.

Группы по H. Смелзеру

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 597
Скачать документ

*OI I?AAeNOAAEssAO NIAIE A?OIIA?

A ia/aea 80-o aiaeia aeo?iaeenou ioia/aee, /oi i?anooiiua
ai?iaeneea aaiaeu, a i?ioeii nin?aaeioi/aiiua a ai?iaeao naaa?a,
?ani?ino?aieeenue a oaeeo ioaeaeaiiuo ianoao, eae Yeue – Iani,
Aeueaoea?e, Ae?ieiaai e Aa?eee. Yoe aaiaeu, iacuaathuea naay
“*a?aiaie” eee “Aieeaie”, caieiathony ia i?inoi o?aaeeoeeiiiui
“?acaiai”. Aic?inea eo aa?anneaiinoue – eiiaaea aaiaeeou ecaeaatho
ethaeae oeaiyie, aeoaeieaie eee i?eiaiytho i?oaeea. E?iia oiai,
nia?aiaiiua ai?iaeneea aaiaeu /anoi niaa?oatho na?ueaciua
i?anooieaiey, aeeth/ay oi?aiaeth ia?eioeeaie e a?aaaaee.
Iienuaaaiua aaiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie a?oiiu.

Ii/aio aaiaea – oa?aeoa?iue i?eia? a?oiiu? Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iniiaiuo
/a?o a?oiiu ?anniio?ei iiceoeeth Ia?oiia (1968). Ia?oii ii?aaeaeyao
a?oiio eae niaieoiiinaue ethaeae, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
acaeiiaeaenoaotho ae?oa n ae?oaii, iniciatho naith i?eiaaeeaaeiinoue e
aeaiiie a?oiia e n/eoathony aa /eaiaie n oi/ee c?aiey ae?oaeo ethaeae.

Ia?aay nouanoaaiiay /a?oa a?oii – ii?aaeaeaiiue niinia

acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eo /eaiaie. O/anoieee ai?iaeneeo aaiae aianoa
neiiythony ii oeeoeai, niaianoii ieaie?otho aoaeouea aeaenoaey (/anoi
iie aea?aeao eo a oaeia), iaycaiu caueuaoue ae?oa ae?oaa a neo/aa
iaiaaeaiey ecaia e o.ae. Ia iaiaa aaaeiia i?aaeei: /eaiu a?oiiu ia
aeieaeiu iauaoueny n ia aoiaeyueie a a?oiio a oie aea iaia?a, /oi e ni
“naieie”, a oai aieaa yoi ioiineony e i?aaenoaaeoaeyi niia?ie/athuoo
aaiae.

Yoe oa?aeoa?iua ia?acoeu aeayoaeueiinoe e acaeiiaeaenoaey
ii?aaeaeytho no?oeoo?o a?oii. Iaaethaeathony ?aciua niiniau

acaeiiaeaenoaey aioo?e a?oii, aeeth/ay oaeea, eae a?aonoai, aeaineay
i?aaiecaoeey, eeoa, oaieiaue yeeiaae a a?iee.

Aoi?ay aaaeiay /a?oa a?oii – /eainoai, /oanoai i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e
aeaiiie a?oiia. *eaiu oee/iuo aaiae ieacuaatho ianoie/eaia aeaaeaiea ia
aeeaoueo iiaeecinoe iiae?inoeia, /oiau oa i?eniaaeeiyeenue e iei;
anooieaiea a aaiaeo /anoi nii?iaiaeaeaaony oaeiuie ?eooaeaie,
oa?aeoa?iuie aeey iaoee. Eiiaaea, /oiau noaoue iieiii?aaiui /eaiii
aaiaeu, thiioa aeieaeai i?iyaeoue niaeinoue, niaa?oeoue aeo ianeeey
ii ioiioaieth e a?aaeaeothuae aaiaea. *anoi eaeie-oi aiaoiee ciae
neiaieece?oao /eainoai a aaiaea: cieioia eieueoei a ooa, oaeeiaue
ieaoie ii?aaeaeaiiiai oeaaoa. O/anoieee aaiaeu aeieaeiu
aeaiiino?e?iaaoue iaiieieaaeioth aa?iinoue naiae a?oiia e
iaiaaeaeaoue i?aaenoaaeoaeae a?aaeaeaaiie.

