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Эксплуатация машин в пустынно-степной местности

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IINEIANEEE AIAIIUE EINOEOOO IA ?O

Eaoaae?a  ONIA

?AOA?AO

ia oaio:

Yenieoaoaoeey iaoei

a ?aeiiao ionouiii-ian/aiie

ianoiinoe

2IINEAA 1996

IEAI ?AAIOU:

1. Aaaaeaiea

2. Aeeyiea eeeiaoe/aneeo e aei?iaeiuo oneiaee ia ?aaioiniiniaiinoue
iaoei

3. Ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe eniieueciaaiey iaoei

4. Aiaeaeaiea a ?aeiiao aea?eiai eeeiaoa e ionouiii-ian/aiiie ianoiinoe

5. Caeeth/aiea

6. I?eeiaeaiea

7. Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a

_Aaaaeaiea .:

I?aaeiacia/aiea iaoei, eniieuecoaiuo a iia?aie/iuo aieneao, iaon-

eiaeeaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue iiaeaea?aeaiey eo a ?aaioiniiniaiii ninoiyiee
e

iinoiyiiie aioiaiinoe e i?eiaiaieth a ethauo oneiaeyo yenieoaoaoeee.

Iiae oneiaeai yenieoaoaoeee iaoei iiieiathony:

oa?aeoa? (aa?eaio) eniieueciaaiey;

eioaineaiinoue eniieueciaaiey;

aeaeu iaa?ocie e ii?yaeie eo /a?aaeiaaiey;

oaeoe/aneay ianoaiiaea e oa?aeoa? aicaeaenoaey i?ioeaieea;

ia?aiao?u aiaoiae n?aaeu;

nenoaia e eoeueoo?a ianeoaeeaaiey;

eaaeeoeeaoeey aiaeeoaeae, iaoaieeia-aiaeeoaeae, ianeoaeeaathuaai
ia?niia-

ea, eo oaoie/aneay iniauaiiinoue e ae?.

A ionouiii-ian/aiiuo ?aeiiao n aea?eei eeeiaoii, neaai ?acaeoie

naoueth aei?ia, cao?oaeiyaony iiaeaioiaea iaoei e eniieueciaaieth e eo
aiae-

aeaiea, oooaeoathony yenieoaoaoeeiiiua ea/anoaa ai?th/aai e niaci/iuo
ia-

oa?eaeia, iiauoathony iai?yaeaiiinoue ?aaiou e eioaineaiinoue eciaoeaa-

iey aa?aaaoia, iaoaieciia e aeaoaeae, oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai iaeni-

?aaiinoae, cao?oaeiythony eo auyaeaiea e ono?aiaiea, oneiaeiythony ?aai-

ou ii ianeoaeeaaieth e ?aiiioo iaoei, oneiaey o?oaea aiaeeoaeae e ianeo-

aeeaathuaai ia?niiaea, iiauoaaony ?anoiae caianiuo /anoae e iaoa?eaeia

ia ianeoaeeaaiea e ?aiiio, nieaeaaony iaaeaaeiinoue, ?aaioiniiniaiinoue
e

yooaeoeaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaoei.

Aeey iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe e ?aaioiniiniaiinoe iaoei a neiaeiuo

oneiaeyo yenieoaeoaoeee, iiaeaea?aeaiey eo a iinoiyiiie aioiaiinoe e en-

iieueciaaieth i?iaiaeeony eiiieaen i?aaiecaoeeiiii-oaoie/aneeo ia?ii?ey-

oee, aeeth/athuee:

i?iaaaeaiea caiyoee n ia/aeueieeaie IC ii aii?inai yenieoaoaoeee

iaoei a i?aaenoiyuee ia?eii n iaycaoaeueiui aeiaaaeaieai aei ieo
?oeiai-

aeyueo aeieoiaioia;

ii?yaeie e a?aiy i?iaaaeaiey nai?ia aiaeeoaeae, iaoei iia?aie/-

iuo canoaa; eeoea ioaaonoaaiiua ca i?iaaaeaiea caiyoee n aiaeeoaeyie;

ia?a/aiue oai e eiee/anoai /ania;

iiaeaioiaea yeaiaioia ia?eia iia?aie/iuo canoaa n oi/iui oea-

caieai iauaiia, n?ieia auiieiaiey ?aaio e eniieieoaeae; ii?yaeie

niaaaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuie iaoa?eaeaie;

eiie?aoiua caaea/e ee/iiai ninoaaa iiaeaeaeiuo n?aaenoa oaoie/an-

eiai ianeoaeeaaiey iaoei n iaycaoaeueiui oeacaieai n?ieia auiieiaiey

?aaio ia eaaeaeie iia?aie/iie canoaaa;

ii?yaeie eiio?iey ca oiaeii naciiiiai oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey

iaoei iia?aie/iuo canoaa;

n?iee ieii/aiey ?aaio ia anao iia?aie/iuo canoaaao;

Enoiaey ec anao iieiaeaiee IC i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?iaaaeaiea ?acee/-

iuo ia?ii?eyoee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey ?aeiiia n aea?eei eeeiaoii.

_Aeeyiea eeeiaoe/aneeo e aei?iaeiuo oneiaee

_ia ?aaioiniiniaiinoue iaoei

E ?aeiiai aea?eiai eeeiaoa e ionouiii-ian/aiiie ianoiinoe ioii-

nyony aea?eee nooie e i/aiue aea?eee nooie ?aeiiu, eioi?ua caieiatho

ieiei 10% oa??eoi?ee no?aiu.

A yoeo ?aeiiao i?aeiouanoaaiii ?aaieiiue oa?aeoa? ?aeueaoa, oe-

?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiu ian/aiiua, eaniaua e canieaiiua a?oiou, neoaeiay

?anoeoaeueiinoue e aacaiaeiinoue. Eeeiao ?acei eiioeiaioaeueiue,
inaaeee

?aaeee e iacia/eoaeueiu (60-150ii a aiae), aei 90% inaaeeia i?eoiaeeony
ia

ceio e aanio, /anoua aao?u aieueoie neeu aei 30 i/n, iaaethaeathony
iin-

oiyiiua aao?u, iai?eia? oae iacuaaaiue aoaaiaoe, aeothuee a oa/aiea 120

aeiae a aiaeo a iai?aaeaiee Ia?u – Eooea – Eaiaeaaa?, eiaao ianoi aeae-

aeaiea ia cae?aieaiiuo e /anoe/ii cae?aieaiiuo ianeia, canuiathueo aei-

?iae, eieiaeoeu e oeaeua iinaeaiey.

