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Мировая урбанизация на пороге XXI века

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Ie?iaay o?aaiecaoeey

ia ii?iaa XXI aaea.

?aoa?ao ii aaia?aoee

o/aieea 11 eeanna «A» 465 oeieu OeIO IEI

Noaiaiiaa Eaaia Aeeoi?iae/a.

a. Iineaa, 1997 a.

Niaea?aeaiea.

1. Aaaaeaiea.
………………………………………………………………
…………. 3

2. Aeeiaieea ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeey iaoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee.
………………………………………………………………
…….

3

3. O?aaiecaoeey a ?innee a eiioaenoa aeiaaeueiiai i?ioeanna. 9

4. I?iaeaiu o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee ia/aea 90-o aa. …………….. 12

5. Aieueoea ai?iaea: aic?anoaiea eo ?iee eae nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo
i/aaia o?aaiecaoeee. …………………………………………..

15

6. Iiaua ai?iaea: eo ?aaeueiue aeeaae a oeo/oaiea e oneiaeiaiea
o?aaienoe/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia. ………………………….

16

7. O?aaiecaoeey e inaiaiea i?ino?ainoaa: i?iaeaia Caiaae-Ainoie a
nia?aiaiiie o?aeoiaea. …………………………………………

20

8. Iniiaiua ?aeiiu e oeaio?u ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee. ………… 22

9. Ia?niaeoeau o?aaiecaoeee.
………………………………………………. 26

10. I?eeiaeaiea.
………………………………………………………………
…… 28

11. Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a.
…………………………………………….. 32

1. Aaaaeaiea

Ia i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee o?aaiecaoeey a iaoae no?aia nia/aea i?inoi
ia i?eciaaaeanue eae iaeei ec aaaeiuo i?ioeannia oi?ie?iaaiey /aeiaaea,
n?aaeu e iauanoaa, a caoai a 70-80-o aa., ?anniao?eaaeanue i?aaeaea
anaai a ?aieao oi?iaoeeiiiuo iniaaiiinoae ?acaeoey nenoai i?iecaiaenoaa
e ?annaeaiey i?e cia/eoaeueiie iaaeiioeaiea a? aeiaaeueiuo
caeiiiia?iinoae e nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo e oeeaeeecaoeeiiiuo iniia.
Ooaa?aeeeny e ouaoaeueii iaa?aaaeny oeeinionee ianinoiyoaeueiue
iiaeoiae, niaeanii eioi?iio o?aaiecaoeey (eae e ae?oaea nioeeaeueiua
i?ioeannu) eaaeioi?aaeyaia, iioiio /oi a? caeiiiia?iinoe yeiau
onoaiaaeeaathony ?oeiaiaeeoaeyie a caaeneiinoe io oao eee eiuo
auaeaeaaaiuo eie oeaeae.

Aio ii/aio ioeaiea niaaoneie o?aaiecaoeee eiaea /a?ou e?aeiae
noauaeoeaiinoe, iaeiinoi?iiiinoe, a eaii?e?iaaiea ie?iaiai iiuoa auei
oaeiaii aeey ia?aioeaiee aannii?iuo eiee/anoaaiiuo oniaoia o?aaiecaoeee
a NNN? a 30-80-o aa. Aei na?ue?ciiai aea aiaeeca a? ea/anoaaiiuo noi?ii
(ia?aca e oneiaee aeecie ai?iaeai, eo eoeueoo?u, ninoiyiey ai?iaeneie
n?aaeu, a? ?aciiia?acey e o. ae.), nooe e no?aoaaee ?acaeoey aeaei
iau/ii ia aeioiaeeei.

Oeacaiiue iiaeoiae, iai?yioth naycaiiue iiiaea aeanyoeeaoey n oai?eae
oi?iaoeee a niaaoneii iauanoaiciaiee aiiaua e a yeiiiie/aneie e
nioeeaeueiie aaia?aoee a oii /enea, ii?aaeaeee iaaa?iua i?aaenoaaeaiey
ia ocei «i?iecaiaenoaaiiie aaca» o?aaiecaoeee. A iineaaeiea aiaeu,
eiaaea an? /aua ano?a/athony iiiuoee a ?aciuo iaeanoyo iaoee iniuneeoue
iauanoaaiiia ?acaeoea a ?aieao eiuo eiioeaioeee
(oeeinionei-aio?iiieiae/aneie, aeiaaeueii-yeiiiie/aneie,
nioeeieoeueoo?iie, yeieiae/aneie, oeeaeeecaoeeiiiie) e ae?.,
i?aaenoaaeyaony iaeaieaa ieiaeioai?iui aeey eco/aiey o?aaiecaoeee
eniieueciaaoue aio?iiieoeueoo?iue iiaeoiae.

I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea iniiao o?aaiecaoeee ninoaaeyao nai /aeiaae ni anaie
aiciiaeiuie ia?aiao?aie aai aeecie, i?aaeaea anaai naycaiiuie n
?acaeoeai eoeueoo?u e oeeaeeecaoeee a eo oe?ieii iiieiaiee e ia
aeiaaeueiii o?iaia, a ia i?iecaiaenoai, ?ano?nu, oa??eoi?ey e o. ae.,
eae n/eoaeinue a niaaoneie iaoea.

2. Aeeiaieea ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee e yaiethoeey iaoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee

Iaaeaeaiiua oaiiu e ianooaau o?aaiecaoeee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO a.,
iieo/eaoea iacaaiea «ai?iaeneie ?aaiethoeee», oneeaiea a? aicaeaenoaey o
ian e ca ?oaaaeii ia o?ainoi?iaoeeth iauanoaa niinianoaiaaee
cia/eoaeueiiio oaeoaeaieth enneaaeiaaiee yoiai aeiaaeueiiai i?ioeanna a
?acee/iuo no?aiao ie?a. A ?innee iii naaiaeiy iniaaiii aeooaeueii a
nayce n iinoaiaiiui inaiaiaeaeaieai iaoee io eaeaieiaece?iaaiiuo ieoia e
eceeoiae noaiaoecaoeee aaia?aoe/aneie ?aaeueiinoe.

Oieueei ca ia?aua 20 eao «ai?iaeneie ?aaiethoeee» (1950-1970) i?e?ino
/eneaiiinoe ai?iaeai a ie?a aue iaiiiaei iaiueoa, /ai iauaa /enei
aeeoaeae ai?iaeia, eioi?ua ia?aciaaeenue ca anth enoi?eth /aeiaa/anoaa
(83,4%), a ca neaaeothuea 20 eao (1970-1990) /eneaiiinoue ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey oaaee/eeanue au? ia 68,7%. Anaai aea ca 1950-1990 aa.
/eneaiiinoue ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ie?a au?inea ii/oe a 3,1 ?aca e
nio?aiyao oaiaeaioeeth e aeaeueiaeoaio cia/eoaeueiiio ?inoo a ia?aie
/aoaa?oe XXI a. Iu noaee naeaeaoaeyie ioaeiieythuaai ii oaiiai
ia?aciaaiey ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO a. aaeeiiai e aianoa n oai aanueia
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiiai ai?iaeneiai ie?a, eioi?ue ooaa?aeeeny i?aaeaea
anaai a ?acaeouo no?aiao (n 50-o aa.), a a ia/aea XXI a. noaiao
i?aiaeaaeathuei e a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao.

Aeeiaieea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ie?a a 1950-2025 aa.

*eneaiiinoue, iei /ae. Aeiey ianaeaiey, %

1950 1970 1990 2000* 2025* 1950 1970 1990 2000* 2025*

Ie? a oeaeii 738 1353 2277 2926 5065 29,3 36,3 43,1 47,5 58,3

?acaeoua no?aiu 442 677 842 904 1040 54,7 67,5 73,6 75,3 84,0

?acaeaathueany no?aiu 296 676 1435 2022 4025 17,3 25,1 34,7 40,7 57,0

* I?iaiic

Ii eeanneoeeaoeee aeaiia?aoia III a aieaa ?acaeoua no?aiu aeeth/aiu ana
no?aiu Aa?iiu, NOA, Eaiaaea, ssiiiey, Aano?aeey, Iiaay Caeaiaeey.

Aaaeiay iniaaiiinoue ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO a. –
auoiae ia aaainoeaio ?acaeaathueony no?ai. A 1990 a. a ieo i?iaeeaaei
oaea 61,4% anao ai?iaeai ie?a (a 1950-i oieueei 38,7%), a e 2025 a., ii
i?iaiicai aeaiia?aoia III, yoa oeeo?a aic?ano?o ii/oe aei 80%.

E?oiiaeoea no?aiu ie?a ii /eneaiiinoe ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey.

?ino ai?iaeneeo i?ioeannia a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao a neeo eo niaoeeoeee
ieacuaaao aieueoia naea?aeeaathuaa aeeyiea ia ea/anoaaiiua noi?iiu
?acaeoey ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee, ?acei oneeeaaao a? i?ino?ainoaaiioth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth. Aaaeue a yoie a?oiia no?ai iiaeaaeythuay /anoue
ai?iaeai – a/a?aoiea naeueneea aeeoaee, eioi?ua /anoi niinianoaotho
«aea?aaaiecaoeee» ai?iaea, i?eaiiny a iaai ii?iu iiaaaeaiey e nenoaiu
oeaiiinoae, naienoaaiiua naeueneie ianoiinoe. Aeoaieea no?oeoo?iua
naeaeae ia neaaeotho aaoiiaoe/anee ca niaiie n?aaeu, iai?eia?, i?e
ia?aacaea ec aea?aaie a ai?iae, oai aieaa eiaaea ?a/ue eae?o i
ia?anaeaiee aieueoie iannu ianaeaiey a ei?ioeee n?ie.

Neacaiiia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioiineony e no?aiai n ieceie a iaaeaaiai
i?ioeii aeieae ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey e n iaeaieaa aunieeie oaiiaie
i?e?inoa /eneaiiinoe ai?iaeai a 1950-1990 aa., oaeeie eae Ieaa?ey (a?
noieeoea Eaain ca yoio ia?eiae au?inea ii/oe a 27 ?ac e, ii i?iaiicai
aeaiia?aoia III, e 2000 a. aueaeao ia 8-a ianoi n?aaee aaeiia?aoeee
ie?a), Oo?oeey eee E?ai, a oaeaea e no?aiai, iaeaaeathuei iaeaieueoae
«ai?iaeneie iannie» n aunieeie oaiiaie a? i?e?inoa a yoio ia?eiae –
Eeoae, Eiaeey, NNN?, A?aceeey, Iaeneea, Eiaeiiacey.

Ia ae?oaii iiethna iaoiaeyony ?acaeoua e iaeaieaa o?aaiece?iaaiiua
no?aiu Naaa?iie Aia?eee, Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu e ssiiiey n aunieie aeieae
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey e aianoa n oai n aeinoaoi/ii cia/eoaeueiuie
oaiiaie ?inoa ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO a. (iniaaiii a ssiiiee, NOA,
O?aioeee). Aianoa n oai iiuiua neeu auoaeeeaaiey ec aea?aaie e oniaoe
yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa iaoneiaeee aanueia aunieoth aeieth ai?iaeai a iauae
/eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey ?yaea ?acaeaathueony no?ai: a Aaianoyea (92,9% a
1995 a.), O?oaaaa (90,3), A?aaioeia (87,5), *eee (85,9), A?aceeee
(78,7); a Iauaaeei?iiuo A?aaneeo Yie?aoao (84,0), Naoaeianeie A?aaee
(80,2), E?aea (75,6); a Eeaee (86,0), Ooiena (59,0% a 1995 a.).

