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OEIAINIAAss AEAAeAIEss

I?E I?AAEOAEUeNOAA ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

Eaoaae?a yeiiiieee e oaoiieiaee i?iecaiaenoaa

?aoa?ao ia oaio:

Oai?ey e i?aeoeea i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiieoaeae ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao

nooaeaioa a?oiiu E-1-6

Aeaieeiaa A. A.

Iao/iue ?oeiaiaeeoaeue

aeioe. Eiaeiiaa

Iineaa

1995 a.

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea 3

I. Oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea aii?inu i?iecaiaenoaa 4

1. Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeiieoaeae ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao 4

2. Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa IAIAe 5

II. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey eae noauaeoa yeiiiieee 10

1. Eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea iaeiieoaeae ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao 10

2. Yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa 12

Caeeth/aiea 17

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u 18

Aaaaeaiea

I?ioei oaea ianeieueei eao n oiai a?aiaie, eae y noae aieiaoaeueii
neaaeeoue ca niauoeyie a eiiiuethoa?iii ie?a. Ca yoio n?aaieoaeueii
ei?ioeee n?ie iineaaeiee naeaeae aeaaioneee nea/ae a naiai ?acaeoee: io
86 e 286 i?ioeanni?ia n oaeoiaie /anoioie 8 — 20 Iaoe, aei iaioeoiia,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?uo auoa a ouny/e ?ac, a oaeoiaay /anoioa
ninoaaeyao aieueoa 100 Iaoe (ia i?ioiaeeaoae n24 ii 28 ai?aey a Iineaa
aunoaaea Comtec aue i?aaenoaaeai eiiiuethoa? n oaeoiaie /anoioie
i?ioeanni?a 120 Iaoe, /oi ia yaeyaony i?aaeaeii, oae eae oe?ia aioiaeo
auioneo iiaoth iiaeaeue Pi-6, eioi?ay ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe aeieaeia
i?aacieoe Pentium).

Caiaoiua oniaoe ae?oaeo no?ai a yoie iaeanoe aua aieaa iooaiytho ii/oe
aaciaaeaaeiia ionoaaaiea caeanue ?innee. Ii nouanoao a no?aia aeaiiay
io?aneue aiiaua ia ?acaeoa. Iao ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai oi?aaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaii, noaieia n i?ia?aiiiui oi?aaeaieai. Eiathueany aea
ioaeaeueiua oaae ia eni?aaeytho neooaoeee, e?iia oiai, ioa/anoaaiiua
ia?acoeu i?iaeoeoeee a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa caiaoii onooiatho
ca?oaaaeiui aiaeiaai.

A nayce n yoei i?aaenoaaeyaony iniaaiii aaaeiuie ?ac?aaioee e
enneaaeiaaiey a aeaiiie noa?a, iicaieythuea anee ia aueoe ia ia?aua
ianoa, oi oioy au iaania/eoue no?aio iaiaoiaeeiie i?iaeoeoeeae
nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

I. Oaoie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea aii?inu i?iecaiaenoaa

1. Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee iaeiieoaeae ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao

Iaeiieoaee ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao (IAIAe) iicaieytho ia?aiineoue
aeieoiaiou e i?ia?aiiu n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia ae?oaie, o?aieoue
eioi?iaoeeth, ia eniieuecoaioth iinoiyiii ia eiiiuethoa?a, aeaeaoue
a?oeaiua eiiee i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia, niaea?aeaueony ia aeanoeii
aeenea.

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee aeeneaou ?acia?ii 5,25 e 3,5
aetheia, oi anoue 133 e 89 ii a aeeaiao?a.

IAIAe ?acia?ii 5,25 aetheia /aua anaai eiatho aieinoue ?acia?ii 1,2
Iaaeoa e 360 Eaaeo. Ano?a/athony aeeneaou i?aaeieo eao auionea, eiathuea
iaiueooth aieinoue eeai ?ann/eoaiiua ia eniieueciaaiea a aeeneiaiaeao n
iaeiie aieiaeie (iaeiinoi?iiiea aeeneaou). Aeey caiene e /oaiey aeeneao
aieinoueth 1,2 Iaaeoa i?aaeiacia/aiu niaoeeaeueiua iaeiieoaee, eioi?ua
onoaiaaeeaathony ia eiiiuethoa?ao iiaeaeae IBM PC AT, e PS/2.
Nouanoaotho oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua aeeneiaiaeu ia 360 Eaaeo. Oaoieea
caiene ia aeaiiuo aeeneaoao ?acee/ia A aeeneiaiaeao aieinoueth 1,2
Iaaeoa eniieuecothony aieiaee aeey /oaiey / caiene, iaania/eaathuea
aieaa oceoth aei?iaeeo eioi?iaoeee. N yoie oeaeueth ia 5,25 aetheiiauo
aeeneaoao i?eiaiyaony niaoeeaeueiia iaaieoiia iie?uoea, eioi?ia
iicaieyao inouanoaeyoue aieaa ieioioth caienue. Yoi iaaieoiia iie?uoea
o?oaeiaa

iaiaaieoeoue e ?aciaaieoeoue, /ai iau/iia, iiyoiio oaeea iaeiieoaee ia
iiaoo auoue eniieueciaaiu a aeeneiaiaeao aieinoueth 360 Eaaeo.

A eiiiuethoa?ao iineaaeieo eao auionea /aua noaee eniieueciaaoue
iaeiieoaee aeey aeeneao ?acia?ii 3,5 aetheia (89 ii) e aieinoueth 0,7 e
1,44 Iaaeo. Ia?aoiae ia eo eniieueciaaiea aue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue
naycai n ao?iui ?acaeoeai ii?oaoeaiuo eiiiuethoa?ia, a eioi?uo iaeuecy
auei eniieueciaaoue i?aaeiea iaeiieoaee ec-ca aieueoeo ?acia?ia
iineaaeieo.

IAIAe ?acia?ii 3,5 aetheia caeeth/aiu, a ioee/ea io 5,25 aetheiiauo,
caeeth/aiu a aeanoeea ieanoianniaue eiiaa?o, /oi cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao
eo iaaeaaeiinoue e aeieaiaa/iinoue, a oaeaea nicaeaao cia/eoaeueiua
oaeianoaa i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea, o?aiaiee e eniieueciaaiee. A nayce n yoei
ia?aua ec auoaia?a/eneaiiuo aeeneia auoaniytho iineaaeiea n
eiiiuethoa?iiai ?uiea, oioy iie e noiyo ianeieueei aei?iaea.

