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6

Oaoiieiae/aneay /anoue

Ninoaa i?iaeoeoeee oeaoa, ?aaeaiaio aai ?aaiou e oa?aeoa?enoeea.

Ei?ion ei?iaee auaiaeia auioneaao oe?ia «Yeea?a» – oeao 04 ,
eioi?ue ?aniieiaeai ia oa??eoi?ee IAI «THaeyeaeo?iiao». A oeaoa
eiathony o/anoee ii iaoaie/aneie ia?aaioea aaeia-?ioi?ia, noaiei,
ueoia iaeoeiieeiauo, ei?iaie auaiaeia, e?uoae e o/anoea ii nai?ea
yeaeo?i-aeaeaaoaey AEIN132. A oeaoa iaoiaeeony eino?oiaioaeueiay
eeaaeiaay, caoi/iia ioaeaeaiea, iaoa?eaeueiay eeaaeiaay ?aiiioiie aacu,
?aiiioiay aaca oeaoa, o/anoie OII, neoaeaa ?aiiioa oaoie/aneie inianoee,
eiio?ieueiue ioieo, eniuoaoaeueiay noaioeey, neeaae aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee,
EII.

Oeao 04 ?aaioaao a 1 ?aai/oth niaio; ?aai/eo /ania a
iaaeaeth-40;aeaenoaeoaeueiue oiiae ?aaiou iai?oaeiaaiey Oae.i.-1965a.;
aeaenoaeoaeueiue aiaeiaie oiiae a?aiaie ?aai/eo a 199a.-2036a.;
eiyooeoeeaio auiieiaiey ii?i – 1.2; eiee/anoai /ania ?aaiou a niaio – 8.

Aneio?iiiua yeaeo?i-aeaeaaoaee oeia AEIN132, auioneaaiua oeaoii 04,
i?eiaiythony aeey i?eaiaea noaoeeiia?iuo iaoei ai ac?uaiiianiuo
i?iecaiaenoaao: oaieueiie, oeie/aneie, aaciaie, iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuae
i?iiuoeaiinoe.

Iacia/aiea aeaoaee e aiaeec oaoie/aneeo oneiaee ia aa ecaioiaeaiea.

Ei?ion ei?iaee auaiaeiae e?uoea yaeyaony aaciaie aeaoaueth aeey
auaiaeiuo eiioeia i?eniaaeeiaiey aeaeo?i-aeaeaaoaey n yeaeo?i-naoueth.
Iniiaiie aace?othuae iiaa?oiinoueth ei?iona, ii eioi?ie aai
onoaiaaeeaatho ia noaieio, yaeyaony ieineinoue E. Iiaa?oiinoe aeaaiuo
ioaa?noee e oi?oeia, ia eioi?uo aace?oaony e?uoea e ioooa, yaeythony
aniiiiaaoaeueiuie aacaie ei?iona. ?acueaiaua ioaa?noey ia ei?iona
iaania/eaatho e?aieaiea i?eniaaeeiyaiuo e iaio aeaoaeae.

E ei?ioniui aeaoaeyi i?aaeuyaeytho eiiieaen oaoie/aneeo o?aaiaaiee
ii?aaeaeyaiuo a eaaeaeii eiie?aoiii neo/aa, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue enoiaey
ec eo neoaeaaiuo iacia/aiee.

7

Oi/iinoue aaiiao?e/aneie oi?iu ieineeo aace?othueo iiaa?oiinoae. Iia
?aaeaiaioe?oaony, eae aeiione i?yiieeiaeiinoe iiaa?oiinoe. Aeey
iiaa?oiinoe aei 500ii ioeeiiaiea io ieineinoe e ia?aeeaeueiinoe iau/ii
iaoiaeeony a i?aaeaeao 0.01-0.07ii.

Oi/iinoue aeeaiao?aeueiuo ?acia?ia e oi?iu ioaa?noee iaoiaeeony a
i?aaeaeao 1/5-1/2aeiionea ia aeeaiao? ioaa?noey.