Neaaeoao eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi a aieueoeinoaa ?acaeaathueony no?ai ec-ca
/?acia?iiai i?eoiea ianaeaiey a ai?iaea a ieo /anoi aeea?o cia/eoaeueii
aieueoa ianaeaiey, /ai iie a ninoiyiee «ia?aaa?eoue», ?acaeoea ai?iaeia
nii?iaiaeaeaaony ?inoii /eneaiiinoe ia anneieee?iaaiiuo eie ai?iaeneeo
aeeoaeae e oaaee/aieai ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo ?inoii ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey e
aai ?aaeueiui aeeth/aieai a ai?iaeneie ia?ac aeecie (ii oa?aeoa?o
caiyoinoe, o?iaith ia?aciaaiey, eoeueoo?u e o. ae.). ?ino ianaeaiey a
ai?iaeao, cia/eoaeueii iia?aaeay ni?in ia ?aai/oth neeo a nia?aiaiiuo
io?aneyo, nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia oieueei aaniethoiui, ii iiae/an e
ioiineoaeueiui ?anoe?aieai oao nei?a, eioi?ua ia o/anoaotho ie a
nia?aiaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, ie a nia?aiaiiii iio?aaeaiee e inoathony, a
nouiinoe iao?aaiece?iaaiiuie. Iaaethaeaaony yaeaiea, iaicia/aaiia a
eeoa?aoo?a eae «eiaeiay o?aaiecaoeey». Iaeiaei a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao
o?aaiecaoeey an?-oaee aieueoa naycaia n ?acaeoeai i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, /ai iiaeao iieacaoueny ia ia?aue acaeyae, oieueei
yoa naycue ia oaeay i?yiay e iaiin?aaenoaaiiay, eaeie iia auea a
Caiaaeiie Aa?iia e NOA. Iiyoiio ioia/aiiua aeeni?iii?oeee a ?acaeoee
ai?iaeia ia icia/atho, /oi a no?aiao Acee, Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee
aiiaua iao iiaeeeiiie o?aaiecaoeee, a oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo, – yoi
«eiaeiay o?aaiecaoeey». Iai?ioea, oeacaiiua /a?ou iauyniytho naiaia?acea
i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao (ii n?aaiaieth n
Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie e Naaa?iie Aia?eeie), oieone?othuaai ana noi?iiu eo
?acaeoey, iiaeao auoue, a au? aieueoae noaiaie, /ai a ?acaeouo no?aiao.

N na?aaeeiu OO a. a ie?a auno?i ?anooo e?oiiaeoea ai?iaea e aaeiia?aoeee
n ianaeaieai nauoa 1 iei aeeoaeae; eo eiee/anoai oaaee/eeinue a
1950-1990 aa. n 77 aei 275, a noiia?iay /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey –
niioaaonoaaiii ni 187 aei 800 iei /aeiaae. Ia/aeny yoai
«naa?oe?oiiiai?iaeneie» o?aaiecaoeee n oi?ie?iaaieai i/aiue aieueoeo
aaeiia?aoeee e iaaeaaeiia?aoeeiiiuo no?oeoo? ?annaeaiey. A ?acoeueoaoa a
1990 a. a aaeiia?aoeeyo – «ieeeeiia?ao» i?iaeeaaea 1/3 anao ai?iaeai
ie?a. Iniaaiii auno?i ?anooo iie a no?aiao Acee, Eaoeineie Aia?eee e
Ao?eee. A Acee (1990 a.) ian/eouaaeinue 115 oaeeo aaeiia?aoeee, aieueoa
anaai a Eeoaa (38), Eiaeee (24), Iaeenoaia, Eiaeiiacee e THaeiie Ei?aa
(ii 6 a eaaeaeie no?aia); a Eaoeineie Aia?eea – 40, a Ao?eea – 24.

E?oiiaeoea aaeiia?aoeee ie?a a 1990 e 2000 aa.

* I?iaiic. A 2000 a. ia 9 ianoi aueaeao Eaain (Ieaa?ey – 13,5 iei
/ae.), ia 14 ianoi – Ea?a/e (Iaeenoai – 12,1 iei /ae.), a iieeioo nienie
aeaa iineaaeieo i?aaenoaaeoaey Aa?iiu – Ia?eae e Iineaa.

Niioaaonoaaiii yoe no?aiu aoiaeyo a eeaea?u e ii oi?ie?iaaieth
naa?oaieueoeo aaeiia?aoeee n ianaeaieai nauoa 8 iei aeeoaeae. A 1950 a.
n?aaee 20 e?oiiaeoeo aaeiia?aoeee ie?a oieueei 7 iaoiaeeeenue a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, a a 1990 a. – oaea 14, a oii /enea 7 ec ieo
aoiaeeee a ia?aoth aeanyoeo (a 1950 a. oieueei 3). Ii /eneaiiinoe
ianaeaiey Nai-Iaoeo auoae onoie/eai ia aoi?ia ianoi n?aaee aaeiia?aoeee
ie?a, iia?aaeea Iueth-Ei?e e Iaoeei.

N ?inoii ianooaaia o?aaiecaoeee an? aieueooth cia/eiinoue a a? eco/aiee
i?eia?aoatho ea/anoaaiiua ia?aiao?u. Oneeeaaaony aaaeiinoue i?aaeeueiiai
niioianaiey caeiiiia?iinoae ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee n a? ?aaeiiaeueiuie
iniaaiiinoyie i?e aiaeeca naiiai i?ioeanna e aai ?acoeueoaoia a no?aiao
?aciiai oeia. I?ioeanno iau/ii naienoaaiiu iauea (aeiaaeueiua)
caeiiiia?iinoe, a aai ?acoeueoaou, io?aaeay aieueoia ?aciiia?acea no?ai
e ?aaeiiia, e ii?aaeaeytho cia/eoaeueioth oa??eoi?eaeueioth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeeth, iicae/iinoue o?aaiecaoeee a nia?aiaiiii ie?a. Yoi
canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia aeaeaeouea neeu naiiai i?ioeanna,
iiaoaeaeaao ia?eoue aai «iauei a?oeiii» e i?eiaieoaeueii e NNN? – ?innee
– a eiioaenoa ?acaeoey aeiaaeueiie o?aaiecaoeee e ie?iaie iaoee,
niinianoaoao caiaoiie yaiethoeee nioeeaeueii-aaia?aoe/aneeo
i?aaenoaaeaiee ia o?aaiecaoeee a iaoai iaiythuainy ie?a.

Iinea aiciaiiaeaiey eco/aiey o?aaiecaoeee a NNN? (n ia/aea 70-o aa.)
iiiaea aiaeu iaaethaeaeinue cia/eoaeueiia (e ii?aaaeaiiia) aieiaiea e
?inoo aieueoeo ai?iaeia, aaeiia?aoeee, o?aaiece?iaaiiuo ?aeiiia
iaaaeiiieeniiai oeia, oi anoue e aiaoiei i?ino?ainoaaiiui oi?iai yoiai
i?ioeanna, e iaaeinoaoi/iia – e nouiinoiui oaeoi?ai aai ?acaeoey, e
i?aaeaea anaai e iniiaiiio aeaenoaothuaio eeoeo – /aeiaaeo. Iaoiaeieiaey
eco/aiey o?aaiecaoeee io?aaeaea iauoth iaaeiioeaieo /aeiaaea a
iauanoaaiiii ?acaeoee, oa?aeoa?ioth aeey niaaoneie iaoee. E yoi ianiio?y
ia aieueoea o?aaeeoeee a yoii ioiioaiee o ?inneeneie aaia?aoee ia/aea
iaoaai noieaoey, ooiaeaiaioaeueiua enneaaeiaaiey ii aaia?aoee /aeiaaea
ai o?aioeocneie, aiaei-aia?eeaineie, iaiaoeeie aaia?aoe/aneeo oeieao OO
a. Iaaeiioeaiea /aeiaaea i?e eco/aiee i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee
au?aaeaeanue a ecia/aeueiii iiiaioa – aai ii?aaeaeaiee a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue /a?ac ?ino ai?iaeia, iiauoaiea eo ?iee a aeecie iauanoaa,
iiyaeaiea iiauo oi?i ?annaeaiey e ae?oaea aiaoiea (oioy e aaaeiua) oi?iu
i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee, a oi a?aiy eae nai /aeiaae inoaaaeny ia aoi?ii
ieaia.

Oaeay o?aeoiaea i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee o ian a 40-80-o aa. io?aaeaea ia
oieueei ainoaea?noaaiiia (noauaeoeaiia) ioiioaiea e iaio, ioi?aaiiinoue
io ie?iaie iaoee, iai?eyoea iiiaeo a? aeinoeaeaiee, ii e iauaeoeaiue
oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey niaaoneie o?aaiecaoeee eae ai iiiaii eaacei?ioeanna.

A aiaei-aia?eeaineie aaia?aoe/aneie eeoa?aoo?a iieiaeaiea auei
ianeieueei eiui. Oaea a 40-50-o aa. o?aaiecaoeey (eae i?ioeann e
ninoiyiea) i?aaeaea anaai naycuaaeanue n /aeiaaeii, aai

nioeeiineoieiae/aneei ninoiyieai, ia?acii aeecie, eciaiaieai
nioeeaeueiuo eiioaeoia, aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e o. ae. Aio iaeii ec
oa?aeoa?iuo ii?aaeaeaiee: «O?aaiecaoeey – yoi i?ioeann iinoaiaiiiai
ia?aoiaea io naeueneiai e ai?iaeneiio nioeeiineoieiae/aneiio ninoiyieth,
iai?eia?, io iaiiiaeo iinoiyiiuo «ia?ae/iuo» nioeeaeueiuo eiioaeoia ei
iiiaei iaiinoiyiiui «aoi?e/iui» eiioaeoai».

Oai ia iaiaa e a ?innee a iineaaeiea aiaeu i?ienoiaeeo iaecaaaeiay
yaiethoeey nioeeaeueii-aaia?aoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee ia o?aaiecaoeee.
Aeoeaiou a ii?aaeaeaiee yoiai i?ioeanna iinoaiaiii niauathony n aiaeeca
?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, aai aeiee a ianaeaiee no?aiu (eee ?aeiia)
ia oa?aeoa? eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao, aaeiia?aoeeyo e
iaaeaaeiia?aoeeiiiuo oi?iao ?annaeaiey, caoai ia eco/aiea ai?iaeneiai
ia?aca aeecie, ii?i iiaaaeaiey, ea/anoaa ai?iaeneie n?aaeu e, iaeiiaoe,
ia eco/aiea /aeiaaea a ai?iaea eae oaiiiaia eoeueoo?u e a aieaa oe?ieii
ieaia anae oeeaeeecaoeee.

A yoie nayce iaaei ioiaoeoue iaeii aaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai a naiie
yaiethoeee o?aaiecaoeee a no?aiao ?aciiai oeia. A ?acaeouo no?aiao
Caiaaea oaea aeinoaoi/ii aeaaii caaa?oaiu aeaa iniiaiuo yoaia,
naycaiiuo, ai-ia?auo, n ia?anaeaieai a ai?iaea iniiaiie iannu ianaeaiey,
niaiie aai caiyoee, eiioeaio?aoeeae ianaeaiey a e?oiiuo ai?iaeao e o.
ae. (eiee/anoaaiiua noi?iiu o?aaienoe/aneie yaiethoeee), a ai-aoi?uo, n
ooaa?aeaeaieai ai?iaeneiai ia?aca aeecie eae oaiiiaia eoeueoo?u e
nia?aiaiiie oeeaeeecaoeee (ea/anoaaiiay noi?iia). Aianoa n oai a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, a ?innee e a aieueoeinoaa iinoniaaoneeo
?anioaeee (ca eneeth/aieai no?ai Aaeoee) i?ioeannu aaeaioaoeee naeueneeo
aeeoaeae e ai?iaeneiio ia?aco aeecie, iaeaaeaiey eie ai?iaeneie
eoeueoo?ie, niioaaonoaothueie nenoaiie oeaiiinoae, ii?iaie iiaaaeaiey e
o. ae. au? i/aiue aeaeaee io naiaai caaa?oaiey.

E yoi naaiaeiy aaaeiaeoaa ioee/ea o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee io no?ai
Caiaaea, iiauoathuaa i?e a? eco/aiee oeaiiinoue ie?iaiai iiuoa e
aeinoeaeaiee ie?iaie iaoee.

3. O?aaiecaoeey a ?innee a eiioaenoa aeiaaeueiiai i?ioeanna.

Ca iineaaeiea 50-70 eao o?aaienoe/aneea i?ioeannu e no?oeoo?u ia
ia?iiiuo i?ino?ainoaao Aa?iiu e Acee eniuouaaee neeueiia aeeyiea
oioaeeoa?iie nenoaiu e iaeiiaieiai ?acaeoey yeiiiieee. Yoi iaaaoeaiia
aeeyiea a iaeaieueoae ia?a au?aaeaii a ?innee, Oe?aeia, Aaei?onnee,
Eacaonoaia, iaiueoa – a ainoaea?noaao Aaeoee, Iieueoa, *aoee, Neiaaeee,
Aaia?ee e a ae?oaeo no?aiao Oeaio?aeueiie Aa?iiu. A oeaeii iaaethaeaeny
naiaia?aciue «aaia?aoe/aneee oiae» aiaiii-oioaeeoa?iuo /a?o
o?aaiecaoeee: iie ia?anoaee ii ia?a aeaeaeaiey n caiaaea ia ainoie, a a
?innee – e ia naaa?.