Ninoaaeythueie iaaieoiiai aeenea ?acia?ii 3,5 aetheia e aieinoueth
1,44 Iaaeoa (aeaeaa ?anniao?eaaaony oieueei ii) yaeythony:

e?uoea caueoiay iaoaeee/aneay;

i?oaeeia aeey e?uoee iaoaeee/aneay;

eiiaa?o ieanoianniaue (aa?oiyy e ieaeieyy noi?iiu);

aeaa i?ieeaaeee ec iyaeie aoiaae;

caaeaeaeea caueou io caiene ieanoianniaay;

noaaeeecaoi? iieiaeaiey aeenea iaoaeee/aneee;

na?aeoeaaeia aeenea iaoaeee/aneay;

e?oaeay caiiieiathuay iiaa?oiinoue aeenea ieanoianniaay, iie?uoay
iaaieoiui neiai.

2. Oaoiieiaey i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiieoaeae ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao

Caienue e n/eouaaiea eioi?iaoeee inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth iaaieoiuo
aieiaie ieaaathuaai oeia. Iie e?aiyony ia ?u/aaao, eioi?ua ia?aiauathony
ii ?aaeeono aeeneia n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai neaaeyuaai i?eaiaea.

A ea/anoaa iaoa?eaea aeey ecaioiaeaiey iaaieoiuo aeeneia iau/ii
i?eiaiytho aethieieaaue nieaa Ae16II (II — iaaieoiay iaiyoue). Yoio
nieaa iaiaaieoiue, iyaeee, aeinoaoi/ii i?i/iue, oi?ioi ia?aaaouaaaony.
Aeey oiaiueoaiey eiee/anoaa iaoaeeo?ae/aneeo aeaoaeoia ia iiaa?oiinoe
aeenea nieaa iiaeaa?aatho niaoeeaeueiie i/enoea. iai?eia?
yeaeo?ioethniaiio ?aoeie?iaaieth n i?iaeoaeie eia?oiui aacii.

Oi?oeaaua iiaa?oiinoe iaaieoiuo aeeneia iie?uaatho iaaieoiui neiai.
Aaeueaaie/aneia iaaieoiia iie?uoea eiaao oieueio aei 1 iei, a
oa??ieaeiaia — aei 5 iei. Oieueei oi?oeaaua iiaa?oiinoe e?aeieo aeeneia
ia eniieuecothony aeey o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. Ia ?aai/ae iiaa?oiinoe
aeenea ?aciauathony 80 aei?iaeae, 20 naeoi?ia.

Caiene e n/eouaaiey eioi?iaoeee inouanoaeythony n iiiiuueth iaaieoiuo
aieiaie ieaaathuaai oeia. Iie e?aiyony ia ?u/aaao, eioi?ua ia?aiauathony
ii ?aaeeono aeenea n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai neaaeyuaai i?eaiaea.

Ieioiinoue caiene ii?aaeaeyaony aaee/eiie caci?a iaaeaeo aeeneii e
iaaieoiie aieiaeie, a io noaaeeueiinoe caci?a caaeneo ea/anoai caiene
(n/eouaaiey). Aeey iiauoaiey ieioiinoe caiene iaiaoiaeeii oiaiueoeoue
caci?, iaeiaei i?e yoii cia/eoaeueii iiauoathony o?aaiaaiey e ?aai/ae
iiaa?oiinoe aeeneia. I?e iaeii caci?a e aieueoeo iia?aoiinoyo a
iae?iaaiiao?ee iiaa?oiinoe eiatho ianoi cia/eoaeueiua eieaaaiey
aiieeooaeu neaiaea aini?iecaaaeaiey. Aeey iaaeaaeiie ?aaiou iaeiieoaey
ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue oa?ioiaaoinoue
iiaa?oiinoe ia aieaa Ra=0,22 iei e ieieiaeueiua iae?iaaiiao?e/aneea
ioeeiiaiey. Oi?oeaaia aeaiea aeenea i?e a?auaiee n /enoioie 30 ia/n ia
aeieaeii i?aauoaoue 0,3 ii, a oaeaeueiay iaieineinoiinoue 0,7 iei ia
aeeeia 10 ii.

Auiieiaiea yoeo o?aaiaaiee i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe.

Iniiaiuie yoaiaie oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna ecaioiaeaiey iaaieoiiai
aeenea yaeythony iieo/aiea caaioiaee, iiaeaioiaea iiaa?oiinoe,
oa?ii?eooiaaiea, oiea?iay ia?aaioea, iaianaiey iaaieoiiai iie?uoey,
o?aaiiaaoeaaiea, eiio?ieue.

Caaioiaeo aeeneia iieo/atho ec eenoiaiai iaoa?eaea. ?aceo eenoia ia
ea?oi/ee ?acia?ii 100o100 ii inouanoaeytho ia iiaeieoeao n iaeeiiiuie
iiaeaie e i?eaeeiii iaoa?eaea. Ec ea?oi/ae au?oaeie ia ooaiia eee ia
oiea?iii noaiea iieo/atho aeenee.

I?e au?oaea ciia iaoaeea, i?eeaaathuay e iiaa?oiinoe n?aca,
oi?i/iyaony. Oieueia aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai neiy ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 0,3
oieueiu iaoa?eaea. I?eione ia iineaaeothuoth oiea?ioth ia?aaioeo
aeieaeai i?aauoaoue oieueio aeaoi?ie?iaaiiiai neiy.

?acia?u caaioiaee aeey iaaieoiiai aeenea eiatho neaaeothuea cia/aiey:
ia?oaeiue aeeaiao? ninoaaeyao 85,5 ii, a aioo?aiiee — 24 ii.

Iiaeaioiaea iiaa?oiinoe caeeth/aaony a iaacaee?eaaiee, i?iiuaea a
ai?y/ae i?ioi/iie aiaea (i?e t=60( N a oa/aiea 1 — 2 iei.) e nooea. Iia
inouanoaeyaony ia niaoeeaeueiuo onoaiiaeao.

Aeene, iaoiaeyueeny a eaia?a noaiea iieo/aao a?auaiea e iiaeaa?aaaony
aeaenoaeth iaacaee?eaathuaai ?anoai?a, a oaeaea i?ioe?aaony
a?auathueieny uaoeaie. ?anoai? iiaeaaony ec aa/ea ianinii e ?aniueyaony
oi?noieaie. *enoay aiaea aeey i?iiuaee iinooiaao ec e?aia.
Iaacaee?eaathuee ?anoai? ec eaia?u iiiaaeaao /a?ac eeaiai ia?aoii a
aa/ie aeey aoi?e/iiai eniieueciaaiey eee neeaaaony. Aeenee nooao ai?y/ei
aicaeooii, oee?eoeyoeey eioi?iai a eaia?a inouanoaeyaony aaioeeyoi?ii.

