-oaoie/aneie aeieoiaioaoeee ia
eaaeaeue aeae nu?uey oaoiieiae/aneie eino?oeoeee. Nu?uea, iieooaa?eeaou
e iaoa?eaeu, ia ioaa/athuea onoaiiaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi, a i?iecaiaenoai
ia aeiioneathony. O?aiyo nu?uea ia ioe?uoie nu?ueaaie ieiuaaeea i?e
oaiia?aoo?a ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu eee a oieiaeeeueiuo eaia?ao. O?aiaiea
i?iecaiaeeony a niioaaonoaee n oneiaeyie oaaeeoeu 2.14.

Oaaeeoea 2.14 Ia?aiao?u o?aiaiey nu?uey

I?aaeaeueiua n?iee o?aiaieyOneiaey o?aiaieyia nu?ueaaie ieiuaaeea /an.Ia
ioeaaeaeaiiii neeaaea noo.oaiia?aoo?aaeaaeiinoue
%Eaaa/ee36100-285-95Ii?eiaue721800-285-95Eoe72180-2-275-85Caeaiue16150-2
85-95

Auno?icaii?iaeaiioth caeaiue o?aiyo aei ia?a?aaioee a oieiaeeeueiuo
eaia?ao i?e oaiia?aoo?a -18+-2 a?aaeona e ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe
aicaeooa 90-95% ia aieaa 10 ianyoeaa. I?e aeinoaaea nu?uey ianuiueth
aeey o?aiaiey aai caa?oaeatho a yueee eee yue/iua iiaeaeiiu. Nu?uea
o?aiyo a oie oa?a, a eioi?ie iii aeinoaaeaii. ssueee n nu?ueai
onoaiaaeeaatho ii ia?oeyi ooaaaeyie a oaoiaoiii ii?yaeea aunioie ia
aieaa 2 i ia noaeeaaeao aunioie 25-30 ni io iiea. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo
ooaaaeyie aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 10 ni aeey aaioeeyoeee. ssue/iua
iiaeaeiiu onoaiaaeeaathony ia aieaa, /ai a 3 y?ona. Iaaeaeo ?yaeaie
yueeia e iiaeaeiiia aeieaeiu auoue i?ioiaeu aeey naiaiaeiiai aeinooia e
eaaeaeie ia?oee.

I?e ia?a?aaioea iaiaoiaeeii no?iai niaethaeaoue i/a?aaeiinoue
iinooieaiey nu?uey ia i?iecaiaenoai n o/aoii aai ea/anoaa, aeey /aai
eaaeaeoth ia?oeth nu?uey niaaaeatho y?eueii n oeacaieai ni?oa, aeaou e
a?aiaie iinooieaiey ia i?aaei?eyoea. Iai?ioioth oa?o aeey nu?uey iitho,
i?iia?eaatho e ia?aaaouaatho ?anoai?ii oei?iiai i?aia?aoa, niaea?aeauaai
500 ia/aei.eoa. aeoeaiiai oei?a, a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
“Eino?oeoeee ii naieoa?iie ia?aaioea oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey ia
ieiaeiiaiuiuo eiina?aiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo”, ooaa?aeaeaiiie IIIO 23.03.82.
Iinea ia?aaioee oa?o i?inooeaatho e oeeaaeuaatho a ooaaaey.

?an/ao iniiaiuo

oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo iieacaoaeae i?iaeoa

Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey

A ?acoeueoaoa aiaeeca eiee/anoaa iaiaoiaeeiiai e aeinoaoi/iiai aeey
nicaeaiey iioi/iie eeiee iai?oaeiaaiey, auea iieo/aia aioo?aiiyy
no?oeoo?a oaoiieiae/aneie eeiee. A oaaeeoea 2.11 i?eaaaeai iiae?iaiue
nienie iniiaiiai e aeiiieieoaeueiiai iai?oaeiaaiey.

I?e nicaeaiee iioi/iie eeiee ii i?iecaiaenoao aeaiiiai aeaea
i?iaeoeoeee iaiaoiaeeii ia ia?aii yoaia i?iaanoe iieoieo oaoieee e
iai?oaeiaaiey, a oaeaea nicaeaoue ?aca?aiue oiiae, eioi?ue aoaeao
?anoiaeiaaoueny ia iiaeaea?aeaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe eiiaaea?a, iiea ii
ia ia?aeaeao ia naiiieoiaaiinoue e ia ia/iao i?eiineoue i?eaueue.