Niaeanii Ia?oiio (1968), ethaee, aoiaeyuea a a?oiiu,
aini?eieiathony e ae?oaeie eae /eaiu yoeo a?oii. A?oiia eiaao
naith eaeaioe/iinoue n oi/ee c?aiey iinoi?iiieo. Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii
ia i?eia?a oie aea ai?iaeneie aaiaeu. Aaiaea a?iaea “Oie Neia Aiec”
ec Nai-O?aioeenei eaeaioeoeoee?oaony aa i?ioeaieeaie eae a?oiia.
Iieeoeey, aaaeouay n iae iinoiyiioth ai?ueao, oaeaea n/eoaao aa
niei/aiiie a?oiiie.

A?oiiiaay eaeaioe/iinoue cia/eoaeueii aieaa onoie/eaa,
/ai iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue. Anee iu ano?a/aai /aeiaaea e ociaai,
/oi ii yaeyaony /eaiii ?aeeaeiciie a?oiiu (iai?eia?,
aa?aaa-o?enoeai) eee yoie/aneie a?oiiu (iai?eia?, aia?eeaioeaa
a?a/aneii i?ienoiaeaeaiey), iu iau/ii i?aaeiieaaaai, /oi a?oiia
ieacuaaao ia iaai aeeyiea e n/eoaai, /oi aai iinooiee niaa?oathony iiae
aeaaeaieai ae?oaeo /eaiia a?oiiu. Iai?eia?, anee aia?eeaiaoe a?a/aneiai
i?ienoiaeaeaiey aieinoao ca a?aea a ea/anoaa eaiaeeaeaoa ia iino iy?a,
iai eaaeaony, /oi a?oiia ieacaea ia iaai ii?aaeaeaiiia aeaaeaiea.

Yenia?eiaioaeueiua aeaiiua iiaeoaa?aeaeatho cia/aiea a?oiiiaie
eaeaioe/iinoe. Oaeeaea? (1978) iii?inee nooaeaioia iaaethaeaoue ca
ethaeueie, eiaaea oa i?eieiatho eaeia-oi ?aoaiea. Iaeioi?ua ec oao, eoi
aeieaeai aue i?eiyoue ?aoaiea, aeaenoaiaaee a iaeeii/eo. ?yaeii n
ae?oaeie iinaaeeee o?ao iaciaeiiuo ethaeae, e nooaeaioai auei neacaii,
/oi ana /aoaa?i iaciaeiiu ae?oa n ae?oaii, aua?aiu iaoaaae. Auee e
ae?oaea, oaeaea neaeaaoea aianoa, ii nooaeaioai niiaueee, /oi yoi /eaiu
iaaeaaii ia?aciaaiiie a?oiiu.

Caoai nooaeaioia iii?ineee ii?aaeaeeoue, i?eieiaee ee ethaee,
eioi?uo iie iaaethaeaee, naiinoiyoaeueiia ?aoaiea eee aeaenoaiaaee iiae
aeaaeaieai a?oiiu. Ethaee, neaeaaoea a iaeeii/anoaa, ii iiaieth
nooaeaioia, i?eiyee ?aoaiea naiinoiyoaeueii. Oa, eoi neaeaee ?yaeii n
iaciaeiioeaie, oaeaea, eacaeinue, ia auee iiaeaa?aeaiu eo aeeyieth. Ii
eiaaea /aeiaae, n/eoaaoeeny /eaiii a?oiiu, aueth niaeanai n ae?oaeie aa
/eaiaie, nooaeaiou i?eciaaaee aai ?aoaiea ?acoeueoaoii aeaaeaiey a?oiiu.
A eiaaea iaeei ec /eaiia a?oiiu ia niaeaoaeny n inoaeueiuie, nooaeaiou
iieaaaee, /oi ii i?eiye ?aoaiea naiinoiyoaeueii. Ianiiiaiii, nooaeaiou
enoieeiauaaee oaeei ia?acii iiaaaeaiea iaaethaeaaiuo, iioiio, /oi naie
aaee au naay eiaiii oae a iiaeiaiuo neooaoeeyo.