Oa?ii?eooiaaiea caaioiaie iaiaoiaeeii aeey niyoey aioo?aiieo
iai?yaeaiee e iaania/aiey o?aaiaaiee ii iaieineinoiinoe e inaaiio
aeaieth. Yoo iia?aoeeth iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?acii auiieiyoue a
yeaeo?e/aneeo ia/ao nii?ioeaeaiey, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho ieieiaeueiua
ia?aiaaeu oaiia?aoo? ii anaio ?aai/aio iauaio. Iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a
?eooiaaiey aeey nieaaa Ae16II ninoaaeyao 125– 215 N, a auaea?aeea i?e
yoie oaiia?aoo?a 3 /. Nei?inoue iiaeuaia oaiia?aoo?u ninoaaeyao 40( N a
/an, a nei?inoue ioeaaeaeaiey ia aieaa — 20( N a /an.

A i?eniiniaeaiee aeey cae?aieaiey aeeneia i?e oa?ii?eooiaaiee caaioiaee
aeeneia iiiauatho iaaeaeo aethieieaauie ieeoaie. A eaaeaeii neia
iaoiaeeony ii 10 caaioiaie. Iieiaeaiea caaioiaee ia ieeoa ii?aaeaeyaony
o?aiy ooeooaie, eioi?ua oeene?otho caaioiaeo ii aioo?aiiaio aeeaiao?o.
Iie neoaeao oaeaea aeey oeenaoeee aeiaeaiey neaaeothuae ieeou. Iniiaaiea
e a?ociaay ieeoa auiieiaiu ec /oaoia. A?ociaay ieeoa iaania/eaaao
o?aaoaiia aeaaeaiea, eioi?ia aeey aa?oiae caaioiaee ninoaaeyao 0,02–
0,04 Iia. Noieea eiaao ooei, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai i?eniiniaeaiea
caa?oaeatho a yeaeo?e/aneoth oaooioth ia/ue. Oaiia?aoo?a ?aai/aai
i?ino?ainoaa e i?eniiniaeaiey eiio?iee?oaony oa?iiia?aie, onoaiiaeaiiuie
nia?oaee e aioo?e i?eniiniaeaiey.

Eiio?ieue oi?oeaauo iiaa?oiinoae aeeneia iinea oa?ii?eooiaaiey
inouanoaeytho n aeaoo noi?ii aaneiioaeoiui (aieinoiui) iaoiaeii.
Caaioiaee aeeneia onoaiaaeeaatho ia ieineinoue nooieoeu e cae?aieytho
/a?ac eieueoei i?eaeeiii n iiiiuueth aaeee.

Inaaia aeaiea ecia?ytho i?e ?aaiiia?iii a?auaiee n /anoioie 0,2 ia/c
i?e oeene?iaaiiii iieiaeaiee aeao/eea ia iaeiie ec eiioeaio?e/aneeo
ie?oaeiinoae. Iaia?aeeaeueiinoue ia?aiauaiey aeao/eea ii ieineinoe ia
aeieaeia i?aauoaoue 0,001.

Oiea?ioth ia?aaioeo aeeneia i?iaiaeyo ia noaieao iiauoaiiie oi/iinoe a
aaeooiiii iao?iia.

Iniiaiuie /anoyie iao?iia yaeythony ieaioaeaa e ei?ion ni niaiiui
eieueoeii. *a?ac ioaa?noey aai iieinoue niaaeeiaia n eaiaaeaie,
iaoiaeyueieny ia oi?oeaaie iiaa?oiinoe ieaioaeau. ?aciinoue aoiinoa?iiai
aeaaeaiey aicaeooa e aeaaeaiey aioo?e ieaioaeau i?eaeeiaao caaioiaeo
aeenea e aunooiai, oaea?aeeaay aeene ia ieaioaeaa ca n/ao nee o?aiey.
Aeey nuaia aeenea iieinoue ieaioaeau niaaeeiytho n ie?oaeathuae
aoiinoa?ie. Aaee/eia ?ac?yaeaiey ninoaaeyao 0,05 — 0,07 Ia. Iaoi/ea
ia?oaeiiai e aioo?aiiaai aeeaiao?ia, a oaeaea oanie inouanoaeyaony i?e
/anoioa a?auaiey oieiaeaey io 700 aei 900 ia/ iei e iiaea/a aei 0,1
ii/ia.

Iiaeaioiaea iiaa?oiinoe aeenea ia?aae iaianaieai iie?uoey caeeth/aaony
a i/enoea aa iithuei ?anoai?ii i?e oaiia?aoo?a 55 — 65( N. A ea/anoaa
iiaeneiy i?eiaiytho iaaeue, eioi?oth iaiinyo aaeueaaie/aneei niiniaii.

Iaaieoiia iie?uoea, iaianaiiia ii iaaeiiio iiaeneith, iaania/eaaao
iaeue oie caiene, aunieoth aiieeooaeo n/eouaaaiiai neaiaea e i?aeoe/anee
aacaeaoaeoiia iie?uoea. Oieueia iaaeiiai iiaeneiy ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 5
iei. *enoioa iiaa?oiinoe iinea iaianaiey iaaeiiai iiaeneiy oooaeoaaony,
e aeey aa ainnoaiiaeaiee i?eiaiyaony iiee?iaaiea, i?e eioi?ii oieueia
iiaeneiy oiaiueoaaony ia 0,5 iei.

Iiaeneie e iaaieoiia iie?uoea iaiinyo yeaeo?ieeoe/aneei niiniaii a
i?eniiniaeaiee, eioi?ia iaania/eaaao iiaeaiae oiea e a?auaiea aeenea a
aaeueaaie/aneie aaiia. A?auaiea aeenea iaania/eaaao ?aaiiia?iinoue
inaaeaeaiey iie?uoey.

