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Кран козловой ПТМ 00.000.ПЗ.

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IAAeE (OO)

Eaoaae?a aei?iaeii-no?ieoaeueiuo iaoei

EO?NIAIE I?IAEO

E?ai eiceiaie

IOI 00.000.IC.

Nooaeaio: Noaiaiaiei A.N.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue: Oanoiiaeia E.E.

A?oiia: 4AeI2

IINEAA 1995

Niaea?aeaiea

1 Aaaaeaiea

2 Iacia/aiea

3 Oaoie/aneay oa?aeoa?enoeea

4 Iienaiea

5 ?an/?ou

5.1 ?an/?o onoie/eainoe e?aia

5.2 ?an/?o iaoaiecia iiaeuaia

5.3 ?an/?o iaoaiecia ia?aiauaiey e?aia

5.4 ?an/?o iaoaiecia ia?aiauaiey oaeaaeee

5.5 ?an/?o iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee

6 Eeoa?aoo?a

1. Oa?aeoa?enoeea eiceiauo e?aiia :

Eiceiaua e?aiu i?eiaiytho aeey ianeoaeeaaiey ioe?uouo neeaaeia e
iia?oci/iuo ieiuaaeie, iiioaaea nai?iuo no?ieoaeueiuo nii?oaeaiee e
iai?oaeiaaiey , i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee , ianeoaeeaaiey
aeae?ioaoie/aneeo nii?oaeaiee , ia?aa?ocee e?oiiioiiiaaeiuo eiioaeia?ia
e aeeeiiiia?iuo a?ocia. Eiceiaua e?aiu auiieiytho i?aeiouanoaaiii
e?theiauie eee ni niaoeeaeueiuie caoaaoaie.

A caaeneiinoe io oeia iinoa , e?aiu aeaeyony ia iaeii- e aeaooaaei/iua.
A?ociaua oaeaaeee auaatho naiioiaeiuie eee n eaiaoiui i?eaiaeii.
A?ociaua oaeaaeee aeaooaaei/iuo e?aiia iiaoo eiaoue iiai?ioioth no?aeo.

Iii?u e?aia onoaiaaeeaathony ia oiaeiaua oaeaaeee , aeaeaeoueany ii
?aeuenai. Iii?u eiceiauo e?aiia auiieiytho aeaoonoia/iuie ?aaiie
ae?noeinoe , eee iaeio -ae?noeie , ae?oaoth -aeaeie(oa?ie?iie).

Aeey iaoaieciia ia?aaeaeaeaiey eiceiauo e?aiia i?aaeoniao?eaatho
?acaeaeueiua i?eaiaeu. I?eaiaeiuie auiieiytho ia iaiaa iieiaeiu anao
oiaeiauo eie?n.

Iaicia/aiea ii AINO : E?ai eiceiaie 540-33 AINO 7352-75

2. Oeaeue e caaea/e ?aaiou :

Oeaeue ianoiyuae ?aaiou-inaiaiea iniiaiuo ?an/?oia a?ociiiaeu?iiuo iaoei
ia i?eia?a aaneiinieueiiai eiceiaiai e?aia iauaai iacia/aiey.

Iaiin?aaenoaaiiua caaea/e ?aaiou :

1. Eco/aiea eiino?oeoeee eiceiaiai e?aia

2. Ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo ianniauo e aaiiao?e/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee
eiceiaiai e?aia

3. Ii?aaeaeaiea aiaoieo iaa?ocie ia e?ai

4. I?iaa?ea onoie/eainoe e?aia

5. Ii?aaeaeaiea iii?iuo aeaaeaiee

6. ?an/ao e iiaeai? iaoaieciia iiaeuaia a?oca , ia?aaeaeaeaiey oaeaaeee
e e?aia.