IA?AE*IUA E AOI?E*IUA A?OIIU

O?e iniiaiua /a?ou, eioi?ua iu oieueei /oi ?anniio?aee,
acaeiiaeaenoaea, /eainoai e a?oiiiaay eaeaioe/iinoue – naienoaaiiu
iiiaeanoao a?oii. Aeaia aethaeaiiuo, o?e oiaa?eua, eioi?ua a
auoiaeiua aeie aianoa ioi?aaeythony ia ?uaaeeo, eeoa ea?ieia a
a?eaeae, neaoou, iauaaeeiaiea ii i?iecaiaenoao YAI – ana iie
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie a?oiiu. Ii a?oiia, ninoiyuay ec aeaoo
aethaeaiiuo eee o?ao oiaa?euae, ei?aiiui ia?acii ioee/aaony io
a?eaaaeu, eioi?ay iiioe?oao YAI, ?aniieiaeeaoenue ca iaeiei
noieii. Aethaeaiiua e ae?ocuey ia?acotho ia?ae/iua a?oiiu; a?oiia ii
nai?ea YAI – aoi?e/iay.

Ia?ae/iay a?oiia ninoieo ec iaaieueoiai /enea ethaeae, iaaeaeo
eioi?uie onoaiaaeeaathony acaeiiioiioaiey, iniiaaiiua ia eo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iniaaiiinoyo. Ia?ae/iua a?oiiu ia aaeeee, eai a
i?ioeaiii neo/aa o?oaeii onoaiiaeoue iaiin?aaenoaaiiua, ee/iua
acaeiinayce iaaeaeo anaie /eaiaie.

*a?ec Eoee (1909) aia?aua aaae iiiyoea ia?ae/iie a?oiiu
i?eiaieoaeueii e naiuea, iaaeaeo /eaiaie eioi?ie neeaaeuaathony
onoie/eaua yiioeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey. Niaeanii Eoee, naiuey n/eoaaony
“ia?ae/iie”, oae eae iia yaeyaony ia?aie a?oiiie, ea?athuae iniiaioth
?ieue a i?ioeanna nioeeaeecaoeee ieaaeaioeaa. Aiineaaenoaee nioeeieiae
noaee i?eiaiyoue yoio oa?iei i?e eco/aiee ethaie a?oiiu, a eioi?ie
noi?ie?iaaeenue oaniua ee/iua ioiioaiey, ii?aaeaeythuea nouiinoue
aeaiiie a?oiiu. Oaeei ia?acii, aethaeaiiua, a?oiiu ae?ocae, /eaiu eeoaa,
eioi?ua ia oieueei aianoa ea?atho a a?eaeae, ii e oiaeyo ae?oa e ae?oao
a ainoe, yaeytho niaie ia?ae/iua a?oiiu.