Ia o?aaiecaoeeth, eae e ia an? oa??eoi?eaeueii-yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea
NNN? e ?innee a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey, ieacaee iuooeiia aicaeaenoaea
aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneea eioa?anu a oi?ie?iaaiee oicyenoaa e inaiaiee
oa??eoi?ee. Eiaiii iie ii?aaeaeeee iiiaea iaaaoeaiua iniaaiiinoe
o?aaiecaoeee.

Aunieea oaiiu ?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ?innee a iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae
io?aaeaee ia?aaeienaeueiia no?aieaiea nicaeaoue nia?aiaiioth aiaiioth
yeiiiieeo a ie?iia a?aiy a iaaiaaoie no?aia, neeueii iino?aaeaaoae io
aieiu, eieeaeoeaecaoeee e o. i. Iiyoiio ia?iiiua iannu naeueneeo
aeeoaeae iai?aaeyeenue a ?acaooathuea noa?ua oeaio?u eee ai aiiaue
nicaeaaaaiua «nioeeaeenoe/aneea» ai?iaea. Iineaaeiea aianoi iinoaiaiiiai
auc?aaaiey a i/aae eoeueoo?u iau/ii i?aa?auaeenue a aieueoea iauaaeeoey
i?e aiaiiuo i?aaei?eyoeyo-aeaaioao, a aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiua iinaeaiey, ia
aiai?y oaea i oae iacuaaaiuo cae?uouo ai?iaeao, eioi?uo iao ie ia iaeiie
ea?oa (eo eiee/anoai ninoaaeyao ieiei 100). An? yoi ai iiiaii iauyniyao
niaoeeoeeo niaaoneie o?aaiecaoeee e aeooaeueiinoue aica?auaiey iiiaeo
ai?iaeia ?innee (eae e ae?oaeo no?ai NIA) a ?onei ii?iaeueiiai ?acaeoey.
Aaaeue iau/ii ai?iae eae iineoaeue o?aaiecaoeee – yoi i?aaeaea anaai
eiioeaio?aoeey ?aciiia?acey ai anao noa?ao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe, a a
eiia/iii n/?oa – eiioeaio?aoeey eoeueoo?u, a? aunoeo aeinoeaeaiee. A
iaoeo aea oneiaeyo iiiaea ?inneeneea ai?iaea, aeaaea e?oiiua, ia?aaeei
nio?aiytho enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeeny «iinaeeiaue» oa?aeoa?, oae eae iie
oi?ie?iaaeenue eae noiia iin?eeia i?e «naieo» i?aaei?eyoeyo. Yoi
io?aaeaei ioiioaiea e o?aaiecaoeee eae e iiai/iiio i?iaeoeoo
eiaeono?eaeecaoeee, iaaeiioeaieo a? eae naiinoiyoaeueiiai nioeeaeueiiai
i?ioeanna aieueoie aaaeiinoe.

Iniiaiie eoia ?acaeoey o?aaiecaoeee a niaaoneee ia?eiae – i/aiue
aieueoie ?ac?ua iaaeaeo a? eiee/anoaaiiuie e ea/anoaaiiuie ia?aiao?aie.

Aeeiaieea ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee e ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ?innee.

Oieueei a 1959-1989 aa. ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea ?innee oaaee/eeinue ia 76%.
I?e yoii noi?ie?iaaeenue iiiaea iniaaiiinoe o?aaiecaoeee, naycaiiua n
ieceei o?iaiai aeecie ai?iaeai, eo eoeueoo?u, ea/anoaa ai?iaeneie
n?aaeu, oceie iiiii?ioeeueiie niaoeeaeecaoeeae ai?iaeia, n?aueaaieai a
ieo nioeeaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u n i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie i?aaei?eyoeyie,
oooaeoaieai yeieiae/aneie neooaoeee, e?eoe/aneei ninoiyieai iaeuo
ai?iaeia e ae?oaeie iaaaoeaiuie yaeaieyie. Iie ii?aaeaeytho e?oa
i?iaeai, eioi?ua i?aaenoieo ?aoaoue ?innee a iaic?eiie ia?niaeoeaa.

An? yoi iaiiieiaao oei ?acaeoey, oa?aeoa?iue aeey ?acaeaathueony no?ai
(i /?i oea ?a/ue auoa), e aea?o iniiaaiea n/eoaoue, /oi o?aaiecaoeey a
?innee a 30-80-o aa. iineea /a?ou eaacei?ioeanna: iia nio?aiyea aiaoiea
i?eciaee o?aaiecaoeee (?ino ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, eiioeaio?aoeey aai a
aieueoeo ai?iaeao e aaeiia?aoeeyo, eo «?aniiecaiea» e o. ae.), ii i?e
yoii ai iiiaii ia niioaaonoaiaaea neiaeeaoeiny ie?iaui ii?iai e
i?aaenoaaeaieyi ia ia?aca e o?iaia aeecie ianaeaiey e noaiaea?oao
iaono?ienoaa ai?iaeneie n?aaeu. A eco/aiea o?aaiecaoeee ai iiiaii iineei
aiieia ociaaaaiue oa?aeoa? eaaceiaoee – iai?eia?, auaoaa au?
n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii iiaeiui ?acaeaeaiea a? iaueo caeiiiia?iinoae ia
«o ieo» e «o ian».

An? neacaiiia, i?aaeaea anaai, iniciaiea iiiaeo iaaaoeaiuo noi?ii a
niaaoneee ia?eiae, aii?aee i?yiieeiaeiie eiaeea ia iicaieyao oai ia
iaiaa niaeaneoueny n ia?aaeeie iuia oie/eaeeoaeueiie e?eoeeie anaai e
any i?e ioeaiea o?aaienoe/aneiai ?acaeoey ?innee iinea 1917 a. Oaeay
e?eoeea naaiaeiy iai?iaeoeoeaia oaea iioiio, /oi iaaeeaiii, ii aa?ii
?ac?ooaaony i?aaeiyy nenoaia naa?oieeeoa?eciaaiiie yeiiiieee e
oioaeeoa?ecia, a ?aieao eioi?ie neeaaeuaaeanue niioaaonoaothuay oai?ey
e i?aeoeea ai?iaeneiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey. E?iia oiai, eae
ecaanoii, o?aaienoe/aneea no?oeoo?u, oi?ie?othueany aeanyoeeaoeyie e
aaeaie, aanueia eia?oeeiiiu e noiyo i/aiue aei?iai. Oi, /oi iino?iaii
(iniaaiii a aaaeiii ainoaea?noaa), eae au yoi ie auei iaoaea/ii,
neaaeoao iaeneiaeueii eniieueciaaoue a i?aaenoiyuee ia?eiae a oiaea
iinoaiaiiie e aeinoaoi/ii aeeeoaeueiie o?ainoi?iaoeee.

Ec eoiaia ?acaeoey o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee ca iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey
auoaeatho iiiaea a? i?iaeaiu ia aeeaeithth ia?niaeoeao.

4. I?iaeaiu o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee ia/aea 90-o aa.

N ianooieaieai yeiiiie/aneiai e iieeoe/aneiai e?ecena a eiioea 80-o –
ia/aea 90-o aa. cia/eoaeueii iaino?eeenue i?iaeaiu o?aaienoe/aneiai
?acaeoey no?aiu, eioi?ua iaeaieeaaeenue a i?aaeuaeouea aeanyoeeaoey. Yoi
iaoei au?aaeaiea e a oii, /oi /eneaiiinoue ai?iaeneiai (eae e iauaai)
ianaeaiey ?innee ia/aea onoie/eai nieaeaoueny – n 109,2 a 1992 a. aei
107,5 iei /aeiaae a ia/aea 1995 a. Anoanoaaiii, /oi e ethaeiinoue
iiaeaaeythuaai /enea ai?iaeia oaeaea oiaiueoaaony. Oaeie ia?aeii a
aeeiaieea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey – iaeii ec naeaeaoaeuenoa iaaeaaiiieo/ey
a ?acaeoee ?inneeneeo ai?iaeia. Iii ai iiiaii naycaii n iniaaiiinoyie
o?aaiecaoeee a niaaoneee ia?eiae. Oeaaeai iaeaieaa aaaeiua ec ieo.

1. Iacaaa?o?iiue, oua?aiue, iaeiinoi?iiiee oa?aeoa? ?acaeoey naiiai
i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee.

Yoa iniaaiiinoue eaaeeo a iniiaa aieueoeinoaa ae?oaeo, i eioi?uo aoaeao
eaeoe ?a/ue ieaea. Iia yaeyaony i?yiui ?acoeueoaoii oi?ie?iaaiey
o?aaiecaoeee a ea/anoaa iiai/iiai i?iaeoeoa eiaeono?eaeecaoeee,
i?aiaa?aaeaiey e iio?aaiinoyi /aeiaaea a ai?iaea, nioeeaeueiie noa?a ia
i?ioyaeaiee aeanyoeeaoee niaoeeoe/aneeo nianoaaiii ai?iaeneeo i?iaeai.

Iacaaa?o?iiue oa?aeoa? o?aaiecaoeee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeaeaei ia
an? ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea e iiiuia aeeth/aii a ai?iaeneie ia?ac aeecie ii
oa?aeoa?o caiyoinoe, o?iaith ianeoaeeaaiey, ?aciiia?aceth aeinoaa e. o.
ae. A iauai i?e?inoa ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey no?aiu i?eia?ii 70%
ninoaaeyee a/a?aoiea naeueneea aeeoaee. *?acia?iay a ?yaea ?aeiiia
iea?aoeey ec naea a ai?iae onoaoaeyeanue /anoi iai?iaeoiaiiuie
aaeieieno?aoeaiuie i?aia?aciaaieyie naeueneeo oa??eoi?ee a ai?iaeneea.
Yoi niinianoaiaaei aicieeiiaaieth yaeaiey, ecaanoiiai a eeoa?aoo?a eae
«eiaeiay o?aaiecaoeey» e oa?aeoa?iiai aeey iiiaeo ?acaeaathueony no?ai,
a a NIA – iniaaiii aeey no?ai N?aaeiae Acee. An? yoi eiaei iaaaoeaiua
iineaaenoaey ia oieueei aeey ai?iaea, ia e aeey naeueneie ianoiinoe.
*enei naeueneeo ianaeaiiuo ioieoia nie?aoeeinue iaaeaeo ia?aienyie
ianaeaiey 1959 e 1989 aa. ii/oe aaeaia (n 294 aei 153 oun.), aeaaiui
ia?acii ca n/?o iaeeeo n?e aei 500 aeeoaeae, a /eneaiiinoue naeueneiai
ianaeaiey – n 55,0 aei 39,1 iei /aeiaae.

Ii i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a 1990 a. niaaoneia naeueneia oicyenoai
onooiaei NOA a 11 ?ac, Ieaea?eaiaeai, Aaeueaee e Eaiaaea – a 10 ?ac e
aeaaea oaeei no?aiai, eae A?aoeey e Ii?ooaaeey, – a 2 ?aca. Iiyoiio
niioiioaiea aeiee ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey a NNN? (66% a 1989 a.) e aeiee
caiyouo a naeueneii oicyenoaa (20%) auei aeaeaei io ii?iaeueiiai.

2. Ieceia ea/anoai ai?iaeneie n?aaeu.

Ieceia ea/anoai ai?iaeneie n?aaeu – i?yiia neaaenoaea neacaiiiai auoa;
iii naycaii ai iiiaii ni neeoeii aunieeie oaiiaie ?inoa ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey no?aiu e ieceeie aeioiaeaie ai?iaeai. Iaaeinoaoi/iia ?acaeoea
nioeeaeueiie noa?u, o?iaiy aeaaiono?ienoaa ai?iaeia, iaeiiia?acea, a
ii?ie oiueinoue a?oeoaeoo?iiai iaeeea, ia?acaeoinoue ai?iaeneie
eoeueoo?u – an? yoi oa?aeoa?ii ia oieueei aeey iiaeaaeythuaai
aieueoeinoaa iaeuo ai?iaeia, iniaaiii a ?innee, ii e aeey iiiaeo e?oiiuo
oeaio?ia n ianaeaieai nauoa 100 oun. aeeoaeae, a oii /enea nicaeaiiuo a
iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey.