Ioe?uoua aiaeiaiu a ionouiyo e nooeo noaiyo ano?a/athony ?aaeei e

aeaaiui ia?acii ia eo ie?aeiao. Aiaea ec ianoiuo enoi/ieeia niaea?aeeo

aieueoia eiee/anoai ?aciuo nieae e ia i?eaiaeia eae aeey ieouey, oae e

aeey cai?aaee iaoei.

Aeey ?aeiiia n nooei aea?eei eeeiaoii oa?aeoa?ii ia oieueei auni-

eay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa (aei 40-50 N a oaie), ii e ieceay aai aeaae-

iinoue, aieueoay caiueaiiinoue, a oaeaea nieia/iay ?aaeeaoeey e
iaaeaaii-

?eyoiua aei?iaeiua oneiaey ionouiii-ian/aiiie ianoiinoe i?e ia iania-

ethaeaiee niaoeeaeueiuo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee io?eoeaoaeueii aeeytho ia
?aaioinii-

niaiinoue iaoei:

aneaaenoaea oiaiueoaiey ieioiinoe ?aai/ae niane i?e iiauoaiee

oaiia?aoo?u ie?oaeathuaai aicaeooa aei 40-45 N iiuiinoue aeaeaaoaey
oiaiue-

oaaony ia 15%;

aiciiaeiu ia?aaie a ?aaioa aeaeaaoaey ec-ca ia?aciaaiey ia?iauo

i?iaie a aaiciianina e oiieeaii?iaiaeao;

aiciiaeai iiauoaiiue (a 2 ?aca e aieaa) eciin oeeeeiae?ia, ii?o-

iaauo eieaoe, oaae eieai/aoiai aaea e aeeaaeuoae iiaeoeiieeia i?e ?aai-

oa aeaeaaoaey iiae iaa?oceie a oneiaeyo neeueiie caiueaiiinoe aicaeooa

(2-3a ia iao? );

nieaeaaony yooaeoeaiinoue ?aaiou nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey, oaiia?aoo-

?a ioeaaeaeathuae aeeaeeinoe iiaeao aeinoeaaoue 109-119 N, a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai

a eaia?a nai?aiey e ia eeaiaiao i?ienoiaeeo eioaineaiia iaaa?iia?aci-

aaiey;

/anoay aeieeaea aiaeu i?eaiaeeo e auno?iio ia?aciaaieth iaeeie a

nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey;

eioaineaiia noa?aiea ianae ec-ca auno?iai eo ieeneaiey aucu-

aaao ioeiaeaiea ia iiaa?oiinoue aeaoaeae niieenouo aauanoa e iaoaie/an-

eeo i?eianae, auno?ia cani?aiea ianeaiuo eaiaeia e oeeueo?ia;

aunieay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa e iaee/ea ia?ia oiieeaa a iiaeea-

iioiii i?ino?ainoaa aeaeaaoaey (80-100 N) iiauoaao iiaea?ioth iian-

iinoue, aucuaaao auno?ia noa?aiea e ?ac?ooaiea yeaeo?iecieyoeeiiiuo

iaoa?eaeia, iiauoaiiia enia?aiea aeenoeeee?iaaiiie aiaeu e naii?ac?yae

aeeoioeyoi?iuo aaoa?ae.

I?e aeaeaeaiee iaoei ia a?oioa ia?acoaony oienoue neie i/aiue iae-

eie iuee, i?e /ai, acaaoaiiay a aicaeooa, yoa iueue aeieai ia inaaeaao,

a aacaao?aiioth iiaiaeo – a oa/aiea 2-3 /ana; i?e aao?a aeaeeiinoue aua

aieaa oooaeoaaony. Iiiaaeaiea iuee a i?eai?u yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey aucu-

aaao auno?ue eciin eo aeaoaeae, i?eaiaeeo e iaeni?aaiinoyi a nenoaiao

caaeeaaiey e yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey.

Yenieoaoe?oy iaoeiu a aea?eeo oneiaeyo, iaiaoiaeeii naiaa?aiaiii

i/euaoue e iuoue eo, ianeoaeeaaoue aicaeooii/enoeoaee e oeeueo?u,
i?eie-

iaoue ia?u ii i?aaeoi?aaeaeaieth iiiaaeaiey iuee a iaoeio, aa aa?aaaou
e

nenoaiu, ouaoaeueii i?iaa?youe eni?aaiinoue anao i?eaiaeia oi?aaeaiey.

I?ienoiaeeo iiauoaiiia enia?aiea oi?iiciie aeeaeeinoe, aneaaenoaea

/aai a aeae?aaee/aneii e iiaaiiaeae?aaee/aneii oi?iiciuo i?eaiaeao ia-

?acothony ia?iauaa i?iaee, aucuaathuea ioeacu a ?aaioa ?aai/eo oi?ii-

cia.

Oaaee/eaaaony neeiiiinoue ?aai/eo aeeaeeinoae a aeae?ioneeeoaea ?o-

eaaiai i?eaiaea e iaiiia?aciaaieth, aneaaenoaea /aai nieaeaaony ?aai/aa

aeaaeaiea, aic?anoaao ioeiaeaiea niie, oooaeoaaony ?aaioiniiniaiinoue

aeae?ioneeeoaey.

Ieanoe/iua niacee ?anieaaeythony eee auoaeatho ec ni/eaiaiee ?o-

eaauo oya i?e oaiia?aoo?a: nieeaeieu – 70-75 N, niacee 1-13 e

ssIC-2 – 120 N, eiinoaeei e eeoie – 24-130 N.

Ayceinoue o?ainienneiiiuo ianae a aa?aaaoao i?e oaiia?aoo?ao,

aeinoeaathueo 120-140 N, cia/eoaeueii nieaeaaony, /oi niinianoaoao
iiae-

oaeaieth ianae /a?ac naeueieeiaua oieioiaiey. A aeae?iaeeiaie/aneeo ei-

?iaeao ia?aaea/ oaaee/eaaaony neeiiiinoue ianae e iaiiia?aciaaieth, /oi

oooaeoaao ?aaioiniiniaiinoue aeae?inenoai.

Oooaeoaaony yeanoe/iinoue oei, aeeao?aai oi?iiciuo eaia?,naeueie-

eia, iaiaeao, i?eaiaeiuo ?aiiae, iaeai/iuo iaoa?eaeia, ieanoianniauo

aeaoaeae. Aeaoaee ec aea?aaa ?annuoathony e ?ano?aneeaathony, a
e?anee

auoeaaoatho.

