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Производство портландцемента мокрым способом

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Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aaeai?iaeneay Ainoaea?noaaiiay Oaoiieiae/aneay Aeaaeaiey No?ieoaeueiuo
Iaoa?eaeia

Eaoaae?a Oeiainiaiai Iaiaaeaeiaioa

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Ia oaio: «I?iecaiaenoai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa iie?ui niiniaii»

Ii aeenoeeieeia: Yeiiiie/aneea iniiau oaoie/aneiai ?acaeoey

Auiieiee: nooaeaio a?oiiu

I?iaa?ee:

AAEAI?IAe 2001

NIAeA?AEAIEA

1. Aaaaeaiea_________________________________________ 2

2. Nu?ue?____________________________________________4

3. I?eaioiaeaiea oeaia_____________________________5

4. Iaaeea___________________________________________ 6

5. Iniaaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa_________________________9

6. Aeie-noaia_______________________________________14

7. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u_______________________________16

AAAAeAIEA.

Oeaiaioiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue yaeyaony iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae
iaoa?eaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Cia/aiea yoie io?anee a ia?iaeiii
oicyenoaa ii?aaeaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai aa ia?ac?uaiie naycueth n oiaeii
eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa.

Oeaiaio – iaeei ec aeaaiaeoeo no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ecaioiaeaiey aaoiiia, aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ecaeaeee, a
oae aea aeey ne?aieaiey ioaeaeueiuo aeaoaeae no?ieoaeueiuo eiino?oeoeee,
aeae?iecieyoeee e iiiaeo ae?oaeo oeaeae.

Aeey no?ieoaeueiuo ioaeae ayaeouea iaoa?eaeu noaee eniieueciaaoue
oaea a aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe. Ia?auie eneonnoaaiiuie ayaeoueie aauanoaaie
auee aein e ecaanoue, i?eiaiyaoeany ae?aaieie aaeioyiaie e a?aeaie i?e
aicaaaeaiee iiioiaioaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee, nio?aieaoeony aei iaoeo aeiae.

A Aiaeee a 1796 aiaeo auei iieo/aii aeae?aaee/aneia ayaeouaa
aauanoai – ?iiaioeaiaio – eciaeue/aiiue i?iaeoeo iaaeeaa i?e?iaeiuo
ia?aaeae. I?eia?ii aei na?aaeeiu XIX aaea ?iiaioeaiaio aue iniiaiui
ayaeouei aauanoaii, i?eiaiyaiui a aeae?ioaoie/aneii no?ieoaeuenoaa. A
1824a. a Aiaeee, a a 1825a. a ?innee, iacaaeneii ae?oa io ae?oaa,
nicaeaee iiaue iaoa?eae, eioi?ue a ?acoeueoaoa naiaai aiaoiaai noiaenoaa
a caoaa?aeaaoai aeaea n i?e?iaeiui eaiiai, aeiauaaaiui aaeece
aiaeeeneiai ai?iaea Ii?oeaiaea, iieo/ee iacaaiea ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio.

Ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio – aeae?aaee/aneia ayaeouaa aauanoai, iieo/aaiia
iooai niaianoiiai oiieiai eciaeue/aiey ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioiiai eeeiea?a,
aeina e iaeioi?uo aeiaaaie. I?iecaiaenoai neeaaeuaaaony ec aeaoo
iniiaiuo oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia: iieo/aiea eeeiea?a e aai iiiie n
niioaaonoaothueie aeiaaaeaie. Ia?aue i?ioeann iaeaieaa yia?ai?ieee e
ioaaonoaaiiue, oae eae io ea/anoaa eeeiea?a caaenyo iniiaiua naienoaa
oeaiaioa.