3. Yeieiae/aneia iaaeaaiiieo/ea ai?iaeneiai ?acaeoey.

I?iaeaiu yeieiaee ca iineaaeiea aeaa-o?e aeanyoeeaoey i?eia?aee iniaoth
ino?ioo a nayce n ?acei aic?inoei caa?yciaieai aicaeooiiai aannaeia e
aiaeiuo ?ano?nia ai?iaeia. Ii/oe ana aieueoea ai?iaea auaoaai NNN?, a
iaeioi?ua niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?iiuoeaiiua oeaio?u e n ianaeaieai iaiaa
100 oun. aeeoaeae iiaeioee e yeieiae/aneiio i?aaeaeo naiaai ?inoa ec-ca
ionoaeie oaoiieiaee ?acaeoey i?iiuoeaiiinoe e aaoio?ainii?oa – iniiaiuo
caa?ycieoaeae (?ieue iineaaeiaai a caa?yciaiee e?oiiuo ai?iaeia
aeinoeaaao 70-90%).

E ia/aeo 90-o aa. a NNN? ian/eouaaeinue ieiei 100 ai?iaeia n e?eoe/aneei
yeieiae/aneei ninoiyieai. Iaaeaaiiieo/ea ai?iaeneie n?aaeu naycaii ia
oieueei n aaee/eiie ai?iaea, ii e n iniaaiiinoyie aai ooieoeeiiaeueiie
no?oeoo?u, iee?iiieiaeaiey, ianoiuo oneiaee e o. ae. ?aei?aeniaiaie ii
noiia?iiio aua?ino a?aaeiuo aauanoa a aoiinoa?o oiaaea yaeyeenue
Ii?eeuene (2,4 iei o a 1986 a., ianaeaiea 173 oun. /aeiaae a 1990 a.),
E?eaie ?ia (1,6; 717), Yeeaanooc (1,6; 137), Iineaa (1,25; 9100);
Iiaieociaoee (1,1; 601); Oaie?oao (1,1 iei o; 213 oun. /aeiaae). Au? 8
ai?iaeia ioee/aeenue cia/eoaeueiui i?aauoaieai IAeE ii ioaeaeueiui
aauanoaai eee aunieei niaea?aeaieai iuee; n?aaee ieo ia oieueei e?oiiua,
ii e iaaieueoea ai?iaea n ianaeaieai ieiei 50 oun. aeeoaeae (Ee?eoe,
Aeaaiaauaine a Aaoee?ee).

A ?innee, ii ioeoeeaeueiui aeaiiui, auaeaeythony (ia 1994 a.) 40
ai?iaeia n iaeaieaa iaaeaaii?eyoiie yeieiae/aneie neooaoeeae, enoiaey ec
iau?ia aua?inia caa?yciythueo aauanoa oieueei io noaoeeiia?iuo
enoi/ieeia. N?aaee ieo – Iineaa e iieiaeia «ai?iaeia-ieeeeiia?ia».

Aaaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi n?aaee ai?iaeia ?innee n oyae?eie yeieiae/aneie
neooaoeeae (ii aeaiiui ii?ina ianaeaiey eaoii 1990 a.) ieacaeenue ia
oieueei o?aaeeoeeiiiua oeaio?u iaoaeeo?aee e oeiee (*aeyaeine, Ooa,
Eeiaoee), ii e iiiaea iiaua e?oiiua ai?iaea – Oieueyooe, Iaaa?aaeiua
*aeiu, Ieaeiaeaine, Iiaieoeauoaane, Aieaeneee e ae?.

4. Aneiiao?e/iinoue ai?iaeneiai ?annaeaiey.

Iaaeaeo aa?iiaeneie e aceaoneie /anoyie no?aiu, iaaeaeo a? thaii e
naaa?ii iaaethaeaaony aneiiao?e/iinoue ai?iaeneiai ?annaeaiey. A
aa?iiaeneie /anoe a 1990 a. auee ?aniieiaeaiu ieiei 4/5 anao ai?iaeia
NNN?; oai iaoiaeeeinue 127 ec 165 aieueoeo ai?iaeia ?innee (77%). A yoie
iaeaieaa inaiaiiie /anoe NNN? e ?innee eeoue e?aeiea naaa?iua oa??eoi?ee
e ?aeii I?eeaniey ia thaa iaaeaaii?eyoiu aeey aeecie ianaeaiey e o?oaeiu
aeey inaiaiey.

A aceaoneie aea /anoe iniiaiay iieina ?annaeaiey neeueii noaeaia e
ioaeaoa e thao. A? ioee/atho oaeaea iaiueoay c?aeinoue e
noi?ie?iaaiiinoue naoe ?annaeaiey, aieaa ieceia ea/anoai ai?iaeneie
n?aaeu, noa?u ianeoaeeaaiey, eoeueoo?u.

5. Aeaoi?iaoeey ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u ai?iaeia, i?aiaeaaeaiea
iiiii?ioeeueiuo oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo oeaio?ia.

Yoi iaeii ec neaaenoaee oioaeeoa?iie (aiaiii-i?iiuoeaiiie o?aaiecaoeee),
aeey eioi?ie oa?aeoa?ii iaeeea ai?iaeia iaeiie io?anee i?e neaaii
?acaeoee oeaio?aeueiuo ooieoeee (naycae n ie?oaeathuae oa??eoi?eae),
eoeueoo?iiai iioaioeeaea, ai?iaeneie n?aaeu e o. ae. Aeaaea e?oiiua
ai?iaea ia?aaeei inoathony anaai eeoue ia?iiiuie iin?eeaie i?e
i?aaei?eyoeyo-aeaaioao. Iiyoiio e a e?oiiaeoeo noiee/iuo e ?aaeiiaeueiuo
oeaio?ao, eioi?ua ii naiae i?e?iaea iau/ii iiiaiooieoeeiiaeueiu,
/?acia?iia i?aiaeaaeaiea i?iiuoeaiiinoe iaaethaeaaony iianaianoii.
Aeaaea a Iineaa ii aeiea caiyouo i?iiuoeaiiinoue caieiaao ia?aia ianoi
(24%).

Ana ioia/aiiua auoa iniaaiiinoe niinianoaiaaee iaino?aieth i?iaeai
?acaeoey o?aaiecaoeee ?innee.

5. Aieueoea ai?iaea: aic?anoaiea eo ?iee eae nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iuo
i/aaia o?aaiecaoeee.

Aeeiaieea o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee naycaia ni cia/eoaeueiui iiauoaieai a
no?oeoo?a ?annaeaiey ?iee aieueoeo (n ianaeaieai nauoa 100 oun.
aeeoaeae) e e?oiiaeoeo (nauoa 500 oun.) ai?iaeia, a a iineaaeiea
aeanyoeeaoey – e ai?iaeia-ieeeeiia?ia.

O?aaienoe/aneay no?oeoo?a ?innee a 1939-1995 aa.

A 1995 a. 168 aieueoeo ai?iaeia nin?aaeioi/eee 68% ai?iaeneiai e 46%
iauaai ianaeaiey no?aiu. Iie io/?oeeai auaeaeytho iniiaioth iieino
?annaeaiey ?innee e aaaeiaeoea caaiuey a? oa??eoi?eaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey – noiee/iua ?aeiiu (Iineianeee, N.-Iaoa?ao?aneee), iniiaiua
yeiiiie/aneea ine e eeiee (Aieaa, O?ae, O?ainnea), ii?neea iiaa?aaeuey e
o. ae. Ai?iaea n ianaeaieai nauoa 300 oun. aeeoaeae (63 a 1995 a.) e eo
ie?oaeaiea ninoaaeytho no?iaii?aaieciaaiiua i?ino?ainoaa (oa?iei A. A.
Eaeca?iae/a), eioi?ua iiaeaa?aeenue iaeaieaa neeueiiio aio?iiiaaiiiio
aicaeaenoaeth e yaeythony iniiaiie a?aiie o?aaiecaoeee a ?innee. Ia
ae?oaii iiethna – neaaii?aaieciaaiiua i?ino?ainoaa (9/10 anae
oa??eoi?ee), ?aaeei canae?iiua (n?aaeiyy ieioiinoue ieiei 3 /ae./ea. ei)
e neaaiinaiaiiua n ?aaeeie naoueth eiiioieeaoeee.

Aieueoea ai?iaea – aeaaiay oeao?a ?annaeaiey no?aiu ai aoi?ie iieiaeia
OO a. E oieueei ii no?aoiiio iaaeiiuneeth eo noaeueau ia i?ioyaeaiee
iiiaeo aeanyoeeaoee ii?aaeaeyea i?aneiaooay oi?ioea – ia?aie/aiea ?inoa
aieueoeo ai?iaeia e ?acaeoea iaeuo e n?aaeieo, ei/aaaaoay nenoaiaoe/anee
ec iaeiiai ia?oeeii-ainoaea?noaaiiiai aeieoiaioa a ae?oaie. E
niaeaeaieth, ia iaeii iieieaiea niaaoneeo a?aaeiaaaeia e
a?aaeino?ieoaeae i?enyaaei ia aa?iinoue yoie oi?ioea. Ii iaoeiio
au?aaeaieth E. A. Eiaaia, iia, ii nouanoao, noaea i?iaa?eie ia
aeaaiiaae?aeiinoue, eiyeueiinoue ?aaeeio. Oaeoe/anee aea iieeoeea
ia?aie/aiey ?inoa aieueoeo ai?iaeia (yoeo iniiaiuo i/aaia o?aaiecaoeee)
e ?acaeoey iaeuo e n?aaeieo (a aieueoeinoaa ia ?aniieaaaaoeo aeey yoiai
iaiaoiaeeiuie ?ano?naie) icia/aea naea?aeeaaiea i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee a
no?aia, iniaaiii ea/anoaaiiuo ia?aiao?ia aai ?acaeoey, e ai iiiaii
niinianoaiaaea ia?anoaieth iaaaoeaiuo iniaaiiinoae niaaoneie
o?aaiecaoeee, i eioi?uo aiai?eeinue auoa. Iaeiinoi?iiiaa
ooieoeeiiaeueiia ?acaeoea, eiaeono?eaeueiay aeiieiaioa a oua?a
nioeeaeueiie noa?a, iaaeinoaoi/iinoue nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
iioaioeeaea, ieceia ea/anoai ai?iaeneie n?aaeu, ieioay yeieiae/aneay
ianoaiiaea e ae?oaea i?iyaeaiey iaaeinoaoi/iiai aieiaiey e /aeiaaeo a
ai?iaea – an? yoi iethn o?oaeiinoe ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea e e?ecena a
iineaaeiea aiaeu ii?aaeaeeee iacaaeaeiia iieiaeaiea yoie aaaeouae a?oiiu
?inneeneeo ai?iaeia, a n ieie e o?aaienoe/aneie neooaoeee a oeaeii.

A nayce ni neacaiiui iiaeii iaiaoeoue neaaeothuea ia?aii/a?aaeiua
i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey aieueoeo ai?iaeia ia iaic?eioth ia?niaeoeao, eiay a
aeaeo a ea/anoaa iauae iniiau ei?aiiie ia?aniio? oai?ee e i?aeoeee
ainoaea?noaaiiiai ioiioaiey e iei:

?aceia ia?aueaaiea nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iioaioeeaea, aeoeaio a
?acaeoee aieueoeo ai?iaeia ia iio?aaiinoe /aeiaaea a ai?iaea;

cia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea ea/anoaa ai?iaeneie n?aaeu;

?anoe?aiea ooieoeeiiaeueiie no?oeoo?u aieueoeo ai?iaeia enoiaey
i?aaeaea anaai ec ianoiuo iio?aaiinoae;

?aceia oeo/oaiea yeieiae/aneeo oneiaee aieueoeo ai?iaeia, iniaaiii
noiee/iuo e e?oiiuo i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaio?ia;

?ac?aaioea iiauo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey aieueoeie ai?iaeaie ioo?i o/?oa
caeiiiia?iinoae eo naiii?aaiecaoeee;

oneeaiea i?ioeanna oi?ie?iaaiey i?eai?iaeiuo cii aieueoeo ai?iaeia.