Enoiaey ec on?aaeiaiiie oeaiu ia iai?oaeiaaiea a 7000 a?. ca iaeei
aa?aaao iieo/aai i?eaeeceoaeueioth noieiinoue eeiee ?aaioth 182 000 a?.

Oaeouea cao?aou e naaanoieiinoue oneoa

E?iia eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iieoiee iai?oaeiaaiey,
aeey onoaiiaee yoie eeiee o?aaothony oaeouea (aaeaiany/iua) cao?aou. Iie
neeaaeuaathony ec ianeieueeeo ninoaaeythueo:

– oiiae ca?aaioiie ieaou;

– iieaoa yeaeo?iyia?aee

– aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu.

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii eaaeaeue ec ioieoia.

Ca?aaioiay ieaoa.

Aeey iaania/aiey yooaeoeaiie ?aaiou iioi/iie eeiee iaiaoiaeeii

iaee/ea neaaeothueo aeieaeiinoae:

– oaoiieia (1 /aeiaae)

– ?aai/ee ia eiiaaea?a einiaeoeee; (12 /aeiaae)

– ?aai/ee ia eiiaaea?a aei/enoee;(4 /aeiaaea)

– ?aai/ee ia iia?oci-?aca?oci/iuo iaoeiao;(2 /aeiaaea)

– ?aai/ee ii ?aiiioo e ianeoaeeaaieth(2 /aeiaaea)

Cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo ninoaayo:

oaoiieia110 a??aai/ee ia eiiaaea?a einiaeoeee50 a? * 12 =600 a??aai/ee
ia eiiaaea?a aei/enoee50 a? * 4 =200 a??aai/ee ia iia?ocea60 a? * 2 =120
a??aai/ee ii ?aiiioo70 a? * 2 =140 a?

Iauee ?acia? ca?aaioiie ieaou ninoaaeo 1060 a?. Io/eneaiey io oiiaea
ca?aaioiie ieaou ninoaayo 1060 * 0.37=392.2 a?.

E iei ioiinyony:

– ieaoa ca yeaeo?iyia?aeth

– ieaoa ca caianiua /anoe e niaci/iua iaoa?eaeu aeey i?iaaaeaiey II?

– aii?oecaoeey iniiaiuo oiiaeia. Ni a?aiaiai, iniiaiua oiiaeu
eciaoeaathony e o?aaotho caiaiu. Iiyoiio, ethaia i?aaei?eyoea, eiathuaa
iniiaiua oiiaeu, iaycaii i?iecaiaeeoue aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey. Ii
enoa/aieth n?iea neoaeau iniiaiuo oiiaeia n?aaenoaa, iaeiieaiiua a
aii?oecaoeeiiiii oiiaea, ?anoiaeothony ia i?eia?aoaiea iiauo oiiaeia. Ii
iaeiaiaiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ii?ia aii?oecaoeeiiiuo io/eneaiee
ninoaaeyao 10% a aiae io noieiinoe iai?oaeiaaiey. Iineieueeo y
?ann/eouaath aaeaiany/iua ?anoiaeu, oi iia ioaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
aaeaiany/iua io/eneaiey a aii?oecaoeeiiiue oiiae.

10% / 12 ianyoeaa = 0.83% a ianyoe

I?e noieiinoe iniiaiuo oiiaeia 182000 a? aaeaiany/iua io/eneaiey
ninoaayo

182000 * 0.0083 = 1510.6 a?

Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii ?ann/eouaaaony iaeia ia eiouanoai.

Aai noaaea 1.5% a aiae. A ianyoe ii ninoaaeyao

1.5 / 12 = 0.125% a ianyoe

?ann/eouaaaony ii io noieiinoe eiouanoaa. Oaeei ia?acii aaeaiany/iua
io/eneaiey iaeiaa ia eiouanoai ninoaaeytho

182000 * 0.00125 = 227.5 a?

Iaiaoiaeeii oae aea o/anoue ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee e noieiinoue nu?uey e
iieooaa?eeaoia. ?anoiae yia?aee iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue ii oaaeeoea 3.1.