Iiceoeeiiiue aeiione inae 4 ioaa?noee o12I14(+0.43) R0.4ii (aeiione
caaeneiue). Iiceoeeiiiue aeiione 5 ioaa?noee I10-7I R0.2ii (aeiione
caaeneiue). Aaca – inue ioaa?noey I (aeiione caaeneiue). Iiceoeeiiiue
aeiione inae 2 ioaa?noee I12-7I R0.3ii (aeiione caaeneiue). Aaca – inue
ioaa?noee Oe (aeiione caaeneiue). Iiceoeeiiiue aeiione inae 6 ioaa?noee
o18(+0.035) R0.6ii (aeiione caaeneiue). Aaca – inue ioaa?noee N (aeiione
caaeneiue).

Ia?aiao?u oa?ioiaaoinoe ieineeo aace?othueo iiaa?oiinoae Ra=12.5ii;
iiaa?oiinoue aeaaiuo ioaa?noee Ra=25iei e Ra=12.5 iei.

Ii?aaeaeaiea i?ia?aiiu caionea e oeia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oei i?iecaiaenoaa ii?aaeaeaiiue ii eiyooeoeeaioo ce?aieaiey iia?aoeee,
eioi?ue oeacuaaao ia eiee/anoai iia?aoeee, auiieiyaiuo ia iaeiii noaiea
a oa/aiee aiaea, ii oi?ioea:

Ec.i.=o/On?.oo. (1.1)

aaea o – oaeo auione aeaoaeae

o=(Oae.i.*60)/Naui, iei (1.2)

aaea Oae.i. – aeaenoaeoaeueiue aiaeiaie oiiae a?aiaie ?aaiou
iai?oaeiaaieyi?e 1-niaiiie ?aaioa

Oae.i.= Fi(1-a/100)q; / (1.3)

aaea Fi- aiaeiaie iiieiaeueiue oiiae a?aiaie ia 1999a.

a- i?ioeaio i?inoiy a ieaiiai-i?aaeoi?aaeeoaeueiii ?aiiioa;

eiee/anoai ?aai/ae niaiu

8

Oae.i.=2036(1-3.5/100)1=1965/

Oaeo auionea

o=(1965*60)/10000=11.8iei.

N?aaeiaa ooo/iia a?aiy

m

On?.oo.= O Ooo/m; iei. (1.4)

i=1

aaea Ooo.i – ii?ia ooo/iiai a?aiaie ia i-ie iia?aoeee,iei.

m – eiee/anoai iia?aoeee, oo.

On?.oo.=14.228/8=1.78 iei.

Eiyooeoeeaio cae?aieaiey iia?aoeee

Ec.i.=11.8/1.78=6.6

I?iecaiaenoai e?oiiina?eeiia, o. e. Eiyooeoeeaiocae?aieaiey iia?aoeee
iaiueoa aeanyoe

1Nyo

Ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiiai a?aiaie i?iecaiaeeony ii oi?ioea

To=L/SM, iei (1.30)

aaea L=l+y+Ae=50+189+4=243 ii

Oi=243/580=0.42 iei

Ii?io ieiooiiai a?aiaie ia iia?aoeeth Ooo iiaen/eouaatho ii oi?ioea:

Ooo=Oi+Oa+Oo.ia.+Oi.ia.+Oe.i.

aaea Oi – iniiaiia a?aiy; Oa – aniiiiaaoaeueiia a?aiy; Oo.ia. – a?aiy ia
oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aai/aai ianoa; Oi.ia. – a?aiy ia
i?aaiecaoeeiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aai/aai ianoa; Oe.i. – a?aiy ia ee/iua
iaaeiaiinoe ?aai/aai.

