.

Датчики потока

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1239
Скачать документ

Ieienoa?noai ia?aciaaiey e iaoee

?anioaeeee Aaea?onue

Aaei?onneay ainoaea?noaaiiay

iieeoaoie/aneay aeaaeaiey

Eaoaae?a “Eioi?iaoeeiiii-ecia?eoaeueiay

oaoieea”

Eo?niaie i?iaeo

ii aeenoeeieeia “Ia?ae/iua ecia?eoaeueiua i?aia?aciaaoaee EEN ”

ia oaio “Eiino?oeoeey e noaia i?eiaiaiey aeao/eea oaiia?aoo?u aeey
ecia?aiey nei?inoe iioiea aeeaeeinoe eee aaca ”

Eniieieoaeue:

Iaiueoeeia N.A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue:

ss?aeaiaeoeeee A.A.

Ieine 1997 Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………………………………………………………3

Eeoa?aoo?iue
iaci?………………………………………………………….
……………………..5

Iaoaie/aneea ecia?eoaee
iioiea………………………………………………..5

A?auathueany
ecia?eoaee……………………………………………………..
………….6

Ecia?eoaee n oi?iicyuei
yeaiaioii……………………………………….7

Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea (ay?iaeeiaie/aneea) ecia?eoaee…….8

O?oaee
Ieoi…………………………………………………………..
…………………………………….9

Ecia?eoaee ia iioiei?acenoeaiuo yeaiaioao………………….10

Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua ecia?eoaee
iioiea……………………………….12

Oeueo?acaoeiaua aeao/eee
iioiea………………………………………………..16

I?aia?aciaaoaee…………………………………………………
………………………………….17

I?eioeei ecia?aiey a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea………19

Aeao/eee iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey………………………………………………….23

Eiioeueniua
aeao/eee……………………………………………………….
…………………..26

Iaoiaeieiae/aneay
/anoue…………………………………………………………
………….31

Oaieiaua ecia?eoaee
iioiea…………………………………………………………
.31

Eiaeaeoeeiiiua
ecia?eoaee……………………………………………………..
……..31

Eiiaaeoeeiiiua
aeao/eee……………………………………………………….
……………32

Noaia ia?aoiie nayce aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey

iinoiyiiie
oaiia?aoo?u…………………………………………………….
…………….36

Oeiu
ciiaeia………………………………………………………..
……………………………………..38

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
………………………………………………39

Eeoa?aoo?a……………………………………………………..
……………………………………………….40

Aaaaeaiea.

No?aieoaeueiia ?acaeoea yeaeo?iieee e au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee ieacaeinue
i?aaeiinueeie aeey oe?ieie aaoiiaoecaoeee naiuo ?aciiia?aciuo i?ioeannia
a i?iiuoeaiiinoe, a iao/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo, a auoo. Iaeiaei ?aaeecaoeey
yoie i?aaeiinueee a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ii?aaeaeyaony aiciiaeiinoyie
ono?ienoa aeey iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i ?aaoee?oaiii ia?aiao?a eee
i?ioeanna. ?acoiaaony, i?eiaiaiea aeao/eeia ia ia?aie/eaaaony oieueei
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuie nenoaiaie, iineieueeo iie iiaoo auiieiyoue oaeaea
ooieoeee yeaiaioia i?inoi ecia?eoaeueiuo nenoai.

Ii ii?aaeaeaieth e aeao/eeai ioiinyony ana iniiaiua oceu yeaeo?iiiie
noaiu aeey ecia?aiey iayeaeo?e/aneeo aaee/ei, ?aniieiaeaiiua
iaiin?aaenoaaiii o iauaeoa. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?aia?aciaaiey ecia?yaiie
iayeaeo?e/aneie aaee/eiu a aaeaeaaoiue ae yeaeo?e/aneee neaiae
iineoaeeea iicaeiaa iniiaaieai aeey aaaaeaiey oa?ieia «ecia?eoaeueiue
i?aia?aciaaoaeue».

Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iieoi?iaiaeieeiaie oaoiieiaee iicaieeei oaeaea
?anoe?eoue noa?u i?eiaiaiey aeao/eeia e e oiio aea iiauneoue eo
oi/iinoue, auno?iaeaenoaea, iaae?aeiinoue, aeieaiaa/iinoue, oaeianoai
nii?yaeaiey n yeaeo?iiiuie ecia?eoaeueiuie noaiaie. Ianniaue oa?aeoa?
i?iecaiaenoaa aeao/eeia niinianoaoao nieaeaieth eo oeaiu, /oi oaeaea
yaeyaony iaiaeiaaaeiui oaeoi?ii, ii?aaeaeythuei eo aiaae?aiea a
i?aeoeeo. Oaoieea eiino?oe?iaaiey e i?eiaiaiey aeao/eeia a iineaaeiea
aiaeu ?acaeeanue a naiinoiyoaeueioth aaoaue ecia?eoaeueiie oaoieee. N
?inoii aaoiiaoecaoeee e aeao/eeai oece/aneeo ia?aiao?ia noaee
i?aaeuyaeyoueny an? aieaa aunieea o?aaiaaiey. I?e yoii iniaia cia/aiea
i?eaea?ony neaaeothuei iieacaoaeyi:

ieieaoth?iinoue (aiciiaeiinoue ano?aeaaiey),

iaoaie/aneay i?i/iinoue,

aini?iecaiaeeiinoue,

aeaoaaecia e ae?.

A ?onea iauaai iai?aaeaiey oaoie/aneiai i?ia?anna nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey i?aoa?iaee oaeaea e aeao/eee. Ia niaio yeaeo?iiaoaie/aneei e
yeaeo?iaaeooiiui ono?ienoaai i?eoee oa??aeioaeueiua (iieoi?iaiaeieeiaua,
naaiaoiyeaeo?e/aneea e o.i.) yeaiaiou e i?eai?u, eioi?ua caoai an?
aieueoa e aieueoa noaee auoaniyoueny eioaa?aeueiuie noaiaie. ?acaeoea
oaoieee aeaoaeoe?iaaiey iaaieoiuo e yeaeo?e/aneeo iieae,
yeaeo?iiaaieoiuo aiei (io EE- aei OO-aeeaiaciia), iaeuo eiee/anoa
i?eiane a aeeaeeeo e aaciia?aciuo n?aaeao nouanoaaiii ?anoe?eee
aiciiaeiinoe ecia?aiee ia oaeae?iiuo, o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo, aeaeaeoueony e
o.i. iauaeoao. Yoi naeaeaei ia iaycaoaeueiui ?aniieiaeaiea aeao/eeia
iaiin?aaenoaaiii o iauaeoa.

Eeoa?aoo?iue iaci?.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa ?anniao?eaathony aeao/eee (ecia?eoaee) iioiea. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai iaoiaeia ?aaeecothueo ecia?aiea
iioiea aeeaeeinoe eee aaca, eioi?ua iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei
a?oii: oaieiaua, iaoaie/aneea, aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea (ay?iaeeiaie/aneea),
yeaeo?iiaaieoiua, oeueo?acaoeiaua e ae?oaea. ?acee/iua aeao/eee
iaania/eaatho ecia?aiea ?acee/iuo oa?aeoa?enoee iioiea. Iaoiae
ecia?aiey, iniiaaiiue ia noaoeeiia?iie eiaeaeoeee oaiea a iioie,
iicaieyao iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i n?aaeiai ianniaii ?anoiaea aeeaeeinoe
eee aaca (ea/n). Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea (ay?iaeeiaie/aneea) iaoiaeu e
iaoaie/aneee oo?aeiiue iaoiae iaania/eaatho ecia?aiea n?aaeiaai
iau?iiiai ?anoiaea (i3/n). Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua e oeueo?acaoeiaua aeao/eee
i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey ecia?aiey n?aaeiae nei?inoe iioiea (i/n). Oaieiaie
eiiaaeoeeiiiue iaoiae e aeae?iaeeiaie/aneee iaoiae n eniieueciaaieai
o?oaee Ieoi iicaieytho ecia?eoue eieaeueioth nei?inoue aeeaeeinoe eee
aaca a iioiea. ?ac?aaio/ee ecia?eoaeueiie nenoaiu aeieaeai oi/ii ciaoue,
eaeay ec ia?a/eneaiiuo oa?aeoa?enoee iioiea iiaeeaaeeo ecia?aieth.

Iaoaie/aneea ecia?eoaee iioiea.

Iaoaie/aneea ecia?eoaee iioiea ?aaioatho ia i?eioeeia oece/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey aeeaeeinoe eee aaca ia ecia?eoaeueiue yeaiaio, iai?eia? ia
e?ueue/aoeo oo?aeiu eee yeaiaio, oi?iicyuee iioie.

A?auathueany ecia?eoaee iioiea.

Oo?aeiu. Oo?aeiiua ecia?eoaee iioiea ecia?ytho n?aaeiee iau?iiue ?anoiae
aeeaeeinoe eee aaca. Nei?inoue a?auaiey e?ueue/aoee (eieana) oo?aeiu,
caieiathuae iieiia na/aiea iioieii?iaiaea, e iau?iiue ?anoiae naycaiu
neaaeothuae caaeneiinoueth:

(1.1)

aaea Q – n?aaeiee iau?iiue ?anoiae (i3/n); n – nei?inoue a?auaiey ?ioi?a
oo?aeiu (ia/n); D – aeeaiao? iioieii?iaiaea (i); v – eeiaiaoe/aneay
ayceinoue oaeo/ae n?aaeu (i2/n). Eae aeaeii ec a?aoeea ia ?en. 1, o/?o
eiie?aoiiai aeaea ooieoeee f aaaeai oieueei i?e ieceeo nei?inoyo
a?auaiey oo?aeiu. Iau/ii oo?aeia ?aaioaao a eeiaeiie iaeanoe, aaea
aaee/eia Q/nD3 iinoiyiia, oae /oi nei?inoue a?auaiey oo?aeiu i?yii
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia n?aaeiaio iau?iiiio ?anoiaeo aeeaeeinoe eee aaca.
Iineieueeo i?e iiuiinoyo iioiea eciin iiaeoeiieeia ?ioi?a oo?aeiu i/aiue
auno?i auaiaeeo oo?aeio ec no?iy, ?aai/ee aeeaiacii oo?aeiiiai
ecia?eoaey iioiea iau/ii ia?aie/eaaaony i?aaeaeueiuie cia/aieyie
?anoiaea aeeaeeinoe eee aaca, niioiinyueieny i?eaeeceoaeueii eae 10:1.
Caiaoei, /oi ec-ca iaeeiaeiinoe ?aai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee i?e iaeuo iioieao
oo?aeiiua ecia?eoaee ia i?eaiaeiu aeey ecia?aiey iioieia, eciaiythueo
nai? iai?aaeaiea.