Oaaeeoea 3.1 ?anoiae yia?aee i?e ?aaioa iai?oaeiaaiey

Iai?oaeiaaiea?anoiae yia?aee, eAo//1.O?ainii?oa? einiaeoeeiiiue0.62.
Eaeea?iaaoaeue13. Aaioeeyoi?iua i/enoeoaee14. Aa?aaaiii-iia/iay
iaoeia1.15. Ia?ioa?ie/aneay ia?aaioea16. Ia?acea1.77. Ae?iaeaiea3.28.
Iaaea?i/iay ia/ue5.29. Iia/iay iaoeia0.610. Nianeoaeue211.
Iaiieieoaeue1.7

Oaeei ia?acii ?anoiae yia?aee ninoaaeo (ni oaaeeoeo 3.2)

Oaaeeoea 3.2 ?an/ao ?anoiaea yia?aee i?e ?aaioa eeiee ca 1 /an

Eeiey iioiea?anoiae a /an, eAo//?anoiae a niaio,
eAo//17.854.627.955.3312.184.7

Noiia?iue ?anoiae yeaeo?iyia?aee ninoaaeo 194.6 eAo a ?aai/oth niaio.

Iieaoa ca yia?aeth aeey ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey ninoaaeo

194.6*0.18=35.028 a?.

?ann/eoaai noieiinoue enoiaeiiai nu?uey. Aeaiiua i?eaaaeaiu a oaaeeoea
3.3.

Oaaeeoea 3.3. Noieiinoue iniiaiiai nu?uey eniieuecoaiiai a
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Nu?ueaIaiaoiaeeiay ianna, eaNoieiinoue 1 eaNoieiinoue nu?uey ia
niaioEaaa/ee12134.80.11213,48Ii?eiaue22500.1225Eoe10000.0550Caeaiue937.5
0.0328,125Ianei9000.2180I?yiinoe3600.0518Ianoa-oiiao9000.0518Ioea9000.19
0Aeoniaua aeiaaaee5400.0737,8Eoiai19922.30.751860,405

Oaeei ia?acii iu iiaeai iin/eoaoue i?eaeeceoaeueioth naaanoieiinoue
i?iaeoeoeee auoiaeyuae n iaoaai eiiaaea?a. Aeey yoiai ioaeii neiaeeoue
cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo, io/eneaiey io oiiaea ca?aaioiie ieaou,
aii?oecaoeeiiiua io/eneaiey, noieiinoue ?anoiaeiuo iaoa?eaeia e
io/eneaiey iaeiaa ia eiouanoai. A ?acoeueoaoa iu iieo/aai noiio 1060 +
392.2 + 1510.6 + 227.5 + (35.028 + 1860.405)*24 = 48680.692 a? a ianyoe.
I?e ieaiiaii auionea ii eeiee a 30000 aaiie a niaio naaanoieiinoue
iaeiie aaiee ninoaaeo 0.85 a?.

Aeioiaeiinoue eeiee

Neaaeothuei yoaiii a ?an/aoa oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneiai iainiiaaiey
yaeyaony ?an/ao au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

I?e ?an/aoa oneiaii i?eiyoi, /oi ca niaio eeiey auioneaao 30000 oneiaiuo
aaiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii n eaaeaeie ia?oee ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee (ii 30000
aaiie a ia?oee ii noieiinoe 0.9 a?) eiaao au?o/eo a ?acia?a

30000 * 0.9 = 27000 a?

Aaeiaay i?eaueue ii anae eeiee ioeaieaaaony eae:

Ia = A?i – N?i, aaea

A?i – au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee

N?i – naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee

Ciay, /oi A?i=27000, a N?i=0.85, iieo/aai, /oi

Ia = 27000 – 25500 = 1500 a?

N yoie noiiu io/eneyaony iaeia ia i?eaueue 30%.

Ii?ea = 1500 * 0.30 = 450

?acieoea iaaeaeo iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie i?eaueueth e iaeiaii ia i?eaueue
iacuaaaony inoaoi/iie i?eaueueth (Ii). Iia ?aaia:

Ii = 1500 – 450 = 1050

Yoa i?eaueue inoaaony a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey e ?anoiaeoaony ia

ethaua oeaee.

Iinea caaa?oaiey ?an/aoia /enoie i?eauee iaiaoiaeeii ioeaieoue
yooaeoeaiinoue eaieoaeueiuo aeiaeaiee. Iniiaiui iieacaoaeai
yooaeoeaiinoe eiaanoeoeee n/eoaaony ia?eiae eo ieoiaaiinoe. Aeey aai
?an/aoa ainiieuecoainy iaoiaeeeie, iniiaaiiie ia ii?aaeaeaiee /enoie
i?eaaaeaiiie aaee/eiu aeioiaea (*IAAe).