3. Enoiaeiua aeaiiua aeey auiieiaiey ?aaiou :

oei e?aia aac eiinieae

a?ociiiaeuaiiinoue 50 oiii

oe?eia ianeoaeeaaaiie ieiuaaeee 29 iao?ia

aunioa iiaeuaia a?ocia 20 iao?ia

nei?inoue ia?aaeaeaeaiey oaeaaeee

nei?inoue ia?aaeaeaeaiey e?aia

?aaeei ?aaiou 4i

4. Ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiuo aaiiao?e/aneeo e ianniauo oa?aeoa?enoee e?aia :

ianna oaeaaeee ,o?aaa?nu e?thea o. Go=0.15Q=7.5

ianna iiaeuaiiuo eaa?aeie o. Gie=0.2Q=10

ianna oyaiaie eaa?aeee o. Goe=0.03Q=1.5

ianna oiaeiauo oaeaaeae o.
Goo=0.27(Ge?-Go-Gie-Goe)=16.47

ianna iaoaeeieiino?ooeee o.
Gm=0.73(Ge?-Go-Gie-Goe)=44.53

ianna aeaeie iii?u o.
Gai=0.29Gi/(1+L/H)=4.97

ianna ae?noeie iii?u o. Gaei=2.5Gai=12.43

ianna iinoa o.
Giio=Gi-Gai-Gaei=27.13

I?eiyoua cia/aiey aeatho aiaeiiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeeoue eii?aeeiaou
oeaio?ia iann ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia e e?aia a oeaeii , ioiineoaeueii ine
aanoeenn , i?ioiaeyuae /a?ac aieiaie ?aeuenia e ine i?aeeiao ,
i?ioiaeyuae /a?ac oi/eo iii?u ia ?aeuenu ae?noeie iii?u e?aia.

cia/aiea eii?aeeiao oeaio?a iann e?aia e aai yeaiaioia e eo noaoe/aneea
iiiaiou:

iaeiaiiaaiea ianna o o Gx Gy

oaeaaeea n o?aaa?nie 7.5 oo=(L-B)/2= 1.5 yo=(h+H)/2=24 11.25 180

iiaeuaiiua eaa?aeee 10 o=0 oie=h-hm= 24.8 0 248

oyaiaay eaa?aeea 1.5 o=0 ooe=h-hm/2=26.4 0 39.6

oiaeiaua oaeaaeee 16.47 ooo=L/2=16 yoo=0.5 263.52 8.24

aeaeay iii?a 4.97 xai=L=32 yai=(h-hm)/2=12.4 159.04 61.63

ae?noeay iii?a 12.43 xaei=-lae/3=1.39 yaei=0.67(h-hi)=16.53 17.28
205.5

iino 27.13 oi=(L-lae)/2=13.9 oi=h-hm/2=18.7 377.65 507.3

Ii?aaeaeaiea eii?aeeiao oeaio?a iann anaai e?aia :

oe=828.74/80=10.36 oe=1250.31/80=15.63

5. Ii?aaeaeaiea aiaoieo iaa?ocie ia e?ai.

5.1 Ii?aaeaeaiea aao?iauo iaa?ocie (AINO 1451-77)

Aeey ?aai/aai ninoiyiey:

*c*n

F-iaaao?aiiay ieiuaaeue

-eiyooeoeeaio nieioiinoe

n-ay?iaeeiaie/aneee eiyooeoeeaio

n-aunioiue eiyooeoeeaio

Ieiuaaeue iinoa :

Fm=lhm=36.8*3.2=117.76 m2

Ieiuaaeue ae?noeie iii?u :

Faei=0.5lae(h-hm)=0.5*4.16*(28-3.2)=51.58m2

Ieiuaaeue aeaeie iii?u :

Fai=lai(h-hm)=0.8*(28-3.2)=19.84

Aao?iaay iaa?ocea a a ?aai/ai ninoiyiee

23.96

283.78 415

a?oc 25 1 1.25 1.2

24.8

139.50

Iineieueeo iii?u eaaeao a ?aciuo aao?iauo n iinoii , oi e cia/aiea n
auae?aai niioaaonoaaiii.