I?iiaeea?u. I?eioeei aai ?aaiou ie/ai ia ioee/aaony io i?eioeeia ?aaiou
oo?aeiiiai ecia?eoaey iioiea. Iaeiaei, a ioee/ea io oo?aeiu i?iiaeea? ia
ioaaouaaao an? na/aiea iioiea e nei?inoue aai a?auaiey nei?aa
i?iii?oeeiiaeueia nei?inoe iioiea, a ia iau?iiiio ?anoiaeo. ?aai/ee
aeeaiacii i?iiaeea?iiai ecia?eoaey iioiea a ioiineoaeueiii au?aaeaiee
oe?a, /ai 10:1, oae eae yooaeo ayceinoe aeey iaai iaiaa aaaeai, /ai aeey
oo?aeiu.

I?e niioaaonoaothuae eaeea?iaea e i?aaeeueiie yenieoaoaoeee a?auathueany
ecia?eoaee iioiea iaania/eaatho aeiaieueii oi/iia ecia?aiea
oa?aeoa?enoee iioiea (iaeeiaeiinoue ia i?aauoaao 0.005%). Iaeiaei yoe
ono?ienoaa ia iaeaaeatho aeinoaoi/iie iaoaie/aneie i?i/iinoueth e auno?i
auoiaeyo ec no?iy i?e ecia?aiee iiuiuo iioieia e iaee/ey a iioiea
iinoi?iiieo oaa?aeuo /anoeoe. Aeey eiiiainaoeee iia?aoiinoae, naycaiiuo
n eciinii iiaeoeiieeia, iaiaoiaeeii ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?youe i?ioeaaeo?o
eaeea?iaee ecia?eoaey, iniaaiii anee ii yenieoaoe?oaony a ei??iceeiie
eee aa?anneaiie n?aaea.

Ecia?eoaee iioiea n oi?iicyuei yeaiaioii.

Ia ?en. 2 iieacai ecia?eoaeue iioiea n oi?iicyuei yeaiaioii. Neea
oi?iiaeaiey, aeaenoaothuay ia iiaeaaoaiiue a iioiea yeaiaio,
ii?aaeaeyaony au?aaeaieai

(1.2)

aaea Cd – eiyooeoeeaio oi?iiaeaiey; A – ieiuaaeue iiia?a/iiai na/aiey
yeaiaioa (i2); ( – ieioiinoue oaeo/ae n?aaeu (ea/i3); u – nei?inoue
iioiea (i/n).

Eiyooeoeeaio oi?iiaeaiey caaeneo io oi?iu oi?iicyuaai yeaiaioa e
i?aeoe/anee iinoiyiai, anee oi?ia yeaiaioa aua?aia aeieaeiui ia?acii.
Neea oi?iiaeaiey /aua anaai ecia?yaony n iiiiuueth oaiciaeao/eea,
cae?aieyaiiai ia ianouai ?u/aaa oi?iicyuaai yeaiaioa.

Ecia?eoaee iioiea n oi?iicyuei yeaiaioii eiatho oi?ioea /anoioiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee (oeie/iia cia/aiea aa?oiae a?aieoeu /anoioiiai aeeaiaciia
– 100 Aoe), oioy aeey i?iaaaeaiey oi/iuo ecia?aiee ia iiauoaiiuo
/anoioao aanueia aaaeii iaania/eoue niioaaonoaothuaa aeaiioe?iaaiea.

Neiiao?e/iua oi?iicyuea yeaiaiou ono?ienoaa yoiai oeia yaeythony
aeaoiai?aaeaiiuie ecia?eoaeyie iioiea, oi?ioi ?aaioathueie aaeece oi/ee
eciaiaiey iai?aaeaiey iioiea. Ecia?eoaee n oi?iicyuei yeaiaioii –
i?i/iua ono?ienoaa. Iie /anoi eniieuecothony a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea
oaeo/ay n?aaea niaea?aeeo acaaoaiiua oaa?aeua /anoeoeu, /oi eneeth/aao
aiciiaeiinoue i?eiaiaiey iiiaeo ae?oaeo oeiia ecia?eoaeae iioiea. N eo
iiiiuueth iiaeii ecia?youe nei?inoue iioiea eae aeeaeeinoe, oae e aaca.

Aeae?iaeeiaie/aneea (ay?iaeeiaie/aneea) ecia?eoaee iioiea.

A ecia?eoaeyo yoiai oeia eniieuecoaony aiciiaeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey nayce
iaaeaeo ?aciinoueth aeaaeaiee a aeaoo oa?aeoa?iuo oi/eao iioiea e
nei?inoueth iioiea. Yoa ?aciinoue aeaaeaiee ecia?yaony n iiiiuueth
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaoaey aeaaeaiey, naycaiiiai n iee?i YAI.
Anee o?aaoaony eeiaa?ecaoeey, iia iiaeao auoue auiieiaia i?ia?aiiiui
niiniaii.

O?oaee Ieoi

O?oaea Ieoi ( ?en. 3) iaania/eaaao ecia?aiea eieaeueiuo nei?inoae
aeeaeeinoe eee aaca a iioiea. A o?oaea eiaaony aeaa oeia ioaa?noee,
ioe?uouo aeey oaeo/ae n?aaeu. Ia noaoe/aneeo aoiaeao (eee aoiaea),
auiieiaiiuo a aeaea ioaa?noee, ine eioi?uo ia?iaiaeeeoey?iu iai?aaeaieth
iioiea, aeaenoaoao noaoe/aneia aeaaeaiea oaeo/ae n?aaeu ps. Aoiae
(ioaa?noea) ia eiioea o?oaee niae?aao caoi?iiaeaiioth ianno aeeaeeinoe
eee aaca, iaoiaeyuothny iiae iieiui aeaaeaieai pt. Anee o?oaea Ieoi
?aniieiaeaia ia?aeeaeueii iioieo, oi ?aciinoue yoeo aeaoo aeaaeaiee
iaoiaeeony ec o?aaiaiey Aa?ioeee

, (1.3)

aaea ? – ?aciinoue aeaaeaiee (Ia); ps – aeaaeaiea ia noaoe/aneii aoiaea
(Ia); pt – iieiia aeaaeaiea (Ia); ( – ieioiinoue oaeo/ae n?aaeu (ea/i3);
u – nei?inoue iioiea (i/n); Ionthaea aeey nei?inoe iioiea ianaeeiaaiie
oaeo/ae n?aaeu iieo/aai

. (1.4)

Aeey naeeiaaiie oaeo/ae n?aaeu (iai?eia?, aicaeooa) nei?inoue iioiea
ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea

, (1.5)

aaea k=cp/cv (ioiioaiea oaeaeueiuo oaieiaieinoae).

O?oaea Ieoi /aua anaai i?eiaiyaony aeey ecia?aiey nei?inoe aicaeooa a
auoyaeiuo o?oaao e ia naiieaoao, oioy aa iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a ethaie
oaeo/ae n?aaea. Yoi i/aiue oi/iia e i?i/iia ono?ienoai, o?aaothuaa
ieieiaeueiiai oaoie/aneiai ianeoaeeaaiey. Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie o?oaee
Ieoi – ieceay /oanoaeoaeueiinoue i?e iaeuo nei?inoyo iioiea e
iaeeiaeiinoue nayce iaaeaeo ?aciinoueth aeaaeaiee e nei?inoueth.

Ecia?eoaee ia iioiei?acenoeaiuo

yeaiaioao.

Ono?ienoaa yoiai oeia ii?aaeaeytho iauaiiue ?anoiae aeeaeeinoe eee aaca.
A iioieii?iaiaea ?aciauaaony i?aiyonoaea n ecaanoiuie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie e
n iiiiuueth aeeooa?aioeeaeueiiai i?aia?aciaaoaey aeaaeaiey ecia?yaony
?aciinoue aeaaeaiee ii iaa noi?iiu io yoiai i?aiyonoaey.

Niiei n ino?uie e?iieaie. Ia ?en. 4 iieacaiu no?oeoo?a ecia?eoaey
iioiea, a eioi?ii eniieuecoaony niiei n ino?uie e?iieaie, e i?ioeeue
aeaaeaiey aaeieue iioieii?iaiaea a oaeii ecia?eoaea. Ianiio?y ia oi /oi
i?ioeeue aeaaeaiey aanueia neiaeai, ii aini?iecaiaeei, oi?ioi iienai e
i?ioaaoee?iaai. Iauaiiue ?anoiae aeey ianaeeiaaiie, oaeouae aac o?aiey
n?aaeu iienuaaaony au?aaeaieai

, (1.6)

aaea Q – iauaiiue ?anoiae (i3/n); Au e Ad – ieiuaaee iiia?a/iuo na/aiee
iioiei?iaiaea e niiea (i2); pu e pd – aeaaeaiea aei e iinea i?aiyonoaey
(niiea) a oaeo/ae n?aaea (Ia); ( – ieioiinoue oaeo/ae n?aaeu (ea/i3).
Iineieueeo cia/aiey Au e Ad iinoiyiiu, oi?ioea (1.6) oaeoe/anee caaeaao
ooaea ooieoeeiiaeueioth caaeneiinoue (o.a. i?iii?oeeiiaeueiinoue
iauaiiiai ?anoiaea iioiea aaee/eia (pu-pd)1/2), /oi e oi?ioea (1.5) aeey
o?oaee Ieoi.

N oeaeueth iioeiecaoeee ?aai/eo oa?aeoa?enoee oaeeo ecia?eoaeae iioiea
aeey eiie?aoiuo oaeo/eo n?aae e i?ioeeae iioiea eniieuecothony ?acee/iua
iiaeeoeeaoeee niiea n ino?uie e?iieaie. I?e yoii ai anao neo/ayo oei
ooieoeeiiaeueiie caaeneiinoe, ii?aaeaeyaiie oi?ioeie (1.6), inoaaony
iaeciaiiui, eciaiythony oieueei cia/aiey eiinoaio.

Ecia?eoaee iioiea aeaiiiai eeanna iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny i?aeoe/anee n
ethauie oaeo/eie n?aaeaie. Iie i?inou ii eiino?oeoeee e iaaeaaeiu. I?e
ouaoaeueiie eaeea?iaea yoe ecia?eoaee iaania/eaatho oi/iinoue ii?yaeea
1%.

Eeiaeiua iioiei?acenoeaiua yeaiaiou. Nouanoaoao aeaa oeia eeiaeiuo
iioiei?acenoeaiuo yeaiaioia, eniieuecoaiuo aeey ecia?aiey iauaiiiai
?anoiaea aicaeooa i?e ianeaaeiaaiee aeuoaoaeueiie nenoaiu. Oceea eaiaeu
iaania/eaatho iaeii?iaeiinoue i?ioeey iioiea aicaeooa, aeaaiaea?y /aio
?aaeecoaony eeiaeiay acaeiinaycue iaaeaeo ?aciinoueth aeaaeaiee e
iioieii. Aeeooa?aioeeaeueiue i?aia?aciaaoaeue aeaaeaiey ecia?yao
ia?aiaae aeaaeaiee ia yeaiaioa, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiue iauaiiiio ?anoiaeo
aicaeooa.