I?eniiniaeaiea ninoieo ec oaenoieeoiaie ieeou, ia eioi?ie onoaiiaeaiu
aeaeaaoaeue e iiieaeathuea ?aaeoeoi?u. Ia aaeo ?aaeoeoi?a ianaaeaia
ii?aaea n aeeneii. Oie e aeeneo iiaeaaony io i?iaiaea e aooeee e ii?aaa.
Aeene iia?oaeatho a aaiio ia iieiaeio aeeaiao?a. Aeey iieo/aiey
?aaiiia?iiai iaaieoiiai iiey onoaiaaeeaatho eaooiiue ye?ai. Iia?oaeaiea
aeenea a aaiio, iiaeuai e ia?aiin aai ec iaeiie aaiiu a ae?oaoth
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth oya.

Noaoe/aneia o?aaiiaaoeaaiea aeeneia i?iecaiaeeony iinea iie?uoey
iaaeueth. Aeene, ieioii iaaeaoue ia ii?aaeo onoaiaaeeaatho ia ?aio-aanu,
eioi?ay i?eciaie iie?aaony ia noieeo. Aanu o?aaiiaaoeaathony n iiiiuueth
a?ocia. ?aio noiii?yo ia noieea ooeoii, eioi?ue iinea onoaiiaee aeenea
auieiatho. I?e iaee/ee iao?aaiiaaoaiiinoe ?aia ioeeiiyaony io
ai?eciioaeueiiai iieiaeaiey , /oi oeene?oaony no?aeeie ia oeaea. I?e
yoii ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua iia?aoeee auiieiythony aaoiiaoe/anee.

Ieii/aoaeueiia iiee?iaaiea inouanoaeyaony ia noaiea n aa?oeeaeueiui
oieiaeaeai. Ia?aaaouaaaiue aeene cae?aieytho a aaeooiiie ieaioaeaa. I?e
yoii ii i?eaeeiaaony e oi/iie iiaa?oiinoe ieaioaeau. A ea/anoaa
eino?oiaioa i?eiaiytho iiee?iaaeueiee, oa?ie?iia e?aieaiea eioi?iai
iaania/eaaao aai naiionoaiiaeo ioiineoaeueii iiaa?oiinoe aeenea.

Aeey i?aaeio?aiaiey iaaieoiiai iineoaey io iaoaie/aneeo e eeeiaoe/aneeo
aicaeaenoaee ia oi?oeaaua iiaa?oiinoe aeeneia iiaoo iaiineoue caueoiia
iie?uoea. ?aiueoa yoo ?ieue auiieiye o?ii, nae/an eniieuecoaony oeoeii.
Iineaaeiee iicaieyao naeaeaoue aeene aaniethoii ia /oanoaeoaeueiui ei
anyeiai ?iaea caa?yciaieyi: aee?, aiaea, iueue.

I?iecaieueii aua?aiiua aeenee iiaeaa?aatho eniuoaieyi ia nio?aiyaiinoue
caienaiiie eioi?iaoeee i?e aeeeoaeueiie ?aaioa a ?aaeeia n/eouaaiey.
Eiio?ieueiua ecia?aiey ia?aiao?ia aini?iecaiaeeiuo neaiaeia
inouanoaeytho n iiiiuueth inoeeeeia?aoa.

Eeeiaoe/aneea eniuoaiey i?iaiaeyo i?e iiauoaiiie (+50( N) e iiieaeaiiie
(— 50( N) oaiia?aoo?ao, a iaoaie/aneea i?e aea?aoeeiiiuo e oaea?iuo
iaa?oceao.

Iinea eaaeaeiai eniuoaiey aeenee iiaeaa?aatho aecoaeueiiio iniio?o n
i?iaa?eie ia?aiao?ia n/eouaaaiie eioi?iaoeee.

Acaeiicaiaiyaiinoue aua?aiiuo IAIAe i?iaa?ytho ia ianeieueeeo
iaeiieoaeyo, ia eioi?ua iineaaeiaaoaeueii onoaiaaeeaatho iaeei e oio aea
aeene. I?e yoii eioi?iaoeey, caienaiiay ia aeeneaoao, aeieaeia aac naiaa
aini?iecaiaeeony ia anao iaeiieoaeyo.

Eiiaaea iinea i?iaaaeaiey anao auoaia?a/eneaiiuo iia?aoeee ii nai?ea e
i?iaa?ea aeeneia iaeioi?ua oe?iu a ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiie oneoae
oaeaea oi?iaoe?otho iaeiieoaee ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao, oi anoue
?acaeaatho eo ia aei?iaeee e naeoi?a, /oiau inaiaiaeeoue io yoie
i?ioeaaeo?u iieueciaaoaey, iaeiaei iineaaeiaa ia iaycaoaeueii, oae eae
o?aaiaaiey e oi?iaoe?iaaieth o ?acee/iuo iieueciaaoaeae /anoi ?aciyony,
iiyoiio nieeaeiua eiiiaiee i?aaeii/eoatho i?aaeinoaaeyoue auai? niiniaa
oi?iaoe?iaaiey iieoiaoaeth, a ia i?iaiaeyo aai ca?aiaa.

II. Aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey eae noauaeoa yeiiiieee

1. Eiiuthieoo?a ?uiea iaeiieoaeae ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao

Naaiaeiy ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii eiiiuethoa?iii ?uiea iaaethaeaaony
neaaeothuay neooaoeey. IAIAe iieiinoueth auoanieee aua aeinoaoi/ii
iiioey?iua ianeieueei eao iacaae IIE (iaeiieoaee ia iaaieoiuo eaioao),
ia?oiea?ou aea nianai ooee a iaauoea. Aua nouanoaotho IIA (iaeiieoaee ia
iaaieoiuo aa?aaaiao), iaeiaei eo iiceoeee n i?eoiaeii eaca?iuo aeeneia
auno?i naeathony. Iaiei yaeaieyi anoue ianeieueei i?e/ei, eioi?ua
aicieeee iiae aeaenoaeai IO?, onei?ythuae ?acaeoea eiiiuethoa?iie
eiaeono?ee.

Iiyaeaoenue naiuie ia?auie ia?oiea?ou nia/aea auee aaeeeei
aeinoeaeaieai /aeiaa/aneie iunee, oae eae iicaieyee o?aieoue e aaiaeeoue
eioi?iaoeeth a YAI, oi anoue ea?aee ?ieue ia?aiai caiiieiathuaai
ono?ienoaa, iaeiaei anei?a i?ia?aiienoaie auee iniciaiu ana iaoaeianoaa
n ieie naycaiiua.