Aeey ia?aai/aai ninoiyiey :

Aao?iaay iaa?ocea a ia?aai/ai ninoiyiee :

121.57

1430.8 2101.5

5.1. Ii?aaeaeaiea eia?oeeiiiuo iaa?ocie.

Eia?oeeiiiua iaa?ocee ii?aaeaeythony aeey ia?eiaeia iaonoaiiaeaoaainy
aeaeaeaiey e?aia, ?aaiia e oi?iiaeaiey e?aia a oeaeii , aai a?ociaie
oaeaaeee , a oaeaea iaoaiecia iiaeuaia. Aeey iia?oci/ii-?aca?oci/iuo
eiceiauo e?aiia i?eieiaai aeiionoeiia onei?aiea a=0.3i/n2. Eii?aeeiaoo
oi/ee iiaeaana a?oca i?eieiaai ?aaiie h, iineieueeo a?ociaay oaeaaeea
aeaeaeaony ii aa?oiae iaiaee iinoa.

Eia?oeeiiiua iaa?ocee , aeaenoaothuea a iai?aaeaiee iiaee?aiiauo iooae :

aeaeaeouayny ianna neea eia?oeee ? eii?aeeiaoa neeu o
ii?ieeaeuaathueeii iiiaio

e?ai ?e=Gea=24 15.63 375.12

a?oc ?a?=Qa=15 24.8 372

5.2.1. Ai?eciioaeueiay eia?oeeiiiay iaa?ocea iai?aaeaiiay iiia??e
iiaee?aiiauo iooae.

Iia aicieeaao i?e ?acaiia e oi?iiaeaiee oaeaaeee n a?ocii

?o=(Go+Q)a=(7.5+50)*0.3=17.25

5.2.2. Aa?oeeaeueiay eia?oeeiiiay iaa?ocea iai?aaeaiiay iiia??e
iiaee?aiiauo iooae.

Iia aicieeaao i?e iiaeieiaiee e iioneaiee , ?a?acaiia e oi?iiaeaiee
a?oca

?a?=1.1Qa=1.1*50*0.3=16.5

6. I?iaa?ea onoie/eainoe e?aia a ?aai/ai e ia?aai/ai ninoiyiee :

Onoie/eainoue a ?aai/ai ninoiyiee ioeaieaaaony eiyooeoeeaioii , eioi?ue
ii?aaeaeyaony ioiioaieai oaea?aeeaathuaai iiiaioa , nicaeaaaaiiai
ianniauie neeaie e?aia e a?oca n o/?oii aeeyiey aeiionoeiiai i?e ?aaioa
oeeiia, e ii?ieeaeuaathuaio iiiaioo , nicaeaaaaiiio aiaoieie iaa?oceaie,
io?ineoaeueii ?aa?a ii?ieeaeuaaiey. yoi ioiioaiea ai anao neo/ayo
aeieaeii auoue ia iaiaa 1.15

?anniio?ei noiio oaea?aeeaathueo iiiaioia aeey 1-ai ?an/?oiiai ninoiyiey
:

)=5062.94

=00101

?anniio?ei noiio ii?ieeaeuaathueo iiiaioia aeey 1-ai ?an/?oiiai neo/ay :

?o+Wa?oia=1301.62

I?iaa?ea onoie/eainoe E=5062.94/1301.62=3.9

?anniio?ei 2-ia ?an/?oiia iieiaeaiea :

Oneiaey : e?ai aeaeaeaony iiae oaeii e ai?eciioo n oaeii ( , aao?iaay
iaa?ocea iai?aaeaia a noi?iio aeaeaeaiey e?aia .

?anniio?ei noiio oaea?aeeaathueo iiiaioia :

)=3163.72

?anniio?ei noiio ii?ieeaeuaathueo iiiaioia :

y=790.12

I?iaa?ea onoie/eainoe E=3163.72/790.12=4

I?iaa?ea onoie/eainoe e?aia a ia?aai/ai iieiaeaiee

?anniio?ei noiio oaea?aeeaathueo iiiaioia :

sin()=3163.72

?anniio?ei noiio ii?ieeaeuaathueo iiiaioia :

y=2101.5

I?iaa?ea onoie/eainoe E=3163.72/2101.5

7. Ii?aaeeeaiea iii?iuo aeaaeaiee .

7.1 . Iaeneiaeueiay iaa?ocea ia iaeio ec /aou??o iii? :

Aeey ?aai/aai ninoiyiey :

Aeey ia?aai/aai ninoiyiey :

7.2. ?an/?oiay iaa?ocea ia iaeii eieani .