6. Iiaua ai?iaea: eo ?aaeueiue aeeaae a oeo/oaiea e oneiaeiaiea
o?aaienoe/aneie neooaoeee a no?aia.

I?ioeai?a/ey niaaoneie o?aaiecaoeee, ii?iaeaeathuea ino?ua i?iaeaiu ia
nia?aiaiiii yoaia, oi?ioi aeaeiu i?e aiaeeca ?iee iiauo ai?iaeia a
nenoaiao ?annaeaiey ?aciiai o?iaiy.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, yoe ai?iaea, ninoaaeyaoea iiiaea aiaeu i?aaeiao
ai?aeinoe niaaoneie a?aaeino?ieoaeueiie iaoee e i?aeoeee e io?aaeaaoea
nioeeaeueiue eiei?eo iaoae iaaeaaiae ioa/anoaaiiie enoi?ee,
niinianoaiaaee auno?iio eiee/anoaaiiiio ?inoo o?aaiecaoeee. Eiaiii ia eo
aeieth i?eoiaeeeanue cia/eoaeueiay /anoue i?e?inoa anaai ai?iaeneiai
ianaeaiey e iiiieiaiey naoe ai?iaeneeo iinaeaiee a iineaieoya?ueneee
ia?eiae. No?aieoaeueiue ?ino iiauo ai?iaeia a NNN? aue oanii naycai n
onei?aiiie, nei?ioa/iie eiaeono?eaeecaoeeae e iiaa?oiinoiie,
iaiiaeaioiaeaiiie o?aaiecaoeeae, nii?iaiaeaeaaoeie iau/ii inaiaiea iiauo
?ano?nia e oa??eoi?ee. Aio ii/aio a NNN? (1990 a.) ec 2200 ai?iaeia 887
(40,3%) ninoaaeyee ai?iaea, nicaeaiiua iinea 1945 a., a 1525 (69,3%) –
iinea 1917 a. Iee eo ia?aciaaiey i?eoiaeeeny ia 60-a aa.

?ieue iiauo ai?iaeia a nenoaiao ?annaeaiey auea aanueia
aeeooa?aioee?iaaia ii ?aeiiai ?aciiai oeia. A noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao
?innee n enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoaeny aonoie naoueth iinaeaiee eo ?ieue auea
iaaaeeea (iai?eia?, a caiaaeiuo iaeanoyo – Ineianeie, Niieaineie,
A?yineie e ae?.). Iai?ioea, ai iiiaeo naaa?iuo e ainoi/iuo ?aeiiao
(?anioaeeea Eiie, O?ae, Eocaann, Oaaa?ianeee e?ae e o. ae.) ia aeieth
iiauo ai?iaeia i?eoiaeeony 75% iauaai /enea ai?iaeia. A yoeo aea ?aeiiao
iaiiiai neiaeiaa eae?o i?ioeann oi?ie?iaaiey n?aaeu iiauo ai?iaeia, eo
aeaaiono?ienoaa, eoeueoo?iiai ?acaeoey, iniaaiii a iiiii?ioeeueiuo
iinaeaieyo ioaeae?iiuo ?aeiiia ia naaa?a e ainoiea no?aiu; oai oaea a
70-80-o aa. io/?oeeai iaiaoeeenue /a?ou iaaeaeaathuaainy e?ecena. Eo
?acaeoea a ioee/ea io iiauo ai?iaeia a noiee/iuo e aiiaua
noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao aa?iiaeneie /anoe eae?o iau/ii ia io ai?iaea,
a io ?aeiia; oaeea ai?iaea ia eiaee, eae i?aaeei, nieeaeiiai ai?iaeneiai
yia?eiia e oneiaee aeey auno?iai iaeiieaiey nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
iioaioeeaea. A Neae?e e ia Aeaeueiai Ainoiea iniaaiii iiiai iiauo
ai?iaeia, ii nouanoao, eeo?iiuo iieiioeaiiie ai?iaeneie n?aaeu a a?
nia?aiaiiii iiieiaiee, iaiaoiaeeiiai nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai
iioaioeeaea, iineieueeo eo nicaeaiea ia iie?aaony iau/ii ia aeeeoaeueiua
o?aaeeoeee. Ionthaea nio?aiaiea «iinaeeiauo» /a?o a ia?eiae niaaoneie
o?aaiecaoeee, oa?aeoa?iia e aeey iiiaeo ai?iaeia aa?iiaeneie /anoe
?innee.

Oaeei ia?acii, e ia/aeo 90-o aa. ia ia?aue ieai io/?oeeai aunooiaao
ae?oaay – ea/anoaaiiay – noi?iia ai?iaeneiai ?inoa (eioi?ay ?aiueoa
iaaeiioeaieaaeanue, a eiiaaea i?inoi «ia caia/aeanue»), iniaaiii aaaeiay
aeey noaeaa iiauo e ioaeae?iiuo ai?iaeia. Eiaiii aeey yoie a?oiiu
ai?iaeia iaeaieaa aeooaeueiuie noaiiayony i?aiaeieaiea «iinaeeiainoe» e
nicaeaiea iieiioeaiiie ai?iaeneie n?aaeu e iaiaoiaeeiiai
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iiai iioaioeeaea. ?aaeueiay ioeaiea eo ninoiyiey
naaiaeiy auyaeea ia?iiiua ?anoiaeaeaiey iaaeaeo eaeayie, aiieiuaaoeie
iaeea aano?aeoiua eaeaaeu e ooiiee i?e iniiaaiee iiauo ai?iaeia 20-30 e
aieaa eao oiio iacaae, e no?iauie ?aaeeyie eo ooieoeeiie?iaaiey, eioi?ua
au? aieaa oneeee ia?aoiae e ?uieo. I?aaaea, iiuo nicaeaiey iiauo
ai?iaeia ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a oaeaea ia ii?aaaeae aiceaaaaoeony ia ieo
iaaeaaeae, ii ianooaau eo no?ieoaeuenoaa (a neaaeiaaoaeueii e
?aci/a?iaaiey a ieo) a yoeo no?aiao ianiecia?eiu n niaaoneeie. Iai?eia?,
a Aaeeeia?eoaiee – no?aia, aianoae caiaoiue aeeaae a oai?eth e i?aeoeeo
nicaeaiey iiauo ai?iaeia, a 1946-1990 aa. aicieeei 34 oaeeo ai?iaea, ai
O?aioeee – anaai 9, a NOA – 52.

A ?innee e oiio aea e i/aiue aaeeee ?acia?u ioaeaeueiuo iiauo ai?iaeia,
eae, iai?eia?, Oieueyooe e Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu, nicaeaiiua i?e
aaoicaaiaeao-aeaaioao a N?aaeiai Iiaieaeuea e io/?oeeai iaia?oaeeaoea
iiiai/eneaiiua i?in/?ou i?e eo nicaeaiee. Oae, Eaineee aaoicaaiae
iino?iai a oeie/iii aa?a?iii ?aeiia, aaea a 1960 a. naiui caiaoiui
ai?iaeii auea Aeaaoaa n ianaeaieai 22 oun. aeeoaeae. Ii a 60-o aa.
ia/aeinue no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai ai?iaea Ieaeiaeainea e iaooaoeie/aneiai
eiiaeiaoa, caoai – Ieaeiaeaineie AYN ieiei a. Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu e,
iaeiiaoe, a 70-o aa. – nicaeaiea Eaineiai aaoicaaiaea e e?oiiia
aeeeeuiia no?ieoaeuenoai a Iaaa?aaeiuo *aeiao. A ?acoeueoaoa a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ia «ionoii ianoa» neiaeeeanue e?oiiay aaeiia?aoeey
ai?iaeia n ianaeaieai ieiei 1 iei /aeiaae.

?ino ianaeaiey iniiaiuo ai?iaeia aaeiia?aoeee

Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu (oun. /ae.)

Ai?iae 1959 1970 1979 1989 1995

Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu 16 38 301 500 526

Ieaeiaeaine – 49 134 191 210

Aeaaoaa 22 32 36 54 65

Oieueei a 1970-1986 aa. a oeacaiioth aaeiia?aoeeth e i?aaeaea anaai a
Iaaa?aaeiua *aeiu i?eauei ia iinoiyiiia ianoi aeeoaeuenoaa ieiei 500
oun. /aeiaae, a oii /enea i?eia?ii 140 oun. ec-ca i?aaeaeia Oaoa?noaia.
Noieue aunieea oaiiu ?inoa ianaeaiey aucaaee ia oieueei ionoaaaiea
?acaeoey nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iie noa?u e ea/anoaa ai?iaeneie n?aaeu io
nia?aiaiiuo iio?aaiinoae ianaeaiey, ii e iinoaaeee i/aiue neiaeiua
i?iaeaiu eo iiaeaea?aeaiey (ia aiai?y i aeaeueiaeoai ?acaeoee) iinea
aeoeeiie?iaaiey EaiACa a ae?oaeo niauoee, naycaiiuo n ia?aoiaeii e
?uieo, aeaoeaio?aeecaoeeae yeiiiieee e oneiaeiaieai acaeiiioiioaiee
iaaeaeo oeaio?ii e ?aaeiiaie.

Na?ue?ciua eciaiaiey ioeaiee iiauo, eee, eae eo au? eiaiotho, «iieiaeuo»
ai?iaeia a i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee – a ?aieao oeeaeeecaoeeiiiiai
iiaeoiaea e nioeeaeueii-iieeoe/aneei e yeiiiie/aneei ia?aiaiai a ?innee
iineaaeieo eao – niaea?aeaony a iaoa?eaeao Iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
eiioa?aioeeae iiae yaeaeie THIANEI (1993 a.) «Eoeueoo?a iieiaeuo
ai?iaeia». I?aaie/aneea iaaeinoaoee nicaeaiey iiauo ai?iaeia a NNN?, ia
eioi?ua noa?aeenue ia ia?auaoue aieiaiey a oioaeeoa?iii ainoaea?noaa, a
ia?aoiaeiue ia?eiae cayaeee i naaa ni anae ii?aaeae?iiinoueth e oai
naiui ?acaayee au? iaeei ieo. Aaaeue a ioee/ea io iieiaeuo ai?iaeia a
ca?oaaaeiie Aa?iia, iniiaaiiuo a 50-60-a aa. ia aieueoeo o?aaeeoeeyo
ai?iaeneie iaueiu e naiioi?aaeaiey a eiiiaeoiuo, iaaieueoeo no?aiao n
aeecei ?aniieiaeaiiuie enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeieny e?oiiuie oeaio?aie, a
?innee n a? e?anoueyinei-iaueiiui i?ioeui, ia?iiiuie i?ino?ainoaaie,
?aciiia?aceai ?aaeiiia e ae?oaeie iniaaiiinoyie i?ioeann ia?aciaaiey
ai?iaeia aue ecia/aeueii cao?oaei?i. A aeaeueiaeoai yoe o?oaeiinoe
aic?inee iiae aeeyieai eaeaieiaee «/aeiaae i?e i?iecaiaenoaa» e, eae
neaaenoaea, «ai?iae i?e caaiaea».

I?iecaieueiia, aac o/?oa iioaioeeaea e?oiiaeoeo oeaio?ia, ianniaia ii
naiei ianooaaai «aeanaioe?iaaiea» iiauo ai?iaeia a ia?iiiua i?ino?ainoaa
?innee, no?aieaiea n eo iiiiuueth inaaeaaoue an? iiaua ?ano?nu e
oa??eoi?ee nicaeaaaee neiaeiaeoea nioeeaeueiua, yeiiiie/aneea,
eoeueoo?iua i?iaeaiu, /oi oi?iiceei ?acaeoea iauanoaa a naiuo ?acee/iuo
noa?ao. Aio ii/aio anoanoaaiiue aeey ii?iaeueiiai oiaea o?aaiecaoeee
i?ei?eoao enoi?e/anee neiaeeaoeony eoeueoo?iuo oeaio?ia – aieueoeo
ai?iaeia – aue ii?ieeioo. Eo nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iue iioaioeeae
i?iecaieueii, aac o/?oa aeeeoaeueiinoe aai aini?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee ia iiaii ianoa aeieaea aiaeu ia?acoiii ia?aea/eaaeny a
?aeiiu iiaiai inaiaiey, a oii /enea e a iiaua ai?iaea. I?e yoii
en/??iuaaeny ia oieueei nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iue iioaioeeae e?oiiaeoeo
ai?iaeia, ii e ?ac?ooaeny nai aaiioiiae ai?iaeai a i/aaao o?aaiecaoeee,
enoii/aeny eo ianniaue n?aaeiee neie.