Aoi?e/iay a?oiia ia?acoaony ec ethaeae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie ii/oe
ionoonoaotho yiioeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey, eo acaeiiaeaenoaea iaoneiaeaii
no?aieaieai e aeinoeaeaieth ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae. A yoeo, a?oiiao
iniiaiia cia/aiea i?eaeaaony iaee/iinoiui ea/anoaai, a oiaieth
auiieiyoue ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee. Ia i?aaei?eyoee ii i?iecaiaenoao YAI
aeieaeiinoe aeaeii?iecaiaeeoaey, oi?aaeythuaai, eo?uea?a, eiaeaia?a,
aaeieieno?aoi?a iiaeao caieiaoue ethaie /aeiaae, iaeaaeathuae
niioaaonoaothuae iiaeaioiaeie. Anee eeoea, caieiathuea yoe aeieaeiinoe,
ni?aaeythony ni naiae ?aaioie, i?aaiecaoeey iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue.
Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua iniaaiiinoe eaaeaeiai ii/oe ie/aai ia cia/ao aeey
i?aaiecaoeee e iaiai?io, /eaiu naiuee eee a?oiiu ea?ieia oieeaeueiu.
Eo ee/iinoiua ea/anoaa ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue, ie iaeiiai iaeuecy
caiaieoue eai-oi ae?oaei.

A neeo oiai, /oi ?iee ai aoi?e/iie a?oiia /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu, aa
/eaiu ia?aaeei i/aiue iaei ciatho ae?oa i ae?oaa. Eae i?aaeei, iie ia
iaieiathony i?e ano?a/a. Iaaeaeo ieie ia onoaiaaeeaathony
yiioeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey, oa?aeoa?iua aeey ae?ocae e /eaiia naiuee. A
i?aaiecaoeee, naycaiiie n o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoueth, iniiaiuie
yaeythony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioiioaiey. Oaeei ia?acii, ia oieueei ?iee,
ii e niiniau eiiioieeaoeee /aoei ii?aaeaeaiu. Iineieueeo ee/iay aanaaea
ia yooaeoeaia, eiiioieeaoeey /anoi iineo aieaa oi?iaeueiue oa?aeoa? e
inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth ienueiaiiuo aeieoiaioia eee oaeaoiiiuo
caiieia.

Iaeiaei ia neaaeoao i?aoaaee/eaaoue iaeoth iaacee/aiiinoue
aoi?e/iuo a?oii, yeiau eeoaiiuo naiaia?acey. Ethaee anooiatho a
ae?oaeaneea ioiioaiey e ia?acotho iiaua a?oiiu ia ?aaioa, a oeiea e
aioo?e ae?oaeo aoi?e/iuo a?oii. Anee iaaeaeo eiaeeaeaeaie, o/anoaothueie
a iauaiee, neeaaeuaathony aeinoaoi/ii onoie/eaua ioiioaiey, iiaeii
n/eoaoue, /oi iie nicaeaee iiaoth ia?ae/ioth a?oiio.

IA?AE*IUA A?OIIU A NIA?AIAIIII IAUANOAA

A oa/aiea iineaaeieo aeaoonio eao oai?aoeee nioeeaeueiuo iaoe
ioia/atho ineaaeaiea ?iee ia?ae/iuo a?oii a iauanoaa. Iie n/eoatho,
/oi i?iiuoeaiiay ?aaiethoeey, ?acaeoea ai?iaeia e aicieeiiaaiea
ei?ii?aoeee i?eaaee e nicaeaieth eoeueoo?ii iaacee/aiiie ath?ie?aoee.
Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee yoeo oaiaeaioeee auee aaaaeaiu oaeea iiiyoey, eae
“ianniaia iauanoai” e “oiaaeie iaueiu”.

Ii nioeeieiae/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, i?iaiaeeiua a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo
aeanyoeeaoee, naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i neiaeiinoe yoeo aii?inia.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, a nia?aiaiiii ie?a iaaethaeaaony ainiiaenoai aoi?e/iuo
a?oii. Ii a oi aea a?aiy ia?ae/iay a?oiia ieacaeanue aiieia onoie/eaie
e nae/an aaaeiui naycothuei caaiii iaaeaeo ee/iinoueth e aieaa
oi?iaeueiie, i?aaiecaoeeiiiie noi?iiie aeecie. Enneaaeiaaiey ia?ae/iuo
a?oii nin?aaeioi/aiu a ianeieueeeo iaeanoyo. Ia/iai n aiaeeca ?iee
ia?ae/iuo a?oii a i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