Oae iacuaaaiay iaaeaea ia?oiea?o auea e?aeia cao?oaeieoaeueia, oae eae
o?aaiaaea ciaiea iaoeiiiai ycuea, e?iia oiai, iaaa?ii iaa?aiioth
ea?oi/eo i?eoiaeeeinue iaaeaaoue caiiai, iioiio /oi caeeaeoue aeu?eo ia
i?aaenoaaeyeinue aiciiaeiui. N YAI iiaee ia?auaoueny eeoue
i?ioanneiiaeu, /oi aeaeaei iaoeio aei?iainoiyuae (iniaaiii i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea, ienaaoaany iiae eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? ioaeaeueii), a oaeaea
iai?eaiaeiie aeey ?aoaiey oe?ieiai e?oaa caaea/.

N/eouaaiea eioi?iaoeee oei i/aiue aeieai, auee /anoua naie. Iiae
o?aiaiea ia?oiea?o ioaiaeeeeenue oeaeua aeaeeioaee. Ii yoei i?e/eiai
anei?a iiyaeaoeany IIE, i?ioioeiii eioi?uo neoaeeee iaaacucaanoiua
eannaou i?aeoe/anee iiiaioaeueii auoanieee n ?aiea caiiieiathueo
ono?ienoa naieo iaiaa oaeiaiuo eiieo?aioia. Iaeiaei e iaeiieoaeae ia
iaaieoiuo eaioao auee naie oceea ianoa.

Ia?aie neaaie eo noi?iiie aue iineaaeiaaoaeueiue aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee,
/oi yaeeinue iaieioaiui neaaenoaeai, nai?a/eaaiey caiiieiathuae
iiaa?oiinoe a aaaeiu, a neaaeiaaoaeueii iaaiciiaeiinoe aeinooia
iaeiia?aiaiii ei anai aa ianoai. Ianiio?y ia aieueooth eo aieinoue,
aeaiiia iaoaeianoai auei ianoieueei cia/eoaeueii, /oi naeaaeeaaei ana eo
i?aeiouanoaa. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeey caa?ocee i?ia?aiiu i?eoiaeeeinue
aoeaaeueii iuoiueth eneaoue ia eannaoa ia/aei caa?oci/iiai oaeea,
ineiaeiaiu auee aioo?ei?ia?aiiiua ia?auaiey. E?iia oiai, iinoiyiiay
aeaoi?iaoeey caiiieiathuae iiaa?oiinoe IIE neacuaaeanue ia eo/oei
ia?acii ia iaaeaaeiinoe caiene.

Iiyoiio ioe?uoua i?aeoe/anee iaeiia?aiaiii n IIE iaeiieoaee ia
iaaieoiuo aa?aaaiao iacaiaaeeeoaeueii caiyee aeinoieiia ianoi a aieueoeo
YAI. Eo iniiaiuie i?aeiouanoaaie ii n?aaiaieth n iaeiieoaeyie ia
iaaieoiuo eaioao auee: ai?acaei aieueoay aieinoue, aiciiaeiinoue
ia?aeeaeueiiai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee. Iie aeaee oie/ie ?acaeoeth
aieueoeo e n?aaeieo YAI.

Ii ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua n?aaenoaa o?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee neeueii
onooiaee, n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii ioe?uoui iaeiieoaeyi ia iaaieoiuo
aeeneao. Oae IIA onooiatho ei a?iiicaeeinoueth, iaaeaaeiinoueth,
aieueoae noieiinoueth aaeeieoeu eioi?iaoeee. Oaeei ia?acii, oe?iu,
i?iecaiaeyuea iaeiieoaee ia iaaieoiuo aeeneao, ?aci?eee caaiaeu,
auioneathuea onoa?aaoea aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee.

Eoae, ?anniio?ei aieiaoaeueii iaeiieoaee ia aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneao,
inoaaeyy a noi?iia aeanoeea iaaieoiua aeenee, eee aei/anoa?u. A
ianoiyuee iiiaio ia ?inneeneii ?uiea neiaeeeanue neaaeothuay ianoaiiaea:
iniiaiie iai?io IAIAe nin?aaeioi/ai a ai?iaeao oaaea?aeueiiai cia/aiey
(a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue a Iineaa). Ia iiiaiiaauathuee, ii aanueia iieiaeie
?uiie iiea auoei ia i/aiue aieueoia eiee/anoai na?ueaciuo caiaaeiuo
oe?i. N?aaee ieo auaeaeythony oaeea aeaaiou, eae Verbatim, ecaanoiay ai
anai ie?a naieie aeeneaoaie, eaca?iuie e iioe/aneeie aeeneaie, TDK,
i?iecaiaeyuay oaeaea aoaeei e aeaeai, eannaou e ae?oaia iai?oaeiaaiea,
Basf, Maxell, 3M, ano?a/athony aeenee Sony e Polaroid, iai?io aea
ae?oaeo eiiiaiee aanueia iacia/eoaeai.

A naith i/a?aaeue oe?iaiiua aeeneaou aei?iae, a oaeaea eo oeaio
iiaeieiatho aaiciua oaiiaeaiiua iioeeiu, iiyoiio iie ia anaaaea
aeinooiiu i?inoui aeaaeaeueoeai YAI, ano?a/athony iiaeaeaeee iiae yoe
oiaa?u, e?iia oiai, aua ia i?aiaeieaia iaoaa?aiiinoue ie?iauo aeaaioia a
noaaeeueiinoe ?O, iiyoiio ana auoaneacaiiia iaoaao iieiiio inaiaieth
eie iaoaai ?uiea.

Ioa/anoaaiiuo oe?i a aeaiiie io?anee iao. Iiiuoee aeaeaeenue, iaeiaei
oaoiieiae/aneia ionoaaaiea no?aiu a eiiiuethoa?ino?iaiee ia iicaieeei
i?iaeoai oniaoii ?aaeeciaaoueny, aaaeue iie auee ?ann/eoaiu ia niaaoneea
eiiiuethoa?u, na?ee AN e ae?oaea, nouanoaaiii onooiaaoea caiaaeiui ii
anai aeaaiui oa?aeoa?enoeeai ei a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo yaeyaoeony i?inoi
iaoaea/iuie eiieyie n IBM-niaianoeiuo. E niaeaeaieth, aeaiiua oneiaey
ecia/aeueii ia?aeaee ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Iaaeaaii iao ?uiie iaaiaeieeny aeaoaauie oaeaaiueneeie aeeneaoaie
(oaeaaiueneea oaoiieiae/aneea). *anoi ano?a/athony aeenee, aaea
no?aia-i?iecaiaeeoaeue aiiaua ia oeacaia, iaeiaei ana iie ia iiaoo
ninoaaeoue na?ueacioth eiieo?aioeeth ec-ca naiaai ieceiai ea/anoaa.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ?acaa?ouaathuayny aeayoaeueiinoue oe?i ii i?iaeaaea
i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia o?aaoao iaaei?iaeo, ii ioiineoaeueii iaaeaaeiuo,
oaeiaiuo aeey o?ainii?oe?iaee aeeneao. Oiai aea oioyo e aeaaeaeueoeu
iaaei?iaeo aeiiaoieo eiiiuethoa?ia, eioi?uo, anee ia o/eouaaoue ioeniua
iaoeiu, iiaeaaeythuaa aieueoeinoai.