Oai naiui ia ?aoaeenue ea?aeeiaeueii i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey ie e?oiiaeoeo, ie
iiauo, ie iaeuo ai?iaeia, n /ai i?eoeinue noieeiooueny naaiaeiy. A
aianoa n oai au? aieaa iaino?eeanue i?iaeaia inaiaiey ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia.

7. O?aaiecaoeey e inaiaiea i?ino?ainoaa: i?iaeaia Caiaae-Ainoie a
nia?aiaiiie o?aeoiaea.

Aaeiaay caaea/a inaiaiey ainoi/iuo e naaa?iuo ?aeiiia ?innee naaiaeiy
iieo/aao iiaue iiai?io. Ii naycai n oeaeui ?yaeii ianoiyoaeuenoa, e
i?aaeaea anaai ni nieaeaieai cia/eiinoe aiaiii-iieeoe/aneeo,
aiaiii-no?aoaae/aneeo, ?ano?niuo e iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia e
iiauoaieai o?aaienoe/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, eoeueoo?iuo e a aieaa oe?ieii
ieaia oeeaeeecaoeeiiiuo iniia ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey nia?aiaiiie
?innee. Yoio iiai?io iiaeaioiaeai i?aaeoanoaothuei ?acaeoeai e iaiaoeeny
au? ?aiaa; ii aue caiaoai iniaaiii i?e eco/aiee o?aaienoe/aneie
neooaoeee a NNN? – ?innee a 50-80-o aa. n aio?iiioeaio?e/aneeo iiceoeee.

Aeaeaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaa e ianaeaiey ia ainoie a iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey
auei aanueia aia/aoeythuei ii ianooaaai, anee ioaea/ueny io oie oeaiu,
eioi?oth ca yoi i?eoeinue ieaoeoue. E ?a/ue eae?o ia oieueei e ia
noieueei i naaanoieiinoe nu?uey e oiaa?ia, eioi?ua oai i?iecaiaeyony,
neieueei i ea/anoaa aeecie ianaeaiey ia ia?iiiuo i?inoi?ao aceaoneie
?innee. Yoi iniaaiii ino?i iuouaaony naaiaeiy, eiaaea i?ia?ann ie?iaiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e oeeaeeecaoeee a oeaeii naycai a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n
eoeueoo?iie iniau?iiinoueth iauanoaa, aai nioeeaeueiuie ?ano?naie,
acaeiiaeaenoaeai n ie?iaui oicyenoaii, a ia n iaeiiaieei inaiaieai
i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia, i?e anae eo aaaeiinoe. Ia?aae nia?aiaiiie ?inneae
aicieeaao caaea/a oi?ie?iaaiey iai?a?uaiuo ai?iaeneeo no?oeoo?, eioi?ay
ioee/aao ?acaeoua no?aiu Caiaaea, ioaao anaai inaiaiiiai i?ino?ainoaa
yia?ai- e eiiioieeaoeeiiiuie nenoaiaie, o?ainii?oii, naycueth, noa?ie
oneoa e o. ae. Yoi canoaaeyao ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia o?aaeeoeeiiioth
i?iaeaio Caiaae – Ainoie a no?aia.

N?aaee oaeoi?ia inaiaiey i?ino?ainoaa iuia an? aieueoaa cia/aiea
i?eia?aoaao e o ian ai?iaeneie, nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iue iioaioeeae,
aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoueny a ia?niaeoeaa iaai?ii yeaiaioia nia?aiaiiie
oeeaeeecaoeee a i?aaeaeao o?ainii?oiie aeinooiiinoe aeey anaai ianaeaiey
no?aiu. Iiyoiio a no?aoaaee ai?iaeneiai e ?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey aaaeii
ii?aaeaeeoue ?aaeueiia niioiioaiea oaiiia aeeiaieee o?aaiece?iaaiiuo
noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia aa?iiaeneie ?innee e aceaoneie /anoe no?aiu n
a? ?ac?aaeaiiie naoueth ai?iaeia e eiiioieeaoeee, no?iauie nioeeaeueiuie
e i?e?iaeiuie oneiaeyie. Iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaiea oiai, /oi oaiiu e
ianooaau inaiaiey ainoi/iuo ?aeiiia, oi?ie?iaaiey a ieo iiauo ai?iaeia
ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeytho neiaeeaoeany e?oiiaeoea oeaio?u. A iaoae enoi?ee
yoie enoeiie iinoiyiii i?aiaa?aaaee, e a eoiaa ia?acoiii enoiuaeenue
o?aaienoe/aneea ?ano?nu caiaaea no?aiu, i?aaeaea anaai Iineianeiai e
Eaieia?aaeneiai ?aaeiiia, ia nicaeaaay i?e yoii ca eo n/?o iieiioeaiiuo
ai?iaeia ia ainoiea. Oai naiui iu ?ano?a/eaaee iaiiiaia, /oi iaeiieee a
oiaea o?oaeiiai ?acaeoey ai?iaeneie eoeueoo?u, oa?yee a?
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiua aiciiaeiinoe. Yoi iaoaei eniieueciaaoue aaaeiaeoea
i?aeiouanoaa o?aaiecaoeee, ia?ooaei a? anoanoaaiiue oiae.

Eco/aiea o?aaiecaoeee a NNN? a 30-80-o aa. iieacaei aaaeiinoue
eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey e i?iecaiaenoaa a no?aia n ia?iiiie oa??eoi?eae
eae iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiue iooue a? inaiaiey. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao e
iiuo ae?oaeo aiaeiae/iuo ii oa??eoi?eaeueiui i?iaeaiai no?ai, oaeeo eae
Eaiaaea eee Aano?aeey. E ia neo/aeii ana yoe aiaeu a no?aia iaaethaeaeny
i?ioeann eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey a iniiaiuo oceao e a?aaeao
i?aeiouanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey, ai iiiaii aii?aee ainoaea?noaaiiui
aeieo?eiai ia?aie/aiey ?inoa aieueoeo ai?iaeia e aieaa ?aaiiia?iiai
?annaeaiey ii oa??eoi?ee NNN?.

Ionoonoaea no?aoaaee o?aaiecaoeee, /?oeiai auaeaeaiey iniiaiuo
i?eaioe?ia ai?iaeneiai ?acaeoey i?eaaei e iaaaoeaiui ?acoeueoaoai.
No?aieaiea iaeiia?aiaiii «?acaeaaoue an? ?acii» – e aieueoea, e iaeua, e
n?aaeiea ai?iaea, e nicaeaaaoue nioie iiauo, eiiaaea i/aiue e?oiiuo
ai?iaeia ia ia?iiiie, a cia/eoaeueiie /anoe neaaiinaiaiiie oa??eoi?ee –
i?aeoe/anee ia iicaieeei ?aoeoue ia nia?aiaiiii o?iaia ie iaeio ec yoeo
caaea/. Oi aea ai iiiaii ioiineony e e ?aaeiiaeueiiio ?acaeoeth. Iiyoiio
oae aaaeiu iuia auai?i/iinoue e i/a??aeiinoue a ?acaeoee ai?iaeia, e
?aaeiiia.

A oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea n iiauie «i?aaeeaie ea?u» au?
aieaa oneeeaathony oaiaeaioeee e naeaoeth eioaineaii eniieuecoaiiai
i?ino?ainoaa: aaaeue ?uiie aaniiuaaeii «aua?aeiauaaao» ia oieueei
ia?aioaaaeueiua i?aaei?eyoey e oeaeua io?anee, ii e niioaaonoaaiii
ii?aaeae?iiua oeiu e a?oiiu ai?iaeia e oeaeua oa??eoi?ee «aoi?iai
yoaeiia» (E?aeiee Naaa?, Naaa?i-Ainoie, iaeioi?ua ?aeiiu Neae?e,
Aeaeueiaai Ainoiea e ae?.). ?a/ue i?e yoii ia eae?o i auaeaeaiee
eaeeo-oi «aoi?inoaiaiiuo» ai?iaeia e ?aeiiia. I?inoi no?aia naaiaeiy a
oneiaeyo e?ecena iaiineeueiu e?oiiua cao?aou ii ?acaeoeth anaai e any
iaeiia?aiaiii.

Oaeei ia?acii, o?aaiecaoeey eae aanueia iieacaoaeueiue oaeoi?
?aaeiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey iiaeoaa?aeaeaao oeaeaniia?aciinoue eciaiaiey aai
aaeoi?a a ?innee n ainoi/iiai ia caiaaeiue. Yoa eiioeaioeey
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ia?aeii oaiaeaioeee i?ioeuo aeanyoeeaoee – io
o?iioaeueiiai e?oiiiianooaaiiai aeaeaeaiey ia ainoie e naaa?, ia
n/eoaynue n ia?iiiuie cao?aoaie, e auai?i/iiio, ouaoaeueii i?iaeoiaiiiio
inaiaieth n?aaieoaeueii iaiiiaeo ?aeiiia ainoi/iaa O?aea. Iniiaiia aea
aieiaiea aeieaeii oaeaeyoueny a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth
o?aaiece?iaaiiuo noa?ii?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiia aa?iiaeneie /anoe ?innee,
iioaioeeae eioi?uo au? i/aiue aeae?e io en/a?iaiey.

Ni naeaoeai eioaineaii eniieuecoaiiai i?ino?ainoaa, aeaeeii, au? aieaa
aic?ano?o iicae/iinoue, oa??eoi?eaeueiay ae?iaiinoue, o?aaiaioa?iinoue
nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu, /oi iio?aaoao aeaoaeueiuo
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ioaaouaathueo
o?aaiece?iaaiiua no?oeoo?u ?aciiai oeia a ?innee.

8. Iniiaiua ?aeiiu e oeaio?u ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee.

I?ino?ainoaaiiay aeeooa?aioeeaoeey i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee a nia?aiaiiii
ie?a i/aiue aaeeea e iicae/ia.

Ia ea?oa ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee ?acei auaeaeythony o?e iniiaiuo ?aaeiia –
NOA, Caiaaeiay Aa?iia, ssiiiey; eo aeiiieiytho aeiaieueii aeenia?nii
?ani?ino?ai?iiua ii aieueoeinoao ?aeiiia e?oiiaeoea oeaio?u, i?aaeaea
anaai n ianaeaieai nauoa 1 iei aeeoaeae (a ie?a eo nauoa 300). A
iineaaeiea aeaa aeanyoeeaoey yoo ea?oeio ianeieueei iaiytho
auno?i?anoouea, aeinoaoi/ii iiuiua (oioy e iaiaa aeeth/?iiua a ie?iaua
iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea e eoeueoo?iua nayce) ai?iaeneea aaeiia?aoeee
a Ainoi/iie e THaeiie Acee, a oaeaea a no?aiao Eaoeineie Aia?eee e
iaiueoa – Ao?eee. Yoi naycaii n aunieeie oaiiaie ?inoa e eiioeaio?aoeee
a ieo ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey, oiiieiaaoeieny auoa.

Ieiei iieiaeiu ai?iaeai ie?a iuia nin?aaeioi/aii a Acee (a 1950 a. –
ieiei 1/3), aieaa 20% – a Aa?iia.

Ia ii?iaa XXI a. io/?oeeai iaia?oaeeaaaony oneeaiea
thai-ainoi/ii-aceaoneiai aaeoi?a a ie?iaie o?aaiecaoeee. Yoi naycaii,
iiieii ecaanoiiai oaiiiaia iineaaiaiiie ssiiiee, ni cia/eoaeueiui
oaaee/aieai ai aoi?ie iieiaeia OO a. ai?iaeneie iannu Eeoay, Eiaeee e
?yaea i?eeaaathueo e iei no?ai Ainoi/iie e THaeiie Acee.