I?ioiaeeiinoue ian/aiuo e nieii/aeiauo a?oioia ai iiiaii caaeneo

io a?aiaie aiaea e iiaiaeu.

Ian/aiua ?aeiiu noaiiayony aieaa i?ioiaeeiuie a ia?eiae aeiaeaeae e

aeaeathony o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiuie a noooth iiaiaeo, iniaaiii ia o/anoeao
n

nuio/eie ianeaie.

Nieii/aeiaue a?oio a noooth iiaiaeo aeaeaaony oaa?aeui e i?ioiaee-

iui, ii caoi a nu?oth iiaiaeo iiaa?oiinoue nieii/aeiauo a?oioia auno?i

?aciieaao e aeaeaeaiea iaoei ia ii?aaeaeaiiue io?acie a?aiaie i?aeoe-

/anee eneeth/aaony.

Aaoiiiaeeueiua aei?iae i?ioiaeyo aeaaiui ia?acii ii ie?aeiai ion-

ouiue. Aieueoay /anoue aei?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie anoanoaaiiua
a?oioiaua

aei?iae, iaeaoaiiua ii oeaeeia, ?aaea ano?a/athony a?aaeeiua aei?iae.

_Ia?ii?eyoey ii iiauoaieth yooaeoeaiinoe

_eniieueciaaiey iaoei

Yenieoaoaoeey iaoei a oneiaeyo aea?eiai eeeiaoa e iiauoaiiie ca-

iueaiiinoe aicaeooa o?aaoao i?iaaaeaiey niaoeeaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo
e

oaoie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee.

Oaoie/aneia ianeoaeeaaiea N 1 e N 2 i?iaiaeeony n oiaiueoaiiie ia-

?eiaee/iinoueth ii n?aaiaieth n iau/iuie oneiaeyie: aeey aaoiiiaeeae
ia

30-35%, aonaie/iuo iaoei e o?aeoi?ia ia 20…25%.

I?e/ai, cao?a/eaaaony i?eia?ii ia 25% aieueoa a?aiaie, oae eae

cia/eoaeueii /aua (ii/oe a aeaa ?aca) i?eoiaeeony niacuaaoue aooeee inae

aaeaine?ia e iiaeoeiieee iaoaieciia aeeth/aiey o?eeoeeiiia, i?iiuaaoue

oeeueo?u e aeieeaaoue aeenoeeee?iaaiioth aiaeo a aeeoioeyoi?u.

Aeiiieieoaeueii i?ia?iaeyony ?aaiou ii iaaeoaea iaoaieciia naeaoui

aicaeooii, oeeueo?aoeey aiaeu, i?iiuaea oa?ie?ia e caiaia ianea a
aeaeaa-

oaeyo, n i?iiuaeie nenoaiu niacee.

A oneiaeyo aea?eiai eeeiaoa iniaue eiio?ieue inouanoaeyaony ca

?aaioie e ianeoaeeaaieai nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey aeaeaaoaey e aai oaiia?a-

oo?iui ?aaeeiii. Aaeaaeiaaii i?iaa?yaony iaoyaeaiea ?aiiy e o?iaaiue
io-

eaaeaeathuae aeeaeeinoe. I?e iiaeaioiaea iaoei e eaoiaio ia?eiaeo
yenieoa-

oaoeee, nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey i?iaa?yaony ia aa?iaoe/iinoue, a i?iaee ?a-

aeeaoi?ia – ia aeaaeaiea n?aaaouaaiey ia?iaicaeooiuo eeaiaiia; i?e ia-

iaoiaeeiinoe nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey i?iiuaaaony aeey oaeaeaiey iaeeie.

Aeey oiaiueoaiey iaeeiaia?aciaaiey nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey cai?aaeytho

e aeicai?aaeytho aiaeie n 3-o eiiiiiaioiie i?enaaeeie.

Iaeeiue oaeaeatho i?iiuaeie nenoaiu niaoeeaeueiuie ?anoai?aie, ?ac-

?ooathueie aa. Oeie/aneea ?aaaaiou e iniaaaiii nieyiay eeneioa, i?e-

iaiyaiua aeey oaeaeaiey iaeeie e aucuaathuea iiauoaiioth ei??iceth
aeaoa-

eae nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey, i?eiaiythony n eiaeaeoi?aie,
oiaiueoathueie

ei??iceeioth aa?anneaiinoue ?anoai?ia. A ea/anoaa eiaeaeoi?ia eniieue-

coaony oaoie/aneee o?io?iiei, ninoaa IA-8 e ae?.

Aeey a?iaeneeo iaoei ?aeiiaiaeothony neaaeothuea ninoaau ?anoai?ia:

40-80a o?iiieea ia 10e aiaeu aeey aeaeaaoaeae CIC-66;

20a oaoie/aneiai o?eeiia «A» ia aieinoue nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey

aeey aeaeaaoaeae CEE;

iaeeiaoaeaeythuee ?anoai?, aeeth/athuee nieyioth eeneioo, eiaeae-

oi? IA-5, o?io?iiei e iaiiaaneoaeue e iaeo?aeecothuee ?anoai? ec eaeue-

oeeiie?iaaiiie niaeu e o?iiieea aeey aeaeaaoaeae aaoiiiaeeae O?ae.

Iaoeiu, oauaathuea a ?aen, a oneiaeyo aea?eiai eeeiaoa aeieaeiu

iaania/eaaoueny iaeiie cai?aaeie oiya/aiiie aiaeu aeey aeicai?aaee
nenoa-

iu ioeaaeaeaiey a iooe.

A oneiaeyo iiauoaiiie caiueaiiinoe aicaeooa i?iaiaeyony ia?ii?ey-

oey, nieaeathuea a?aaeiia aeeyiea iuee ia nenoaio e iaoaieciu iaoeiu.

Aeey caueou io caa?yciaiey oiieeaa, ianae e ?aai/eo aeeaeeinoae

iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaoue eo cai?aaeo e o?aiaiea,
i?aaeoi?aae-

aeathueo aianaiea aa?aceaiuo /anoeoe e ae?oaeo iaoaie/aneeo i?eianae a

ea?oa? iaoaieciia nenoaiu iaoei. Aeecaeueiia oiieeai iinea neeaa a ai-

einoe ioieoa cai?aaee aeieaeii ionoaeaaoueny a oa/aiee 5-6 nooie.