Iineieueeo a?ociiiaeu?iiinoue ?an/eouaaaiiai e?aia 50 o. , i?eieiaai
/enei eie?n a eaaeaeie iii?a ?aaiie 2 .

Auae?aai aeaoo?aai?aeiia eieani , eiie/aneiai eniieiaiey ii AINO 3569-74
n iaa?oceie ia ?aeuen 320kH,aeeaiao?ii D=710 ii , oe?eiie A= 100ii ,
?aeuen E?-80 , ?aaeeon r=400ii

7.3. Auai? iaoa?eaea e?aiiauo eie?n .

– eiioaeoiia iai?yaeaiea niyoey

mk – aac?acia?iue eiyooeoeeaio , caaenyuee io niioiioaiey
D/2r , ii oaaeeoea i?eieiaai 0.47

=2200iIa

8. ?an/?o e iiaeai? iaoaiecia iiaeu?ia a?oca .

8.1. E?aoeay oa?aeoa?enoeea e caaea/e ?an/?oa .

Iaoaieci iiaeu?ia a?oca i?aaeiacia/ai aeey ia?aiauaiey a?oca a
aa?oeeaeueiii iai?aaeaiee . Ii auae?aaony a caaeneiinoe io
a?ociiiaeu?iiinoe . Aeey iaoaai neo/ay iaoaieci aeeth/aao a naay
naeaiaiiue iyoee?aoiue iieeniano .

I?eaiae iaoaiecia iiaeu?ia e iioneaiey a?oca aeeth/aao a naay eaa?aeeo
iaoaiecia iiaeu?ia . E?ooyuee iiiaio , nicaeaaaaiue yeaeo?iaeaeaaoaeai
ia?aaea?ony ia ?aaeoeoi? /a?ac ioooo . ?aaeoeoi? i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
oiaiueoaiey /enea iai?ioia e oaaee/aiey e?ooyuaai iiiaioa ia aa?aaaia .

Aa?aaai i?aaeiacia/ai aeey i?aia?aciaaiy a?auaoaeueiiai aeaeaeaiey
i?eaiaea a iinooiaoaeueiia aeaeaeaiea eaiaoa .

Noaia iiaeaanee a?oca :

8.1. EIAe iieenianoa :

=5

=0.98

8.2. Oneeea a aaoae eaiaoa , iaaeaaaiie ia aa?aaai :

z -/enei iieenianoia z=2

=1.1

8.3. ?an/?oiay ?ac?uaiay iaa?ocea :

E=5.5 eiyooeoeeaio caiana i?i/iinoe

8.4. Auai? eaiaoa ii ?an/?oiiio ?ac?uaiiio oneeeth :

Auae?aai eaiao aeaieiie naeaee oeia EE-?I eiino?oeoeee 6*36 AINO 7669-80
n ?ac?uaiui oneeeai ia iaiaa 364.5 eI e aeeaiao?ii d=27 ii

8.5. Eiino?oeoeaiue aeeaiao? aa?aaaia :

a- eiyooeoeeaio i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoe a caaeneiinoe io ?aaeeia ?aaiou
a=25

Ieii/aoaeueii aeeaiao? auae?aai ec noaiaea?iiai ?yaea , aeeaeaeoaa
aieueoaa Da=710

8.6. ?aai/ay aeeeiia aa?aaaia n iaeiineieiie iaaeaeie eaiaoa :

a-/enei aaoaae eaiaoa a=2

t-oaa aeioiaie ia?acee , i?eieiaaiue a caaeneiinoe io aeeaiao?a aa?aaaia
t=31.25

Iieiay aeeeiia aa?aaaia :

8.8. Oieueia noaiee aa?aaaia :

=27

8.9. Auai? iaoa?eaea aa?aaaia :

Iai?yaeaiey naeaoey ?aaiu :

Iai?yaeaiey , aicieeathuea i?e ecaeaa :

Iai?yaeaiey , aicieeathuea i?e e?o/aiee :

Noiia?iua iai?yaeaiey aicieeathuea a oaea aa?aaaia :

Ec -eiyooeoeeaio caiana i?i/iinoe Ec=1.1

Neaaeiaaoaeueii iaa?ocee ia aa?aaai ia i?aainoiaeyo aeiionoeiuo .