Aceaoneee aaeoi? a o?aaiecaoeee ie?a iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a auno?ii ?inoa
naa?oe?oiiuo ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee n ianaeaieai nauoa 5 iei aeeoaeae
a 1970-1990 aa. Iniaaiii au?aceoaeueii a yoii ioiioaiee iiiieiaiea a
nienea aaeiia?aoeee n ianaeaieai nauoa 10 iei aeeoaeae ii i?iaiico ia
2000 a. A iaai e eiioeo iaoaai noieaoey aeieaeiu aieoe Aeaeaea?oa,
Ea?a/e, Aeaeea, Aeaee, Iaieea, Aaiaeie, Oyiueoeceiue e ae?oaea
aaeiia?aoeee a Acee.

Aeaiia?aou III auaeaeytho ai?iaea n ianaeaieai 8 iei e aieaa aeeoaeae
eae iaaaai?iaea (mega-cities). Yoa a?oiia naa?oe?oiiuo ai?iaeneeo
aaeiia?aoeee ?ano?o ca n/?o ?acaeaathueony no?ai. A 1950 a. oieueei
Iueth-Ei?e e Eiiaeii i?aauoaee oeacaiioth /eneaiiinoue ianaeaiey, a 1960
a. e iei i?eniaaeeieeenue Oieei e Oaioae, a a 1970 a. eiee/anoai
iaaaai?iaeia oaaee/eeinue aei 11, a oii /enea 5 i?eoiaeeeinue ia
?acaeaathueany no?aiu (Iaeei, Nai-Iaoeo, Aoyiin-Ae?an,
?ei-aea-AEaiae?i). A na?aaeeia 1994 a. ia ?acaeaathueany no?aiu
i?eoiaeeeinue oaea 16 ec 22 iaaaai?iaeia, a ii i?iaiicai, a 2015 a. ec
33 ai?iaeia n ianaeaieai 8 iei e aieaa 27 (81,8%) aoaeoo iaoiaeeoueny a
?acaeaathueony no?aiao, i?e yoii 21 – a Acee.

?ino /enea iaaaai?iaeia a 1970-2015 aa.

1970 1994 2000* 2015*

Ie? a oeaeii 11 22 25 33

?acaeaathueany no?aiu 5 16 19 27

Acey (aac ssiiiee) 2 10 12 19

Eaoeineay Aia?eea 3 4 5 5

Ao?eea 0 2 2 3

?acaeoua no?aiu 6 6 6 6

Aa?iia 2 2 2 2

Naaa?iay Aia?eea 2 2 2 2

ssiiiey 2 2 2 2

* I?iaiic.

Ianiio?y ia cia/eoaeueiia ?ani?ino?aiaiea eiioeaioeee eiio?o?aaiecaoeee
ecaanoiiai aia?eeaineiai aaia?aoa-a?aaeiaaaea A. Aa??e, iieo/eaoae
aieueoie ?aciiain iniaaiii eae «eicoia» aeey iiaiai iai?aaeaiey
?aaeiiaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee, a oeaeii a ie?a ca n/?o ?acaeaathueony
no?ai a OO a. i?iaeieaeaaony eiioeaio?aoeey ianaeaiey a naa?oe?oiiuo
aaeiia?aoeeyo nauoa 1 e iniaaiii nauoa 10 iei aeeoaeae. Yoa oaiaeaioeey
ii i?iaiicai aeaiia?aoia III, nio?aieony e a ia/aea XXI noieaoey.

A ?acoeueoaoa ?ac?anoaiey e iinoaiaiiiai neeyiey aeanyoeia ninaaeieo
e?oiiuo ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee aaeieue o?ainii?oiuo iaaeno?aeae ai
iiiaeo no?aiao, i?aaeaea anaai a oiiiyioouo auoa o??o ?aaeiiao ie?iaiai
ianooaaa, neeaaeuaathony iaoe?iua o?aaiece?iaaiiua ciiu iieiniaeaeiie
eiioeao?aoeee. Iaeaieaa ecaanoiay ec ieo aia?aua auea auyaeaia e
enneaaeiaaia AE. Aioiaiiii a 50-o aa. a naaa?iie /anoe Aoeaioe/aneiai
iiaa?aaeuey NOA. A? i?ioyae?iiinoue ieiei 1000 ei, oe?eia aeinoeaaao
ianoaie 200 ei; iia ninoieo ec ia?aoiaeyueo ae?oa a ae?oaa aaeiia?aoeee
Ainoiia, Iueth-Ei?ea, Oeeaaeaeueoee, Aaeoeii?a, Aaoeiaoiia – ionthaea a?
iacaaiea Ainaao – e ?yaea ae?oaeo iaiaa e?oiiuo (anaai 40 aaeiia?aoeee)
iauae ieiuaaeueth 170 oun. ea. ei. ?aaioaaoee iiiaea aiaeu a NOA
ecaanoiue o?aioeocneee aaia?ao AEai Aioiaii aeae ae iacaaiea
Iaaaeiiieen, noaaoaa caoai ia?eoeaoaeueiui. Iaaaeiiieen (Iaaaiieue) a
Ae?aaiae A?aoeee – oeaio? nithca a?eaaeneeo ai?iaeia; ii aiciee ieiei
370 a. aei i. y. a ?acoeueoaoa neeyiey aieaa /ai 35 iinaeaiee. Iiae
oaeei aea iacaaieai auoei aai iiiia?aoe/aneia enneaaeiaaiea a 1961 a.
Ianaeaiea yoie «aeaaiie oeeoeu» Aia?eee ian/eouaaao ieiei 50 iei /aeiaae
(ii/oe 20% anaai ianaeaiey), caeanue i?iecaiaeeony i?eia?ii 1/4
i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee NOA. Ae?oaie iaaaeiiieen – *eieon (*eeaai –
Ieoonao?a) noi?ie?iaaeny a NOA ia thaeiii iiaa?aaeuea Aaeeeeo Ic?? ioo?i
neeyiey aaeiia?aoeee *eeaai, Aeao?ieoa, Eeeaeaiaea, Ieoonao?aa e ae?oaeo
– anaai eo 35; aai ieiuaaeue – 160 oun. ea. ei, a ianaeaiea i?eia?ii 35
iei aeeoaeae (a aianoa n oyaioathuae e iaio aaeiia?aoeeae Oi?iioi a
Eaiaaea – 40 iei). Naiue iieiaeie iaaaeiiieen no?aiu – Nainai iaoiaeeony
a Eaeeoi?iee; ii i?ioyioeny io Nai-O?aioeenei /a?ac oeaii/eo oeaio?ia
Aieueoie Eaeeoi?ieeneie aeieeiu aei Ein-Aiaeaeaeana e aeaeaa aei
Nai-Aeeaai e ian/eouaaao 20 iei /aeiaae. Anaai a yoeo o??o iaaaeiiieenao
eiioeaio?e?oaony ii/oe iieiaeia ianaeaiey NOA.

A Eaiaaea aaaeiaeoei caaiii ?annaeaiey yaeyaony eeiaeii auoyiooay
o?aaiece?iaaiiay ciia (inue) io Eaaaaea aei Aeiaeci?a i?ioyae?iiinoueth
ieiei 1000 ei (e oe?eiie aei 300 ei); a a? i?aaeaeao nin?aaeioi/aii 55%
ianaeaiey no?aiu (13,2 iei /aeiaae a 1981 a.) e 73% anao caiyouo a
ia?aaaouaathuae i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

Naiue aieueoie a ie?a ii /eneaiiinoe ianaeaiey iaaaeiiieen – Oieaeaei
(ieiei 70 iei /aeiaae) neiaeeeny ia Oeoiieaaineii iiaa?aaeuea ssiiiee.
Yoa iaoe?iay o?aaiece?iaaiiay ciia i?ioyae?iiinoueth a ianeieueei nioai
eeeiiao?ia aeeth/aao a naay e?oiiaeoea aaeiia?aoeee no?aiu – Oieei,
Eieiaaio e Eaaanaee, ia?acothuea aianoa n i?eeaaathueie ?aeiiaie
noiee/iue iao?iiieeoaineee a?aae (Eaeoei) n ianaeaieai ii/oe 30 iei
/aeiaae, Iaaith, Eeioi, Inaeo, Eiaa e ae?oaea (anaai ieiei 25). A
iaaaeiiieena Oieaeaei nin?aaeioi/aii i?eia?ii 60% ianaeaiey no?aiu e
ieiei 2/3 a? i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iaaaeiiieenu oi?ie?othony e a Caiaaeiie Aa?iia; oai iie, eae i?aaeei
iaiueoa ii ianooaaai eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey, /ai a NOA e ssiiiee.
Auaeaeythony naieie ?acia?aie Aiaeeeneee iaaaeiiieen (iauaaeeiyao
aaeiia?aoeee Eiiaeiia, Ae?ieiaaia, Iai/anoa?a, Eeaa?ioey, e ae?.) e
?aeineee («eieueoeaaay» aaeiia?aoeey ?aiaenoaae a Ieaea?eaiaeao,
?aei-?o?, ?aei-Iaei a O?A e ae?.); eaaeaeue ec ieo aeeth/aao aei 30
aaeiia?aoeee iauae ieiuaaeueth ii 50 oun. ea. ei e n ianaeaieai ii 30-35
iei /aeiaae. ?acaeoea iaaaeiiieenia e caeanue naycaii n auno?ui
?anoe?aieai e?oiiaeoeo aaeiia?aoeee. Oae, ianaeaiea Eiiaeiineie
aaeiia?aoeee (a a?aieoeao iao?iiieeoaineiai ?aeiia) ninoaaeyao 12 iei
/aeiaae, Ia?eaeneie a ?aieao ai?iaeneiai ?aeiia) – 10 iei, aaeiia?aoeee
Ieaeiee ?aei-?o? – i?eia?ii 11 iei /aeiaae.

An? io/?oeeaaa iaia/aaony oi?ie?iaaiea iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo
iaaaeiiieenia. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a oeaaeai ia iaaaeiiieen a
Naaa?i-Caiaaeiie Aa?iia; ii ioaaouaaao nii?aaeaeueiua o?aaiece?iaaiiua
?aeiiu 5 no?ai iauae ieiuaaeueth 230 oun. ea. ei n ianaeaieai 85 iei
/aeiaae i?e n?aaeiae ieioiinoe ianaeaiey 350 /aeiaae ia 1 ea. ei:
THai-Ainoi/ioth Aiaeeth, ?aiaenoaae, ?aei-?o?, aaeueaeenei-o?aioeocneee
?aeii (Aioaa?iai – A?thnnaeue – Eeeeue) e Ia?eaeneee ?aeii.

Naiaia?aciay o?aaiece?iaaiiay ciia iaaaeiiieeniiai oeia a 80-90-o aa.
iaoaai noieaoey neeaaeuaaaony ia thaa Eeoay. A? iniiao ninoaaeytho
naiaiaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ciiu Oyiue/aeyiue n ianaeaieai 3,3 iei /aeiaae
a 1995 a. (?yaeii n Aiieiiaii – 5,6 iei, eioi?ue 1 ethey 1997 a.
Aaeeeia?eoaiey, niaeanii aeiaiai?o, aica?aoeo Eeoath) e *aeooae – 1 iei
/aeiaae (iaaeaeaei io Iaeai, eioi?ue Ii?ooaaeey a eiioea 1999 a. aa?i?o
Eeoath) e e?oiiaeoay aaeiia?aoeey THaeiiai Eeoay Aoaiue/aeio n
ianaeaieai nauoa 4 iei /aeiaae. A ia/aea XXI a. caeanue, aeaeeii,
noi?ie?oaony iiuiue iaaaeiiieen n ianaeaieai ii ?yaeea 30 iei aeeoaeae.

Auno?i?anoouea aaeiia?aoeee noaiiayony yae?aie neeaaeuaathueony
iaaaeiiieenia e a ae?oaeo ?acaeaathueony no?aiao: Nai-Iaoeo –
?ei-aea-AEaiae?i – Aaeo-I?eciioa a A?aceeee, Eae? – Aeaenaiae?ey a
Aaeioa, Eaeueeoooa – Anainie – aeieeia ?. Aeaiiaea? a Eiaeee e o. ae.