Nouanoaoao ianeieueei niiniaia i?iecaiaenoaa ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa:

1. nooie

2. iie?ue

3. iieonooie

4. eiiaeie?iaaiiue

Auai? niiniaa i?iecaiaenoaa caaeneo io iniaaiiinoae i?eaioiaeaiey
nu?ueaaie niane. Nooie niinia i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?eaioiaeaiea nu?ueaaie
niane ec i?aaeaa?eoaeueii aunooaiiuo oiieiiieiouo eiiiiiaioia e iaaeea
eo a ii?ioeiia?aciii ninoiyiee. I?e iie?ii niiniaa oiieia eciaeue/aiea e
aiiiaaiecaoeeth niane inouanoaeytho a aiaeiie n?aaea. Iieo/aiiay
aiaeiay noniaicey – oeai iai?aaeyaony ia iaaeea. Iieonooie niinia naycai
n iieo/aieai a?aioe ec nu?ueaaie niane, eioi?ua caoai iinooiatho ia
iaaeea. Eiiaeie?iaaiiue niinia aeeth/aao iia?aoeeth i?eaioiaeaiey
nu?ueaaie ioee ii iie?iio niiniao n iineaaeothuei iaacaiaeeaaieai a? ia
oeeueo?ao. Ia iaaeea iinooiaao iieonooay ianna.

Ii iieonooie e eiiaeie?iaaiiue niinia i?eiaiythony aeiaieueii
?aaeei, iiyoiio iniiaiuie iiaeii iacaaoue nooie e iie?ue niiniau. Iie?ue
niinia i?eaeaeaao i?inoioie eciaeue/aiey nu?ueaauo iaoa?eaeia e eo
aiiiaaiecaoeee. E?iia oiai, ii iaania/eaaao eo/oea
naaeoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea oneiaey ?aaiou ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea e,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi yoio niinia ioee/aaony aieueoie yia?aiaieinoueth, ii
iieo/ee iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

?anniio?ei oaoiieiae/aneee i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa
ii iie?iio niiniao iiae?iaiaa.

Nu?ue?.

Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa a ea/anoaa nu?ueaauo
iaoa?eaeia i?eiaiytho aeaaiui ia?acii ea?aiiaoiua e aeeienoua ii?iaeu, a
oae aea ae?oaea i?e?iaeiua aeaeu nu?uey e eneonnoaaiiua iaoa?eaeu,
iieo/aaiu a aeaea i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia.

Iiieii iniiaiuo nu?ueaauo iaoa?eaeia a i?iecaiaenoaa
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa eniieuecotho e ?acee/iua ei??aeoe?othuea aeiaaaee.

Ea?aiiaoiua ii?iaeu iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu a aeaea ecaanoiyea,
iaea, ecaanoiyea-?aeooa/ieea, ecaanoiyeiaiai oooa e o. ae. Ai anao yoeo
ii?iaeao ia?yaeo n CaCO3 iiaoo niaea?aeaoueny i?eiane aeeienouo aauanoa,
aeieiieoa, eaa?oea, aeina… Iniaaiii oi?ioei nu?ueai yaeyaony iae, o. e.
ii eaaei eciaeue/aaony i?e aeiaaaeaiee aiaeu.

A ea/anoaa aeeienoiai nu?uey iau/ii eniieuecotho aeeio eee aeeienoue
neaiaoe.

A ea/anoaa i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia ia iaeioi?uo oeaiaioiuo caaiaeao
oe?iei i?eiaiythony aeiiaiiua oeaee(iooiaeu io auieaaee /oaoia), a oae
aea iaoaeeiiaue oeai – iooiae i?iecaiaenoaa aethieiey ec iaoaeeiia.
Iaoaeeiiaue oeai iiaeao iieiinoueth caiaieoue aeeienoue eiiiiiaio a
nu?ueaaie niane e i?eia?ii ia 50% ea?aiiaoiue.

I?eaioiaeaiea oeaia.

Nu?uea ia caaiae aeinoaaeyaony iau/ii aieueoaa?ociui
aaoio?ainii?oii, oioy aiciiaeii eniieueciaaiea eaioi/-iuo eiiaaea?ia eee
aeae?io?ainii?oa. Eiiaaea oeaiaioiua caaiaeu no?iyo aicea iaoe?iuo
caeaaeae aeeiu. Oiaaea aeeia ae?iaeony iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ianoa aeiau/e
e, ia?aiaoaiiay n aiaeie iinooiaao a aeeiiaieoooeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ii o?oaii?iaiaeai.