Ii?aaeaeaiea aniiiiaaoaeueiiai a?aiaie.

a) A?aiyia onoaiiaeo e niyoea aeaoaee a?o/ioth 0.09 iei

a) A?aiy ia cae?aieaiea aeaoaee aeaoie aaeeaie ni neieuecyueie ieaieaie
0.48 iei

a) A?aiy ia i/enoeo i?eniiniaeaiey io no?oaeee 0.09 iei

Oiaaea a?aiy ia onoaiiaeo e niyoea aeaoaee ?aaii –

Oono.=0.09+0.48+0.09=0.66 iei

A?aiy naycaiia n ia?aoiaeii, i?e o?aca?iaaiee o?acie, onoaiiaeaiie ia
?acia?, ?aaii 0.05 iei. A?aiy ia ia?aiauaiea noiea ia
ea?onaeueii-o?aca?iii noaiea 0.1 iei.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aniiiiaaoaeueiia a?aiy ia iia?aoeeth ?aaii

Oa=0.66+0.05+0.1=0.81 iei (ia aeaa aeaoaee)

Ii?aaeaeaiea a?aiaie ia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aai/aai ianoa, ia?a?uaaa ia
ioaeuo e anoanoaaiiua iaaeiaiinoe

a) ia i?aaiecaoeeiiiia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aai/aai ianoa a ?acia?a 1.2% io
Oiia?. E ?aaii 0.015 iei

Oiia?.=Oi.+Oa=0.42+0.81=1.23 iei

a)ia oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aai/aai ianoa 2.5% e ?aaia 0.03 iei

a) ia ioaeuo e anoanoaaiiua iaaeiaiinoe 6% io Oiia?. E ?aaii 0.074 iei

Ooo=0.42+0.81+0.03+0.015+0.074=1.349iei=1.35iei ia aeaa aeaoaee eee
0.675 iei ia 1 aeaoaeue

Ii?aaeaeaiea iiaeaioiaeoaeueii-caeeth/eoaeueiiai a?aiaie.

I?e ?aaioa a i?eniiniaeaiee,onoaiiaeaiii iiaeuaiieeii, Oi.c. ia ia?oeth
aeaoaeae ?aaiaa 17 iei. Iiai?io noiea ia oaie 1 iei.

Oi.c.=17+1=18 iei

Iia?aoeey 030. Caiea?iaaiea o66+0.5 ia aa?aaaoiii noaiea 12A486

Aeoaeia ?acaiey t=0.5 (D-d)

t=0.5(66-63)=1.5 ii (1.31)

Iiaea/a i?e caiea?iaaiee i?eaaaeaia a oaae. 26 [4] e ?aaia
S=1.6-2.0ii/ia. I?eieiath S=1.6 ii/ia

Nei?inoue ?acaiey

V=(CvDq/(Tm*tx*Sy))*Kv, i/iei [4] (1.32)

Cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa Cv e iieacaoaeae noaiaie i?eaaaeaiu a oaae.29, a
cia/aieaia?eiaea noieeinoe O – a oaae.30. O=60 iei.

Cv=105; q=0.4; x=0.15; y=0.45; m=0.4, aac ioeaaeaeaiey.

Iauee iii?aai/iue eiyooeoeeaio ia nei?inoue ?acaiey, o/eouaathuee
oaeoe/aneea oneiaey ?acaiey,

Kv=KMv*Kuv*Klv

aaea KMv – eiyooeoeeaio ia ia?aaioaiue iaoa?eae (oaae. 1)

KMv=(190/HB)nv=(190/190)1.3=1

KUv – eiyooeoeeaio ia eino?oiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae (oaae. 6)

KUv=0.83

Klv – eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee aeoaeio naa?eaiey (oaae.31)

Klv=1.0

I?e caiea?iaaiee eeouo ioaa?noee aaiaeeony aeiiieieoaeueiue iii?aai/iue
eiyooeoeeaio Knv (oaae. 5)

Knv=0.8

Kv=1.0*0.83/0.8=0.664

Nei?inoue ?acaiey

V=(105*660.4/(600.4*1.50.15*1.60.5)*0.664=54.04 i/iei

Ii?aaeaeyth e?ooyuee iiiaio Ii e inaaoth neeo, I

Ie?=10Ni*Dq*tx*Sy*Kp (1.32)

Po=10CptxSyKp (1.33)

Cia/aiey eiyooeoeaioia Ni e N? e iieacaoaeae noaiaie i?eaaaeaiu a
oaae.32 [4]

Ni=0.196; q=0.85; x=0.8; y=0.7

Kp=KMp=(HB/190)n; Kp=(190/190)0.4=1 (1.34)