Oiieeaiua oeeueo?u, oeeueo?u nenoai niacee e aeae?inenoai i?iiuaa-

thony n iaiueoae ia?eiaee/iinoth. Oeeueo?u e ionoieieee nenoaiu
ieoaiey

ia aaoiiiaeeyo i?iiuaathony /a?ac 350-400 eeeiiao?ia, ia aonaie/iuo

iaoeiao /a?ac 250-300 eeeiiao?ia i?iaaaa.

Nieaeaiea ayceinoe ianae, ?aai/eo aeeaeeinoae e oiieeaa n iiauoa-

ieai oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa oaaee/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue eo iiaeoaeaiey /a?ac

i?ieeaaeee, naeueieee e ae?oaea niaaeeiaiey. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii
iinoiyi-

ii neaaeeoue, /oiau ia auei ia?ooaiee aa?iaoe/iinoe niaaeeiaiee e e?u-

oae cai?aai/iuo ai?eiaei.

Aicaeooii/enoeoaee aeaeaaoaeae a oneiaeyo iueueiuo aei?ia ianeoaee-

aathony aaeaaeiaaii n i?iiuaeie oeeueo?a e, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe,. n
caia-

iie ianea.

A nayce n ia?aie/aiiui eiee/anoaii aiaeu a ionouiii-ian/aiie

ianoiinoe iieeo e i/enoeo iaoei ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iaiaeeoue n i?eiaiaie-

ai naeaoiai aicaeooa e aiaeiaicaeooiie niane. ?anoiae aicaeooa i?e
iaaeoaa

(aeaaeaiea 5ean/i) ninoaaeyao 0,5 iao?a a ieiooo, a a?aiy ia ia?aaio-

eo iaeiie iaoeiu aei 15 ieioo. I?eiaiaiea aiaeiaicaeooiie no?oe e
niaoee-

aeueiuo iia/iuo uaoie n iiaeaiaeii naeaoiai aicaeooa cia/eoaeueii
nie?aua-

ao ?anoiae aiaeu.

Nieii/aeiaoth iueue ?aeiiaiaeoaony naeoaaoue n iiaa?oiinoe iaoei

naeaoui aicaeooii, oae eae i?e niuaaiee aiaeie ia?acothony ?anoai?u,

oneeeaathuea ei??iceth iaoaeeia. Iaiaoiaeeii ouaoaeueii oaeaeyoue iueue
n

iiaa?oiinoe ?aaeeaoi?a e aeaeaaoaey.

Neaaeoao i/euaoue io iuee ioaa?noey niioiia aa?aaaoia e aaioeey-

oeeiiiua ioaa?noey aeeoioeyoi?iuo aaoa?ae. A oneiaeyo aea?eiai eeeiaoa

/a?ac 2-3 aeiy a aeeoioeyoi?iuo aaoa?ayo i?iaa?yaony o?iaaiue yeaeo?i-

eeoa e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeiaiaeeoue aai aei ii?iu aeieeaii
aeenoeeee?i-

aaiiie aiaeie.

Aunieay oaiia?aoo?a e aieueoay caiueaiiinoue aicaeooa, ieioea aei-

?iaeiua oneiaey cia/eoaeueii nieaeatho ?aaioiniiniaiinoue aiaeeoaeae e
yo-

oaeoeaaiinoue eniieueciaaiey iaoei.

Oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa a eaaeia ia o?iaia aieiau aiaeeoaey iiaeao

aeinoeaaoue 60 N. Ni/aoaiea aunieie oaiia?aoo?u, caiueaiiinoe e ieceie

aeaaeiinoe aicaeooa a eaaeia, a oaeaea aieueoay nieia/iay ?aaeeaoeey
e

?aciiia?acea ianoiinoe aucuaatho auno?ia ooiieaiea aiaeeoaey e iiyaea-

iea aieiaiie aiee. ?aaioiniiniaiinoue aiaeeoaey nieaeaaony, e?iia oi-

ai,. ec-ca ieioeo aei?iaeiuo oneiaee e ieioie aeaeeiinoe, iniaaiii, i?e

aeaeaeaiee a eieiiia, aneaaenoaea aieueoie caiueaiiinoe aicaeooa. I?e
ni-

aea?aeaiee iuee a aicaeooa 0,8…1a/i i?aaeae aeaeeiinoe ia?aae
aaoiiiae-

eai ninoaaeyao 5…8i. Aiaeeoaee eiatho iaei a?aiaie aeey ioaeuoa ia

i?eaaeao, aneaaenoaee oaaee/aiiiai iauaia ?aaio ii iniio?o iaoei e

ono?aiaieth aei?iaeiuo iaeni?aaiinoae e ioeacia.

A oeaeyo iiauoaiey iaaeaaeiinoe ?aaiou e iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe

eniieueciaaiey iaoei i?e yenieoaoaoeee a ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe

iie iai?oaeothony n?aaenoaaie caueou aa?aaaoia e iaoaieciia io iuee e

n?aaenoaaie iiauoaiey i?ioiaeeiinoe.

Aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey iiiaaeaiey iuee ?aeiiaiaeoaony cae?uaaoue nia-

oeeaeueii ecaioiaeaiiuie /aoeaie ec ieioiie oeaie ?ani?aaeaeeoaeue
caaee-

aaiey, oa?ie?u ea?aeaiiuo aaeia, ni/eaiaiey ?oeaauo oya, oa?iaua iii-

?u ia?aaeieo iinoia, nao/aoui oeeueo?ii – oi?iiciie e?ai iiaaiaoe/an-

eiai i?eaiaea oi?iicia, ei?ion aaiciianina, aeeoioeyoi?ioth aaoa?ath,

naeiiu aa?aaaoia e ae?.

Iaoeiu oeiiieaeoiauaathony oe?uai/iuie a?acaioaie aeey caueou

a?oca io iuee, iiaeeeaaeeaie iiae aeiie?ao, aieinoyie iiae oiya/aiioth
ai-

aeo aeey nenoaiu ioeaaeaeaiey aaoiiiaeeae e ieoueaaoth aiaeo. Nenoaiu
io-

eaaeaeaiey aaoiiiaeeae iiaoo iai?oaeiaaoueny eiiaeainaoeeiiiuie
ai/eaie.