Oaa?aeua ii?iaeu i?aaeaa?eoaeueii ae?iayo a ae?iaeeeao (aeaoo- eee
o?aonoa-aeeeiia ae?iaeaiea) aei ?acia?ia eoneia 8-10 ii. Iya-eea
ii?iaeu (aeeio e iae) eciaeue/atho a ae?iaeeeao aei eoneia ?acia?ii 100
ii, a caoai ?anioneatho a aeeiiaieoooeao-aeaeaciaaoiiiuo e?oaeuo
?aca?aoa?ao aeea-iao?ii aei 10 e aunioie 2,5-3,5 i, oooa?iaaiiuo
ecio-o?e /oaoiiuie ieeoaie. A oeaio?a aieoooee a?auaaony e?anoiaeia n
i?ee?aieaiiuie e iae noaeueiuie a?aaey-ie aeey eciaeue/aiey aeeiu.

Aeeio a aieoooeo iiaeatho iaaieueoeie ii?oeeyie aianoa n aiaeie.
A?aaee ?acaeaatho aieueoea eonee ia ca?ia ?acia?ii ia aieaa 3-5 ii,
eioi?ua eaaei ?an-ioneathony a aiaea. Iieo/aiiue oeai ianinaie
ia?aea/e-aaaony a ?anoiaeiua aoiea?a nu?ueaaie iaeueieoeu aeey ii-iiea n
ae?iaeaiui ecaanoiyeii. Anee a ea/anoaa ea?ai-iaoiiai nu?uey
eniieuecoaony iae, oi aai i?aaeaa?eoaeueii (iinea ae?iaeaiey) aianoa n
aeeiie ?anioneatho a aieoooeao, a caoai aeiiaeuaatho a iaeueieoeao.
E?oiiua aeeth/aiey niae?athony ia aeia ?aca?aoa?a e ia?eiaee/a-nee
oaeaeythony.

Ea/anoai oeaiaioa nouanoaaiii caaeneo io oeie/aneiai ninoaaa
nu?ueaaie niane, iinooiathuae ia iaaeea. Iaeiaei ec-ca iaiaeii?iaeiinoe
nu?uey oeie/aneee ninoaa iiaeao ecia-iyoueny. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
iinoiyiii neaaeeoue ca oeie-/aneei ninoaaii oeoou e ei??aeoe?iaaoue aai
a i?ioeanna ?aaiou. Ii eiio?iee?iaaoue ninoaa ioo?i iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai
caai?a i?ia ec ia/e iaaiciiaeii. Eiio?ieue aeinoeaaaony
eniieueciaaieai aa?oeeaeueiuo e ai?eciioaeueiuo oeaiaannaeiia. Oeai ec
iaeueieoeu iiaeaaony nia/aea a ia?aue aa?oeeaeueiue aannaei. Oeai
ae?oaiai ninoaaa iinooiaao ai aoi?ie aa?oeeaeueiue aan-naei. Ciay oi/iue
oeie/aneee ninoaa yoeo aeaoo oeaiia, iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue ninoaa
o?aaoaiiai oeaia. Iooai ia-?aea/eaaiey ioaeiuo eiee/anoa oeaia ec yoeo
aannae-iia a o?aoee iieo/atho aioiaue aeey iaaeeaa oeai. I?e
ia?aea/eaaiee ioei??aeoe?iaaiiiai oeaia a aa?oeeaeue-iue aannaei aai
ouaoaeueii ia?aiaoeaatho no?oyie naea-oiai aicaeooa (ay?e?otho). Ia?aae
iiaea/ae a ia/ue oeai ec aa?oeeaeueiiai aannaeia ia?aea/eaatho a
ai?eciioaeue-iue, aaea aai ia?aiaoeaatho iaoaie/aneei niiniaii.

