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NIAeA?AEAIEA

EENO

Aaaaeaiea

Enoiaeiua aeaiiua

1. Aeaaiua ?acia?u aeaeaaoaey

2. Aeiiieieoaeueiua ?acia?u

3. Iaiioea yei?y

4. Iacu yei?y iieocae?uoua, iaaeueiua

5. ?acia?u naeoeee e nii?ioeaeaiea iaiioee yei?y

6. ?an/ao iaaieoiie oeaie

7. Iaiioea aiaoaeaeaiey

8. Iaiioea aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia

9. ?aciauaiea iaiioie aeaaiuo e aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia

10. Uaoee e eieeaeoi?

11. ?an/ao eiiiooaoeee

12. Iioa?e e EIAe

13. ?aai/ea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaaoaey

14. Oaieiaie ?an/ao

E 558. 180111. 000

Eci Eeno ? Aeieoiaioa Iaeienue Aeaoa

?ac?aaioae Naiooeia

Yeaeo?e/aneea Eeoa?a Eeno Eenoia

I?iaa?ee Aiin

iaoeiu o

I. Eiio?.

NIYOE

Aaaaeaiea:

Yeaeo?iiaoeiino?iaiea – yoi iniiaiay io?aneue yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ecaioaaeeaathuay aaia?aoi?u aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
yeaeo?iyia?aee e yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaee aeey i?eaiaea noaieia e iaoaieciia.

Iniiaiui aeinoeaeaieai a iaeanoe oo?aiaaia?aoi?ino?iaiey yaeyaony
?ac?aaioea e inaiaiea a i?iecaiaenoaa oo?aiaaia?aoi?a iiuiinoueth 500,
800,

1200 Ao.

A iaeanoe aeae?iaaia?aoi?a no?iaiey aanueia aaaeiuie aeinoeaeaieyie
yaeyaony niaea?aeaiea iiuiuo aaia?aoi?ia n aunieeie oaoiieiae/aneeie
iieacaieyie.

Aeinoeaioou oniaoe a i?iecaiaenoaa e?oiiuo yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeae.
?ac?aaioaiu e inaiaiu a i?iecaiaenoaa aaeeiua na?ee yeaeo?e/aneea
iaoeiu: na?ey o?aooaciuo aneio?iiiuo aeaeaaoaeae 4A e na?ee iaoei
iinoiyiiiai oiea 2I.

I?iaeoe?iaaiea yeaeo?e/aneie iaoeiu – yoi neiaeiay eiiieaeniay caaea/a,
aeeth/athuay ?an/ao e auai? ?acia?ia noaoi?a, ?ioi?a e ae?oaeo
yeaeo?e/aneeo iaoei e eiino?oe?iaaiee noaoae e nai?i/iuo aaeeieoe n
iineaaeothuae eiiiiiiaeie yeaeo?e/aneeo iaoei a oeaeii.

Aeaaiie caaea/ae yeaeo?iiaoeiino?iaiey yaeyaony nicaeaiea iiauo
ia?acoeia yeaeo?e/aneeo iaoei n aunieeie oaoiieiae/aneeie iieacaoaeyie,
niaa?oaiiuo a yenieoaoaoeee, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo ?acee/iui o?aaiaaieyi.

?AN*AO AeAEAAOAEss IINOIssIIIAI OIEA

Enoiaeiua aeaiiua:

iiieiaeueiay iiuiinoue Piii=3 eAo;

iiieiaeueiia iai?yaeaiea naoe Uiii=220 A;

iiieiaeueiay /anoioa a?auaiey niii=1500 ia/iei;

aunioa ine a?auaiey h=250 ii;

noaiaiue caueou IP22;

niinia ioeaaeaeaiey IC01;

niinia aicaoaeaeaiey – ia?aeeaeueiia n iineaaeiaaoaeueiie
noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeie;

iaeneiaeueiay /anoioa a?auaiey nmax=2200 ia/iei;

eeann iaa?aainoieeinoe ecieyoeee F;

?aaeei ?aaiou – i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue.

1. Aeaaiua ?acia?u aeaeaaoaey

1.1. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea EIAe i?e iiieiaeueiie iaa?ocea

h’iii = 0,755

1.2. ?an/aoiay iiuiinoue aeaeaaoaey

Pi = kae / Piii = 1,07 / 3 = 2,8 eAo,

aaea kae = 1,07.

1.3. Ia?oaeiue aeeaiao? yei?y e /enei aeaaiuo iiethnia

D2 = 112 ii; 2p = 4.

1.4. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa iiethniiai ia?ae?uoey i?e

2p = 4 e D2 = 112 ii a’i =0,65.

1.5. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea iaeneiaeueiie iaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee a
aicaeooiii caci?a

B’d = 0,58 Oe.

1.6. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea eeiaeiie iaa?ocee

A’2 = 210 102 A/i.

1.7. ?an/aoiay aeeeia na?aea/ieea yei?y

6,1 1012 Pi 6,1 1012 2,8

li = _________________________________ =
__________________________________________ = 114 ii.

k’a k’ia a’i niii D22 B’d A’2 1 1 0,65 1500 1122 0,58 210 102

1.8. Eiyooeoeeaio aeeeiu na?aea/ieea yei?y

l = li / D2 = 114 / 112 = 1,02,

/oi iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo cia/aiee.

1.9. Aioo?aiiee aeeaiao? na?aea/ieea yei?y

D2ai = 0,31 D2 = 0,31 112 = 39,2.