Aeey iiauoaiey i?ioiaeeiinoe a ianeao aaoiiiaeee iniauathony eieaeiuie

aei?iaeeaie ec iaoaeee/aneie naoee, i?ioeaiaoenaoi?aie, naiiauoaneeaa-

oaeyie, a aonaie/iua iaoeiu – a?aaiaie n eiiieaeoii oeaiae aeey e?ai-

eaiey a?aaai e aonaieoeai.

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey ia?aa?aaa aeaeaaoaey neaaeoao:

iiaeaea?aeeaaoue o?aaoaiue o?iaaiue ioeaaeaeathuae aeeaeeinoe;

oaaee/eaaoue aeaaeaiea ioe?uoey ia?iaiai eeaiaia ia

0,2-0,3 ean/ni;

ia?aae eaaeaeui auoiaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue iaoyaeaiea ?aiiae aaioeey-

oi?ia eee iiiaio i?iaoeniaee o?eeoeeiia aaioeeyoi?a ia oaieao.

A ea/anoaa iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey auoaneacaiiiai iiaeii i?eaanoe, eae

i?eia?, iia?aoeeth «Ao?y a ionouia».

Ionouiiay ianoiinoue A?aaeeneiai iieoino?iaa n ?aeiiaie cuao/eo

ianeia e iaoe?iuo nieii/aeia, ia?ana/aiiay nooeie ?oneaie e ia?aaa-

ie, yaeeanue na?ueaciui i?aiyonoaeai aeey aeaenoaee nooiiooiuo a?oiie-

?iaie iiiaiiaoeeiiaeueiuo nee (IIN).

Oae, a ?acoeueoaoa aunieeo oaiia?aoo? e neeueiie caiueaiiinoe

aicaeooa, a 1,5-2 ?aca oaaee/eeny ?anoiae ANI, a oaeaea caianiuo eiii-

eaeoia ?anoiaeiuo n?aaenoa e aiaeu. O/anoeeenue neo/ae
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiiai

auoiaea ec no?iy aeaeaaoaeae, iaaeaaoeeiiiiai e ae?oaiai yeaeo?iiiiai

iai?oaeiaaiey oaoieee.

Ec-ca eioaineaiiai aicaeaenoaey ianea, iuee e aunieeo oaiia?aoo?

ioia/aeenue /anoua ioeacu e auoiae ec no?iy ?acee/iuo i?eai?ia e oc-

eia. Yoi aucaaei cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea eioa?aaeia iaaeaeo ?aaeaiaio-

iuie ?aaioaie ia anao aeaeao oaoieee. Auyaeeenue oaeaea e eiino?oeoea-

iua iaaeinoaoee ia?acoeia aii?oaeaiey.

I?e aaaeaiee ianooieaiey e aeaeaeaiee eieiii o/eouaaeenue oaeea

oaeoi?u, eae ian/aiay iaea, ie?aaee, ineaieythuee yooaeo,iueaaua caaa-

nu. Iai?eia?, i?e aeaeaeaiee aeaaea iaeeii/iie aonaie/iie iaoeiu
nicaeaao-

ny iai?iieoeaaiay iueaaay caaana, eioi?ay a aacaao?aiioth iiaiaeo aein-

oeaaao auniou 300-500i e aea?aeeony 20-30 ieioo. Aeey nieaeaiey aa io?e-

oeaoaeueiiai aeeyiey ia iaiaa?u aiene, eiiaiaeiaaiea IIN i?aeoeeiaaei

ia?aaeaeaeaiea iaoaiece?iaaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaiee ia eieiiiaie, a a
eeieth

eee onooiii ai?aai (aeaai).

_Aiaeaeaiea a ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe

Ionouie ii naiei i?e?iaeiui oneiaeyi iaiaeeiaeiau. A caaeneiinoe-

io a?oioia ?acee/atho ian/aiua, nieii/aeiaua e aeeienoua ionouie.

Ian/aiua ionouie iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua. Aieueooth /anoue eo

caieiatho iiaeaeaeiua iacae?aieaiiua aa?oaiu e aethiu, neaai
cae?aieaiiua

(aoa?enoua) e cae?aieaiiua (a?oioiaua) ianee. A nooia a?aiy aiaea

aa?oaiu e aoa?enoua ianee o?oaeiii?ioiaeeiu. Ceiie, aaniie e iinea

aeiaeaeae ianee oieioiythony e i?ioiaeeiinoue ii iei oaaee/eaaaony.

A ieceiao ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe ano?a/athony nieii/aee e

oaeu?u, eioi?ua i?ioiaeeiu aeey anao aeaeia oaoieee oieueei a nooia a?a-

iy aiaea, a ae?oaia a?aiy iie iai?ioiaeeiu, iniaaiii a ia?eiae
aeiaeaeae.

Ionouiii-ian/aiay ianoiinoue oa?aeoa?ecoaony ia?aie/aiiui eiee-

/anoaii aiaeiuo enoi/ieeia e ieioei ea/anoaii aiaeu, eioi?ay ia iiaeao

auoue eniieueciaaia aac i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie i/enoee. Eaiaeu, nenoaiu en-

eonnoaaiiiai i?ioaiey eiatho e?ooua aa?aaa e o?oaeiii?aiaeieeiu aac

i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie iiaeaioiaee.

Eeeiao ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe ?acei eiioeiaioaeueiue. Eaoii

oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa aeinoeaaao 50 , a a?oioa – 70 N. Neeueiua aao?u

(aei 15-20i/n e aieaa), aeinoeaathuea neeu o?aaaia, e iaeia eiee/anoai

inaaeeia iaoneaaeeaatho aieueooth caiueaiiinoue aicaeooa. Ano?a/athony
e

yaeaiey ie?aaea.

Aeaeaeaiea iaoei ii ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe oa?aeoa?ecoaony

iaaeinoaoi/iui noeaieaieai aonaieoe (eiean) n a?oioii, aneaaenoaea /aai

iieacaiey nieaeiiao?ia ia 10-15% i?aauoatho aeaenoaeoaeueii
i?ieaeaiiia

?anoiyiea. Aunieay oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa e neeueiue iaa?aa iaoaeee/an-

eeo iiaa?oiinoae iaoei cao?oaeiytho ?aaioo aiaeeoaeae.