I?IIUOEAIIINOUe

Oanoueaeanyo eao iacaae a?oiia nioeeaeueiuo enneaaeiaaoaeae eco/aea
iiaaaeaiea ?aai/eo aeaaioneiai caaiaea Oioi?ia, eioi?ui oi?aaeyea
“Western Alantric Company” a *eeaai. O/aiua no?aieeenue
ii?aaeaeeoue oaeoi?u, aicaeaenoaothuea ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea e
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth au?aaioeo ?aai/eo. Iai?eia?, iie n/eoaee, /oi
eiee/anoai ia?a?uaia a ?aaioa aeeyao ia i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Eoae,
iie aua?aee a?oiio ?aaioieoe e ia/aee yenia?eiaio. Nia/aea ?aaioieoeu
iieo/eee aiciiaeiinoue ianeieueei ?ac iiaeieao ioaeuoaoue a oa/aiea
?aai/ai aeiy, caoai ia?eiaeu ioaeuoa nie?aoeeenue, ii noaee aieaa
/anouie. Yenia?eiaioaoi?u oaeaea nie?auaee e oaeeeiyee a?aiy,
i?aaeinoaaeaiiia aeey eai/a. E?iia oiai, a ?aciie ia?a oneeeaaee
inaauaiea; i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi aieaa y?eia inaauaiea aoaeao
niinianoaiaaoue iiauoaieth i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe.

?acoeueoaou yenia?eiaioa oaeeaeee enneaaeiaaoaeae. Eiaaea iie
oaeeeiyee ia?eiaeu ioaeuoa, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea ?aaioieoe
aic?anoaea.I?e nie?auaiee iia i?iaeieaeaea ?anoe. Ii eiaaea aue
onoaiiaeai ia?aiia/aeueiue ?aaeei o?oaea e ioaeuoa,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea au?inea aua aieueoa. Oi aen naiia
iaaethaeaeinue i?e yenia?eiaioao, naycaiiuo n eciaiaieai
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe eai/a e y?einoe inaauaiey. I?e ethauo eciaiaieyo
o?iaaiue au?aaioee aeaiuei aic?anoae.

Iieo/ea oaeea ?acoeueoaou, enneaaeiaaoaee iiiuoaeenue auyaeoue
ae?oaea oaeoi?u (iiieii oneiaee o?oaea), eioi?ua aicaeaenoaiaaee ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue. Ieacaeinue, /oi aeaiueiu, aua?aiiua aeey
i?iaaaeaiey yenia?eiaioa, ia?aciaaee a?oiio. Ei eacaeinue, /oi,
iineieueeo ioia?aee eiaiii eo, iie i?eia?aee iniaue noaoon, e iie noaee
n/eoaoue ae?oa ae?oaa i?aaenoaaeoaeyie naiaai ?iaea “yeeou”. Iiyoiio e
noa?aeenue ?aaioaoue eae iiaeii eo/oa a niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie
enneaaeiaaoaeae. Yoio oei ?aaae?iaaiey noae iacuaaoueny oioi?ineei
yooaeoii. Ii ninoiye a neaaeothuai: aa?iyoii, nai oaeo, /oi eiaiii
aeaiiay a?oiia iiaeaa?aaaony eco/aieth, aicaeaenoaoao ia iiaaaeaiea aa
/eaiia aeaaea aieueoa, /ai ae?oaea oaeoi?u, eioi?ua no?aiyony auyaeoue
enneaaeiaaoaee.