Yoa aaee/eia ?aaiyaony ?acieoea, iaaeaeo i?eaaaeaiiui oeiainiaui
?acoeueoaoii eiaanoeoeee (?) e i?eaaaeaiiie aaee/eiie cao?ao (C).

*IAAe = ? – C

Aeey ia/aea ii?aaeaeei i?eaaaeaiioth aaee/eio cao?ao. Yoio oa?iei
iiae?acoiaaaao oio oaeo, /oi i?e eiaanoe?iaaiee n?aaenoa a eaeie-eeai
i?iaeo iaeuecy n/eoaoue noiio eiaanoeoeee iinoiyiiie ia i?ioyaeaiee
anaai ia?eiaea ieoiaaiinoe i?iaeoa. Aeaei a oii, /oi, eae i?aaeei, aeey
inouanoaeaiey i?iaeoa i?aaei?eyoea aa?ao aaieianeee e?aaeeo iiae
ii?aaeaeaiiue i?ioeaio. Iiyoiio i?e aica?aoa acyoiai e?aaeeoa,
i?aaei?eyoea aoaeao iaycai caieaoeoue e i?ioeaio ii e?aaeeoo. Oaeei
ia?acii, iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi noiia cao?a/aiiay ia eaieoaeueiua
aeiaeaiey iinoiyiii ?anoao.

Noaaea aaethoiiai e?aaeeoa ninoaaeyao 2% a ianyoe. Yoi ?aaeueiay noaaea
aaieianeeo e?aaeeoia. I?eiaiei aa aeey ?an/aoa i?eaaaeaiiie aaee/eiu
cao?ao.

Ec i?aaeuaeoueo ?an/aoia iai ecaanoii, /oi noiia eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao
ninoaaeyao 182 000 a?.

Iaeiaei ii enoa/aiee ianyoea, iinea acyoey e?aaeeoa, yoa noiia
oaaee/eaaaony ia 2% e ninoaaeyao

182 000 * 1.02 = 185640 a?

A neaaeothuai ianyoea yoa noiia oaaee/eony aua ia 2% e ninoaaeo oaea

185640 * 1.02 = 189352.8 a?

Yoio i?ioeann oaaee/aiey noiiu aoaeao i?iaeieaeaoueny, iiea i?aaei?eyoea
ia aa?iao aaieo e?aaeeo e i?ioeaiou ii iaio.

Ae?oaeie neiaaie, aeaiiay noaia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?an/ao

neiaeiuo i?ioeaioia ii e?aaeeoo.

Oaia?ue ii?aaeaeei iiiyoea i?eaaaeaiiue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao. Nai
oa?iei, oaeaea eae e oa?iei “i?eaaaeaiiay aaee/eia cao?ao”,
iiae?acoiaaaao a naaa i?ioeann oaaee/aiey iieo/aiiiai ?acoeueoaoa ni
a?aiaiai. Aeaei a oii, /oi iieo/ea i?eaueue, i?aaei?eyoeth ia auaiaeii
o?aieoue aeaiueae ia ?an/aoiii n/aoa. Eaieoae aeieaeai ?aaioaoue e
i?eiineoue i?eaueue. A ea/anoaa i?eauee io eniieueciaaiey eaieoaea, y
?anniao?eaath aeioiae ii aaethoiiio aeaiiceoiiio aeeaaeo n?ieii ia 1
ianyoe, eioi?ue ninoaaeyao 1.5% a ianyoe. Oaeie aa?eaio eniieueciaaiey
eaieoaea ia o?aaoao ieeaeeo cao?ao ni noi?iiu i?aaei?eyoey.

Iinea ia?aiai ianyoea ?aaiou aoaeao iieo/aia i?eaueue 25200 a?. Yoe
n?aaenoaa aoaeoo iieiaeaiu ia aeaiiceoiue aeeaae iiae 1.5% a ianyoe.
Nionoy aua iaeei ianyoe, noiia aeeaaea oaaee/eony aei

25200 * 1.015 = 25578 a?

Iaeiaei ca yoio ianyoe i?aaei?eyoeai nayce aoaeao iieo/aia aua i?eaueue
a ?acia?a 1050 a?. Oaeei ia?acii noiia?iay i?eaueue oaea ninoaaeyao

1050 + 25578 = 26628

Yoe n?aaenoaa aoaeoo iiyoue iieiaeaiu ia aeaiiceoiue aeeaae.