Aeaaiue iaaeinoaoie oaeeo yeaiaioia – aiciiaeiinoue auno?ie caeoii?ee
oceeo eaiaeia a?ycueth, eiiaeaine?oaiie aiaeie e o.i., /oi i?eaiaeeo e
iaoi/iui iieacaieyi.

Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua ecia?eoaee iioiea.

Yeaeo?iiaaieoiua ecia?eoaee iioiea eniieuecothony aeey ecia?aiey
nei?inoe iioiea, on?aaeiaiiie ii aai iiia?a/iiio na/aieth, e i?eaiaeiu
ii/oe aeey anao i?iaiaeyueo aeeaeeinoae. Eo ?aaioa iniiaaia ia oii
oi?ioi ecaanoiii oaeoa, /oi a ethaii i?iaiaeieea, aeaeaeouainy
ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii iai?aaeaieth neeiauo eeiee iaaieoiiai iiey,
eiaeooee?oaony iai?yaeaiea, aaee/eia eioi?iai i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueia
nei?inoe i?iaiaeieea (a iaoai neo/aa – nei?inoe aeeaeeinoe).

I?eioeei ?aaiou. Iaaieoiia iiea A i?eeiaeaiiia ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii
iai?aaeaieth iioiea aeeaeeinoe. Eiaeooee?oaiia yeaeo?e/aneia iiea,
ii?aaeaeythuaa YAeN yeaeo?iiaaieoiie eiaeoeoeee, ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii eae
iai?aaeaieth oiea, oae e iai?aaeaieth iaaieoiiai iiey. Aaee/eia YAeN
ii?aaeaeyaony caeiiii Oa?aaeay

, (1.7)

aaea vo – eiaeooee?oaiay YAeN iaaeaeo oi/eaie a e b(); B- iaaieoiay
eiaeoeoeey (Oe); a, b – oi/ee, a eioi?uo e iaoiaeyony yeaeo?iaeu; L –
?annoiyiea iaaeaeo oi/eaie a e b (i); u – nei?inoue aeeaeeinoe (i/n).

I?aaeiieaaay, /oi i?ino?ainoaaiiua ?ani?aaeaeaiey iiey A e nei?inoe u
iaeii?iaeiu e /oi aaeoi?u A, u e L i?oiaiiaeueiu, iieo/aai neaaeothuaa
i?inoia au?aaeaiea aeey YAeN

ve=BLu. (1.8)

Eiaeooee?oaiay YAeN ve ecia?yaony n iiiiuueth aeaoo yeaeo?iaeia,
eiioaeoe?othueo n aeeaeeinoueth. Oei eniieuecoaiuo yeaeo?iaeia caaeneo
io oeia aeeaeeinoe. Aeey iiiaeo aeeaeeinoae, aeeth/ay aeeaeeea iaoaeeu,
eniieuecothony yeaeo?iaeu, ecaioaaeeaaaiua ec n?aaieoaeueii oeie/anee
iaaeoeaiuo iaoaeeia, iai?eia? ieaoeiu.

Enoi/ieee iia?aoiinoae. Ouaoaeueii neiino?oe?iaaiiua yeaeo?iiaaieoiua
ecia?eoaee iioiea i?e i?aaeeueiie yenieoaoaoeee iiaoo eiaoue
iia?aoiinoe, ia i?aauoathuea 1%, ii oai ia iaiaa ?aaeueii nouanoaoao
aieueoia /enei aiciiaeiuo enoi/ieeia iia?aoiinoae. Iai?eia?, a
aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo iia?aoiinoue ecia?aiey iioiea e?iae iiaeao
eaaei i?aauoaoue 10%.

Niioiioaiey (1.7) e (1.8) ni?aaaaeeeau oieueei aeey
aeneaeueii-neiiao?e/iiai iioiea; eiaiii yoio neo/ae /anoi ano?a/aaony ia
i?aeoeea. Aeey iioiea n ecaanoiui aneiiao?e/iui i?ioeeai a iieacaiey
ecia?eoaey iioiea iaiaoiaeeii aaiaeeoue iii?aai/iue eiyooeoeeaio.

Iaaeaeo yeaeo?iaeaie, iaoiaeyueieny a aeeaeeinoe, iiaeao aicieeiooue
?aciinoue iioaioeeaeia (eae a iau/iii aaeueaaie/aneii yeaiaioa),
i?iyaeythuayny a iaee/ee iai?yaeaiey niauaiey ioey aeey ecia?yaiie YAeN.
Yoa i?iaeaia ia aicieeaao i?e eniieueciaaiee ia?aiaiiiai iaaieoiiai
iiey. Yeaeo?iaeu iiaoo iiaeaa?aiooueny aicaeaenoaeth ei??icee, ia ieo
iinoaiaiii iiaoo inaaeaeaoueny eii?iaeiua iaoa?eaeu, /oi aeeyao eo
nii?ioeaeaiea e, aiciiaeii, ia ecia?yaioth YAeN.

Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue iaaieoiiai iiey aaeieue eee ia?iaiaeeeoey?ii ine
iioiea iiaeao i?eaiaeeoue e nouanoaaiiui iia?aoiinoyi ec-ca ia?aciaaiey
eieaeueiuo oieia, oee?eoee?othueo a aeeaeeinoe.

Aeaa iaoiaea ecia?aiey: a iinoiyiiii e ia?aiaiiii iaaieoiuo iieyo.

N?aaiaiea iaoiaeia. Niioiioaiea (1.8) ni?aaaaeeeai eae aeey iinoiyiiuo,
oae e aeey ia?aiaiiuo iaaieoiuo iieae; oi?ia neaiaea eiaeooee?oaiie YAeN
ve iiaoi?yao oi?io neaiaea aicaoaeaeaiey iaaieoiiai iiey A. A oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea iiey?ecaoeey yeaeo?iaeia e iai?yaeaiey niauaiey ea?atho
iacia/eoaeueioth ?ieue, i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa anaai eniieueciaaoue
iinoiyiiia iaaieoiia iiea aeey ieieiecaoeee i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
iiey?ecaoeeae yeaeo?iaeia, i?eoiaeeony eniieueciaaoue ia?aiaiiia
iaaieoiia iiea.

Eiioo?iay YAeN. I?iaiaeieee, eniieuecoaiua aeey niyoey neaiaea n
yeaeo?iaeia, aianoa n i?iaiaeyuae aeeaeeinoueth ia?acotho caieiooue
eiioo?, iaoiaeyueeny a iaaieoiii iiea. Iineieueeo ia i?aeoeea ia
oaeaaony oi/ii auiieieoue oneiaea ia?iaiaeeeoey?iinoe aaeoi?a iaaieoiiai
iiey e ii?iaee e ieineinoe yoiai eiioo?a, a iineaaeiai eiaeooee?oaony
eiioo?iay YAeN vt. Aaee/eia yoie YAeN iiaeao a ianeieueei ?ac i?aauoaoue
iieaciue neaiae io yeaeo?iaeia.

Eiioo?iay YAeN i?iii?oeeiiaeueia i?iecaiaeiie io eiaeoeoeee iaaieoiiai
iiey e iiyoiio naeaeiooa ia 90 ii oaca ioiineoaeueii iieaciiai neaiaea,
nieiaaiiai n yeaeo?iaeia. ?aaeueii ecia?yaiia iai?yaeaiey ?aaii noiia
aeaoo neaiaeia

vs=ve+vt=Vesin(t)+Vtcos(t), (1.9)

aaea ve – iieaciue neaiae n aiieeooaeie Ve e vt – eiioo?iay YAeN n
aiieeooaeie Vt.

Iaeei ec niiniaia ?acaeaeaiey yoeo aeaoo neaiaeia: cia/aiey vs
ion/eouaathony a oa iiiaiou, eiaaea ve iaeneiaeueii, a vt i?ioiaeeo
/a?ac ioeue. Iaeiaei oaeie niinia o?oaeii ?aaeeciaaoue ia i?aeoeea,
iineieueeo ethaay iia?aoiinoue oacu i?eaiaeeo e cia/eoaeueiiio aeeaaeo
vt a ecia?yaiue neaiae.

Eo/oei iaoiaeii yaeyaony iaoiae oaci/oanoaeoaeueiie aeaiiaeoeyoeee
neaiaea. Nooue yoiai iaoiaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iu oiiiaeaai vs ia
oie yeaeo?iiaaieoa im, eioi?ue anaaaea iaoiaeeony a oaca eae n iaaieoiui
iieai, oae e n iieaciui neaiaeii ve. A ?acoeueoaoa eiaai

vp=vsim=(Vesin(t)+Vtcos(t))Imsin(t)= ImVesin2(t)+

ImVtcos(t)sin(t). (1.10)

Eioaa?e?oy caoai yoio neaiae-i?iecaaaeaiea ii iaeiiio ia?eiaeo eieaaaiey
(/oi yeaeaaeaioii iecei/anoioiie oeeueo?aoeee vp), iieo/aai iai?yaeaiea
vf, i?iii?oeeiiaeueiia iioieo, a oi a?aiy eae eiioo?iay YAeN a eiia/iii
?acoeueoaoa en/acaao:

. (1.11)

A iaeioi?uo eiino?oeoeeyo oaci/oanoaeoaeueiue aeaiiaeoeyoi?
eniieuecoaony oaeaea aeey auaeaeaiey eiioo?iie YAeN e aeiaaaeaiey aa eae
neaiaea io?eoeaoaeueiie ia?aoiie nayce e enoiaeiiio neaiaeo vs. Yoi
iicaieyao eneeth/eoue eiioo?ioth YAeN aua aei i?eoiaea neaiaea e
oaci/oanoaeoaeueiiio aeaiiaeoeyoi?o aeey auaeaeaiey neaiaea vf.
Nouanoaotho eiino?oeoeee, a eioi?uo iaaieoiia iiea aicaoaeaeaaony ia
aa?iiie/aneei, a i?yiioaieueiui eee o?aiaoeaeaeaeueiui neaiaeii.
Iineieueeo a yoii neo/aa eiioo?iay YAeN ?aaia ioeth aieueooth /anoue
ia?eiaea (ca eneeth/aieai iiiaioia ia?aoiaea oiea im /a?ac ioeue), oi
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue iienaiiue auoa niinia ion/?oia iieiiai neaiaea vs.

Oeueo?acaoeiaua aeao/eee iioiea.