Eaca?iua aea e iioe/aneea aeenee, ianiio?y ia i?i?i/eiue ei aoi,
ano?a/athony iiea eeoue a aaeeie/iuo yecaiiey?ao, oae eae /?acau/aeii
aieueoay noieiinoue aeeneiaiaeia aeey ieo, aea e naieo aeeneia ia
iicaieeei ei iieo/eoue oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

Oaeei ia?acii, enneaaeiaaiea ?uiea iieacaei, /oi naaiaeiy e a
ia?niaeoeaa eiaaony aanueia aeaaii?eyoiay neooaoeey aeey ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaa IAIAe ?acia?ii 3,5 aetheia e aieinoueth 1,44 Iaaeoa, oae
eae iie iieiinoueth ioaa/atho i?aaeuyaeyaiui o?aaiaaieyi. Oi anoue ia
?inneeneii ?uiea eiiiuethoa?ia e i?aoaoieee nouanoaoao ieoa aeey
?anniao?eaaaiiai oiaa?a.

2. Yeiiiie/aneea aniaeou i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa

Noa?ie aeciana i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony auione e ?aaeecaoeey ia ?uiea
naiae i?iaeoeoeee. Ae?aeaaua iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie,
i?eia?aoaaiuie ia i?eaueue aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa, a oaeaea ae?oaea
aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe, ia cai?auaiiua caeiiii.

Ninoaa oicyenoaaiiuo naycae n ?uii/iie n?aaeie:

Iaaaceiu e ae?. oic. aaaiou, ?ani?ino?aiythuea oiaa?

Oiiaeiaay ae?aea

Ainoaea?noai

Iinoaaueee nu?uey

Aeoe. iauanoai

Aaiee

?aeeaiiua aaainoaa

No?aoiaua eiiiaiee

Aoaeeoi?neea oe?iu

Noaoon i?aaei?eyoey:

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey onoaaa i?aaei?eyoey:

Oi?ia nianoaaiiinoe — aeieaaay eieeaeoeaiay nianoaaiiinoue.

Aeae i?aaei?eyoey — aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai ioe?uoiai oeia.

Iniiaiie caaea/ae i?aaei?eyoey yaeyaony iaania/aiea i?iecaiaenoaa
iaiaoiaeeiiai eiee/anoaa i?iaeoeoeee i?e ieieiaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao
i?iecaiaenoaa, a oaeaea iia?aoeee ia ioe?uoii ?uiea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiie i?eauee.

Aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiie i?aaiecaoeeae.

Eniieuecoaony ooieoeeiiaeueiay no?oeoo?a oi?aaeaiey. ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?aaei?eyoey /a?ac ooieoeeiiaeueiuo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae ii ioaeaeueiui
ooieoeeyi oi?aaeaiey (ieaie?iaaiea, i?aaiecaoeey, o/ao, eiio?ieue,
aiaeec, ?aaoee?iaaiea), inouanoaeyao aicaeaenoaea ia eeiaeiuo
?oeiaiaeeoaeae.

Aioo?aiieie eiio?iee?othueie i?aaiaie yaeythony auoanoiyuea
?oeiaiaeeoaee, ii ca aee?aeoi?ii i?aaei?eyoe nio?aiyaony i?aai a
yeno?aiiuo neo/ayo nicaeaaaoue niaoeeaeueiua eiiennee aeey eiio?iey
aeayoaeueiinoe eaeie-eeai aaoae oi?aaeaiey iauanoaii eee ?anneaaeiaaiey
/?acau/aeiiai i?ienoanoaey.

Noaiaiue i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ii iaycaoaeuenoaai: aeoeeiia?u ianoo
ioaaonoaaiiinoue a i?aaeaeao naiaai iaeaoa i?eia?aoaiiuo aeoeee.

Oneiaey ?ai?aaiecaoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee i?aaei?eyoey:

ianiiniaiinoue auieaoeoue aeeaeaeaiaeu ii aeoeeyi;

cai?auaiea ainoaea?noaii aeayoaeueiinoe aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa a
noaeaaiii ii?yaeea;

?aoaiea iauaai nia?aiey aeoeeiia?ia i ?ai?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey.

9. Aeoeeiia?u ia?aaeatho aee?aeoi?o aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa i?aai
oi?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey, i?aai ia caeeth/aiea naeaeie,
i?iaeaaeo eiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoey, iacia/aiea oeai ia i?iaeoeoeeth e
?ani?aaeaeaiea i?eauee.

10.I?aaei?eyoea ia eiaao oeeeaeia.

11.AI ia aoiaeeo a nithcu, annioeeaoeee, iauaaeeiaiey.

?aai/ea e neoaeauea iaieiathony ia eiio?aeoiie iniiaa, /oi iicaieyao
caueoeoue eo eioa?anu, a oaeaea /a?ac nenoaio iaoa?eaeueiiai iiiu?aiey
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea.

No?oeoo?a oeiainia i?aaei?eyoey:

Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao

Iaeia ia

Noieiinoue i?iae. aeey iio?aa.

Oaaea?aeueiue athaeaeao

aeiaaaeaiioth

Aeoeec

noieiinoue

Au?o/ea i?aaei?. io ?aaeec. oiaa?a

Cao?aou

I?eaueue io ?aaeec. i?iaeoeoe.

Aeio. io i?iae. eiou.

ia

i?ieca.3

Oei. ?ac. i?aaei?. (aaeainia. i?ea.)1

Aeio io aia?aaeec. iia?aoe.