8.10. Oneeey a aaoae eaiaoa , iaaaaathuae ia aa?aaai e cae?aie?iiie a
i?i :

=0.12

8.11. Ii?aaeaeaiea neeu caoyaeaiey ia iaeio oieeueeo :

z-/enei oieeae

Neea caoyaeee ia an? niaaeeiaiea :

*enei oieeae :z=4

I?eieiaai ?acueao d=24

Noiia?iia iai?yaeaiea a oaea oieeueee :

i?aaeae i?i/iinoe

-i?aaeae oaeo/anoe

196 -/enei oieeae oaeiaeaoai?yao oneiaeth i?i/iinoe .

8.12. Iiaeai? e?thea :

28

8.13. *anoioa a?auaiey aa?aaaia :

8.14. Iaiaoiaeeiay iiuiinoue iaoaiecia iiaeu?ia a?oca :

-eiae iaoaie/aneeo ia?aaea/

-e?ooyuee iiiaio ia aa?aaaia .

Ii oaaeeoeai i?eieiaai aeaeaaoaeue oeia IOEI 412-6

iiuueiinoue N=36 eAo , /anoioa a?auaiey n=920 ia/iei , iiieiaeueiue
iiiaio aeaeaaoaey Mi=0.37 eIi

8.15. Auai? ?aaeoeoi?a :

I?eieiaai ?aaeoeoi? oeeeeiae?e/aneee aa?oeeaeueiiai eniieiaiey AEO-765
, ia?aaeaoi/iia /enei i=71 , iaaeinaaia ?annoiyiea a=765 .

8.16. Auai? iooou :

Auae?aai coa/aooth ioooo n oi?iiciui aa?aaaiii . Ia?aaeaaaaiue ioooie
e?ooyuee iiiaio :

i2

8.17. Iiaeai? oi?iica :

?an/?oiue oi?iiciie iiiaio :

Eo-eiyooeoeeaio caiana oi?iiaeaiey Eo=1.75

Auae?aai oi?iic OEA-300 , oi?iiciie iiiaio 0.8 eI

8.18. Ii?aaeaeaiea a?aiaie ?acaiia iaoaiecia .

8.20. I?iaa?ea oi?iica ii iiuiinoe o?aiey .

-aeiioneaaiay iiuiinoue oi?iiaeaiey , cia/eo oi?iic iiaeoiaeeo .

9. ?an/ao e iiaeai? iai?oaeiaaiey iaoaiecia ia?aiauaiey e?aia.

Iaoaieci ia?aaeaeaeaiey e?aia neoaeeo aeey ia?aiauaiey e?aia ii ?aeuenai
. Eeiaiaoe/aneay noaia iaoaiecia :

1-aeaeaaoaeue

2-ioooa

3-?aaeoeoi?

4-oi?iic

5-oanoa?ie

6-oiaeiaia eieani

9.1. Iauaa noaoe/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ia?aaeaeaeaieth e?aia aac a?oca :

Dk -aeeaiao? oiaeiaiai eieana

f -eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey ei/aiey f=0.0007

-eiyooeoeeaio o?aiey ea/aiey a iiaeoeiieeao oiaeiauo eie?n

r-?aaeeon oeaiou r=0.071 i

9.2. Nii?ioeaeaiea ea/aieth e?aia aac a?oca :

Kiau -/enei eie?n e?aia

Ei?-/enei i?eaiaeiuo eie?n

9.3. I?iaa?ea eiyooeoeeaioa noeaieaiey :

-eiyooeoeeaio noeaieaiey eieana n iie?ui ?aeuenii

oae eae 3>1.2 , oi ii caiano noeaieaiey iaoaieci iiaeoiaeeo

9.4. Noiia?iia noaoe/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea ia?aaeaeaeaieth ae?noeie iii?u
:

xa -eii?aeeiaoa oeaio?a aao?iaiai aeaaeaiey

9.5. ?an/?oiay iiuiinoue iaeiiai aeaeaaoaey :