Oeueo?acaoeiaua aeao/eee yooaeoeaii eniieuecothony aeey ecia?aiey iioiea
ai iiiaeo iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo e i?iiuoeaiiuo i?eiaiaieyo. Iniiaiui
yeaiaioii eiino?oeoeee oeueo?acaoeiaiai aeao/eea yaeyaony
iueaciyeaeo?e/aneee eceo/aoaeue ei?ioeeo iinueie aeonoe/aneeo (oi?oaeo)
aiei. Aeey ecia?aiey iioiea eniieuecothony /anoiou, eaaeauea ca
i?aaeaeaie neuoeiiai aeonoe/aneiai aeeaiaciia – a oeueo?acaoeiaie
iaeanoe. ?aaioa oeueo?acaoeiauo aeao/eeia iioiea iniiaaia ia iaeiii ec
aeaoo oece/aneeo i?eioeeiia. A aeao/eeao ia?aiai oeia (ecia?aiea a?aiaie
i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea) eniieuecoaony oio oaeo, /oi nei?inoue caoea,
?ani?ino?aiythuaainy a aeaeaeouaeny n?aaea, ?aaia nei?inoe ioiineoaeueii
yoie n?aaeu iethn nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey naiie n?aaeu. A aeao/eeao aoi?iai
oeia eniieuecoaony eciaiaiea (aeiiea?ianeee naeaea) /anoiou
oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu i?e aa ?annayiee aeaeaeouaeny n?aaeie. A aeaiiii
?acaeaea iu iieoai yoe iniiaiua oeiu oeueo?acaoeiauo ecia?eoaeae iioiea,
i?eioeeiu eo ?aaiou e i?eiaiaiea.

I?aia?aciaaoaee.

A oeueo?acaoeiauo ecia?eoaeyo iioiea eniieuecothony yeaeo?iaeonoe/aneea
i?aia?aciaaoaee ec iueaciyeaeo?e/aneeo iaoa?eaeia, inouanoaeythuea
i?aia?aciaaiea yeaeo?e/aneie iiuiinoe a aeonoe/aneea eieaaaiey.
Eaeaaeueiui iueaciyeaeo?e/aneei iaoa?eaeii aeey yeaeo?iaeonoe/aneiai
i?aia?aciaaoaey yaeyaony oaeie iaoa?eae, eioi?ue iaania/eaaao ieceee
o?iaaiue ooia, aunieoth yooaeoeaiinoue i?aia?aciaaiey e iicaieyao
nicaeaoue i?aia?aciaaoaeue n aunieie aeia?ioiinoueth. *aua anaai a
yeaeo?iaeonoe/aneeo i?aia?aciaaoaeyo eniieuecoaony oee?eiiao – oeoaiao
naeioea (OeON). I?aeiouanoai yoiai iaoa?eaea – i/aiue aunieay
yooaeoeaiinoue yeaeo?iaeonoe/aneiai i?aia?aciaaiey e aunieay oaiia?aoo?a
Eth?e (i?eaeeceoaeueii 300 oC); iineaaeiaa oiaiueoaao aa?iyoiinoue
aeaiiey?ecaoeee iaoa?eaea a i?ioeanna i?eiaeaaiey auaiaeia
i?aia?aciaaoaey.

Iiaeii ecaioiaeoue oeueo?acaoeiaie i?aia?aciaaoaeue ethaie oi?iu
iin?aaenoaii ?anieaaeaiey iaoa?eaea e iineaaeothuae aai oi?iiaee.
Iueaciyeaeo?e/aneea e?enoaeeu iiaeaa?aathony eneonnoaaiiie iiey?ecaoeee
iooai iiiauaiey eo a neeueiia yeaeo?e/aneia iiea i?e aunieie oaiia?aoo?a
e ioeaaeaeaiey a yoii iiea ieaea oaiia?aoo?u Eth?e. Iau/ii oi?ie?othony
i?aia?aciaaoaee a aeaea aeeneia, ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiua ieineea iiaa?oiinoe
eioi?uo iaiinyony iaoaeee/aneea yeaeo?iaeu. *a?ac yoe yeaeo?iaeu
aaia?aoi? eieaaaiee aicaoaeaeaao e?enoaee-eceo/aoaeue. Yeaeo?iaeu
e?enoaeea-i?eaiieea i?eniaaeeiaiu e auniei/anoioiiio oneeeoaeth. Aeey
iaania/aiey iaeneiaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe oieueia e?enoaeea iau/ii
auae?aaony ?aaiie iieiaeia aeeeiu oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu.

Auai? ?aai/ae /anoiou i?aia?aciaaoaey ii?aaeaeyaony ooiaeaiaioaeueiuie
oece/aneeie oaeoi?aie. Eiia/iia cia/aiea aeeaiao?a i?aia?aciaaoaey
iaoneaaeeaaao iaee/ea aeeo?aeoeeiiiiai ?ani?aaeaeaiey eioaineaiinoe
oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu ii aiaeiaee n aia?oo?iie aeeo?aeoeeae a iioeea. A
iaeanoe aeeaeiaai iiey io/ie eiaao i?aeoe/anee oeeeeiae?e/aneoth oi?io,
niioaaonoaothuoth aaiiao?ee eceo/aoaey, e aai ooe?aiea iaei. Iaeiaei
?ani?aaeaeaiea eioaineaiinoe a io/ea iaiaeii?iaeii, iineieueeo caeanue
aicieeatho iiiai/eneaiiua eioa?oa?aioeeiiiua iaeneioiu e ieieioiu.
?annoiyiea io eceo/aoaey, ii?aaeaeythuaai oa?aeoa?iue ?acia? (dnf)
iaeanoe aeeaeiaai iiey, iaoiaeeony ii oi?ioea

, (1.12)

aaea D – aeeaiao? i?aia?aciaaoaey e ( – aeeeia aieiu.

A iaeanoe aeaeueiaai iiey io/ie ?anoiaeeony, i?e/ai eioaineaiinoue
oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu a io/ea eciaiyaony ia?aoii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
eaaae?aoo ?annoiyiey io i?aia?aciaaoaey. Aeey oaea ?anoiaeeiinoe io/ea
eiaai

sin(=1.2(/D, (1.13)

Yooaeo ?anoiaeeiinoe io/ea oooaeoaao i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?ac?aoaiea,
iiyoiio iaeanoue aeaeueiaai iiey eniieueciaaoue ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony. Aeey
iaania/aiey ?aaiou a iaeanoe aeeaeiaai iiey ioaeiu aieueoea
i?aia?aciaaoaee e aunieea ?aai/ea /anoiou. A i?iiuoeaiiuo i?eiaiaieyo
i?ino?ainoaaiiia ?ac?aoaiea i?e ecia?aiee iioiea iiaeii iieo/eoue,
auae?ay ?aai/oth /anoioo e ?acia? i?aia?aciaaoaey oaeei ia?acii, /oiau
?acia? iaeanoe aeeaeiaai iiey i?eaeeaeaiii niioaaonoaiaae aeeaiao?o
iioieii?iaiaea (o?oau, o?oaii?iaiaea).

I?aaeeueiue auai? ?aai/ae /anoiou i/aiue aaaeai aeey ecia?eoaeae iioiea
e?iae. Aeey io/ea n iinoiyiiui iiia?a/iui na/aieai iiuiinoue
oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu yeniiiaioeeaeueii niaaeaao n ?annoiyieai ec-ca aa
iiaeiuaiey a oeaie. N yoie oi/ee c?aiey i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ieceea
?aai/ea /anoiou, iineieueeo eiyooeoeeaio iiaeiuaiey oeueo?acaoea
eaaceeeiaeiui ia?acii aic?anoaao n oaaee/aieai /anoiou. N ae?oaie
noi?iiu, iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiua oeueo?acaoeiaua ecia?eoaee iioiea –
aeiiea?ianeea aeao/eee iioiea – ?aaioatho ia i?eioeeia aeaoaeoe?iaaiey
iiuiinoe oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu, ?annaeaaaiie aeaeaeoueieny e?aniuie
e?iayiuie oaeueoeaie, i?e/ai ?annaeaaaiay iiuiinoue i?iii?oeeiiaeueia
/aoaa?oie noaiaie /anoiou. Oaeei ia?acii, a yoeo ecia?eoaeyo iioiea aeey
oaaee/aiey aeaoaeoe?oaiie iiuiinoe iaiaoiaeeii oaaee/eaaoue ?aai/oth
/anoioo. Eiii?iienn aeinoeaaaony i?e auai?a ?aai/ae /anoiou a aeeaiaciia
io 2 aei 10 MAoe.

Aeao/ee iioiea ia i?eioeeia ecia?aiey a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea.

Aeao/ee iioiea, ?aaioathuee ia i?eioeeia ecia?aiey a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey
neaiaea – iaeei ec i?inoaeoeo oeueo?acaoeiauo ecia?eoaeae iioiea. Ii
oe?iei eniieuecoaony a i?iiuoeaiiinoe e i?eaiaeai oaeaea aeey
?anie?aoi?iuo ecia?aiee e ecia?aiee iioiea e?iae. Ia ?en. 5
eeethno?e?othony aeaa aiciiaeiuo niiniaa ?aniieiaeaiey i?aia?aciaaoaeae
a aeao/eea yoiai oeia. Niinia ?aniieiaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeaiiue ia ?en.
5(a) , eiaao i/aaeaeiia i?aeiouanoai, caeeth/athuaany a aiciiaeiinoe
cae?aieyoue i?aia?aciaaoaee ia aiaoiae iiaa?oiinoe o?oau eee
e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea, /oi eneeth/aao ia?aie/aiea iioiea. Ia ?en. 5(a)
iieacaiu i?aia?aciaaoaee, eciee?iaaiiua io o?oau; iie eniieuecothony
aeey aunieioaiia?aoo?iuo ecia?aiee (iai?eia?, i?e aaceoeeaoeee eaiaiiiai
oaey). A yoii neo/aa naycue i?aia?aciaaoaeae ni n?aaeie inouanoaeyaony n
iiiiuueth aooa?iuo noa?aeiae eee aieiiaiaeia.

iauyniyaony oai, /oi oeueo?acaoe ?ani?ino?aiyaony aaeieue iaeiie
eeiee, a ia ioaaouaaao ana iiia?a/iia na/aiea iioiea. Oi?ioea aeey
a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey oeueo?acaoeiaiai neaiaea iaaeaeo i?aia?aciaaoaeyie
aaa?o ii oa/aieth (+) e aiec ii oa/aieth (-) eiaao aeae

, (1.14)

Ec yoie oi?ioeu neaaeoao, /oi a?aiy i?ioiaeaeaiey iaiueoa aeey neo/ay
?ani?ino?aiaiey oeueo?acaoeiaie aieiu “aianoa n iioieii”, o.a. aiec ii
oa/aieth.