Ii?oeeiiiia ei??aeoe?iaaiea ninoaaa oeaia – aei-aieueii aeeeoaeueiay
e o?oaeiaieay oaoiieiae/aneay iia-?aoeey. E oiio aea yoio i?ioeann
ia?eiaee/aneee. Aieaa ia?niaeoeaai iioi/iue niinia i?eaioiaeaiey
nu?ueaaiai oeaia.

Oeie/aneee ninoaa oeaia iinoiyiii i?iaa?yaony aaoiiaoe/anee
?aaioathueie i?iaiioai?ieeaie e ?aio-aaiianeei eaaioiiao?ii. Oeaiu ec
aeaoo aannaeiia nia-oeaathony e iiiaaeatho a o?aoee – ?anoiaeiue,
i?ieaey i?aaeaa?eoaeueii yeni?ann-aiaeec n iiiiuueth neiaeiuo
yeaeo?iiiuo ono?ienoa.

Iaaeea.

Iaaeeaatho nu?ueaaoth nianue (oeai) ai a?a-uathueony ia/ao
?acee/iie aeeeiu e aeeaiao?a (?en 2) Oiieeai a aeaea aaca eee
eaiaiiioaieueiie iuee aaeoaaaony a ia/ue n ieaeiaai eiioea.
Aeuiiaua aacu n oai-ia?aoo?ie 150-200 °N oaeaeythony ni noi?iiu
aa?oiaai eiioea.

Ii oa?aeoa?o i?ioeannia oaiia?aoo?iua ciiu a ia/e iacuaatho: 1-aei
200i- enia?aiey(nooea oeaia); 2- 200-800i- iiaeia?aaa; 3- 800-1000i-
aeaea?aiiaoeee; 4- 1000-1300i- yecioa?ie/aneie ?aaeoeee; 5-
1300-1450-1300i- niaeaiey; 6- 1300-1000i- ioeaaeaeaiey.

A ciia 3 i?ienoiaeeo i?ioeann ?aceiaeaiey CaCO3 ii noaia

CaCO3–>CaO + CO2

CaO a naith i/a?aaeue anooiaao a niaaeeiaiey n yeaiaioaie aeeienoiai
eiiiiiaioa CaO*Fe2O3; Cao*SiO2; CaO*Al2O3.

A ciia 4 i?ienoiaeeo ianuuaiea yoeo niaaeeiaiee aei niioaaonoaothueo
eeeiea?iuo iaoa?eaeia. A ciia 5 ia?acoaony iniiaiay /anoue
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioiiai eeeiea?a – eaeueoeaaue neeeeao 3CaCO*SiO2

Aeey ooeeecaoeee oaieiou iooiaeyueo aacia e iiauoa-iey noaiaie
oaieiiaiaia iaaeaeo iaoa?eaeii e ai?y/eie aacaie eniieuecotho ?acee/iiai
aeaea oaieiiaiaiiua ono-?ienoaa. Oae, a ia/ao aeeeiie 185 i, ?aaioathueo
ii iie-?iio niiniao, i?eiaiytho oeeueo?u-iiaeia?aaaoaee, oeai-iua caaanu
e iaoaeee/aneea oaieiiaiaiieee.

Oeeueo?u-iiaeia?aaaoaee onoaiaaeeaatho a oieiaeiie /anoe ia/e ia
?annoiyiee 3-5 i. Oeeueo?u-iiaeia?aaaoa-ee nieaeatho caiueaiiinoue
iooiaeyueo aacia aei 2-3% e oiaiueoatho ?anoiae oaieiou ia 210 eAeae/ea.
Iiauoa-iea oaiia?aoo?u aacia e eo caiueaiiinoe i?eaiaeeo e caaonoaaaieth
oeaia. Aeaaeiinoue oeaia, auoiaeyuaai ec oeeueo?a-iiaeia?aaaoaey, ia
aeieaeia auoue_ieaea 33-35%, a oaiia?aoo?a aacia a yoie ciia – ia aieaa
200 iN.