Ia iniiaa yoiai yenia?eiaioa e ae?oaeo aeaiiuo oioi?ineea
enneaaeiaaoaee naeaeaee auaiae, /oi “/aeiaa/aneee oaeoi? ea?aao aaaeioth
?ieue a o?oaeiaie aeayoaeueiinoe. Eiaaea ?aaioiee i?eia?aoae iiaue
noaoon, naycaiiue n aeaiaaeiui aiciaa?aaeaeaieai, iioaaeie eee
iiauoaieai a aeieaeiinoe, i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue aai o?oaea no?aieoaeueii
aic?anoaea. Yoiio oaeaea niinianoaiaaea yooaeoeaiay nenoaia ?aaae?iaaiey
ia aeaeiau. Anee ?aaioiee eiaao aiciiaeiinoue ianoaeeoue oo eee eioth
i?iaeaio n oa?iaeeaui ia/aeueieeii, eioi?ue auneooaao aai n ni/oanoaeai
e oaaaeaieai, e anee iinea yoiai /oi-oi eciaieony e eo/oaio,
aic?anoaao aeiaa?ea ?aai/eo e ?oeiaiaenoao, eo /oanoai nianoaaiiiai
aeinoieinoaa e no?aieaiea e a?oiiiaiio aaeeinoao.

Oioi?ineea yenia?eiaioaoi?u auyaeee oaeaea aeaaii?eyoioth ?ieue
iaaieueoeo, /aoei i?aaieciaaiiuo a?oii ?aaioieoe.

*eaiu oaeeo a?oii /anoi no?aieeenue caoayoue aicith, oooee, ea?u.
Iinea ?aaiou iie ea?aee a aaenaie, ea?ou, oiaeeee ae?oa e ae?oao a
ainoe. E yoe ia?ae/iua a?oiiu niiniaiu auee ieacaoue aeeyiea ia
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue anaai caaiaea. Ianiio?y ia iiiuoee ?oeiaiaenoaa
eiio?iee?iaaoue au?aaioeo iooai onoaiiaeaiey ii?i, yoe a?oiiu naie
iaioeoeeaeueii ?aaoee?iaaee oaii ?aaiou. Oa, eoi o?oaeeeny neeoeii
auno?i (eo iacuaaee “aunei/eaie”), iiaeaa?aaeenue nioeeaeueiiio
aeaaeaieth ni noi?iiu a?oiiu – eo ae?acieee, auniaeaaee eee
eaii?e?iaaee. *anoi yoi aeaaeaiea ieacuaaeinue ianoieueei neeueiui, /oi
?aai/ea niaoeeaeueii ?aaioaee iaaeeaiiaa e ioeacuaaeenue io i?aiee ca
i?aauoaiea ii?i au?aaioee (?ioeenaa?aa?, Aeeenii, 1947).

AAAeNOAEss

O?aaaiu, iaaiaeiaiey, ac?uau – ana yoe aaaenoaey aucuaatho iaieeo e
aaanoai ouny/ ethaeae, iuoathueony nianoe naith aeeciue; a ?acoeueoaoa
iiaeiaiuo neooaoeee ia?ooaaony ?aaioa o?ainii?oa e n?aaenoa
eiiioieeaoeee. Enneaaeiaaiea iiaaaeaiey ethaeae ai a?aiy noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee iieacaei, /oi iaiaaeeaiiay ?aaeoeey iiiaeo iai?aaeaia ia oi,
/oiau auoue aianoa n /eaiaie naiae naiuee, a a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo –
n ae?ocueyie. Ethaee ioeacuaathony auiieiyoue naie iaycaiiinoe ia
?aaioa, noaay ia ia?aue ieai aaciianiinoue naiuee e ae?ocae.