Oaeay noaia aoaeao iiaoi?youeny eaaeaeue ianyoe. A ?acoeueoaoa iu

iieo/aai i?eaaaeaiiue oeiainiaue ?acoeueoao.

Oaia?ue aa?iainy e iieacaoaeth /enoie i?eaaaeaiiie aaee/eiu

aeioiaea. Eae oaea aiai?eeinue, yoi anoue ?acieoea iaaeaeo i?eaaaeaiiuie
?acoeueoaoaie e cao?aoaie.

Eiaanoeoeee n/eoathony ieoieaoeie naay a oii neo/aa e a oio iiiaio,
eiaaea *IAAe noaiiaeony aieueoa ioey. Iinea yoiai i?aaei?eyoea iiaeao
aa?iooue e?aaeeo aaieo e i?iaeieaeaoue aeayoaeueiinoue n i?eaueueth aeey
naay.

Ia ?enoiea 2.1 i?aaenoaaeaiu a?aoeee i?eaaaeaiiuo oeiainiauo
?acoeueoaoia e cao?ao. Ia?aiia/aeueii ?acoeueoao iaiueoa /ai cao?aou, ii
ii ia?a ?aaiou ocea ?acieoea iaaeaeo yoeie iieacaoaeyie nie?auaaony e a
oi/ea ia?ana/aiey aeaoo a?aoeeia ianooiaao iiiaio ieoiaaiinoe
eiaanoeoeee.

Ciay i?eaueue i?aaei?eyoey ca ianyoe iiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue ia?eiae
ieoiaaiinoe. Ii ninoaaeo 182000/25200=7.2 ianyoea.

CAEETH*AIEA

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ioeann oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee i?iecaiaenoaa noae
oai yeaiaioii eioi?iio iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeyoue oaeia aea na?ueaciia
aieiaiea eae e aecian-ieaio eee ethaiio ae?oaiio i?ioeanno naycaiiiio n
i?aaiecaoeeae i?aaei?eyoey, a oi a?aiy eae aua nianai iaaeaaii yoi auei
i?a?iaaoeaie ?acee/iuo eiino?oeoi?neeo ath?i e IEE eioi?ua ?ac?aaaouaaee
oaoiieiaee ia iniai i?eaioe?oynue ia ?uiie nauoa, oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa
e o.ae. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi a ianoiyuaa a?aiy n iaeiie noi?iiu
auno?uie oaiiaie ?acaeaaaony iaeeee e n?aaeiee aecian, a n ae?oaie
noi?iiu ia iao ?uiie oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey i?i?aaeenue
ca?oaaaeiua i?iecaiaeeoaee eioi?ua i?aaeeaaatho oe?ieee anni?oeiaio
?acee/iuo oaoiieiae/aneeo eeiee aeeth/ay eo onoaiiaeo e ianeoaeeaaiea.
Yoi i?aaeiieaaaao oi, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue aeieaeai auoue iciaeiieai n
iniiaiui oaoiieiae/aneei i?ioeannii ii i?iecaiaenoao i?iaeoeoeee e /aoei
i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa n eaeeie oeiaie oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey aio
i?aaenoieo ?aaioaoue e eaeea aeey yoiai iio?aaothony ?ano?nu. Iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi a ianoiyuee iiiaio i?ioeann oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?aoa?iae iaeioi?ua eciaiaiey e a aieueoeinoaa io?aneae i?iecaiaenoaa
(iniaaiii a eaaeie e ieuaaie) aeinoaoi/ii i?iaanoe oi?iooth
oaoiieiae/aneoth iiaeaioiaeo i?iecaiaenoaa, a noaoai oaoie/aneoth /anoue
i?aaeinoaaeoue iinoaaueeai iai?oaeiaaiey.

Oaoiieiae/aneay eeiey iienaiiay a aeaiiie ?aaioa ooieoeeiie?oao ia aaca
ioa/anoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey e?iia oiai, aa iiaeii iiioe?iaaoue i?yii ia
ianoa i?iecaiaenoaa n/o i?iaeoeoeee, o.a. ia?a?aaaouaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth
n?aco aea. Yoi aeaao ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aeiouanoaa o.e. cia/eoaeueii
oi?iuaaony aii?in i oaoie/aneii ianeoaeeaaiee, niaaaeaiee caianiuie
/anoyie e o.ae. Inoaaony oieueei aeaeaoue, /oiau ioa/anoaaiiua
i?iecaiaeeoaee iai?oaeiaaiey auoee ia oio aea o?iaaiue, /oi e
ca?oaaaeiua.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u eniieuecoaiie i?e

iaienaiee ?aaiou.