Ia ?annoiyiee 1 i io oeeueo?a-iiaeia?aaaoaey onoa-iaaeeaaao oeaiiua
caaanu. Aeeeia oeaiiie ciiu 40-50 i, ianna oeaiae 170-225 o,
iiaa?oiinoue oeaiae 3500-4500 i2 . Oeaie iau/ii iaaaoeaathony aeaoiy
niiniaaie: naiaiaeii naenaaueie eiioeaie eee ae?eyiaeaie. I?e/ai
iineaaeiee iaoiae e?aieaiey yooaeoeaiaa. Oeaie aeeoioee?otho oaieioo
aacia e ia?aaeatho aa oeaio, onei?yy oai naiui i?ioeann nooee. Ec
oeaiiie ciiu oeai auoiaeeo a aeaea a?aioe.

A cii iiaeia?aaa ia/e onoaiaaeeaatho iaoaeee/aneea oaieiiaiaiieee.
I?eiaiaiea oaeeo oaieiiaiaiiuo ono?ienoa oaaee/eaaao eioaineaiinoue
iiaeia?aaa iaoa?eaea, eioi?ue ?acaeaeyaony ia ianeieueei iaeeeo iioieia.
Ioe?uoay iiaa?oiinoue iaoa?eaea e nei?inoue i?ia?aaa oaaee/eaaaony, a
oaiia?aoo?a aacia nieaeaaony, /oi i?aaeio?aiyao oeaie io
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiiai auai?aiey. Iaeiaei ia yoii o/anoea ia/e ?acei
aic?anoaao iueaiea iaoa?eaea. Aeey nieaeaiey iueaauaeaeaiey
?aeiiaiaeoaony neaaeeoue ca aeaaeiinoueth iaoa?eaea, eioi?ay ia aeieaeia
i?aauoaoue 2-3%.

I?e eniieueciaaiee ei?ioeeo ia/ae oeaeaniia?aciaa i?eiaiyoue
caia/iua oaieiiaiaiieee: eiioeaio?aoi?u oeaia e ?aniueeoaeueiua nooeeee.
Eiioeaio?aoi?u oeaia oaaee/eaatho i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue ia/e aei 25%, a
?anoiae oaieiou nieaeatho ia 15-20%. Iaeiaei i?eiaiaiea eo
naea?aeeaaaony cia/eoaeueiui iueaauaeaeaieai, o. e. cia/eoaeueiay /anoue
oeaia ia?anooeaaaony e iioieii ai?y/aai aaca, /oi o?aaoao onoaiiaee
aeiiieieoaeueiuo oeeueo?ia. ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua nooeeee ec-ca neiaeiinoe
?aaiou oi?noiie, ieceiai eiyooeoeeaioa ia?iiai?yaeaiey, a?iiicaeeinoe
eiino?oeoeee e neiaeiinoe a yenieoaoaoeee ia iaoiaeyo oe?ieiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey.

Eeeiea?, iieo/aiiue ia auoiaea ec ia/e iiaeeaaeeo iiiieo a o?oaiuo
iaeueieoeao ioe?uoiai eee caieiooiai oeeeea. Oiieinoue iiiiea
oa?aeoa?ecoaony inoaoeii ia neoa e ninoaaeyao 8-12% aeey aieueoeinoaa
oeaiaioia.

O?aiyo aioiaue oeaiaio a oeaiaioiuo neeinao – aeaeaciaaoiiiuo
?ieinoyo aeeaiao?ii 10-12 iao?ia e aunioie 20-25i., aiauathuea
2500-4000o. oeaiaioa.