Auae?aai aeaeaaoaeue MTF-111-6 , iiuiinoue N=4.1 eAo , /anoioa a?auaiey
n=870 ia/iei , iiiaio eia?oeee J=0.048 , iaeneiaeueiue iiiaio I=85 Ii

9.6. Iiaeai? ?aaeoeoi?a .

*anoioa a?auaiey eie?n e?aia :

Iaiaoiaeeiia ia?aaeaoi/iia ioiioaiea iaoaiecia ia?aaeaeaeaiey e?aia :

?an/?oiia ia?aaeaoi/iia ioiioaiea ?aaeoeoi?a :

iii -ia?aaeaoi/iia ioiioaiea ioe?uoie ia?aaea/e

Auae?aai ?aaeoeoi? ai?eciioaeueiiai eniieiaiey na?ee Oe2O-250 , n
ia?aaeaoi/iui ioiioaieai i=40 .

9.7. Auai? oi?iica iaoaiecia ia?aaeaeaeaiey .

Auae?aai oi?iic oeia OEO-200 , n oi?iiciui iiiaioii I=160 Ii

10. ?an/?o e iiaeai? iaoaiecia ia?aaeaeaeaiey oaeaaeee .

Iaoaieci ia?aaeaeaeaiey oaeaaeee neoaeeo aeey ia?aiauaiey ii ?aeuenai ,
iieiaeaiiie ia aaeeo iinoa , oaeaaeee , ianouae ia naaa a?ocicaoaaoiia
ono?ienoai . Ia?aiauaiea oaeaaeee inouanoaeyaony i?e iiiiue eaiaoiiai
ono?ienoaa , eaa?aeeie . Noaia caianiaee eaiaoa iaoaiecia ia?aiauaiey
oaeaaeee :

10.1. I?eaioe?iai/iia cia/aiea iaa?ocee ia eaoie oaeaaeee :

Auae?aai eaoee oaeaaeee – aeaooai?aeiua eie?na d=320 ii, oe?eia A=80 ii
.

Iai?yaeaiea naeaoey eieana i?e oi/a/iii eiioaeoa :

=2200iIa

10.2. Iauaa nii?ioeaeaiea ia?aiauaiey oaeaaeee :

r-?aaeeon oeaiou r=32 ii

N o/?oii aeiiieieoaeueiiai nii?ioeaeaiey io iaoyaeaiey a?ociaiai eaiaoa
e i?iaenaiey , oyaiaia oneeea a eaiaoa :

?an/?oiay ?ac?uaiay iaa?ocea ia eaiao :

e-eiyooeoeeaio caiana e=5.5

I?eieiaai eaiao aeaieiie naeaee oeia EE-?I eiino?oeoeee 6*36 AINO
7669-80 , aeeaiao? eaiaoa d=11.5 ii , ?ac?uaiia oneeea 75.1 iIa

ia?ee?iai/iay a?oiia 1764 iIa .

10.3. Aeeaiao? oyaiaiai aa?aaaia e /anoioa aai a?auaiey :

I?eieiaai Doa=300 ii

*anoioa a?auaiey noa=20.44 ia/iei

10.4. Iiuiinoue i?eaiaeiiai aeaeaaoaey :

-eiae iaoaie/aneia

-eiae aeiea

n-/enei aeieia n=3

Auae?aai aeaeaaoaeue MTF-112-6 , iiuiinoue N=5.8 eAo , /anoioa a?auaiey
n=915 ia/iei , iaeneiaeueiue iiiaio I=137 Ii , iiiaio eia?oeee J=0.064
ea….

10.5. Iaiaoiaeeiia ia?aaeaoi/iia ioiioaiea iaoaiecia :

I?eieiaai ?aaeoeoi? OeCO-160 , n ia?aaeaoi/iui ioiioaieai i=45 ,
e?ooyuai iiiaioii I=1000 Ii

10.6. Auai? iooou .

E?ooyuee iiiaio ia aa?aaaia :

i

10.7. Auai? oi?iica .

?an/?oiue oi?iiciie iiiaio :

Auae?aai oi?iic OO-200 , oi?iiciie iiiaio 0.2 eIi

11. ?an/?o iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee e?aia .