Iieo/aiiua oo?aou ii i?aaeuyaeaiiui eneai e ia?oia?ai Aeioiaeu io
iiiauaiey aeaiaaeiuo aeoeaia ia aeaiiceoiua n/aoa aaieia Aeioiaeu ii oe.
aoi., i?eiaaeeaaeauei i?aaei?eyoeth Aeio. io naea/e eiou. i?aaei?. a
a?aiaeo Aeioiaeu io ae?aeaaie aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey I?i/ea
aeioiaeu

1

Oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou i?aaei?eyoey (aaeainiaay i?eaueue)

Oaaea?aeueiue

Oieaoa ain. iioeei

Iaeia ia eiouanoai

Iaeanoiie

athaeaeao

(i?e ?anniio?. oic. nii?ia a a?aeo?. noaea)

i?aaei?eyoey

athaeaeao

Oaaea?aeueiue

Aeioiaeu ii oeaii. aoi.

Ianoiua iaeiae

Athaeaeaou ai?iaeia e

athaeaeao

?aeiiia

I?ea. io iin?aaeie/.

I?eaueue io ioaeaeuei.

aeayoaeueiinoe

aaieianeeo iia?aoeee

Iaeiaiiaeaa. i?ea.

I?eaueue io naea/e iiiauaiee a a?aiaeo

Iaeanoiie athaeaeao

I?eaueue, inoaaoayny a ?anii?yaeaiee i?aaei?eyoey2

2

I?eaueue, inoaaoayny iinea oieaou iaeiaia

Oieaoa ooa?oia (5%)

Oiiae ?enea (10%)

Oiiae ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaa (30%)

Oiiae nioe. iiaeaea?aeee iaaii. ?aa. (10%)

Oiiae i?aie?ia. iaaii. ?aaioi. (10%)

Oiiae aeioiaeia aeoeeiia?ia (35%)

3

Cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai

Caeoiea iaoa?eaeia

Ca?. ieaoa ?aai/eo

Cao?aou ia yenieoaoaoe. iai?oae.

?anoiaeu ia oi?aaeaiea

Oaeei ia?acii, i?aaei?eyoea noieo ia oaa?aeuo yeiiiie/aneeo iiceoeey,
/oi neaaeoao ec aeieaia?aiaiiiai oa?aeoa?a naycae n iinoaaueeaie nu?uey,
ianniainoe i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ay eneeth/aao aiciiaeiinoue
iai?iaiice?oaiuo ?anoiaeia. E?iia oiai, iiieii iniiaiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?aaei?eyoea oaeaea caieiaaony ia?aeeaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoueth a ae?oaeo
noa?ao aeciana, oae iii i?iaiaeeo iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie aoiaaaie ia
oiiaeiaie ae?aea, aai niaoeeaeenou i?aaiecotho naieia?u e
eiinoeueoaoeee. Yoi ia oieueei i?eiineo aeoeeiia?iiio iauanoao
cia/eoaeueiue iinoiyiiue aeioiae, eioi?ue iiaeao auoue iai?aaeai ia
?acaeoea i?iecaiaenoaa, iiaeaioiaeo eaae?ia, i?eia?aoaiea iaaeaeaeeiinoe
e caiaeueiuo o/anoeia, ainoaea?noaaiiuo eacia/aeneeo iaycaoaeuenoa,
oeo/oaiea oneiaee o?oaea ?aaioieeia i?aaei?eyoey, ioe?uoea oeeeaeia e
ia?aciaaiea aei/a?ieo i?aaei?eyoee a ?acee/iuo noa?ao iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa, ii, aeaaiia, iiauoaao aai iaaeaaeiinoue, noaaeeueiinoue e
i?eaueueiinoue. Aeaenoeaoaeueii, anee a iaeiie ec iaeanoae
aeayoaeueiinoe (i?iaeaaee oe?iaiiuo aooa?a?iaeia) i?aaei?eyoea iinoeaiao
iaoaea/a, oi yoi ia ieaaeao na?ueaciiai aeeyiey ia iauea ?acoeueoaou aai
yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe.

A nayce n aeaiiui auaiaeii oeaeaniia?acii oaeaea caiaoeoue, /oi
aeaiaaeiua oiiaeu i?aaei?eyoey ii eceiaeaiiui niia?aaeaieyi
oeaeaniia?acii o?aieoue ii e?aeiae ia?a a o?ao ?acee/iuo aaieao,
o/eouaay nia?aiaiiia ninoiyiea ?inneeneie oeiainiaie nenoaiu. Ai-aoi?uo,
?ieoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi a ianoiyuae ianoaaeeueiie eioeyoeeiiiie
neooaoeee aeoeeiia?iiio iauanoao ioaeii ecaaaaoue e?oiiuo aeieain?i/iuo
aeiaeiaiee, /aua i?iaiaeeoue ia?aioeaieo iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Ianiio?y ia ia?a/eneaiiua o?oaeiinoe, ?acaeaathueeny ?inneeneee
eiiiuethoa?iue ?uiie nicaeaao oe?ieea aiciiaeiinoe aeey auaiaeiiai nauoa
i?iaeoeoeee. I?iecaiaenoai eiaao iaaieueoea iauaiu iniiaiuo oiiaeia.

Aeinoaoi/ii o?ao iaaieueoeo iiiauaiee, ec eioi?uo ia?aia aoaeao
eniieueciaaoueny eae neeaae aeey nu?uey, aoi?ia a ea/anoaa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, a o?aouea iiae neeaae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii iiei
iiaen/aoai, aeey iaania/aiey aeinoaoi/iiai i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee
iaiaoiaeeiu anaai aeaa oaoiieiae/aneea eeiee, ?aaioathuea e?oaeinooi/ii.

Aunieay aaoiiaoecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna iaoneaaeeaaao
iaee/ea iaeiai eiee/anoaa ia?niiaea:

— 7 iniiaiuo ?aai/eo, ec eioi?uo ii 4 ?aaioatho iiniaiii a ii/ioth
niaio /a?ac aeaiue, a 2 niaiythony eaaeaeue aeaiue a aeiaaioth niaio,
i?e yoii iaeei inoaaony aeey caiaiu ia auoaaeoeo ia ?aaioo;

— 2 oaoieea, ioaaonoaaiiuo ca eni?aaiinoue iai?oaeiaaiey;

— 1 aeaaiue eiaeaia?, caieiathueeny i?iaeaiaie i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii e
i?aaiecaoeeae eiiiaaoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe;

— 3 yeiiiienoa, a iaycaiiinoe eioi?uo aoiaeeo yeiiiiie/aneay ioeaiea
aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaiecaoeey nio?oaeie/anoaa iinoaaueeaie
nu?uey e ?ani?ino?aieoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee, a oaeaea iia?aoeee n oeaiiuie
aoiaaaie e aeoeeyie;

— aooaaeoa?, ioaa/athuee ca n/aoa e aaeain aeoeeiia?iiai iauanoaa,
auieaou aeeaeaeaiaeia ii aeoeeyi e ca?aaioiie ieaou;

— noi?iae, io?aiythuee nianoaaiiinoue th?eaee/aneiai eeoea a ia?aai/ea
aeie.