Iniiaiie ea/anoaaiiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie oeaiaioa yaeyaony aai
i?i/iinoue(ia?ea). Ia?ea oeaiaioa niioaaonoaoao i?aaeaeo i?i/iinoe
ia?acoeia 4*4*16ni. ia naeaoea, ecaioiaeaiiuo ec ?anoai?a1:3 ii ianna n
ianeii, oaa?aeaaoeo 28 nooie a aiaea i?o oaiia?aoo?a 20-+2 a?aae.
I?i/iinoue eieaaeaony io 300 aei 600 ean/ni2. I?iiuoeaiiinoue auioneaao
oeaiaiou ia?ie 400-550, a ii iniaui caeacai – I600.

Iniaaiiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa

I?iecaiaenoai auno?ioaa?aeathuaai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa (AOOe),
iniaiauno?ioaa?aeathuaai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa (IAOOe),
noeueoaoinoieeiai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa, iooeoeieaiiaiai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa e
ae?oaeo oeaiaioia ioee/aaony ?yaeii iniaaiiinoae. AOOe e IAOOe
ioee/athony io iau/iiai ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa eioaineaiui iaai?ii i?i/iinoe
a ia?-aue ia?eiae oaa?aeaiey. AOOe ia?ee 400 /a?ac 3 nooie iaania/eaaao
i?i/iinoue i?e naeaoee 25 IIa, a a aic?a-noa 28 nooie 40 IIa, AOOe ia?ee
500 niioaaonoaaiii 28 e 50 IIa.

Iieo/atho AOOe niaianoiui eciaeue/aieai aei oaeaeue-iie iiaa?oiinoe
3500-4000 ni2/a ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioiiai eeeiea?a n niaea?aeaieai NcS e NcA
ieiei 60-65 % e aeina, niaea?aeaiea eioi?iai a ia?an/aoa ia S0c ia
aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 3,5 %. Auno?ioaa?aeathuee ii?oeaiae-oeaiaio
iieo/atho ec iaeii?iaeiie ii ninoaao nu?ueaaie niane n iiieaeaiiui
niaea?aeaieai a?aaeiuo i?eianae. Eniieueciaaiea AOOe e IAOOe a
i?iecaiaenoaa aaoiiiuo e aeaeaciaaoiiiuo ecaeaeeyo e eiino?oeoeeyo
iicaieyao nie?aoeoue a?aiy oaa?aeaiey aaoiia.

Noeueoaoinoieeea oeaiaiou, ia?acothuea oeaiaioiue eaiaiue,
onoie/eaue e aa?anneaiiio aeaenoaeth aiae, niaea?aeaueo noeueoaoiua
aieiiu SI2-4..E yoie a?oi-ia oeaiaioia ioiinyo noeueoaoinoieeee
ii?oeaiaeoeaiaio (aac aeiaaaie e n ieia?aeueiuie aeiaaaeaie),
noeueoaoi-noieeee oeaeiii?oeaiaeoeaiaio, iooeoeieaiiaue
ii?oeaiae-oeaiaio. Iieo/atho noeueoaoinoieeea oeaiaiou eciaeue/a-ieai
eeeiea?a n niaea?aeaieai NcA ia aieaa 5 %, Nc5 – 50 %, NcA+N4A?-22 % n
aeiaaaeaie e aac aeiaaaie. Ii AINO 22266-76 (neci.) noeueoaoinoieeea
oeaiaiou eia-tho ia?ee 300, 400 e 500.

I?e ecaioiaeaiee oeaeiii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa a ea/anoaa aeoeaiie
ieia?aeueiie aeiaaaee i?eiaiytho a?aioee?i-aaiiue aeiiaiiue oeae. Oeae
iiaeii aaiaeeoue ia oieue-ei ia noaaeee iiiiea, ii e i?e iieo/aiee
eeeiea?a, caia-iyy /anoue aeeienoiai eiiiiiaioa. Yoi nieaeaao ?anoiae
oiieeaa, oae eae ia o?aaothony cao?aou oaieiou ia ?ac-eiaeaiea aeeiu.