I?e aiaeaeaiee iaoei a ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe e?iia niaethaea-

iey iaueo i?aaee, eceiaeaiiuo a eino?oeoeeyo ii yenieoaoaoeee,
aiaeeoaeue

aeieaeai auiieiyoue neaaeothuea i?aaeea:

i?iaa?eoue onoie/eainoue ?aaiou aeaeaaoaey ia anao ?aaeeiao e

aa?iaoe/iinoue nenoaiu ieoaiey;

oaaaeeoueny a enii?aaiie oeaio?aeeciaaiiie nenoaiu ?aaoee?iaaiey

aeaaeaiey aicaeooa a oeiao;

i?iaa?eoue iaee/ea e eni?aaiinoue n?aaenoa iiauoaiey i?ioiaeeiin-

oe iaoei ii ianeo, a oaeaea eieaeiuo iinoeeia aeey i?aiaeieaiey a?ueia,

ieiiia e o?aioae;

i?iaa?eoue eni?aaiinoue caianiiai eieana, aeiie?aoa e iaee/ea

iiaeeeaaeee iiae iaai;

i?iaa?eoue ninoiyiea naioiia ea?oa?a, aa?aaaoia, o?ainiennee e

iueacaueoiuo /aoeia;

iiiieieoue caian ieoueaaie eeiy/aiie aiaeu;

iieo/eoue a?acaio aeey oe?uoey iaoei (i?e iaee/ee);

ia?aae aeeeoaeueiui ?aenii iieo/eoue caian aeenoeeee?iaaiiie aiaeu

aeey aeieeaee a aeeoioeyoi?u e iaaeeoeeineoth aioa/eo (i?e iaee/ee).

Aeey i?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey ia?aa?aaa aeaeaaoaey iaiaoiaeeii /aua i/euaoue

aiaeyiie e ianeyiue ?aaeeaoi?u io iuee e ianea. Iueue oaeaeaaony iinea

eaaeaeiai auoiaea iacaaeneii io i?ieaeaiiuo eeeiiao?ia.

A nenoaia ioeaaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii nenoaiaoe/anee i?iaa?youe ?aao-

ee?iaeo ia?iaicaeooiiai eeaiaia, a ia iaeioi?uo aonaie/iuo iaoeiao e

iiiaio i?iaoeniaee o?eeoeeiia aaioeeyoi?a.

Iniaia aieiaiea i?e iiaeaioiaea iaoei e aiaeaeaieth ia?auyoue ia

ianeoaeeaaiea ?aaeeaoi?ia. Nenoaio ioeaaeaeaiey ioaeii cai?aaeyeoue
i/e-

uaiiie (aeaeaoaeueii eeiy/aiie) aiaeie n aeiaaaeaieai a iaa i?ioeaiei?-

?iceeiie i?enaaeee.

A oneiaeyo neeueiie caiueaiiinoe aicaeooii/enoeoaee neaaeoao i?i-

iuaaoue ii iio?aaaiinoe, eae i?aaeei, /aua, /ai iau/ii.

I?e aeaeaeaiee eieaniuo iaoei ii ian/aiie ianoiinoe aeey oeo/oaiey

i?ioiaeeiinoe aeaaeaiea a oeiao iiieaeaaony aei 1,5-0,75 ean/ni a caae-

neiinoe io ieioiinoe ianea e oneiaee aeaeaeaiey.

I?e aiaeaeaiee iaoei a ionouiii-ian/aiie ianoiinoe iaiaoiaeeii

o/eouaaoue neaaeothuea iniaaiiinoe:

aiciiaeiinoue aoene?iaaiey iaoei i?e cia/eoaeueiii iia?oaeaiee

aonaieoe (eiean) a a?oio aneaaenoaea iiieaeaiiiii (a 2-2,5 ?aca) noeai-

eaiey ia ianeao e nieii/aeao;

oaaee/aiey nii?ioeaeaiey aeaeaeaieth a 1,5-2 ?aca ii cuao/ei

ianeai iniaaiii i?e o?iaaiee n ianoa;

aunieay oaiia?aoo?a ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu eaoii iaoneaaeeaaao ii-

auoaiiue oaieiaie ?aaeei ?aaiou aeaeaaoaey e ae?oaeo aa?aaaoia iaoei;

o?oaeiinoue i?eaioe?iaaiey aaeaeo iaeiiia?acey ianoiinoe, aieueoie

caiueaiiinoe aicaeooa, ionoonoaea i?eaioe?ia;

nieaeaiea caiana oiaea iaoei ii aonaieoeai n iaoaie/aneei oa?ie-

?ii a 1,5-2 ?aca i?e aeaeaeaiee ii aa?oaiai e cuao/ei ianeai.

O?iaaiea iaoeiu n ianoa ia ian/aiii a?oioa ioaeii ia/eiaoue ia

iecoeo ia?aaea/ao, ieaaii, i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieuecoy ?u/aae oi?aa-

eaiey; ia?aia iieiaeaiea III caiaaeeaiiie ia?aaea/e ia aonaie/iuo iaoe-

iao e ?acaeaoi/iie ei?iaee ia eieaniuo iaoeiao.

Ia ian/aiii a?oioa auno?i oa?yaony eia?oeey, iiyoiio aeey ia?ae-

eth/aiey ia?aaea/ auae?aoue ?iaiua o/anoee n oaa?aeui a?oioii,
eniieueci-

aaoue oeeiiu e nionee n aa?oaiia.

I?e aiaeaeaiee ii oaeie ianoiinoe auae?aoue aeey aeaeaeaiey ii aicii-

aeaiinoe ?iaiua o/anoee n ?anoeoaeueiui iie?iaii. A ianeao aeaeaaoueny

ii iaaea?yaeiaui iiieaeaieyi, ia?aiu/ee ia?anaeaoue a aieaa ieceeo ian-

oa. Nieii/aee, iie?ua oaeu?u e aeeienoua o/anoee ii aiciiaeiinoe ia-

oiaeeoue eee i?aiaeieaaaoue eo iinea ?acaaaeee, eniieuecoy n?aaenoaa
iiau-

oaiey i?ioiaeeiinoe.

Iiaeniooea nieii/aee e oaeu?u n e?aieie aa?oiae ei?eie i?aiaeaea-

aaoue ii e?ath ia iaeneiaeueiie nei?inoe aac iiai?ioia, inoaiiaie e

?aceiai eciaiaiey nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey.