A iaeiie ec iiaeeoeeaoeee yoiai iaoiaea eniieuecothony ei?ioeea
aeonoe/aneea eiioeuenu, iiia?aiaiii ia?anueaaiua a iai?aaeaiee iioiea e
i?ioea iaai, aeey oiai /oiau iieo/eoue cia/aiea ?aciinoe (t iaaeaeo
a?aiaiai i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea aaa?o ii oa/aieth e a?aiaiai aai
i?ioiaeaeaiey aiec ii oa/aieth. Aaee/eia (t i?iii?oeeiiaeueia n?aaeiae
nei?inoe u e ?aaia

. (1.15)

Yoo aaee/eio iiaeii ecia?eoue, eniieuecoy aeaa i?aia?aciaaoaey,
?aniieiaeaiiua a niioaaonoaee n ?en. e iiia?aiaiii auiieiythuea
ooieoeee eceo/aoaey e i?eaiieea, eee eniieuecoy eceo/aoaeue e i?eaiiee
ia eaaeaeie noi?iia e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea eee o?oau. Aaeeinoaaiiui
i?aiyonoaeai ia iooe i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee aeaiiiai iaoiaea yaeyaony
iaeinoue aaee/eiu (t, cia/aiey eioi?ie eaaeao a iaiinaeoiaeiii
aeeaiaciia; iiyoiio aeey aeinoeaeaiey aaeaeaaoiie noaaeeueiinoe
iaiaoiaeeii neiaeiia yeaeo?iiiia iai?oaeiaaiea.

Ia ?en. 5(a) i?aaenoaaeai aieaa i?inoie aa?eaio oeueo?acaoeiaiai
aeao/eea iioiea ia i?eioeeia ecia?aiey a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea,
eniieuecoaiie a iaeioi?uo i?iiuoeaiiuo nenoaiao. I?e iiaenoaiiaea a
au?aaeaiea (1.15) =0 iieo/aai (t=2Du/c. Nei?inoue caoea c iiaeao
eciaiyoueny n oaiia?aoo?ie, e n yoei iiaoo auoue naycaiu cia/eoaeueiua
iia?aoiinoe ecia?aiey (t, anee o/anoue, /oi a oi?ioeo aeey (t aoiaeeo ia
c, a c2.

Aieueoeinoai noaiaea?oiuo aeao/eeia iioiea, ?aaioathueo ia i?eioeeia
ecia?aiey a?aiaie i?ioiaeaeaiey neaiaea, auiieiaiu ii noaia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiie ia ?en. 5(a). I?aeiouanoaa oaeeo aeao/eeia (ecia?eoaeae)
iioiea caeeth/aaony a neaaeothuai: 1) n eo iiiiuueth iiaeii ecia?youe
iioiee naiuo ?acee/iuo aeeaeeinoae e aacia, iineieueeo aeey i?iaaaeaiey
ecia?aiee ia o?aaoaony iaee/ea a oaeo/ae n?aaea /anoeoe, io?aaeathueo
oeueo?acaoe; 2) iie iicaieytho ii?aaeaeyoue iai?aaeaiea iioiea; 3) eo
iieacaiey n?aaieoaeueii ia/oanoaeoaeueiu e eciaiaieyi ayceinoe,
oaiia?aoo?u e ieioiinoae oaeo/ae c?aaeu; 4) ec anao na?eeii auioneaaiuo
ecia?eoaeae iioiea i?iiuoeaiiua ono?ienoaa yoiai oeia iaania/eaatho
iaeaunooth oi/iinoue ecia?aiee.

?anniao?eaaaiua aeao/eee iioiea i?eaiaeiu aeey ecia?aiey iioieia
aeeaeeinoae ai iiiaeo i?iiuoeaiiuo i?eiaiaieyo. A a?oiio oaeo/eo n?aae,
n eioi?uie iiaoo ?aaioaoue yoe aeao/eee, aoiaeyo aiaea, iieiei, ianei,
i/euaiiua noi/iua aiaeu, oa?iaoeaaoe/aneea aeeaeeinoe, aeeaeeay
aoiaaeiay ianna. Ecia?eoaeue iioiea na?ee 240, auioneaaiue oe?iie
Controlotron Corp., – i?eia? oeueo?acaoeiaiai ecia?eoaey iioiea aeey
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?eiaiaiee, cae?aieyaiiai ia aiaoiae iiaa?oiinoe
o?oaii?iaiaea. Yoi ono?ienoai iicaieyao ecia?youe nei?inoue iioiea
aeeaeeinoe a aeeaiaciia io 0,3 ii/c aei 9,14 i/n n oi/iinoueth aei 1% e
iiaeao ?aaioaoue n o?oaie ethaiai aeeaiao?a io 2,54 ni aei 1,52 i
iacaaeneii io iaoa?eaea o?oau e oieueiu aa noaiie. Niaeanii
niaoeeoeeaoeee, i?aaeinoaaeyaiie oe?iie Controlotron, oeie/iia
?ac?aoaieya ecia?eoaey na?ee 240 ninoaaeyao 1,52 ii/n.

Oeueo?acaoeiaua ecia?eoaee iioiea auee ii?iaiaaiu oaeaea a ea/anoaa
iiaaiioaoiiao?ia – aeey ecia?aiey iaiiaaiiiai cia/aiey iauaiiiai
?anoiaea aaeuoaaiiai eee auaeuoaaiiai aaca. Oeueo?acaoeiaua
iiaaiioaoiiao?u eiatho neaaeothuea oai?aoe/aneea i?aeiouanoaa: 1)
aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea; 2) oe?ieee aeeiaie/aneee aeeaiacii; 3)
ionoonoaea aeaeaeoueony /anoae; 4) i?aiaa?aaeeii iaeia aeeyiea ia iioie;
5) anoanoaaiioth aeaoiai?aaeaiiinoue; 6) eaaeinoue i/enoee e
noa?eeecaoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy oeueo?acaoeiaua iiaaiioaoiiao?u
iaoiaeyony ana aua a noaaeee ?ac?aaioee. Anoue ianeieueei i?iaeai,
i?aiyonoaothueo oniaoiiio aiaae?aieth yoeo ono?ienoa: 1) ieceay
aeonoe/aneay yooaeoeaiinoue ia?aaea/e oeueo?acaoea /a?ac aacu; 2)
oe?ieee aeeaiacii eciaiaiee ninoaaa, oaiia?aoo?u e aeaaeiinoe aaca; 3)
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia iiieiaiea i?e?iaeu oeueo?acaoeiaiai iiey e
oa?aeoa?a aai acaeiiaeaenoaey n aeaeaeoueiny aacii .

Aeiiea?ianeea ecia?eoaee iioiea iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey.

Ia ?en. 5,a iieacaii, eae iiaoo ?aniieaaaoueny i?aia?aciaaoaee a
aeiiea?ianeeo ecia?eoaeyo iioiea iai?a?uaiiai aeaenoaey. A yoeo
ecia?eoaeyo iioiea eniieuecoaony ecaanoiue yooaeo eciaiaiey (iiieaeaiey)
/anoiou caoea, aeaoaeoe?oaiiai aeaeaeoueiny i?eaiieeii, oaeaeythueiny io
iaiiaeaeaeiiai enoi/ieea caoea (yooaeo Aeiiea?a). Anee eceo/aoaeue e
i?eaiiee iaiiaeaeaeiu, a aeaeaeaony iauaeo (/anoeoea a oaeo/ae n?aaea),
io?aaeathuee oeueo?acaoeiaoth aieio, oi iaoneiaeaiiue yooaeoii Aeiiea?a
naeaea /anoiou i?e neiiao?e/iii ?aniieiaeaiee i?aia?aciaaoaeae ii
ioiioaieth e aeneaeueii-neiiao?e/iiio iioieo ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea

, (1.16)

aaea fd- aeiiea?ianeee naeaea /anoiou; f0- /anoioa eceo/aaiie
oeueo?icaoeiaie aieiu; u – nei?inoue iauaeoa (/anoeoeu a oaeo/ae
n?eaea); c – nei?inoue caoea; ( – oaie iaaeaeo iai?aaeaieai eceo/aiey
(i?eaia) oeueo?icaoeiaie aieiu e inueth o?oau eee e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea.
Anee iioie ia eiaao aeneaeueiie neiiao?ee eee i?aia?aciaaoaee
?aniieiaeaiu ianeiiao?e/ii, oi a oi?ioeo (1.16) ioaeii aaiaeeoue
aeiiieieoaeueiue o?eaiiiiao?e/aneee eiyooeoeeaio.

Naiia aaaeiia i?aeiouanoai aeiiea?ianeiai ecia?eoaey iioiea iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey – aiciiaeiinoue ecia?aiey e?iaioiea n iiiiuueth
i?aia?aciaaoaeae, ?aniieiaeaiiuo ia iiaa?oiinoe oaea n iaeiie noi?iiu
e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea. Ecia?eoaee iioiea yoiai oeia iiaoo ?aaioaoue n
aeeaeeinoyie, niaea?aeaueie aeeth/aiey aacia eee oaa?aeuo oae. Iiaeii
oeacaoue e ?yae ae?oaeo i?aeiouanoa yoeo ono?ienoa: 1) a?aiaiiua
caaea?aeee neaiaea a ieo ieieiaeueiu e ii?aaeaeythony aeaaiui ia?acii
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie oeeueo?ia; 2) i?e ecia?aiee e?iaioiea iiiaoe io neaiaea
yeaeo?iea?aeeia?aiiu (YEA) iacia/eoaeueiu; 3) oaeea ono?ienoaa iiaeii
onoaiaaeeaaoue a aeaoaauo ?aaoeyoi?ao iioiea.

I?e eniieueciaaiee aeiiea?ianeiai ecia?eoaey iioiea iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey aeey iieo/aiey neaiaea aeiiea?ianeiai naeaeaa iaiaoiaeeii
iaee/ea a oaeo/ae n?aaea eaeeo-eeai /anoeoe. Neaiae aeiiea?ianeiai
naeaeaa ia yaeyaony iaeii/anoioiui aa?iiie/aneei neaiaeii, /oi
iaoneiaeaii ?yaeii i?e/ei:

1. I?ioeeue ?ani?aaeaeaiey nei?inoe ii iiia?a/iiio na/aieth iioiea
(i?ioeeue iioiea) iaiaeii?iaeai. *anoeoeu aeaeaeoony n ?acee/iuie
nei?inoyie, aaia?e?oy ?acee/iua ii /anoioa aeiiea?ianeea naeaeae.

2. *anoeoea io?aaeaao oeueo?acaoeiaoth aieio a oa/aiee ei?ioeiai
i?iiaaeooea a?aiaie.

3. Oaioe/aneia a?auaiea /anoeoe e oo?aoeaioiinoue aucuaatho ?acee/iua
aeiiea?ianeea naeaeae.

Aeaa ae?oaeo iaaeinoaoea aeiiea?ianeiai ecia?eoaey iioiea iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey – i?aeoe/anee iieiia ionoonoaea eioi?iaoeee i i?ioeea iioiea e
iaaiciiaeiinoue ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey iioiea aac aeiiieieoaeueiie
ia?aaioee neaiaea.