Eoae, iauaa eiee/anoai ?aaioathueo ia i?aaei?eyoee, ia n/eoay aai
aee?aeoi?a, ninoaaeyao anaai 15 /aeiaae, ec /aai auoaeatho ia oieueei
iaeua cao?aou ia ca?aaioioth ieaoo, ii e ana eueaiou, eioi?ua
i?aaeoniio?aiu ?inneeneei caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Iineieueeo ana oaoiieiae/aneea i?ioeannu yeieiae/anee /enou,
i?aaei?eyoea aiciiaeii ?acianoeoue n o/aoii noieiinoe caiee ia ie?aeiao
Iineau, /oi i?eaeeceo aai e iio?aaeoaeth, a neaaeiaaoaeueii oiaiueoeo
cao?aou ia ia?aaicee.

Ioiineoaeueii iaaaeeea aaee/eia iniiaiiai eaieoaea ii n?aaiaieth n
ia?aiaiiui. Yoi iaoneaaeeaaao aunieoth nei?inoue ia?auaiey oeiainiaiai
eaieoaea, ec /aai yanoaoao auno?ay ieoiaaiinoue i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
oiiaeia.

Aiaeece?oy, auoaia?a/eneaiiua oaeou, aaaeii caiaoeoue, /oi i?aaiecaoeey
oeacaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey naaiaeiy yaeyaony i?eaueueiui aeey o/?aaeeoaey e
iaiaoiaeeiui aeey no?aiu aeaeii.

Caeeth/aiea

?inney eaeao ii iooe ?uii/iie yeiiiieee. Iiiaea ethaee ni?aaaaeeeai
naycuaatho n yoei naie iaaeaaeaeu ia aic?iaeaeaiea no?aiu. ?uii/iay
yeiiiieea iai?yioth naycaia e n ?acaeoeai eiiiuethoa?iie iaeanoe.
Ianiiiaiiay auaiaeiinoue ?acaeoey aeaiiiai iai?aaeaiey oaea i?eaeaeee
iaiaeua /anoiua eaieoaeu. Ioe?ueinue iiiai ioa/anoaaiiuo oe?i,
aeayoaeueiinoue eioi?uo niinianoaoao ?anoe?aieth ?uiea au/eneeoaeueiie
oaoieee e i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, aaoiiaoecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
oi?aaeaiey.

E niaeaeaieth, aieueoeinoai ec ieo yaeythony eeoue iin?aaeieeaie
iaaeaeo caiaaeiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie e ioa/anoaaiiuie caeac/eeaie.
Iaeiaei a yoii eiaaony naiy caeiiiia?iinoue, aeaeaa aaaeouay e
i?aaiecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa oaea a iaoae no?aia, oae eae ia?aaicea oeaeuo
iaoei ec-ca a?aieoeu ia anaaaea auaiaeia. E naaiaeiy eiathony oe?iu ia
i?iecaiaeyuea, ii ii e?aeiae ia?a niae?athuea eiiiuethoa?u e ae?oaoth
au/eneeoaeueioth oaoieeo ec iinoaaeyaiuo eiiieaeoothueo.

Iaeiaei /anoiie eieoeeaoeau aeey oi?ne?iaaiey aeaaioneiai
oaoiieiae/aneiai ?ac?uaa, ia?aciaaaoaainy iaaeaeo iaoae aea?aeaaie e
?acaeouie eaieoaeenoe/aneeie no?aiaie yaii ia aeinoaoi/ii, iioiio /oi
i?aaei?eieiaoaeue a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i?aneaaeoao naith ee/ioth auaiaeo,
eioi?ay ia iicaieyao aio inouanoaeyoue aeieain?i/iua e?oiiiianooaaiua
i?iaeou.

Iiyoiio i?aaeoaeuenoao ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, ii iiaio iiaieth,
iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue iineaaeiaaoaeueioth i?ia?aiio, iai?aaeaiioth
ia i?ei?eoaoiia ?acaeoea oeacaiiie io?anee. Ainoaea?noao neaaeoao
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ioa/anoaaiiuo ?ac?aaio/eeia i?ia?aiiiuo i?iaeoeoia,
i?iecaiaeeoaeae au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee, noaneaee?iaaoue iao/iua
enneaaeiaaiey a aeaiiuo iaeanoyo. Oaeay i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay i?ia?aiia
iiaeeyao ia eioi?iaoecaoeeth e eioaineoeeaoeeth i?iecaiaenoaa

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u

Aeaaeueaa A. C. Eiiiuethoa?iay o?anoiiaoey. Ni?aai/iia ?oeiaiaenoai.
Eeaa.: Oe?aeineay yioeeeeiiaaeey. 1993.

Aooiai A. A. Au/eneeoaeueiua iaoeiu, eo ?aiiio e ianeoaeeaaiea. I. 1994.

Aeiaa?a A. I. Oaoiieiaey aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe. I.: Aunoay
oeiea. 1985. Ae. 6, 7, 17, 20, 22.

A?aiei E. A. Yeiiiie/aneay eioi?iaoeea e au/eneeoaeueiay oaoieea. I.:
Oeiainu e noaoenoeea. 1993.

Eina?aa A. I. Oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa ANO. I. 1992.

Ooaeia I. I. Oaoiieiaey e iai?oaeiaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa YAI. I. 1989.

Ooaeia I. I. Oaoiieiaey yeaiaioia au/eneeoaeueiuo iaoei. I.: Aunoay
oeiea. 1991.

*a?iaoeia E. A. Iniiau oaoiieiaee aaaeiaeoeo io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.
Ieine. 1989. O. 2. Ae. 7.

Oeao?iia A. Y. IBM PC aeey iieueciaaoaey. I.: EIO?A-I. 1995.

Aaeo — aaeeieoea aieinoe eioi?iaoeee. 1 aaeo = 8 aeoai (aeo — iaoeiiay
aaeeieoea eioi?iaoeee, ioaa/athuay aeaie/iie nenoaia n/eneaiey e
i?aaenoaaeythuay niaie iaee/ea / ionoonoaea neaiaea ia auoiaea). Aaeo
eniieuecoaony aeey eiaee?iaaiey neiaieia aioo?e YAI.

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