2. Aeiiieieoaeueiua ?acia?u

2.1. A niioaaonoaee n oaaeeoeae i?eieiaai: ia?ea yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie
noaee na?aea/ieea yei?y – 2013; oi?ia iacia ia yei?a – iieocae?uoua
iaaeueiua (ni.?en. 1); oei iaiioee yei?y – anuiiay.

?en. 1.

2.2. A niioaaonoaee n oaaeeoeae i?aaeoniao?eaaai a na?aea/ieea yei?y
aeneaeueiua aaioeeyoeeiiiua eaiaeu a iaeei ?yae,

/enei eaiaeia ne2 = 0,

aeeaiao? iaeiiai eaiaea de2 = 0.

2.3. Eiino?oeoeaiay aeeeia na?aea/ieea yei?y

l2 = li = 114 ii.

2.4. Aicaeooiue caci? yenoeaio?e/iue. Ii ?enoieo i?eieiaai

d = 0,9 ii,

oiaaea

dmax = 0,9 / 1,5 = 0,6 ii;

dmin = 0,9 2 = 1,8 ii.

2.5. Aeeeia na?aea/ieea aeaaiiai iiethna

lm = l2 = 114 ii.

2.6. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea auniou aeaaiiai iiethna

hm = 40 ii.

2.7. Iiethniia aeaeaiea

t = p D2 / 2p = 3,14 112 / 4 = 88 ii.

2.8. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a na?aea/ieea aeaaiiai iiethna

Bm = 1,65 Oe.

2.9. Oe?eia na?aea/ieea aeaaiiai iiethna

B ’d a’i t s’ 0,58 0,65 88 1,2

bm = _______________ = _______________________ = 24 ii.

k’c1 Bm
0,98 1,65

2.10. Oe?eia aunooia iiethniiai iaeiia/ieea aeaaiiai iiethna

bmi = 0,10 bm = 1,10 24 ~ 2 ii.

2.11. Aunioa iiethniiai iaeiia/ieea a iniiaaiee aunooia

B ’d 0,58

hm = ___________ (bp – bm)= _________________ (57 – 24)= 7 ii,

1,67 Bm 1,67 1,65

aaea aeeeia iiethniiai iaeiia/ieea

bp = a’i t = 0,65 88 = 57 ii.

2.12. Na?aea/ieee aeaaiuo e aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia ecaioaaeeaaai ec
yeaeo?ioaoie/aneie noaee ia?ee 3411 oieueiie 1 ii (kc = 0,98).

2.13. Aeeeia na?aea/ieea aeiaaai/iiai iiethna

lae = l2 = 114 ii.

2.14. Oe?eia na?aea/ieea aeiaaai/iiai iiethna

bae = 20 ii.

*enei aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia

2pae = 4.

2.15. Aicaeooiue caci? iaaeaeo yei?ai e aeiaaai/iui iiethnii

dae = 3 ii.

2.16. Aeeeia noaieiu

lc1 = l2 + kl t = 114 + 0,65 88 = 171 ii,

aaea kl = 0,65. Iaoa?eae noaieiu – noaeue ia?ee No3.

2.17. Oieueia noaieiu

B’d a’i t s ’ l2 0,58 0,65 88
1,2 114

hc1 = ___________________ = ___________________________ ~ 10,3 ii,

2 Bc1 lc1 2
1,28 171

aaea Bc1 = 1,28 Oe.

2.18. Aioo?aiiee aeeaiao? noaieiu

D1ai = D2 + 2dmin + 2hm + 2d = 112 + 2 0,6 + 2 40 + 2 0,9 = 195 ii.

2.19. Ia?oaeiue aeeaiao? noaieiu

D1 = D1ai + 2hc1 = 195 + 2 10,3 = 215,6 ii.