Ii iacae?aieaiiui ianeai, iie?iio oaeu?o e nieii/aeai aeaeaaoueny

i?yiieeiaeii, ecaaaay ?aceiai eciaiaiey nei?inoe aeaeaeaiey e oi?iiaea-

iey. Anee aeaeaaoaeue ia ?acaeaaao iaiaoiaeeiie iiuiinoe, ia?aeoe ia

iecooth ia?aaea/o eee ia?aaanoe ?u/aae oi?aaeaiey a i?iiaaeooi/iia ii-

eiaeaiea, a ia iaoeiao n III – a ia?aia iieiaeaiea, aeeth/eoue
caiaaeeai-

ioth ia?aaea/o (ia aonaie/iie iaoeia) e i?iaeieaeeoue aeaeaeaiea aei
iaai?a

aeaeaaoaeai yenieoaoaoeeiiiuo iai?ioia, iinea /aai aa?iooue eo a enoiae-

iia iieiaeaiea.

I?e aoeniaaiee eiean (aonaieoe) inoaiiaeoue iaoeio, ?an/enoeoue

ianie e iiaeeiaeeoue iiae eieana (aonaieoeu) aeinee, iaou eee ae?oaea
iiae-

?o/iua iaoa?eaeu.

I?e ca?uaaiee oyaa/a n a?oeeea?eeneei i?oaeeai eee i?eoeaiii a

ianie i?oaeea (i?eoeai) iooeaieoue, oyaa/ auaanoe ia aieaa ieioiue a?oio

e n iiiiuueth eaaaaeee ia?aoaueoue i?oaeea (i?eoeai) /a?ac
o?oaeiii?ioiaee-

iia ianoi.

I?e aeeeoaeueiie ?aaioa aonaie/iuo iaoei ia ian/aiie ianoiinoe

eniieueciaaoue oii?u (a?oioicaoeaiu) e ooe?eoaee aonaieoe. ?acuacae
ni

ano?a/iuie iaoeiaie auiieiyoue ia iaeie nei?inoe.

A aeiaeaeeeaoth iiaiaeo eee iinea aeiaeaey ia?aae i?aiaeieaieai
nieii/a-

eiauo o/anoeia iaaeaoue oeaie i?ioeaineieueaeaiey e aeaeaaoueny n
iiauoai-

iie nei?inoueth, ia nai?a/eaay n eieae. I?e iieiie iioa?a aeaeeiinoe

inoaiiaeoue iaoeio e i?iaeieaeaoue aeaeaeaiea iinea aeinoaoi/iie
aeaeeiinoe.

Aeey iiai?ioia ia ian/aiii a?oioa ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue au-

ioeeinoe, ia?iaiinoe, eiaaea n a?oioii nii?eeinaaony ia any iii?iay

iiaa?oiinoue aonaieoeu, a oieueei aa na?aaeeia. Iiai?iou i?iecaiaeeoue
a

ianeieueei i?eaiia (nooiai/aoi), iiiaie?aoiui oi?iiaeaieai aonaieoeu.

Iinea eaaeaeiai i?eoi?iaaeeaaiey i?iaeaeaaoue iaoeio aia?aae ia iaiaa
/ai

ia iieiaeio aeeeiu ei?iona.

Aunieea aa?oaiu i?aiaeaeaaaoue ii auioeeie noi?iia ia ieceeo ia-

?aaea/ao aac inoaiiaee, iai?aaeyy iaoeio iiae i?yiui oaeii e aa?oeia

aa?oaia e ecaaaay ?acaeoie eaeae. Ia?aae nioneii n aa?oaia, eiathuaai

e?ooecio neaoa aieaa 30 , ia iaoeiao n aaoiae iaiaoiaeeii ?acaa?iooue

aa iooeie iacaae.

Iaiaa?e?iaaoue iaiaoiaeeii oaeei ia?acii, /oiau ia aeiioneaoue

cano?aaaiey i?e e?ooii iiai?ioa ia nuio/ai ianea, i?e aeaeaeaiee n

e?aiii ii aa?oaio, a oceie auaiea i?e e?ooii iiai?ioa ia nieii/aea

eee iie?ii oaeu?a.

?aceee iiai?io iaoeiu ia ian/aiii a?oioa aucuaaao ia?aa?oceo

aeaeaaoaey e neeiaie ia?aaea/e. Yoi nicaeaao iianiinoue iia?aaeaeaiey
ai?-

oiaie ia?aaea/e, iii?iuo eaoeia e o?aeia aonaie/iuo iaoei eee aaaeoueo

iinoia o eieaniuo iaoei. Aeaeueiaeoaa aeaeaeaiea aiciiaeii oieueei
iinea

i/enoee aonaieoe (eiean) io ianea.

Aeaeaeaiea ii einiai?o aa?oaia aeaaea n iaeui oaeii iaeeiia aucuaa-

ao niiecaiea iaoeiu e ca?uaaiea aonaieoe (eiean), aneaaenoaee /aai

aiciiaeai ?ac?ua aonaieoe, ?ac?ooaiea ai?oiauo ia?aaea/ (aaaeoueo iin-

oia). A yoii neo/aa neaaeoao i/enoeoue aonaieoeu (eieana) e a neo/aa

aoeniaaiey i?eaaaiooue e iiiiue oyaa/a.

Oceea auaiee i?aiaeaeaaathony n eniieueciaaieai eia?oeee iaoeiu.

Eieaniua iaoeiu aeieaeiu eo iaoiaeeoue ii aiciiaeiinoe eee
i?iionoeoue

iaaeaeo eiean.

E?ooie e ?aceee iiai?io ia nieii/aea (iie?ii oaeu?a) i?eaiaeeo e

?ac?ooaieth aa?oiae ei?ee, e iaoeia iiaeao nanoue ia aeieua (iinou). I?e

oaeii cano?aaaiee iaiaoiaeeii iiiuoaoueny aueoe caaeiei oiaeii. Anee ao-

naieoeu (eieana) i?iaoeniauaatho, oi iaoeia yaaeoe?oaony n iiiiuueth

n?aaenoa naiiauoaneeaaiey, oyaa/a eee eaaaaeee.

I?e aeaeaeaiee eieiiiu a oneiaeyo neeueiie caiueaiiinoe aeenoaioeey

iaaeaeo iaoeiaie oaaee/eaaaony, aeeth/athony aaaa?eoiua oiia?e, i?e yoii

aiaeeoaeue ncaaee eaeouae iaoeiu aeieaeai aea?aeaoueny e?ay iueaaiai
iaeaea e

aeaeaaoueny onooiii.

A /anoe/ii cae?aieaiiuo eee iaaeoaieeo nuio/eo ianeao aeaeaaoueny

ii iaeiie eaeaa. Ii aeoaeia iia?oaeaiey aonaieoe (eiean) aia?aaee
eaeouae

iaoeiu ioaeii ioeaieaaoue oaa?aeinoue a?oioa e aua?aoue ianoi aeey
ia?aeeth-

/aiey ia?aaea/ e iiai?ioia.