C =46; q=—-; x=1.0; y=0.4

Mkp=10*0.196*660.85*1.50.8*1.60.7*1=127.5 HM

Po=10*46*1.51.0*1.60.4*1=1380 H

Iiuiinoue ?acaiey, eAo, ii?aaeaeytho ii oi?ioea:

Ne=(Mkp*n)/9750,

aaea /enoioa a?auaiey eino?oiaioa, iei -1

n=1000v/ID (1.35)

n=1000*54/(3.14*66)=261 iei -1

Ne=127.5*261/9750=3.4 eAo

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ia?aaioea aiciiaeia, iineieueeo

Noi/Ne

Ii?aaeaeaiea iniiaiiai a?aiaie i?iecaiaeeony ii oi?ioea:

Oi=Lp.x./nS, iei (1.36)

aaea Lp.x. – aeeeia ?aai/aai oiaea

Lp.x.=L?ac+y, ii (1.37)

Lp.x.=21+6=27 ii

Oi=27/(295*1.6)=0.057 iei

Ii?ia ooo/iiai a?aiaie ia iia?aoeeth Ooo ii?aaeaeytho ii oi?ioea

Ooo=Oi+Oa+Oioae+Oiane [5]

Aniiiiaaoaeueiia a?aiy ninoieo ec:

A?aiaie ia onoaiiaeo e niyoea aeaoaee ia aeaa iaeueoea tono=0.24 iei

A?aiaie, naycaiii n ia?aoiaeii ninoieo ec a?aiaie ia ia?aoiae ti?o=0.03
iei, a?aiaie ia i?eaiu, naycaiua n ia?aoiaeii, ia aioaaeoea a eiiieaenu
t=0.015 iei

tia?=0.03+0.015= 0.045 iei

Oioae=0.34*0.03=0.01 iei

A?aiy ia ianeoaeeaaiea ?aai/aai ianoa a % io Oiia?, /oi ninoaaeyao
Oiane=0.0085 iei. Ii?ia ooo/iiai a?aiaie ?aaia

Ooo=0.057+0.285+0.01+0.0085 iei=0.36 iei

Iiaeaioiaeoaeueii-caeeth/eoaeueiia a?aiy ia ia?oeth aeaoaeae

Oi.c.=11 iei

1.8.2 Oaaee/iue iaoiae ?an/aoa ?aaeeiiao ?acaiey

Iia?aoeey 010. Aaoiiaoiay oiea?iay.

Noaiie iiaeaee 1283.Yoi ainueieo ieiaeaeueiue aa?oeeaeueiue iieo-aaoiiao
iineaaeiaaoaeueiiai aeaenoaey.Noaiie iano?iai ia aeaoooeeeeiaoth
ia?aaioeo.

Iiceoeey 3,4. ?anoi/eoue ioaa?noea iiaa?oiinoe (1) /a?iiaay (ni.ea?ou
yneecia i?eeiaeaiea). Iaeaaeea ec aeaoo ?acoeia : ?acaoe oiea?iue
i?ioiaeiie ioiaiooue i?aaue n oaeii a ieaia 450 e ieanoeieie ec
oaa?aeiai nieaaa AE6 AINO 18877-73. Oaie a?acee ieanoeiu a noa?aeaiue
100. Aea?aeaaea noaeue 45 AINO 1050 -88, na/aiea aea?aeaaee 32o20,aeeeia
170ii. Ia?aiao?u ?aaeouae /anoe : aeaaiue oaie a ieaia
oe=45i;oe1=45i;a=8i; ?aaeeon i?e aa?oeia r=0.8

Iacia/aai ?aaeeiu ?acaiey oaaee/iui iaoiaeii.

Aeoaeia ?acaiey t1=4,5ii;t2=4 ii

Iacia/aai iiaea/o, enoiaey ec oa?ioiaaoinoe iiaa?oiinoe Ra=25iei i?e
/a?iiaii ?anoa/eaaiee ec oaaeeoeu 12[4]

S=0.12…….0,25 ii/ia, i?eieiath S=0,225 ii/ia;

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