I?eieiaai : iino e?aia auiieiai ec aeaoo ei?ia/aouo aaeie , ii eioi?ui
i?ieiaeaiu ?aeuenu a?ociaie oaeaaeee .

Ia .

Aan iaeiie aaeee(?ani?aaeae?iiayiaa?ocea) 0.94 eI/iaan a?oca e

a?ociiiaeuaiiie oaeaaeee F=57.5 eI

11.1.Iino?iaiea yith? .

?aaeoeee iii? io aeaenoaey a?oca :

F/2=28.75 eI

Aicaeaenoaea io ?ani?aaeae?iiie iaa?ocee :

ql/2=0.99*32/2=15.04 eI

Iino?iaiea yith? ecaeaathueo iiiaeoia .

Io aeaenoaee a?oca :

Io aeaenoaey ?ani?aaeae?iiie iaa?ocee :

11.2. Inaaie iiiaio nii?ioeaeaiey na/aiey :

11.3. Ii?iaeueiua iai?yaeaiey aicieeathuea i?e ecaeaa aaeee iinoa :

oae eae ?an/?oiia nii?ioeaeaiea R=240 iIa , a iai?yaeaiey , aicieeathuea
a aaeea 12.9 iIa , oi i?i/iinoue aaeee , i?e noaoe/aneii i?eeiaeaiee
iaa?ocee , iaania/eia .

12. ?an/?o iaoaeeieiino?oeoeee i?e aeeiaie/aneii aeaenoaee iaa?ocee .

12.1. ?an/?o ia oaea?iia i?eeiaeaiea iaa?ocee .

I?e ?an/?oa , aeey aai oi?iuaiey i?eieiaai ?yae aeiiouaiee :

1. i?e oaea?iie iaa?ocea a yeaiaioao eiino?oeoeee aicieeatho oieueei
oi?oaea aeaoi?iaoeee e ?an/eouaaaiay nenoaia yaeyaony eeiaeii
aeeoi?ie?oaiie

2. nai oaea? n/eoaaony iaoi?oaei

3. iioa?y /anoe yia?aee ia iaa?aaaiea nioaea?ythueony oae e ianoiua
aeaoi?iaoeee a ciia eiioaeoa ia o/eouaathony

I?eieiaai neaaeothuea oneiaey ?an/?oa :

a?oc aanii 50eI iaaeaao n auniou ia na?aaeeio naiaiaeii eaaeauae aaeee
iinoa i?ie?oii l=32 i , ?an/?oiia nii?ioeaeaiea noaee R=240 iIa ,

aeiionoeiay aaee/eia i?iaeaa aeey eiceiauo e?aiia n aeaeie iii?ie
fae=1/1000 eee 32/32000 .

I?iaea aeeiaie/aneee :

aaea k-aeeiaie/aneee eiyooeoeeaio

oiaaea :

k=0 , k=8 ,o.e. i?e k=0 ?ann/?ou ia eiatho niunea i?eieiaai k=8.

12.2 Ii?iaeueiua iai?yaeaiey io i?iaeaa i?e oaea?a :

oi aaeea oaeiaeaoai?yao oneiaeyi ia i?i/iinoue i?e oaea?a.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Eo?niaia i?iaeoe?iaaiea a?ociiiaeu?iiuo iaoei . ?aae . Eicae N.A.

-I:Auno. oe., 1989.-319 n.

2. Ni?aai/iee ii e?aiai . Aeaenaiae?ia I.I.,Aioaa?a I.I., oii 1,2.

-E:Iaoeiino?iaiea ,1988.

3. Iiaeu?iii-o?ainii?oiua iaoeiu . Aoean eiino?oeoeee .,iiae ?aae.
Aeaenaiae?iaa I.I. e ?aoaoieeiaa Ae.I.-I.:1987.

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