I?e i?aiaeieaiee aa?oaiia a ninoaaa iiae?acaeaeaiee iaiaoiaeeii

neaaeeoue ca ninoiyieai eieae. Iinea i?ioiaea ianeieueeeo iaoei iia ?ac-

aeaaaony, e iiyoiio neaaeothuay iaoeia aeieaeia aeaeaaoueny i?aaaa eee
ea-

aaa i?ioaaeoeo ia 1-3 iao?a.

Aeaeaeaiea ii nieii/aeo eee iie?iio oaeu?o ii iaeiie eieaa ia aei-

ioneaaony.

Ia i?eaaeao e inoaiiaeao auiieieoue neaaeothuaa:

i?iaeooue naeaoui aicaeooii ?aaeeaoi? e aeaeaaoaeue;

i?iaa?eoue eni?aaiinoue iueacaueoiuo /aoeia;

i?ioa?aoue noaeea e aioo?aiiea iiaa?oiinoe eaaeiu io iuee;

i?iaa?eoue o?iaaiue e i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeieeoue aeenoeeee?iaaiioth

aiaeo a aeeoioeyoi?u;

i?e aeeeoaeueiie inoaiiaea ii oeacaieth eiiaiaee?a oe?uoue iaoeio

a?acaioii.

Iinea caaa?oaiey ia?oa (?aena) auiieieoue aaeaaeiaaiia oaoie/aneia

ianeoaeeaaiea eee ii oeacaieth eiiaiaee?a i/a?aaeiia oaoie/aneia ianeo-

aeeaaiea N 1 eee N 2 e iiaeaioiaeoue iaoeio e auiieiaieth
iineaaeothuae

caaea/e.

_Caeeth/aiea

Oaeei ia?acii i?aaeeueiay e oaoie/anee a?aiioiay i?aaiecaoeey

yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth aaoi-

oaoie/aneiai iaania/aiey aiene, eiaao oeaeueth iaania/eoue oniaoiia au-

iieiaiea iinoaaeaiiuo caaea/ ii io?aia Ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu e nio-

?aieoue i?e yoii iaoeiu a iinoiyiiie eni?aaiinoe e aioiaiinoe e aeaeue-

iaeoei aeaenoaeyi. A i?ioeanna yenieoaoaoeee iaiaoiaeeii no?iai
iiaeaea?-

aeeaaoue onoaiiaeaiiue o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e iaaeaaeiinoe
aaoiiiaeeueiie

oaoieee.

Iniaia cia/aiea yoi o?aaiaaiea i?eia?aoaao a oneiaeyo aiaaie

aeayoaeueiinoe aiene, eiaaea iai?yaeaiea a ?aaioa iaoei ?acei aic?anoa-

ao, a oneiaey aeey ianeoaeeaaiey e ooiaea ca iaoeiaie ineiaeiythony.
I?-

aaiecaoeey yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee i?aaeiieaaaao ?ac?aaioeo

e inouanoaeaiea eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee ii iaania/aieth iaaeaaeiie ?aaiou

e nio?aiaieth iaoei n iiiaioa iinooieaiey a iiae?acaeaeaiea aei auoiaea
a

ieaiiaue ?aiiio eee nienaiea ii aii?oecaoeeiiiiio eciino.

Yenieoaoaoeey aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee aeeth/aao a naay aii?inu yo-

oaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey iaoei ii i?yiiio iacia/aieth a ?acee/iuo aei-

?iaeiuo e eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo e a oneiaeyo aiaaie aeayoaeueiinoe

aiene, oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey, o?aiaiey e o?ainii?oe?iaee.

Ciaiea iniia i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeeueiie yenieoaoaoeee aaoiiiaeeueiie

oaoieee yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai oniaoiiai auiieiaiey caaea/ ii

io?aia Ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoeu ?aoaaiuo aaoiiiaeeueiie neoaeaie iia?a-

ie/iuo aiene.

Ec yoiai auoaeaao, /oi ioeoea?u iia?aie/iie canoaau aeieaeiu ciaoue

e oiaoue i?aaeeueii i?aaieciaaoue yenieoaoaoeeth aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee.

.

18 –

_I?eeiaeaiea

Noaia N 1: Niaea?aeaiea iuee a aicaeooa (g) a caaeneiinoe io ianoa

aaoiiiaeey a eieiiia (a) e aeenoaioeee (N) iaaeaeo aaoi-

iiaeeyie (a) i?e = 13-16ei//

1 – aeenoaioeey 20-25i; 2 – aeenoaioeey 40-45i;

3 – o?aoee aaoiiiaeeue; 4 – iyoue aaoiiiaeeue

.

19 –

Noaia N 2: Cia/aiea eiyooeoeeaioa ecauoea aicaeooa a i?ioeaioao

aeey ?acee/iuo oaiia?aoo? aicaeooa e oiieeaa.

Oaiia?aoo?a oiieeaa: 1 – 20 N; 2 – 40 N;

3 – 60 N; 4 – 80 N

Noaia N 3: Eciaiaiea oieueiu neiy iaeeie / h/ e oaieiia?aaea/e

/Q?/ ?aaeeaoi?a aaoiiiaeey CEE-130 i?e yenieoaoaoeee

a ciia Ea?aeoineiai eaiaea

.

20 –

_Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a:

1. Oaaea?aeueiue caeii «I Ainoaea?noaaiiie a?aieoea ?O»

(n eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie ia 10.08.94a.)

2. «Yenieoaoaoeey aaoiiiaeeueiie e a?iiaoaieiaie oaoieee ia iia-

?aie/iie canoaaa (a iia?aie/iie eiiaiaeaoo?a),I.,1987a.

3. «Yenieoaoaoeey aaoiiiaeeueiie oaoieee a neiaeiuo oneiaeyo»,

I.,1984a.,Aiaiecaeao

4. «Yenieoaoaoeey a?iaeneeo iaoei»,I.,19789a.,Aiaiecaeao

5. «A?iiaoaieiaay oaoieee,yenieoaoaoeey»,o/aaiee,I.,1974a.,

Aiaiecaeao

6. «Ca?oaaaeiia aiaiiia iaic?aiea»,N 10,1994a.

7. «?oeiaiaenoai ii i?aaeeai aiaeaeaiey aiaauo iaoei»,

I.,1984a.,Aiaiecaeao

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