Eiioeueniua aeiiea?ianeea ecia?eoaee iioiea.

Eiioeueniue aeiiea?ianeee ecia?eoaeue iioiea ?aaioaao a ?aaea?iii
?aaeeia e auaeaao eioi?iaoeeth i i?ioeea iioiea oaeo/ae n?aaeu. Ia ?en.
6 eeethno?e?oaony i?eioeei ?aaiou yoiai ono?ienoaa. I?aia?aciaaoaeue
aicaoaeaeaaony ei?ioeeie iinueeaie neaiaea ianouae /anoiou io
aaia?aoi?a. Yoio i?aia?aciaaoaeue auiieiyao ooieoeee eceo/aoaey e
i?eaiieea; io?aaeaaiue neaiae n aeiiea?ianeei naeaeaii i?eieiaaony n
iaeioi?ie a?aiaiiie caaea?aeeie ioiineoaeueii iiiaioa eceo/aiey
ia?ae/iiai neaiaea. A?aiaiiue eioa?aae iaaeaeo iiiaioaie eceo/aiey e
i?eaia neaiaea yaeyaony iaiin?aaenoaaiiui oeacaoaeai ?annoiyiey aei
io?aaeathuae /anoeoeu (aeaeueiinoe). Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeii iieo/eoue
iieioth “?acaa?oeo” io?aaeaiee neaiaea iiia?ae o?oau eee e?iaaiiniiai
ninoaea. I?ioeeue nei?inoe a iiia?a/iii na/aiee e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea
iieo/aaony a ?acoeueoaoa ?aaeno?aoeee aeiiea?ianeiai naeaeaa neaiaea i?e
?acee/iuo a?aiaiiuo caaea?aeeao. N iiiiuueth eiioeueniiai aeiiea?ianeiai
ecia?eoaey iioiea iiaeii ioeaieoue aeeaiao? e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea. Eae
aeaeii ec ?en. 6, i?eieiaaiua neaiaeu A e N iaoneiaeaiu io?aaeaieyie io
aeeaeiae e aeaeueiae noaiie ninoaea niioaaonoaaiii. ?annoiyiea iaaeaeo
oi/eaie, aaea i?ienoiaeyo yoe io?aaeaiey, iaiin?aaenoaaiii naycaii /a?ac
i?inoua aaiiao?e/aneea niioiioaiey n aeeaiao?ii ninoaea.

Aiaeiae/iue i?eioeei ecia?aiey eaaeeo a iniiaa iaoiaea oeueo?acaoeiaiai
neaie?iaaiey a aiieeooaeiii ?aaeeia (A-?aaeeia) e iaoiaea
yoi-ea?aeeia?aoee. Oeueo?acaoeiaie i?aia?aciaaoaeue onoaiaaeeaaaony
iai?ioea o/anoea oaea eee i?aaia, iiaeeaaeauaai neaie?iaaieth. Yoio
i?aia?aciaaoaeue eceo/aao oeueo?acaoeiaie neaiae, eniuouaathuee
io?aaeaiea ia ethaie iaiaeii?iaeiinoe oeaie aaeieue iai?aaeaiey
neaie?iaaiey. Caaea?aeea iaaeaeo a?aiaiai eceo/aiey e i?eaia neaiaea
iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ianoa eieaeecaoeee yoie
iaiaeii?iaeiinoe aaeieue ii?aaeaeaiiiai iooe neaie?iaaiey.

Aeeeoaeueiinoue eceo/aaiiai eiioeuena yaeyaony aaaeiui oaeoi?ii i?e
eniieueciaaiee eiioeueniiai aeiiea?ianeiai ecia?eoaey aeey ?aaeno?aoeee
e?iaioiea. A eaeaaea yoi aeieaeai auoue i/aiue ei?ioeee eiioeuen, /oiau
iieo/eoue oi?ioaa ?ac?aoaiea ii ?annoiyieth. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeey
aeinoeaeaiey aeinoaoi/ii aunieiai cia/aiey ioiioaiey neaiae/ooi e
oi?ioaai ?ac?aoaiey ii nei?inoe aeeeoaeueiinoue yoiai eiioeuena aeieaeia
auoue aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea. Oeie/iue eiii?iienniue aa?eaio –
eniieueciaaiea eiioeuenia n /anoioie iiaoi?aiey 8 IAoe e
aeeeoaeueiinoueth 1 ien.

Aeiiea?ianeei ecia?eoaeueiui nenoaiai, ?aaioathuei a eiioeueniii
?aaeeia, i?enoua aioo?aiiaa ia?aie/aiea. Iii au?aaeaaony a oii, /oi i?e
caaeaiiie aeaeueiinoe ia?aie/ai aeeaiacii ecia?yaiuo nei?inoae. Yoi
auioaeaeaao eniieueciaaoue eiioeuenu n iaiueoae /anoioie iiaoi?aiey fr.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, aeey ono?aiaiey iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe a ii?aaeaeaiee
?annoiyiey (aeaeueiinoe) yoi-neaiae io eaaeaeiai eiioeuena aeieaeai
auoue i?iaiaeece?iaai aei iiiaioa iinueee neaaeothuaai eiioeuena.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii,

, (1.17)

aaea Rm – iaeneiaeueiay ii?aaeaeyaiay i?e aeaiiii ecia?aiee
aeaeueiinoue. Oai?aia i aeene?aoecaoeee ooaa?aeaeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
auiieiaiey oneiaey

fr>2fd. (1.18)

Ec niioiioaiee (1.17), (1.18) e (1.16) iieo/aai

, (1.19)

o.a. i?iecaaaeaiea iaeneiaeueiie aeaeueiinoe ia iaeneiaeueioth nei?inoue
– ia?aie/aiiay nei?inoue. Yoi icia/aao, /oi iaeuecy ecia?eoue aunieea
nei?inoe i?e aieueoeo ?annoiyieyo aei io?aaeathuaai iauaeoa.
Niaeo?aeueiia ooe?aiea, eioi?ia iiaeao i?eaanoe e iiyaeaieth a neaiaea
niaeo?aeueiuo ninoaaeythueo n /anoioaie, i?aauoathueie ianouoth /anoioo,
a oaeaea iaeaeaaeueiinoue oa?aeoa?enoee oeeueo?ia ieaeieo /anoio,
eniieuecoaiuo aeey eneeth/aiey yooaeoa iaeiaeaiey niaeo?ia, i?eaiaeeo e
aua aieaa aeanoeei ia?aie/aieyie ii n?aaiaieth n oai, eioi?ia
ii?aaeaeyaony oi?ioeie (1.19).

A eiioeueniuo aeiiea?ianeeo nenoaiao i?aia?aciaaoaee eiatho aieaa
neiaeioth eiino?oeoeeth, /ai a aeiiea?ianeeo nenoaiao iai?a?uaiiai
aeaenoaey. Ethaie e?enoaeee/aneee i?aia?aciaaoaeue oa?aeoa?ecoaony
aunieie aeia?ioiinoueth Q (oceie /anoioiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie) e iiyoiio
iinea ieii/aiey aicaoaeaeathuaai yeaeo?e/aneiai neaiaea aeiaieueii
aeieai inoeeeee?oao ia naiae ?aciiainiie /anoioa. Eiioeueniue
aeiiea?ianeee i?aia?aciaaoaeue iiaeeoeoee?oaony iooai aeiaaaeaiey e iaio
nia?aaee eee ncaaee ianneaiiai aeaiioa?a, /oi iaania/eaaao oiaiueoaiea
(ooe?aiea /anoioiie oa?aeoa?enoeee) e?enoaeea. Oeie/iua cia/aiey
iiaeeoeoee?iaaiiie aeia?ioiinoe – io 5 aei 15. I?e eniieueciaaiee
iaeiiai iauaai i?aia?aciaaoaey a ea/anoaa eceo/aoaey e i?eaiieea
ioeeth/aiea eceo/aoaey inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth eiae/aneiai yeaiaioa
(aaioeey). Iaeiieaneaaeiue eiae/aneee yeaiaio ia iaania/eaaao
iaaeeaaeauae ?acaycee iiuiiai neaiaea, aicaoaeaeathuaai eceo/aoaeue, io
eneeth/eoaeueii neaaiai i?eieiaaiiai neaiaea. I?iaeaia ?acaycee ?aoaaony
iineaaeiaaoaeueiui aeeth/aieai aeaoo eiae/aneeo yeaiaioia.

I?e eniieueciaaiee eiioeueniuo aeiiea?ianeeo nenoai aicieeatho
aeiiieieoaeueiua i?iaeaiu e n ia?aaioeie i?eieiaaiiai neaiaea. A nenoaia
aeieaeia auoue i?aaeoniio?aia iaeioi?ay noaia, iaania/eaathuay caueoo
oneeeoaey aunieie /anoiou io ia?aa?ocie ai a?aiy ia?aaea/e neaiaea e
i?aaeioa?auathuay iinooieaiea iai?yaeaiey aaia?aoi?a ia aoiae yoiai
oneeeoaey ai a?aiy i?eaia neaiaea. I?eia?ii oaeie noaiu yaeyaony
aeeiaeiay no?oeoo?a, iaeaaeathuay ieceei nii?ioeaeaieai aeey
aunieio?iaiaaiai ia?aaeaaaaiiai neaiaea e aunieei nii?ioeaeaieai aeey
neaaiai i?eieiaaiiai neaiaea. Ecia?aiea i?ioeeae iioiea a ?aaeueiii
ianooaaa a?aiaie aeinoeaaaony iooai eniieueciaaiey 16 eiae/aneeo
yeaiaioia (naeaeoi?ia aeaeueiinoe), caaeathueo ?acee/iua a?aiaiiua
caaea?aeee aeey i?eieiaaiiai neaiaea. Ia auoiaea ecia?eoaeueiiai
ono?ienoaa eiaai i?e yoii 16 “ia?aeeaeueiuo” neaiaeia, niioaaonoaothueo
?acee/iui oi/eai a iiia?a/iii na/aiee o?oau eee e?iaaiiniiai ninoaea e
ii?aaeaeythueo a?aiaiioth caaeneiinoue eieaeueiuo nei?inoae iioiea a
yoeo oi/eao. I?ioeeue nei?inoe oi?ie?oaony iooai auno?iai neaie?iaaiey
ii yoei 16 eaiaeai.