Nu?ueaaoth nianue n eniieueciaaieai oeaea iiaeii ii-eo/aoue eae
nooei, oae e iie?ui niiniaii. Aieaa ?ani?i-no?aiai nooie niinia, oae eae
i?e iie?ii niiniaa oeae auno?i ?anneaeaaaony aneaaenoaea auiaaeaiey a
inaaeie /anoe/ae oeaia. Nianue aioiayo iooai niaianoiiai ii-iiea
ecaanoiyea e oeaea a iaeueieoeao ii caieiooiio oeeeeo, i?e/ai iiiie
niaiauatho n nooeie. Anee oeae eiaao aeaaeiinoue aieaa 10 %, oi aai
i?aaeaa?eoaeueii no-oao a nooeeueiuo aa?aaaiao i?e oaiia?aoo?a ia auoa
600-700 °N. Iiauoaiea oaiia?aoo?u i?eaiaeeo e ?an-noaeeiauaaieth oeaea e
nieaeaieth aai aeoeaiinoe. Iieo/atho oeaeiii?oeaiaeoeaiaio iiiieii a
iiiaiea-ia?iuo iaeueieoeao eeeiea?a, aunooaiiiai oeaea e aei-na.
Eiee/anoai eeneuo oeaeia a oeaeiii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa 30-40 %, iniiaiuo –
50-60 %.

Auno?ioaa?aeathuee oeaeiii?oeaiaeoeaiaio ecaioiaey-tho aieaa oiieei
eciaeue/aieai iau/iie nu?ueaaie niane (aei 4000-5000 ni2/ a), eniieuecoy
aeey yoiai aeaonoaaeee-iue iiiie: aia/aea eciaeue/atho eeeiea?, a caoai
eeei-ea?iue ii?ioie, oeae e aein.

Iooeoeieaiiaue oeaiaio iieo/atho niaianoiui iiii-eii eeeiea?a, aeina e
aeoeaiie ieia?aeueiie aeiaaaee (20-40 %). Aeiaaaee ia?aae iiiieii
ae?iayo e nooao aei aeaaeiinoe 1-2 %. Niaianoiue iiiie i?iecaiaeyo a
iiiaieaia?iuo o?oaiuo iaeueieoeao ii ioe?uoiio oeee-eo oae eae
aieueoeinoai aeoeaiuo ieia?aeueiuo aeiaaaie iaiaa i?i/iu, /ai eeeiea?. A
neo/aa eniieueciaaiey ieioiie, oaa?aeie aeiaaaee iiiie aaaeoo ii
caieiooiio

oeeeeo.

?en 1. Oaoiieiae/aneay noaia i?iecaiaenoaa ii?oeaiaeoeaiaioa ii iie?iio
niiniao

/-aeeiiaieoooea; 2- iiaea/a aiaeu; 3-iiaea/a aeeiu; 4-iiaea/a
ecaano-iyea: 5-ae?iaeeea; 6-nu?ueaaay iaeueieoea; 7-oeai-aannaeiu;
8-a?aua-thuayny ia/ue; 9-oieiaeeeueiee; 10-iiaea/a oaieueiie iuee a
ia/ue; //-yea-aaoi? aeey iiaea/e oaey; 12-nooeeueiue aa?aaai aeey oaey;
13 – neeaae oaey;14-iaeueieoea aeey oaey; 15 – neeaae aeina; /a-yeaaaoi?
aeey iiaea/e aeina ec ae?iaeeee a aoiea?; 17-neeaae eeeiea?a; 18-o?oaiay
iaeueieoea; 19 – neeinu aeey oeaiaioa; 20-oiaeiaea oeaiaioa

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

1. E.A. *aon, TH.Ae. *enoia, TH.A. Eaaceia: Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee I.:No?ieecaeao 1988

2. N.A. Aa?yaa, I.A. Niiei Iniiau oaoiieiaee e oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneay
ioeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, ecaeaeee e eiino?oeoeee
AaeAOANI

3. Eiiniaeo eaeoeee aeioeaioa eaoaae?u ia?eaoeiaa Ieeeoi?iaie Aaaaiee
Iao?iaiu.

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