Ianiio?y ia an? aieaa /?oeia ioi?ieaiea a ?yaea no?ai iaaaeiiieenia a
aeaea iaoe?iuo aunieio?aaiece?iaaiiuo cii iieiniaeaeiie eiioeao?aoeee,
ia?acothueony a ?acoeueoaoa n?anoaiey ninaaeieo aaeiia?aoeee,
i?aaenoaaeaiey i naiie nouiinoe iaaaeiiieena, aai ea/anoaaiiie iiaecia
ii n?aaiaieth n ai?iaeneie aaeiia?aoeeae, aiciiaeiinoyo e ia?niaeoeaao
?acaeoey inoathony an? au? ia aei eiioea yniuie. N yoei naycaiu e
aanueia cia/eoaeueiua ?anoiaeaeaiey ai acaeyaeao iaaeaeo ?aciuie
aaoi?aie a iaoae no?aia e ca ?oaaaeii i?e ioeaiea ia?niaeoeaiinoe
iaaaeiiieenia eae iaeaieaa iaoe?iie i?ino?ainoaaiiie no?oeoo?u
?annaeaiey. Oae, iaeei ec iniiaiiieiaeieeia iao/iie eiioeaioeee
iaaaeiiieena, AE. Aioiaii, n/eoaao, /oi iaaaeiiieen ciaiaioao niaie ia
oieueei yoai a i?aaiecaoeee oa??eoi?ee e ai?iaeneie aeecie, ii e
«aicaauaao iiaoth y?o a ?aciauaiee ianaeaiey e oicyenoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea». Ia?niaeoeaiinoue yoie no?oeoo?u ?annaeaiey
iiaeoaa?aeaeatho oaeaea iiiaieaoiea enneaaeiaaiey i?iaiicia ?annaeaiey a
aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa, inouanoae?iiua Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui oeaio?ii yeenoeee
a Aoeiao a ?aieao i?ia?aiiu «Ai?iae aoaeouaai» iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii
ecaanoiiai a?a/aneiai a?oeoaeoi?a E. Aeieneaaeena a 70-80-o aa.

Iiae aeeyieai caiaaeiuo ?aaio iiiyoea «iaaaeiiieen» an? aieaa oe?iei
noaei eniieueciaaoueny a niaaoneie eeoa?aoo?a 80-o aa. aeey iaicia/aiey
iaoe?iuo oa??eoi?ee, ioaa/aiiuo i?ioeannaie o?aaiecaoeee, iiauo
o?aaienoe/aneeo no?oeoo?. Ia?aiia/aeueii i?aiaeaaeaee ai?acaei aieaa
naea?aeaiiua ioeaiee ?iee e ia?niaeoea ?acaeoey iaaaeiiieenia. Ii ni
a?aiaiai inicia?ony aaaeiinoue e i?eieiathony iiiuoee na?ue?ciiai
eco/aiey oaeoi?ia e oneiaee ?acaeoey iaaaeiiieenia a ?aciuo no?aiao,
NNN?, ?innee, eo no?oeoo?u, ooieoeee, ia?niaeoea. Yoi niinianoaoao
eo/oaio iiieiaieth aoaeouae o?aaiecaoeee e a iiaie ?innee.

9. Ia?niaeoeau o?aaiecaoeee.

Nouanoaotho aeaa ioee/iuo aeaea ia ia?niaeoeau o?aaiecaoeee eae
aeiaaeueiiai i?ioeanna:

i?ioeann o?aaiecaoeee aeecie e caeaoo, ianooiaao ia?eiae
aeaeiioeaio?aoeee, a n iei e «aeaco?aaiecaoeee»;

o?aaiecaoeey aoaeao ?acaeaaoueny e ai?aaeue, ii a? niaea?aeaiea, oi?iu
e i?ino?ainoaaiiua no?oeoo?u caiaoii iaiythony ii ia?a yaiethoeee naiiai
i?ioeanna a no?aiao ?aciiai oeia.

Ia iie acaeyae, o?aaiecaoeey eiaao aieueoea a?aiaiiua ia?niaeoeau. N
iiceoeee aio?iiieoeueoo?iiai iiaeoiaea e o?aaiecaoeee eae oaiiiaio
eoeueoo?u e oeeaeeecaoeee a? enoi?e/aneea ?aiee cia/eoaeueii
?anoe?ythony e a ?ao?iniaeoeaa, e a ia?niaeoeaa. O?aaiecaoeee ia iiaeao
auoue «neeoeii iiiai», eae iaeuecy yoiai neacaoue i eoeueoo?a eee
i?ia?anna. Ii i?aaeaeu eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey, eiia/ii, nouanoaotho, e
?a/ue, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaaei aanoe i aai ?acoiiie i?ino?ainoaaiiie
i?aaiecaoeee ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao o?aaiecaoeee a oie eee eiie no?aia.

Nieaeaiea eiioeaio?aoeee ianaeaiey a ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeeyo ?acaeouo
no?ai – caeiiiia?iia yaeaiea. Aaaeue e?eaay eiioeaio?aoeee ia iiaeao
iiaeieiaoueny aani?aaeaeueii. Yoi ioithaeue ia icia/aao oiaaeea e?oiiuo
ai?iaeneeo aaeiia?aoeee. Iai?ioea, /enei eo aic?anoaao, eai
oaaee/eaaaony eiee/anoai ianae?iiuo ioieoia, i?eaeaeathueo ianaeaiea.
Oaeei ia?acii, ai?iaeneea aaeiia?aoeee inoathony iniiaiie oi?iie
i?ino?ainoaaiiie i?aaiecaoeee ?annaeaiey, naiaai ?iaea iii?iui ea?eanii
oa??eoi?ee ?acaeouo no?ai.

Iiaue yoai o?aaiecaoeee aeae iniiaaiea iaeioi?ui o/?iui ia Caiaaea, a
oii /enea e oaeei aaoi?eoaoiui, eae aia?eeaineee aaia?ao-a?aaeiaaae A.
Aa??e, aiai?eoue i e?ooii ia?aeiia a oa?aeoa?a o?aaiecaoeee, niaia
oaiaeaioeee, ia/aea iiaiai ia?eiaea «aeaco?aaiecaoeee». Oaeea acaeyaeu
noaee aanueia ?ani?ino?ai?iiuie a NOA e Caiaaeiie Aa?iia. Iaeiaei au?
?ac iiae/a?ei?i, /oi, n iaoae oi/ee c?aiey, ?a/ue eae?o an?-oaee ia i
aeaco?aaiecaoeee, a i aeaeueiaeoai oaeoaeaiee e oa??eoi?eaeueiii
?anoe?aiee i?ioeanna o?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ue ia iiaii yoaia
i?ino?ainoaaiiie yaiethoeee i?eieiaao iiaua oi?iu e an? aeoeaiaa
aiaeaeaao a naith i?aeoo iaeua ai?iaea e naeueneoth aeoaeieo. Ii yoi
ioithaeue ia eiio?o?aaiecaoeey, a neaaeothuay caeiiiia?iay noaaeey
o?aaiecaoeee, iaoneiaeaiiay ?yaeii oaeoi?ia – aeaiia?aoe/aneeo,
yeieiae/aneeo, nioeeaeueiuo, yeiiiie/aneeo, i?ino?ainoaaiiuo.

Yoie aea oi/ee c?aiey i?eaea?aeeaathony e aeaiia?aou III. A naieo
i?iaiicao, aanueia aunieii?ioanneiiaeueiuo, iie aeatho aeaeueiaeoaa
caiaoiia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe ai?iaeai a ie?a aeey ia?aie /aoaa?oe XXI
a. – ia 73,1%. Eiia/ii, yoi oaaee/aiea nouanoaaiii onooiaao aeeiaieea
ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ie?a a XIX e XX aa., ii i?e?ino ai?iaeai inoaiaony
aeinoaoi/ii aaniiui. I?aaaea, cia/eoaeueiay /anoue yoiai i?e?inoa aoaeao
i?eoiaeeoueny ia ?acaeaathueany no?aiu, ii e a ?acaeouo no?aiao
ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea, niaeanii i?iaiicai, aic?ano?o ia 15% a ia?aie
/aoaa?oe XXI aaea.

10. I?eeiaeaiea.

?ani?aaeaeaiea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey

ii ?aeiiai caiiiai oa?a, 1994 a.

* Aeeth/ay anth ?inneth (oae oneiaii i?eiyoi aeaiia?aoaie III i?e
aeiaaeueiuo ?an/?oao); a? ai?iaeneia ianaeaiea a 1994 a. (ia/aei aiaea)
ninoaaeyei 108,5 iei /aeiaae, eee 73% anaai ianaeaiey.

Aeeiaieea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ie?a*.

Aaeiia?aoeee n ianaeaieai nauoa 10 iei, 1950-2010 aa.,

iei aeeoaeae (ioeaiea e i?iaiic)

1950 a.

Iueth-Ei?e, NOA, 12,3

1960 a.

Iueth-Ei?e, 14,2

Oieei, ssiiiey, 11,0

1970 a.

Oieei, 16,5

Iueth-Ei?e, 16,2

Oaioae, Eeoae, 11,2

1980 a.

Oieei, 21,9

Iueth-Ei?e, 15,6

Iaoeei, Iaeneea, 13,9

Nai-Iaoeo, A?aceeey, 12,1

Oaioae, 11,2

Inaea, ssiiiey, 10,0

1990 a.

Oieei, 25,0

Iueth-Ei?e, 16,1

Iaoeei, 15,1

Nai-Iaoeo, 14,8

Oaioae, 13,5

Aiiaae, Eiaeey, 12,2

Ein-Aiaeaeaean, NOA, 11,5

Iaeei, Eeoae, 10,9

Eaeueeoooa, Eiaeey, 10,7

Aoyiin-Ae?an, A?aaioeia, 10,6

Naoe, THae. Ei?ay, 10,6

Inaea, 10,5

2000 a.

Oieei, 27,9

Aiiaae, 18,1

Nai-Iaoeo, 17,8

Oaioae, 17,2

Iueth-Ei?e, 16,6

Iaoeei, 16,4

Iaeei, 14,2

Aeaeaea?oa, Eiaeiiacey, 14,1

Eaain, Ieaa?ey, 13,5

Ein-Aiaeaeaean, 13,1

Eaeueeoooa, 12,7

Oyiueoeceiue, Eeoae, 12,4

Naoe, 12,3

Ea?a/e, Iaeenoai, 12,1

Aeaee, Eiaeey, 11,7

Aoyiin-Ae?an, 11,4

Iaieea, Oeeeiieiu, 10,8

Eae?, Aaeiao, 10,7

Inaea, 10,6

?ei-aea-AEaiae?i,A?acee.,10,2

Aeaeea, Aaiaeaaeao, 10,2

2010 a.

Oieei, 28,7

Aiiaae, 24,3

Oaioae, 21,5

Eaain, 20,8

Nai-Iaoeo, 20,1

Aeaeaea?oa, 19,2

Iaoeei, 18,2

Iaeei, 17,8

Ea?a/e, 17,6

Iueth-Ei?e, 17,3

Aeaeea, 16,0

Eaeueeoooa, 15,6

Oyiueoeceiue, 15,6

Aeaee, 15,5

Ein-Aiaeaeaean, 14,0

Iaieea, 13,7

Eae?, 13,2

Naoe, 13,0

Aoyiin-Ae?an, 12,0

Noaiaoe, Oo?oeey, 11,7

?ei-aea-AEaiae?i, 11,1

Inaea, 10,6

Aeeiaieea ai?iaeneiai ianaeaiey ii iniiaiui ?aaeiiai e iaeioi?ui
no?aiai ie?a a 1950-2025 aa. (ioeaiea e i?iaiic).

11. Eniieuecoaiay eeoa?aoo?a.

Aaeaiaaeaeueiia i?eeiaeaiea «Aaia?aoey» e aacaoa «Ia?aia naioya?y» ??
3, 6, 8 ca 1997 aiae;

Eociaoeia A. I. «Yeiiiie/aneay e nioeeaeueiay aaia?aoey ie?a»;

«Aaia?aoey a oaaeeoeao» (ni?aai/iia iiniaea) ecaeaoaeuenoai «Ae?ioa»;

Ae?iiia A. I., ?ii A. ss. «Aaia?aoey ?innee. Ianaeaiea e oicyenoai»;

Eaa?ia N. A., Aeaaeeee TH. I. «Aeiaaeueiay aaia?aoey».

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