Aeaaiia i?aeiouanoai eiioeueniuo aeiiea?ianeeo ecia?eoaeae iioiea –
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee i i?ioeea iioiea. E?iia oiai, a yoeo
ono?ienoaao aeaoaeoe?othony neaiaeu, io?aaeaaiua /anoeoeaie ec iaeuo
iauaiia oaeo/ae n?aaeu (a neeo neaie?iaaiey ii iiia?a/iiio na/aieth
iioiea), e iiyoiio ia aeaoaeoi?u ioey iinooiatho neaiaeu n oceei
/anoioiui niaeo?ii, /oi yaeyaony ae?oaei aaaeiui i?aeiouanoaii
ecia?eoaeae iioiea yoiai oeia. E iaeiiaoe, iineieueeo aeey eiioeueniiai
aeiiea?ianeiai ecia?eoaey iioiea ioaeai oieueei iaeei i?aia?aciaaoaeue,
auiieiythuee ooieoeee eae eceo/aoaey, oae e i?eaiieea, oi yoi –
eaeaaeueiia ono?ienoai aeey ecia?aiee n iiiiuueth eaoaoa?a. Oaeea
ecia?eoaee eniieuecothony aeey ?aaeno?aoeee e?iaioiea a ?acee/iuo
o/anoeao e?iaaiiniie nenoaiu.

Iaoiaeieiae/aneay /anoue.

Oaieiaua ecia?eoaee iioiea

A oaieiauo ecia?eoaeyo iioiea eniieuecoaony iaa?aaaaiue yeaiaio,
onoaiaaeeaaaiue ia iooe iioiea aeeaeeinoe eee aaca e iaoaeaaiue yoei
iioieii. Oaiei ia?aaeaaony io yoiai yeaiaioa e oaeo/ae n?aaea n
eioaineaiinoueth (?, Ao), ii?aaeaeyaiie ?aciinoueth oaiia?aoo? ((O, iN)
yeaiaioa eoaeo/ae n?aaeu, oaeaeueiie oaieiaieinoueth (n, Aeae/ea(E) e
nei?inoueth (u, i/n) iineaaeiae, a oaeaea i?ioeeai iioiea. Ia i?eioeeia
ia?aaea/e oaiea io iaa?aaaaiiai yeaiaioa a iioie iniiaaiu aeaa iaoiaea
ecia?aiey iioiea. A eiiaaeoeeiiiii iaoiaea ecia?yaony eiee/anoai oaiea,
?annaeaaaiiai iaa?aaaoaeueiui yeaiaioii, oiaaea eae a iaoiaea
noaoeeiia?iie oaieiaie eiaeaeoeee ii?aaeaeyaony eciaiaiea oaiia?aoo?u
oaeo/ae n?aaeu, naycaiiia n eiaeaeoeeae oaiea a iioie.

Eiaeaeoeeiiiua ecia?eoaee iioiea.

N?aaeiee ianniaue ?anoiae ethaie oaeo/ae n?aaeu iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue
iooai eiaeaeoeee a iioie ecaanoiiai eiee/anoaa oaiea e ecia?aiey
eciaiaiey oaiia?aoo?u yoie n?aaeu ca iaa?aaaoaeai (ieaea ii oa/aieth).
N?aaeiee ianniaue ?anoiae ?ann/eouaaaony ii oi?ioea

, (2.1)

aaea F – ianniaue ?anoiae (ea/n); q – nei?inoue noaoeeiia?iie eiaeaeoeee
oaiea (Ao); cb – oaeaeueiay oaieiaieinoue oaeo/ae n?aaeu (Aeae/ea(E);
Tu – oaiia?aoo?a oaeo/ae n?aaeu ia?aae iaa?aaaoaeai – auoa ii oa/aieth;
Td – oaiia?aoo?a oaeo/ae n?aaeu ca iaa?aaaoaeai – ieaea ii oa/aieth.

Cia/aiey oaiia?aoo?, eioi?ua aoiaeyo a oi?ioeo (2.1), iiaeii ecia?eoue n
iiiiuueth oa?ienoi?ia eee oa?iiia?. Oioy iaoiae noaoeeiia?iie oaieiaie
eiaeaeoeee aanueia i?ino, ii ia i?aeoeea i?e aai ?aaeecaoeee aeiaieueii
o?oaeii iieo/eoue oi?iooth oi/iinoue ii aeaoi neaaeothuei i?e/eiai: 1)
iiaoo eiaoue ianoi ia?aceoiua ooa/ee oaiea, iai?eia?, /a?ac noaiee
iioieii?iaiaea, 2) aeao/ee oaiia?aoo?u, ?aniieiaeaiiue auoa ii oa/aieth,
aeieaeai iaoiaeeoueny aeinoaoi/ii aeaeaei io iaa?aaaoaey, aaea
onoaiaaeeaaaony iaeii?iaeiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea oaiia?aoo?u, ii yoi aua
aieueoa ineiaeiyao i?iaeaio ia?aceoiuo ooa/ae oaiea.

Eiiaaeoeeiiiua ecia?eoaee iioiea

Eiiaaeoeeiiiue ecia?eoaeue iioiea iaania/eaaao ii?aaeaeaiea eieaeueiie
nei?inoe aeeaeeinoe eee aaca iooai ecia?aiey eiee/anoaa oaiea, eioi?ia
?annaeaaao iaa?aaaaiue yeaiaio, iaoaeaaiue iioieii. Ecia?aiea ?anoiaea
iiaeii inouanoaeoue /enoi yeaeo?iiiui iooai, i?eiaiyy a ea/anoaa
aeao/eea naiiiaa?aaathueeny ?acenoi?. Nii?ioeaeaiea oaeiai ?acenoi?a
eciaiyaony aneaaenoaee ioeaaeaeaiey iioieii, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai ?acenoi?
aeaenoaoao eae aeao/ee ?anoiaea. A yoeo oneiaeyo oaieiioaiae
inouanoaeyaony ianeieueeeie iooyie:

PL1 – oaieii?iaiaeiinoue /a?ac n?aaeo iioiea e noaieai o?oau; PL1(T1;

PL2 – oaieiioaiaeiinoue /a?ac iaoaie/aneee aea?aeaoaeue e
yeaeo?ii?iaiaea; Pl2(T1;

Pstr – oaieiia?aaea/a iooai eceo/aiey (ii caeiio Noaoaia- Aieueoeiaia
Pstr(T14);

Pk1 – oaieiia?aaea/a iooai naiaiaeiie eiiaaeoeee; Pk1(T1;

Pk2 – oaieiia?aaea/a iooai auioaeaeaiiie eiiaaeoeee (iioie):

, (2.2)

aaea Q – iauaiiue ?anoiae.

A eoiaa iie/aneee yeaiaio aeao/eea ieacuaaaony a ninoiyiee oaieiaiai
?aaiiaaney, o.a. eiee/anoai iiaeaiaeeiie yia?aee ?aaii eiee/anoao
ioaiaeeiie.

Iineieueeo i?iaiaeeiay yeaeo?e/aneay yia?aey ?aaia I2R(T1), ?aaiiaanea
ii?aaeaeyaony au?aaeaieai

I2R(T1)= PL1+ PL2+ Pstr+ Pk1+ Pk2, (2.3)

aaea Pk2 i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nianoaaiii ecia?yaioth aaee/eio, oae eae
iia ii?aaeaeyaony iioieii a eaiaea. Iiyoiio ana inoaeueiua oi?iu
oaieiia?aaea/e iiaoo auoue au?aaeaiu eiinoaioie. A yoii neo/aa
iieo/aaony oae iacuaaaiia o?aaiaiea Eeiaa

I2R(T1)=( (1+(2Q1/2)(Ta-Tf), (2.4)

A yoii o?aaiaiee (1 e (2 iiaeii n/eoaoue aiia?aoo?iuie ia?aiao?aie
(no?oeoo?ie iaa?aaaaiiai yeaiaioa e oaeaeueiie oaieiaieinoe oaeo/ae
n?aaeu), inoathueieny iinoiyiiuie a ecaanoiuo i?aaeaeao.

Anee yeaiaio e oaeo/ay n?aaea iaoiaeyony a oaieiaii ?aaiiaanee, oi
eiee/anoai oaieiou, aaeanaeoiaeii ia?aaeaaaaiiai a iioie, ?aaii
aeaeioeaaie iiuiinoe, auaeaeyaiie a yeaiaioa:

P=I2R (2.5)

aaea ? – auaeaeyaiay a yeaiaioa iiuiinoue; I – yeaeo?e/aneee oie /a?ac
yeaiaio; R – yeaeo?e/aneia nii?ioeaeaiea yeaiaioa.

Ec niioiioaiee (2.4) e (2.5) neaaeoao:

, (2.6)

O?aaiaiea (2.6) niaea?aeeo /aou?a ia?aiaiiua: I, Te, Tf e u. Iineieueeo
nii?ioeaeaiea R ethaiai ?acenoeaiiai yeaiaioa naycaii n aai oaiia?aoo?ie
Te, iu iiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue ec yoiai o?aaiaiey nei?inoue u i?e oneiaee
iinoiyinoaa I ee R. Anee iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ia iinoiyiiii o?iaia aaee/eio
oiea I, oi i?e eciaiaiee nei?inoe aeeaeeinoe eee aaca oaiia?aoo?a
yeaiaioa aoaeao eciaiyoueny a oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao, /oi i?eaiaeeo
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe ecia?eoaey i?e aunieeo e
aiciiaeiinoe oaieiaiai ?ac?ooaiey (auai?aiey) ?acenoeaiiai yeaiaioa –
i?e ieceeo. Iiyoiio iau/ii iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iinoiyiiie aaee/eia
nii?ioeaeaiey R, i?e yoii, i/aaeaeii, iinoiyiia e oaiia?aoo?a
?acenoeaiiai yeaiaioa. Ciay oaiia?aoo?o oaeo/ae n?aaeu Tf, iu iiaeai
iaeoe ec o?aaiaiey (2.6) nei?inoue u eae ooieoeeth oiea I. Naiaey ana
aoiaeyuea a yoi o?aaiaiea iinoiyiiua e aeaoi yiie?e/anee ii?aaeaeyaiui
eiyooeoeeaioai E1 e E2 iieo/aai

u=K1(I2-K2), (2.7)

Nenoaia ia?aoiie nayce, iaiaoiaeeiay aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey iinoiyiiiai
cia/aiey R a ecia?eoaea iioiea n oeenaoeeae oaiia?aoo?u ?acenoeaiiai
yeaiaioa, iaania/eaaao cia/eoaeueii aieaa aunieia auno?iaeaenoaea
ono?ienoaa ii n?aaiaieth n ecia?eoaeai, a eioi?ii oeene?oaony aaee/eia
oiea.