1. A.I.Iaeueneee, A.E.Ecioia “Iaiuiua caeoni/iua eiina?au” I. Ieuaaay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue 1979.

2. A.E. Iaca?iaa, A.O. Oai-THia “Oaoiieiaey ieiaeiiaiuiuo eiina?aia” I.
Eaaeay e ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 1981.

3. I.ss. Aeeeen, A.I. Iaeueneee “Oaoiieiae/aneia iai?oaeiaaiea
eiina?aiuo caaiaeia” I. Ieuaaay i?iiuoeaiiinoue 1969

4. “I?aaiecaoeey, ieaie?iaaiea e oi?aaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiui
i?aaei?eyoeai”, o/aaiee aeey AOCia I. 1982

5. A.ss.Ai?oeieaeue, A.I. Eoi?eyiiaa “Yeiiiieea i?aaei?eyoey: o/aaiee
aeey AOCia” I. 1996.

6. I.I Oeiioei, A.A. Eaaaaeue “Yeiiiieea e i?aaiecaoeey i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa” 2-ecae. I. 1987

7. E.Ae. Eaaiia “I?aaiecaoeey e ieaie?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa ia
i?aaei?eyoeyo ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe” I. 1978

8. I.E.Iiiia ,TH.A. Eieiaaaa “Yeiiiieea ieuaaie i?iiuoeaiiinoe” 2-a
ecaeaiea I. 1982

9. A.O. Aa?aee/aaneee, A.E. Ea?naeei “Oaoiieiae/aneia i?iaeoe?iaaiea
i?aaei?eyoee iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey” Eeaa AO 1979.

10. Oaoiieiae/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey iaaecaaiaeneie eaai?aoi?ee
i?aaei?eyoey “IAI eiina?aiue caaiae ei Ee?iaa”.

I?eeiaeaiey

I?eeiaeaiea 1

IANssOeUIaeiaiiaaiea ?aaio (eiae a NIO)?aai/ea aeie

yiaa?ue

oaa?aeue

ia?o

ai?aeue

iae

ethiueNinoaaeaiea oaoie/aneiai caaeaiey (0-1)

10 Ninoaaeaiea oaoie/aneiai i?iaeoa (1-3)

11Ninoaaeaiea ?aai/aai i?iaeoa (3-4)

12I?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneie inianoee, eino?oiaioa (4-6)

15Ecaioiaeaiea i?eniiniaeaiee e eino?oiaioia (6-8)

9Ecaioiaeaiea iiuoiiai ia?acoea (8-9)

25I?iaeoe?iaaiea oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia (9-10)

11?an/ao oaoiieiae/aneie o?oaeiaieinoe (10-11)

5?ac?aaioea iaoa?eaeueiie niaoeeoeeaoeee (11-12)

5Eniuoaiea iiuoiiai ia?acoea (12-14) 7Aei?aaioea ?aai/aai i?iaeoa aeey
na?eeiiai i?iecaiaenoaa (14-15)

10Ioeaaeea oaoiieiae/aneiai eiiieaena iai?oaeiaaiey e inianoee (15-16)

25Ecaioiaeaiea ia?aie i?iiuoeaiiie na?ee (16-17)

7

A?aoee 1. Eeiaeiue eaeaiaea?iue a?aoee oaoie/aneie iiaeaioiaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?eeiaeaiea 2. Ea?oa oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna

Ea?oa oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia

(ei?iaieiaeu)

Ni?oe?iaea

Iieea

I/enoea

Einiaeoeey

Iiieaneeaaiea

?acea

I?inaeaaiea

Iaaea?ea

A iniiaiie iioie

I?eeiaeaiea 3. Ea?oa oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna

Ea?oa oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia

(iniiaiia nu?uea)

Einiaeoeey

Iieea

I/enoea

Einiaeoeey e aei/enoea

Iiieaneeaaiea

?acea

Iaaea?ea

Eciaeue/aiea

Niaoeaaiea

Iiaeia?aa a nianeoaea

Iiaea/a ia ?anoaniaeo

Aa?iaoecaoeey

Noa?eeecaoeey

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019