3. Iaiioea yei?y

3.1. Iiieiaeueiue oie yei?y

Piii 103 3 103

I2iii = _______________ (1 – ki) = ______________ (1 – 0,1) = 16 A,

h’iii Uiii
0,755 220

Oae eae I2iii < 700 A, oi a niioaaonoaee n oaaeeoeae i?eieiaai i?inooth aieiiaoth iaiioeo yei?y 2a2 = 2.3.2. I?eieiaai coaoeiaia aeaeaieat2 = 15 ii.3.3. *enei iacia yei?yz2 = p D2 / t2 = 3,14 112 / 15 = 23 iaca,/oi oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi oaaeeoeu.3.4. *enei yooaeoeaiuo i?iaiaeieeia a iaiioea yei?yN2 = A’2 p D2 2a2 / I’2iii 103 = 210 102 3,14 112 2 / 16 103 = 923.I?eieiaaiN2 =920,oiaaeaN2 / z2 = 920 / 23 = 40.3.5. Aeeaiao? eieeaeoi?aDe = 0,80 D2 = 0,80 112 = 90 ii,/oi niioaaonoaoao noaiaea?oiiio cia/aieth De .Iaeneiaeueiay ie?oaeiay nei?inoue ia eieeaeoi?avmax = p De nmax / 60 103 = 3,14 78 1500 / 60 103 = 7 i/n,/oi ia i?aauoaao aeiioneaaiiai cia/aiey 40 i/n.3.6. Ninoaaeyai oaaeeoeo aa?eaioia.Oae eae iai?yaeaiea Ue ia aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 16 A, i?eieiaai? Aa?eaioa Ui K=Ui z2 De, ii te , ii N2Wc2= _____2K Ue ,A5 115 90 3,0 4 7,63.7. Oaae iaiioee yei?y:ia?aue /anoe/iue oaa ii yei?thy1 = (zy / 2p) + e = (115 / 4 ) + 0,25 = 29;oaa iaiioee ii eieeaeoi?oye = (K + 1) / p = (115 + 1) / 2 = 57;oaa iaiioee ii ?aaeueiui iacaiyz = (z2 / 2p) + e = (23 / 4) + 0,25 = 6.3.8. Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea eeiaeiie iaa?oceeN2 I2iii 920 16A2 = ________________ = ____________________ = 209 10 2 A/i2a2 p D2 10-3 2 3,14 112 10-3aaeaN2 = 2Ui z2 wc2 = 2 5 23 4 = 920.4. Iacu yei?y iieocae?uoua iaaeueiua4.1. *anoioa ia?aiaaie/eaaiey yei?yf2 = p niii / 60 = 2 1500 / 60 = 50 Aoe.4.2. Oe?eia coaoea yei?y a aai iniiaaieebz2min = B ’d t2 / kc2 B ’z2max = 15 0,58 / 0,95 2,3 = 3,98 ii,aaeaBz2max = 2,3 Oe.4.3. Aunioa coaoea yei?yhz2 = 21 ii.4.4. Aunioa nieiee yei?yD2 - D2ai (112 - 39)hc2 = _____________ - hz2 = _______________ - 21= 15,5 ii.2 24.5. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a nieiea yei?yB’d a’i t 0,58 0,65 88Bn2 = _________________________ = _________________________________ = 0,78 Oe.2kc2 (hc2 - __ de2) 2 0,95 (15,5 - __ 0)4.6. Oe?eia iacap (A2 - 2 hz2) 3,14 (112 - 2 19)bi2 = __________________ - bz2min = ____________________ - 3,86 = 6,24 ii.z2 234.7. Aeeaiao? iaiueoae ie?oaeiinoe iacap (D2 - 2hz2) - z2 bz2 3,14 (112 - 2 0,8) - 23 3,98di2 = _____________________________ = ____________________________________________ = 5,46 ii.z2 - p 23 - 3,144.8. Aeeaiao? aieueoie ie?oaeiinoe iacap (D2 - 2ho2) - z2 bz2 3,14 (112 - 2 0,8) - 23 3,98d’i2 = _________________________ = _________________________________________ = 9,76 ii,z2 + p 23 + 3,14?annoiyiea iaaeaeo oeaio?aie ie?oaeiinoaehi2 = hz2 - ho2 - 0,5 (d’i2 + di2) = 21 - 0,8 - 0,5 (9,76 + 5,46) = 12,6 ii.4.9. Ieiuaaeue iaca a naaooSi2 = (p / 8)[(d’i2 - bi?)2 + (di2 - bi?)2] + 0,5 (d’i2 + di2 - 2bi?) hi2 =(3,14 / 8) [(9,76 - 0,1)2 + (5,46 -0,1)2]+ 0,5(9,76 + 5,46 - 2 0,1) 12,6 = 142 ii2,aaea bi? = 0,1 i?eione ia nai?eo na?aea/ieea yei?y ii oe?eia iaca.4.10. Ieiuaaeue iaca, caieiaaiay iaiioeieSia = Si2 - Se - (See + Si?) = 142 - 17,2 - 8,19 = 116,6 ii2,aaea Se - ieiuaaeue, caieiaaiay ei?ioniie ecieyoeeae, ii2Se ~ 0,5 be (p d’i2 + p di2 + 4hi2) = 0,5 0,35 (3,14 9,76 + 3,14 5,46 + 4 12,6) = =17,2 ii2,See + Si? ~ 1,5 di2 = 1,5 5,46 = 8,19 ii2.4.11. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea aeeaiao?a eciee?iaaiiiai iaiioi/iiai i?iaiaea e?oaeiai na/aieyd’ec = Kc2 Sia z2 / N2 = 0,70 142 23 / 920 = 1,58 ii.Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa caiieiaiey iaca yei?y i?e noaiaea?oiii aeeaiao?a eciee?iaaiiiai i?iaiaeaKc2 = N2 d2ec / Sia z2 = 920 (158)2 / 142 23 = 0,704.12. Aeiionoeia ieioiinoue oieaaeii = (A2 aeii) 10-6 / A2 = 1,1 1011 10-6 / 209 102 = 5,3 A/ii2,i?eD2 = 112 ii,i?eieiaaiA2 aeii = 1,1 1011 A2/ ii3.4.13. Ieioiinoue oiea a iaiioea yei?y2 = I2iii / 2a2 nye q2ye = 16 / 2 1 1,767 = 4,53 A/ii2,/oi ia i?aauoaao aeiionoeiia cia/aiea ieioiinoe oiea.Eiino?oeoeey ecieyoeey iaciauo e eiaiauo /anoae iaiioee yei?y i?e iai?yaeaiee, ia i?aauoathuai 600 A.5. ?acia?u naeoeee e nii?ioeaeaiea iaiioee yei?y5.1. N?aaeiaa cia/aiea coaoeiaiai aeaeaiey yei?ytn?2 = p (D2 - hz2) / z2 = 3,14 (112 - 21) / 23 = 12,4 ii.5.2. N?aaeiyy oe?eia naeoeee iaiioee yei?ybn,n? = tn?2 yz = 12,4 6 = 74 ii.5.3. N?aaeiyy aeeeia iaeiie eiaiaie /anoe iaiioeebn,n? 74be2 = __________________________ - hz2 + 40 = ____________________________ - 21 + 40 = 285ii1 - [( bi2 + 3,5) / t2]2 1 - [( 6,24 + 3,5) / 15]25.4. N?aaeiyy aeeeia aeoea iaiioeeln?2 = 2 (l2 + le2) = 2 (114 + 285) = 798 ii.5.5. Aueao eiaiaie /anoe iaiioee yei?ybn,n? (bi2 + 3,5) hz2 74 (6,24 + 3,5)la2 = _______ ___________________________ + _____ + 20 = ________ ____________________________ +2 1 + [( bi2 + 3,5) / t2]2 2 2 1 - [( 6,24 + 3,5) / 15]221+ _______ + 20 = 51 ii.25.6. Aeoeaiia nii?ioeaeaiea iaiioee yei?yrcu N2 ln?2 103 24,4 10-9 920 798 103r2 = ____________________ = ___________________________ = 1,26 Ii.2(2a2)2 nye q2ye 2 (2)2 1 1,7676. ?an/ao iaaieoiie oeaie6.1. I?aaeaa?eoaeueiia cia/aiea YAeN aeaeaaoaey i?e iiieiaeueiie iaa?oceaA’2iii = 0,5 Uiii (1 + h’iii ) = 0,5 220 (1 + 0,755) = 193 A.6.2. Iieaciue iaaieoiue iioie60a2 A2iii 60 1 193O = _________________ = ______________________ = 0,0042 Aa.p N2 niii 2 920 15006.3. Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea iaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee a aicaeooiii caci?aO 106 0,0042 106Bd = ____________ = ________________ = 0,64 Oe.a’i t li 0,65 88 1146.4. Eiyooeoeeaioa aicaeooiiai caci?akd = kd2 ka = 1,32 1,24 = 1,64bi2 6,24kd2 = 1 + ___________________________ = 1 + _________________________________ = 1,32t2 - bi2 + 5d t2 / bi2 15 - 6,24 + 5 0,9 15 / 6,24na la ha 0,25 147 3kd2 = 1 + ___________________________ = 1 + _________________________________ = 1,33l2 (d + ha) - na la ha 114 (0,9 + 3) - 0,25 147 3aaeanue lue = 0,25 l2 ; ha = 3 ii.6.5. Iaaieoiia iai?yaeaiea aicaeooiiai caci?aFd = 0,8 Bd d kd 103 = 0,8 0,5 0.9 1,3 103 = 478,8 A.6.6. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a iaeiaiiaaieai na/aieai coaoeaBzmax = Bd t2 / kc2 bz2min = 0,34 15 / 0,95 3,98 = 2,54 Oe,aaeabz2min = 3,98.6.7. Oe?eia coaoea a aai iaeaieueoai ?an/aoiii na/aieebz2max = t2 - bi2 = 15 - 6,24 = 8,76 ii.6.8. Oe?eia coaoea a aai n?aaeiai ?an/aoiii na/aieebz2n? = 0,5 (bz2min - bz2max ) = 0,5 (3,98 + 8,76) = 6,31 ii.6.9. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a ?an/aoiuo na/aieyo coaoea:a iaeiaiueoaiBz2max = 1,98 Oe;a iaeaieueoaiBz2min = Bd t2 / kc2 bz2max = 0,64 15 / 0,95 8,76 = 1,15 Oe,a n?aaeiaiBz2n? = Bd t2 / kc2 bz2n? = 0,64 15 / 0,95 6a31 = 1,60 Oe,6.10. Eiyooeoeeaio aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iai?yaeaiiinoe iaaieoiiai iiey a iaeiaiueoai na/aiee coaoeaki2max = t2 / kc2 bz2min = 15 / 0,95 3,98 = 3,96.6.11. Iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey i?eBz2max = 1,94 Oeaeey noaee ia?ee 2013Hz2max = 1 104 A/i .6.12. Iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey i?eBz2min = 0,9 OeBz2n? = 1,25 OeHz2min = 190 A/iHz2n? = 430 A/i6.13. ?an/aoiia cia/aiea iai?yaeaiiinoe iiey a coaoeaHz2 = (Hz2max +4Hz2n? + Hz2min) / 6= (1 104 + 4 430 + 190) / 6 = 320 103 A/i6.14. Iaaieoiia iai?yaeaiea coaoeiaiai neiy yei?yFz2 = Hz2 hz2 10-3 = 320 103 21 10-3 = 6720 A.6.15. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a nieiea yei?yBd ai t 0,64 0,65 88Bn2 = _________________________ = _________________________________ = 1,24 Oe.2kc2 (hc2 - __ de2) 2 0,95 (15,5 - __ 0)6.16. ?an/aoiay aeeeia iaaieoiie neeiaie eeiee a nieiea yei?yLc2 = (p / 2p) (D2ai + hc2) + hc2 = (3,14 / 4)(39 + 15,5) + 15,5 = 58 ii.6.17. Iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey a nieiea yei?yHn2 = 225 A/i.6.18. Iaaieoiia iai?yaeaiea nieiee yei?yFc2 = Hn2 Lc2 10-3 = 225 490 10-3 = 110 A.6.19. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a na?aea/ieea aeaaiiai iiethnasa O 106 1,2 0,0042 106Bo = ______________ = ___________________ = 1,88 Oe.lo kc1 bo 114 0,98 246.20. Iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey a na?aea/ieea aeaaiiai iiethnaHo = 760 A/i6.21. Iaaieoiia iai?yaeaiea na?aea/ieea aeaaiiai iiethnaFo = Ho Lo 10-3 = 760 40 10-3 = 30 A,aaeaLo = ho = 40 ii.6.22. Caci? iaaeaeo aeaaiui iiethnii e noaieiiedon1 = 2 lo 10-4 + 0,1 = 2 114 10-4 + 0,1 = 1, 122 ii.6.23. Iaaieoiia iai?yaeaiea caci?a iaaeaeo aeaaiui iiethnii e noaieiieFdon= 0,8 Bo don1 103 = 0,8 1,45 0.122 103 = 141 A.6.24. Iaaieoiay eiaeoeoeey a nieiea noaieiusa O 106 1,2 0,0042 106Bo = ______________ = ___________________ = 1,43 Oe.2 ln1 hc1 2 171,2 10,3ln1 ~ l2 + kl t = 114 + 0,65 88 = 171,2Iieo/aiiia cia/aiea iaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee iaei ioee/aaony io i?eiyoiai6.25. Iai?yaeaiiinoue iiey a nieiea noaieiu ii oaaeeoea aeey ianneaiuo noaieiHn1 = 1127 A/i.6.26. ?an/aoiay aeeeia iaaieoiie neeiaie eeiee a nieiea noaieiuLc1 = (p / 2p) (D1ai + hc1) + hc1 = (3,14 / 4)(195 + 10,3) + 10,3 = 171 ii.6.27. Iaaieoiia iai?yaeaiea noaieiuFc1 = Hn1 Lc1 10-3 = 1127 171 10-3 = 193 A.6.28. Iaaieoiaeaeaeouay neea iaiioee aicaoaeaeaiey ia ia?o iiethnia a ?aaeeia oieinoiai oiaeaFai = 2 Fd + 2 Fz2 + Fc2 + 2 Fo + 2 Fdon + Fc1 == 2 478,8 + 2 6720 + 2 110 + 2 30 + 193 = 15385 A.7. Iaiioea aicaoaeaeaiey7.1. Iiia?a/iay IAeN iaiioee yei?y ia ia?o iiethniaF2 = 0,5 N2 I2iii / 2a2 p = 0,5 920 16 / 2 2 = 1840 A.7.2. Eiyooeoeeaio o/eouaathuee ?aciaaie/eaathuaa aeaenoaea IAeN iiia?a/iie ?aaeoeee yei?y i?eBz2max = 1,98 Oe,F2 / Fai = 1840 / 15385 = 0,12kp,2 = 0,1757.3. ?aciaaie/eaathuaa aeaenoaea IAeN iiia?a/iie ?aaeoeee yei?y ia ia?o iiethniaFqd = kp,2 F2 = 0,175 1840 = 322 A.7.4. O?aaoaiia cia/aiea IAeN iaiioee aicaoaeaeaiey i?e iaa?ocea ia ia?o iiethniaFa,i = Fai + Fqd - Fc = 15385 + 322 - 276 = 15431 A,aaea IAeN noaaeeece?othuae iaiioee ia ia?o iiethniaFc = 0,15 F2 = 0,15 1840 = 276 A.7.5. N?aaeiyy aeeeia aeoea iiiaineieiie iiethniie eaoooee ia?aeeaeueiiai aicaoaeaeaieyln?,e = 2 (lo + bo) + p (be,o + 2bec + 2bc + 2be) =2 (114 + 24) + 3,14 (15 + 2 0,2 + 2 0,6 + 2 2) = 340 ii,aaea oe?eia eaoooeebe,o = 15 ii,oieueia ecieyoeee eaoooeebec = 0,2 ii,iaeiinoi?iiiee caci? iaaeaeo eaoooeie e na?aea/ieeii iiethnabc = 0,6 ii,oieueia ea?eanabe = 2 ii.7.6. Ieiuaaeue iiia?a/iiai na/aiey iaiioi/iiai i?iaiaea (i?e iineaaeiaaoaeueiii niaaeeiaiee anao iiethniuo eaoooae)q’a = Fa,i kcai rcu p ln?,e 103 / Ua = 15431 1,05 24,4 10-9 340 103 = 0,157 ii2,Ii oaaeeoea i?eieiaai eaoooeo aicaoaeaeaiey ec eciee?iaaiiiai i?iaiaea e?oaeiai na/aiey, iiiaineieioth ii oe?eia e aunioa; i?eieiaai i?iaiae ia?ee IYO - 155qa = 1,539 ii2,d = 1,4 ii2,dec = 1,485 ii2.7.7. *enei aeoeia a iiethniie eaoooeawe,a = Fa,i / 2 D’a qa = 15431 / 2 5 0,157 = 127,aaea ieioiinoue oiea iiD’a = 5 A/ii2.7.8. Nii?ioeaeaiea iaiioee aicaoaeaeaieyra = rcu 2 we, a ln?,e 103 / qa = 24,4 10-9 4 127 340 103 / 0,157= 27 Ii.7.9. Iaeaieueoaa cia/aiea oiea aicaoaeaeaieyIa = Ua / ra = 220 / 27 = 8,1 A.7.10. Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea ieioiinoe oiea a iaiioea aicaoaeaeaieyD A = I a / qa = 8,1 / 1,539 = 5,2 A/ii2.7.11. *enei aeoeia a iiethniie eaoooea noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeewe,c = Fn ac / I2iii = 276 1 / 16 = 17,25 ,i?eieiaaiwe,c = 17,/enei ia?aeeaeueiuo aaoaaeac = 1 .7.12. Ieiuaaeue iiia?a/iiai na/aiey iaiioi/iiai i?iaiaea noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeeq’c = I2iii / ac D c = 16 / 1 4,9 = 3,265 ii2 .7.13. Ii oaaeeoea i?eieiaai aeey ecaioiaeaiey iiethniuo eaoooae noaaeeece?othuae iaiioee iaeciee?iaaiiue iaaeiue i?iaiae e?oaeiai na/aiey.qc =3,53 ii2,d = 2,12 ii2,dec = 2,22 ii2.7.14. Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea ieioiinoe oiea a noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeaD c = I2iii / ac qc = 16 /1 3,53 = 4,532 A/ii2.7.15. ?aaeeon cae?oaeaiey iaaeiiai i?iaiaea eaoooee noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeer = 0,5 (bc + 2bc) = 0,5 (4,25 + 2 0,6) = 2,725 ii,ieieiaeueii aeiionoeiue ?aaeeon cae?oaeaieyrmin = 0,05 b2 / a = 0,05 4,252 / 0,80 = 1,13 ii.7.16. N?aaeiyy aeeeia aeoea eaoooee noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeeln?,e = 2 (lo + bo) + p (be,n + 2 r) = 2 (114 +24) + 3,14 (13 + 2 2,725) = 334 ii,aaeabe,n = b = 13 ii.7.17. Nii?ioeaeaiea noaaeeece?othuae iaiioee2prcu ln?,e we,c 103 4 24,4 10-9 340 17 103rn = ________________________ = ____________________________ = 0,157 Ii.ac2 qc 12 3,538. Iaiioea aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia8.1. *enei aeoeia eaoooee aeiaaai/iiai iiethnawe,ae = kae F2 aae / 2I2iii =1,25 1840 1 / 2 16 = 71,875 aeoeia,i?eieiaaiwe,ae = 72 aeoea,aaeaaae = 1,kae = 1,258.2. Ieiuaaeue iiia?a/iiai na/aiey i?iaiaeieea eaoooee aeiaaai/iiai iiethnaq’ae = I2iii / aae ae = 16 / 1 4,9 = 3,26 ii2 .D ae = 4,9.8.3. I?eieiaai aeey ecaioiaeaiey eaoooae aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia aieue iaaeiue i?iaiae e?oaeiai na/aiey ii oaaeeoeaqae = 3,53 ii2.8.4. Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea ieioiinoe oiea a iaiioea aeiaaai/iuo iiethniaD ae = I2iii / aae qae = 16 / 1 3,53 = 4,53 A/ii2 .8.5. N?aaeiyy aeeeia aeoea eaoooee aeiaaai/iiai iiethnaln?,e = 2lae + p (bae + be,ae + 2bc + 2bec) = 2 114 + 3,14 (2 + 13 + 2 0,6 + 2 0,2) = =280 ii,aaeabe,ae = b = 13,bc = 0,6,bec = 0,2.8.6. Nii?ioeaeaiea iaiioee aeiaaai/iuo iiethniarcu ln?,e we,ae 2p 103 24,4 10-9 340 72 4 103rae = ________________________ = ____________________________ = 0,66 Ii.aae2 qae 12 3,539. ?aciauaiea iaiioie aeaaiuo e aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia9.1. Oe?eia iiiaineieiie eaoooee aeaaiiai iiethnabe,a = kp No dec + bec,i? = 1,05 10,1 1,485 + 2,4 = 18,1 ii,aaeaNo = be,o / dec = 15 / 1,485 = 10,1kp = 1,05,bec, i? = 2 + 0,2 2 =2,4 ii.9.2. Aunioa iiiaineieiie eaoooee aeaaiiai iiethna n o/aoii ?acaeaeaiey iiethniie eaoooee ia aeaa /anoe aaioeeyoeeiiiui eaiaeii oe?eiieba,e = 0,he,a = kp Na dec + hec,i? + ba,e = 1,05 12,5 1,485 + 1,485 0 = 21 ii,aaea Na - /enei eciee?iaaiiuo i?iaiaeia ii aunioa eaoooee:Na = we,a / No = 127 / 10,1 = 12,5;aunioa i?ieeaaeie e ea?eanahec,i? = 1,485 ii.9.3. Aunioa iiethniie eaoooee noaaeeece?othuae iaiioeehe,n = h + hec,i? = 1,485 ii,aaeahec,i? = 1,485 ii.9.4. Iauay aunioa eaoooae e aaioeeyoeeiiiiai eaiaea aeaaiiai iiethnahr,i = he,a + he,n = 21 + 1,485 = 22,485 ii.9.5. Ieiuaaeue caieiaaiay iaiin?aaenoaaiii a iaaeiiethniii ieia aeaoiy /anoyie (naeoeeyie) eaoooee aicaoaeaeaiey, aeeth/ay ana i?ieeaaeee e aaioeeyoeeiiiue caci?Qe,a = be,a he,a = 18,1 21 = 380 ii2.?en. 2.Yneec iaaeaeoiiethniiai ieia aeaeaaoaey iinoiyiiiai oiea(3 eAo, 220 A, 1500 ia/iei).9.6. Aunioa eaoooee aeiaaai/iiai iiethna ec iaeciee?iaaiiie iaaeehe,ae = kp [we,ae h + 0,3(we,ae - 3)] + 2 == 1,05 [71,85 0 +0,3(71,85 - 3)] + 2 ~ 24 ii.9.7. Ia ?enoiea iieacai yneec iaaeiiethniiai ieia. I?e yoii ieiuaaeue caieiaaiay iiethniie eaoooeie aicaoaeaeaiey ec aeaoo naeoeee, aeeth/ay aaioeeyoeeiiiue caci? 0 ii, ninoaaeyao Qe,a = 380 ii2, a eiiiiiiaea yoeo naeoeee oaeiaa, /oi ieieiaeueiue aicaeooiue i?iiaaeooie iaaeaeo aunooiathueie e?ayie aeaaiuo e aeiaaai/iuo iiethnia, a oae aea