Aeey ecaioiaeaiey aiaiiiao?ia iaeaieaa i?eaiaeiuie eaaeoony ieieaoth?iua
oa?ii?acenoi?u iiaeoiaeyuea ec-ca eo iaeie iannu. Nii?ioeaeaiea
oa?ii?acenoi?a n io?eoeaoaeueiui OEN oeia I85 (oe?ia Siemens) eciaiyaony
io 10 eIi i?e 20 iN aei 1 eIi i?e 100 iN. Anee ?aai/oth oaiia?aoo?o
aeao/eea i?eiyoue ?aaiie 100 iN, oi ii aieueo-aiia?iie oa?aeoa?enoeea
I85 aeey nii?ioeaeaiey 1iA. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai iiaeii neiino?oe?iaaoue
noaio oeia iieacaiiie ia ?en. 7. Nii?ioeaeaiea iinoa ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii

=3 eIi. (2.8)

I?e iinoiyiiii (?aaoee?oaiii) iai?yaeaiee ieoaiey iinoa 6 A aeey Ii= 1
iA aeiaaai/iia nii?ioeaeaiea Rv iieo/aaony ?aaiui

eIi. (2.9)

Au?acei ia?aaeaoi/ioth oa?aeoa?enoeeo aiaiiiao?a n oa?ienoi?ii:

, (2.10)

aaea Ri – nii?ioeaeaiea iinoa.

Iaoaie/aneia ono?ienoai aeao/eea oaeiai aiaiiiao?a ninoiyo oae.
*oanoaeoaeueiue e iioieo oa?ii?acenoi? I85 iaoiaeeony a eaiaea aeeeiie
ieiei 3 ni e aioo?aiiei aeeaiao?ii ieiei 2 ni. Aeaaiaea?y oaeie
eiino?oeoeee iiaeii eneeth/eoue aicieeiiaaiea iaeaaathueony iiai/iuo
iioieia, niiniaiuo eneaceoue ?acoeueoaou ecia?aiee. Oa?ii?acenoi? n
iiiiuueth eeay (aeaooeiiiiiaioiue) e?aieony ia iiaenoaaea a
ecia?eoaeueiie o?oaea, eioi?ay a naith i/a?aaeue i?eeeaeaaaony ei aoi?ie
o?oaea, eniieuecoaiie iaeiia?aiaiii eae ?oeiyoea e eae eaiae aeey
yeaeo?ii?iaiaeia. Auoiaeyuee ec ?oeiyoee eaaaeue oeene?oaony neeeeiiiaui
eeaai, /oiau eneeth/eoue aeaenoaea ?anoyaeaathueo iaa?ocie.

Oa?aeoa?enoeea ecaioiaeaiiiai oaeei ia?acii oa?ii?acenoeaiiai aiaiiiao?a
iieacaia ia ?en. 8. Iia iieo/aaony ia iniiaaiee caaeneiinoe,
ii?aaeaeyaiie o?aaiaieai Eeiaa e iaeeiaeiie oa?aeoa?enoeeie
oa?ii?acenoi?a.

Noaia ia?aoiie nayce aeey iiaea?aeaiey

iinoiyiiie oaiia?aoo?u (R=const).

Aeey iaania/aiey iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aaeeia ?aaiou ciiaea (n iinoiyiiie
oaiia?aoo?ie) ioaeia eaeay-ieaoaeue noaia eiio?iey oaiia?aoo?u, eiathuay
oeaiue ia?aoiie nayce. Ia ?en. 9 iieacaia i?inoay noaia, eioi?ay
iiaeaea?aeeaaao oaiia?aoo?o (e nii?ioeaeaiea) i?iaiei/iiai yeaiaioa ia
iinoiyiiii o?iaia. I?aaeiieiaeei, iai?eia?, /oi a enoiaeiii ninoiyiee
?acenoeaiue iino a yoie noaia naaeaine?iaai, oae /oi v-=v+ i?e aeaiiie
nei?inoe aicaeooa. Oaia?ue i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi nei?inoue aicaeooa
aic?anoaao, aucuaay ioeaaeaeaiea iaeaeaiiie i?iaieiee. I?e yoii
oiaiueoaaony nii?ioeaeaiea Rw iineaaeiae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oiaiueoaieth
iai?yaeaiey v-. Auoiaeiia iai?yaeaiea va IO, a n iei e oie ib
aic?anoatho, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai aic?anoaao oie ie. Oaaee/aiea oiea ie
i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth oiea iw /a?ac iaeaeaiioth i?iaieieo ciiaea;
i?iaieiea iaa?aaaaony aei oao ii?, iiea ia ainnoaiaaeeaaaony aaeain
iinoa. Ii anee iieiia nii?ioeaeaiea iinoa iaaeaeo oi/eie v0 e caieae
inoaaony iinoiyiiui, oi, cia/eo,

v02 i?iii?oeeiiaeueii Pw (2.10)

aaea Pw – iiuiinoue, auaeaeyaiay a i?iaieiea. Oaeei ia?acii v0
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii iw. Ec niioiioaiey (2.7) iieo/aai

u=K1(v02-K2), (2.11)

Iai?yaeaiea v0 iiaeii iiaeaoue ia aoiae AOeI aeey auiieiaiey nii?yaeaiey
n IBM PC. Ooieoeeiiaeueiay caaeneiinoue (2.11) eaaei ?aaeecoaony
i?ia?aiiiui niiniaii.

Iieo/aiiua niioiioaiey (2.7) e (2.11) i?aaenoaaeytho niaie iieaciua
oai?aoe/aneea ?acoeueoaou, oaeoe/aneay aea acaeiinaycue aaee/ei u e i
(eee v0) iiaeao nouanoaaiii iiaeeoeoee?iaaoueny a caaeneiinoe io
oece/aneie no?oeoo?u iioiea e iaa?aaaaiiai yeaiaioa. Iiyoiio aeey
i?iaaaeaiey oi/iuo ecia?aiee aaaeii ioeaeea?iaaoue ecia?eoaeueioth
nenoaio. Iineieueeo iu inouanoaeyai nii?yaeaiea n iee?i YAI,
i?aia?aciaaiea ecia?aiiiai cia/aiey oiea i a nei?inoue aeeaeeinoe u
iiaeii auiieiyoue n iiiiuueth caiineiie a iaiyoue iee?i YAI ni?aai/iie
(ia?aaiaeiie) oaaeeoeu.

Oeiu ciiaeia.

Eae aeaeii ec ?en. 10, ciiae n iaa?aaaaiui yeaiaioii iiaeao eiaoue
?acee/ioth eiino?oeoeeth. I?iaiei/iue ciiae (?en. 10(a)) /aua anaai
eniieuecoaony aeey ecia?aiey nei?inoe aicaeooa. Aeey iaania/aiey
aaeaeaaoiie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe oiieay aieueo?aiiaay i?iaieiea yoiai
ciiaea iaeaeeaaaony i?aeoe/anee aeie?ania. Ia ?en. 10(a) iieacai
oiieiieaii/iue ciiae, eniieuecoaiue aeey ecia?aiey naa?ocaoeiauo
nei?inoae a aicaeooiie n?aaea. Oiieay ieaoeiiaay ieaiea iaiueyaony ia
eciee?othuoth iiaeeiaeeo, e a ?acoeueoaoa iieo/aaony i/aiue i?i/iay
no?oeoo?a. Eae i?iaiei/iua, oae e oiieiieaii/iua ciiaeu oa?aeoa?ecothony
iieiaeeoaeueiui OEN, o.a. i?e oaaee/aiee oaiia?aoo?u eo nii?ioeaeaiea
aic?anoaao. Oa?ienoi?iue ciiae i?eiaiyaony aeey ecia?aiey nei?inoe oiea
e?iae a aeieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo. Aeiiieieoaeueiua oa?ienoi?u ia
yoii ciiaea aaaaeaiu aeey eiiiainaoeee eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u e?iae e
ii?aaeaeaiey iai?aaeaiey oiea. Oa?ienoi?iue ciiae eiaao io?eoeaoaeueiue
OEN.

Caeeth/aiea.

Ca iineaaeiea aiaeu a oaoieea ecia?aiey e ?aaoee?iaaiey ia?aiao?ia,
?acee/iuo i?ioeannia a naiinoiyoaeueioth io?aneue auaeaeeeinue
ecaioiaeaiea e i?eiaiaiea aeao/eeia. Yoa io?aneue, iinoiyiii
?acaeaaynue, neoaeeo iniiaie nicaeaiey ?aciiia?aciuo aa?eaioia nenoai
aaoiiaoe/aneiai ?aaoee?iaaiey.

Iauea oaiaeaioeee e ieieaoth?ecaoeee e eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee einioeenue,
aaconeiaii, e ?anniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe oaoieee. I?e yoii neaiae aeao/eea,
a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa aiaeiaiaue, aeey ia?aaioee a iee?ii?ioeanni?a eee
iee?i-YAI aeieaeai auoue i?aaenoaaeai a oeeo?iaii aeaea. Yoi
inouanoaeyaony iau/ii eioa?oaeniui ono?ienoaii, aeeth/athuei a naay
AOeI. A iineaaeiaa a?aiy ia?yaeo n nicaeaieai aeao/eeia, eiathuee
oeeo?iaie auoiaeiie neaiae, iaaethaeaaony oaiaeaioeey e eiino?oeoeaiiio
iauaaeeiaieth aeao/eeia n iee?ii?ioeanni?iuie ono?ienoaaie.

Oaeia ?acaeoea iaoneiaeaii i?aaeaea anaai, aeaaioneei i?ia?annii
iee?iyeaeo?iieee. Oe?ieee niaeo? i?eiaiaiee iee?i-YAI a auoiaie oaoieea,
aaoiiiaeeano?iaiee e ae?oaeo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiinoe an? a aieueoae ia?a
o?aaoaony iaaei?iaeo aeao/eeia, auioneaaiuo e?oiiuie na?eyie. Eae
neaaenoaea yoiai iiyaeeenue eioa?aniua e a oi aea a?aiy iaaei?iaea
ono?ienoaa ia aeao/eeao.

Eeoa?aoo?a

Aoeu/aa A.A., Aaeeei A.E., I?ioi?aiei A.A. Aiaeiaiaua eioaa?aeueiua
noaiu. – Ii. : Aaea?onue, 1985.

Aeaeaa A. Aeao/eee. Ono?ienoai e i?eiaiaiea: Ia?. n iai. — I. : Ie?,
1989.

Oiiieein O., Oyanoa? Aeae. Nii?yaeaiea aeao/eeia e ono?ienoa aaiaea
aeaiiuo n eiiiuethoa?aie IBM PC: Ia?. n aiae. — I. : Ie?, 1992.

Eaei I., ssiaiy ss. Aeao/eee e iee?i-YAI: Ia?. n yiii. — E. :
Yia?aiaoiiecaeao, 1986.

Oieeaiaa??e E. I?eiaiaiea iia?aoeeiiiuo oneeeoaeae e eeiaeiuo EN: Ia?. n
aiae. – I. : Ie?, 1985.

Iaeoii A. Aeae., Aieo A. Aiaeiaiaay yeaeo?iieea ia iia?aoeeiiiuo
oneeeoaeyo. — I. :AEIII, 1994.

PAGE

PAGE 40

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019