iaaeaeo e?ayie iiethniuo eaoooae e aioo?aiiae iiaa?oiinoueth noaieiu ninoaaeyao 0 ii.10. Uaoee e eieeaeoi?10.1. ?an/aoiay oe?eia uaoeeDe a2 90 1bu’ = kc,e bi,c _____ - te (No + ee - _____ ) = 0,75 31 _____ - 3 (4 + 0,25 - ___ ) = 7,68 ii;D2 p 112 2caeanuekc, e = 0,75;te = 3 ii;bi, c = t - b? = 88 - 57 = 31 ii;ee = (K / 2p) - y1 = (115 / 4) - 29 = 0,25.Ii oaaeeoea i?eieiaai noaiaea?oioth oe?eio uaoeebu = 8 ii.10.2. *enei ia?ae?uaaaiuo uaoeie eieeaeoi?iuo aeaeaieeg = bu / te = 8 / 3 = 2,/oi iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo cia/aiee aeey i?inoie aieiiaie iaiioee yei?y.10.3. Eiioaeoiay ieiuaaeue anao uaoieS Su = 2 Iiii / D’u = 2 16 / 0,11 = 290 ii2 ,aaea i?eieiaai ii oaaeeoea aeey yeaeo?ia?aoeoe?iaaiiuo uaoie ia?ee YA14Du = 0,11 A/ii2.10.4. Eiioaeoiay ieiuaaeue uaoie iaeiiai a?aeaoaSu,,a = S Su / 2p = 290 / 4 = 73 ii2 .10.5. O?aaoaiay aeeeia uaoeel’u = Su ,a / bu = 73 / 8 = 9,125 ii,i?eieiaai ia iaeiii a?aeaoa ii iaeiie uaoea(Nu,a = 1).Aeeeia iaeiie uaoeelu = 10 ii.10.6. Ieioiinoue oiea iiae uaoeieDu = 2 Iiii / Nu,a bu lu 2p = 2 16 / 1 8 10 4 = 0,1 A/ii2 ,/oi ia i?aauoaao ?aeiiaiaeoaiiai cia/aieyD’u = 0,11 A/ ii2.10.7. Aeoeaiay aeeeia eieeaeoi?a i?e oaoiaoiii ?aniieiaeaiee uaoiele = Nu,a (lu + 8) + 10 = 1 (10 + 8) + 10 = 28 ii.10.8. Oe?eia eieeaeoi?iie ieanoeiube = te - bec = 3 - 0,2 = 2,8 ii,oieueia ecieyoeeiiiie i?ieeaaeeebec = 0,2 ii.11. ?an/ao eiiiooaoeee11.1. Ie?oaeiay nei?inoue yei?yU2 = p D2 n 10-3 / 60 = 3,14 112 150 10-3 / 60 = 8,792 i/n.11.2. I?eaaaeaiiue eiyooeoeeaio i?iaiaeeiinoe iaciaiai ?annayiey yei?y i?e e?oaeuo iacaohz2 ho2 le2 2,5 108 a2l = 0,6 _____ + _____ + _____ + ___________________ _____ =di2 bo2 l2 wc2 l2 A2 2 p21 0,8 291 2,5 108 1= 0,6 _____ + _____ + _____ + ________________________ _____ = 10,142 .6,24 6,24 114 4 114 209 102 8,79 211.3. ?aaeoeaiay YAeNEp = 2 wc2 li v2 l 10-5 = 2 4 114 209 102 8,792 6,49 10-5 = 10876 B.12. Iioa?e e EIAe12.1. Ianna coaoeiaiai neiy yei?y di2 + d’i2Gz2 = 7,8 10-6 z2 bz2 (hi2 + _______________ ) li kc = 45,46 + 9,76= 7,8 10-6 24 6,36 ( 12,6 _______________ ) 114 0,95 = 2,01 ea.412.2. Ianna noaee nieiee yei?yGn2 = 7,8 10-6 {(p / 4)[(D2 - 2 hz2)2 - D22ai - d2e2 ne2]} li kc == 7,8 10-6 {(3,14 / 4)[(112 - 2 21)2 - 39,22 - 0 0]}114 0,95 = 2,23 ea.12.3. Iaaieoiua iioa?e a na?aea/ieea yei?yPi2 = 2,3 P1,0/50 (f2 / 50)b (B2z2n? Gz2 + B2c2 Gn2) == 4,02 (1,252 2,60 + 0,972 2,88) = 27 Ao,aaeaf2 = p n / 60 = 2 1500 / 60 = 50 Aoe;P1,0/50 = 1,75 Ao/ea;b = 1,4;i?eieiaai2,3 P1,0/50 (f2 / 50)1,4 = 4,02 Ao/ea;12.4. Yeaeo?e/aneea iioa?e a iaiioea aicaoaeaeaieyPy,a = U2a / ra = 2202 / 25,6 = 1891 Ao.12.5. Yeaeo?iaeaeaeouay neea yei?y i?e iiieiaeueiie iaa?ocea aeaeaaoaeyP N2 2 920E2iii = ___________ Oniii = ___________ = 193,2 A.60a2 60 112.6. Ooi/iaiiia cia/aiea oiea yei?y i?e iiieiaeueiie iaa?oceaI2iii = (Uiii + E2iii - D Uu ) / Sr = (220 193,2 - 2,5) / 2,207 = 10,7 A,Sr = r2 + rc +rae = 1,39 + 0,15 + 0,66 = 2,207 Ii,DUu = 2,5 A.12.7. Yeaeo?e/aneea iioa?e a iaiioea yei?yPy2 = I22iii r2 = 10,72 1,39 = 162 Ao.12.8. Yeaeo?e/aneea iioa?e a iaiioeao noaoi?a, aeeth/aiiuo iineaaeiaaoaeueii n iaiioeie yei?yPy,i1 = I22iii (rae + rc) = 10,72 (0,66 + 0,157) = 93,5 Ao.12.9. Yeaeo?e/aneea iioa?e a ia?aoiaeiii uaoi/iii eiioaeoaPy,u = DUu I22iii = 2,5 10,7 = 26,75 Bo.12.10. Iioa?e ia o?aiea uaoie i eieeaeoi? aaea ie?oaeiay nei?inoue ia eieeaeoi?aPo,u = 0,5 S Su v2 = 0,5 290 7,06 = 10,24 Bo,aaea ie?oaeiay nei?inoue ia eieeaeoi?ave = p De niii / 60 10-3 = 3,14 90 1500 / 60 10-3 = 7,06 i/n.12.11. Iioa?e ia o?aiea a iiaeoeiieeao e ia aaioeeyoeethPo.i,a = 20 Ao?en.3.?aai/ea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaaoaey iinoiyiiiai oiea( 3 eAo, 220 A, 1500 ia/iei).12.12. Noiia?iua iaoaie/aneea iioa?ePiao = Po,u + Po.i,a = 10,24 + 20 = 30,24 Ao.12.13. Aeiaaai/iua iioa?ePaeia = 0,001 Piii / hiii 10-3 = 0,001 3 / 0,755 10-3 = 0,012 Ao.12.14. Noiia?iua iioa?e a aeaeaaoaeaS P = (Pi2 + Py2 + Py,a + Py,i1 + Py,u + Piao + Paeia) 10-3 == (27 = 162 + 1891 + 93,5 + 26,75 + 30,24 + 0,012) 10-3 = 2,23 eAo.12.15. Eiyooeoeeaio iieaciiai aeaenoaey aeaeaaoaey i?e iiieiaeueiie iaa?oceahae,iii = 1 - S P/ P1 = 1 -2,23 / 4,3 = 0,48,aaeaP1 = Uiii (I2iii + Ia) 10-3 = 230 (10,7 + 8,6) 10-3 = 4,3 Ao.13. ?aai/ea oa?aeoa?enoeee aeaeaaoaey?an/ao ?aai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee aeaeaaoaey i?eaaaeai a oaaeeoea. Ii aeaiiui yoie oaaeeoeu iino?iaiu ?aai/ea oa?aeoa?enoeee ?enoiie 3.b = I2 / I2iii 0,2 0,50 0,75 1,0 1,25I2 3,2 8 12 16 20121,82 109,62 164,43 219,24 121,8232,4 81 20,16 162 202,518,7 46,8 70,1 93,5 116,95,35 13,37 20,06 26,75 33,430,0025 0,006 0,009 0,012 0,0150,45 1,12 1,67 2,23 2,794,8 12,1 18,1 24,1 30,110,60 26,51 39,76 53,02 66,280,151 0,378 0,566 0,755 0,9448,01 20,01 30,02 40,03 50,0438,6 96,6 144,9 193,2 241,5300 750 1125 1500 18750,91 2,26 465 6,214. Oaieiaie ?an/ao14.1. I?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u iiaa?oiinoe na?aea/ieea yei?y iaae oaiiaoaoo?ie aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiuaaea14.2. Ia?eiao? iiia?a/iiai na/aiey oneiaiie iiaa?oiinoe ioeaaeaeaiey iaca yei?y14.3. Ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo?u a ecieyoeee iaciaie /anoe iaiioee yei?y14.4. I?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ia?oaeiie iiaa?oiinoe eiaiauo /anoae iaiioee yei?y iaae oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiu14.5. Ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo?u a icieyoeee eiaiauo /anoae iaiioeeaaea14.6. N?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u iaiioee yei?y iaae oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiu14.7. Noiia iioa?ue14.8. Oneiaiay iiaa?oiinoue ioeaaeaeaiey iaoeiu14.9. N?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiu iaae oaiia?aoo?ie ioeaaeaeathuae N?aaeuaaea14.10. N?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u yei?y iaae oaiia?aoo?ie ioeaaeaeathuae N?aaeu14.11. Oneiaiay iiaa?oiinoue ioeaaeaeaiey iiethniie eaoooee aicaoaeaeaieyaaea14.12. I?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ia?oaeiie iiaa?oiinoe ioeaaeaeaiey iiiaineieiie eaoooee aeaaiiai iiethna iaae oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiuaaea14.13. Ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo?u a ecieyoeee iiethniie eaoooee aeaaiiai iiethna14.14. N?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u eaoooee aeaaiiai iiethna iaae oaiia?aoo?ie aioo?e iaoeiu14.15. N?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u iaiioee aicaoaeaeaiey iaae oaiia?aoo?ie ioeaaeaeathuae N?aaeu14.16. Oneiaiay iiaa?oiinoue ioeaaeaeaiey iaeiineieiie eaoooee aeiaaai/iiai iiethnaaaea14.17. Yeaeo?e/aneea iioa?e a aeiaaai/iii iiethna14.18. I?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ia?oaeiie iiaa?oiinoe aeiaaai/iiai iiethna iaae oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiu14.19. N?aaeiaa i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u iaiioee aeiaaai/iiai iiethna iaae oaiia?aoo?ie ioeaaeaeathuae N?aaeu14.20. I?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ia?oaeiie iiaa?oiinoe eieeaeoi?a iaae oaiia?aoo?ie aicaeooa aioo?e iaoeiuaaea14.21. I?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u eieeaeoi?a iaae oaiia?aoo?ie ioeaaeaeathuae N?aaeu i?e aoiaea aicaeooa ni noi?iiu eieeaeoi?aOaeei ia?acii, oaieiaie ?an/ao iieacae, /oi i?aauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u ?acee/iuo /anoae aeaeaaoaey ia i?aauoaao aeiionoeiuo cia/aiee aeey ecieyoeee eeanna iaa?aainoieeinoe .

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