Yoa ?aaeoeey noaiiaeony i?e/eiie ?ieaauo eiioeeeoia:
neaaeoao ee ?aaioieeo inoaaaoueny ia naiai iinoo eee ?acuneeaaoue
naiueth? *oi ii aeieaeai aeaeaoue – io?aiyoue nianoaaiiinoue
aeaaeaeueoea i?aaei?eyoey eee i/aoueny aeiiie? Aieueoeinoai ethaeae
no?aiyony auoue ?yaeii ni naieie naiueyie. I?e eco/aiee iiaaaeaiey
a neooaoeeyo o?aaaiia e ac?uaia Euethen Eeeeeai (1952) naeaeae
auaiae, /oi a yeno?aiaeueiuo oneiaeyo aieueoeinoai ethaeae iieeaeaee
?aai/ea ianoa e oee aeiiie. Oa, eoi iau/ii aue ia iianiuo ?aaioao,
i?iyaeyee aieueooth aioiaiinoue inoaaaoueny ia ianoa a yeno?aiaeueiie
neooaoeee. Oae, ai a?aiy iiuiiai ac?uaa a Oaoan Neoe niaoeeaeueii
iiaeaioiaeaiiua io?yaeu ii i/enoea oa??eoi?ee inoaaaeenue ia ?aaioa aei
aeaaiiieo/iii eiioea, iiea ia ieiiaaea iianiinoue iiauo ac?uaia.

A ai?iaea, aaea ?ac?aceeny o?aaai, ioeoea? iieeoeee “?ac?uaaeny”
iaaeaeo i?ioeaiai?noaothueie o?aaiaaieyie neoaeau e ?ieueth ae?oaa, e
ninaaea. “Iauacaeay ai?iae iinea o?aaaia, y iiiye, /oi a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue iia neaaeiaaei naycaoueny n aiaoiei ie?ii e aucaaoue iiiiuue.
ss ioi?aaeeny a ninaaeiee ai?iae, /oiau ia?aoeoueny ca iiiiuueth e aai
aeeoaeyi. Ii aei?iaa iaiy ieeeeaee ii eiaie ethaee, n eioi?uie y
aue aeecei ciaeii, iie i?ineee iiii/ue ei iaeoe ?iaenoaaiieeia. ss
eniuoae naiua oyaeaeua ieioou a naiae aeecie, i?iacaeay ieii ethaeae,
eioi?ua ia?auaeenue ei iia eae e ae?oao, ii ia iia inoaiiaeoueny, /oiau
ei iiii/ue” .

Yoio ioeoea? nua?ae iniiaioth ?ieue a oi?ie?iaaiee nianaoaeueiuo
eiiaiae ec ninaaeiaai ai?iaea.

Oioy, n iaeiie noi?iiu, a neooaoeee iauai aaaenoaey i?aaeaiiinoue
naiuea iiaeao aucaaoue aieueoia niyoaiea, n ae?oaie iia iiaeao
niinianoaiaaoue oeo/oaieth aeayoaeueiinoe nianaoaeueiie neoaeau. Eiaaea
a Oaoan Neoe i?iecioae ac?ua, iiiaea ethaee, ?acuneeaaaoea naieo
aeeceeo a ?aeiia aaaenoaey, ieacuaaee iiiiuue nianaoaeyi.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, i?e ieaie?iaaiee aeaenoaee a aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo
neaaeoao o/eouaaoue i?aaeaiiinoue ethaeae ia?ae/iie a?oiia. Nicaeaiea
nenoai naycae aeey ?aai/eo e eo naiae, caiyoey ii eco/aieth i?aaee
iiaaaeaiey a aaa?eeiuo neooaoeeyo e /aoei onoaiiaeaiiua i?ei?eoaou
niinianoaiaaee au iiieaeaieth oua?aa, iaiineiii aaaenoaeai.

Aieaa iicaeiaa enneaaeiaaiea iiaaaeaiey ethaeae ai a?aiy noeoeeiuo
aaaenoaee iieacaei cia/aiea ia?ae/iuo a?oii, oae neacaoue, io
i?ioeaiiai – eiaaea oaeea a?oiiu ionoonoaiaaee. Eco/ay neooaoeeth,
aucaaiioth iaaiaeiaieai a Aoooaaei E?ei (Caiaaeiay Ae?aeaeeiey) a
oaa?aea 1974 a., Y?eenii (197a) ioiaoee, /oi ee/iua nayce iaaeaeo
/eaiaie iauiinoe auee ineaaeaiu a ?acoeueoaoa yeiiiie/aneeo o?oaeiinoae
e iea?aoeee ianaeaiey, iaaethaeaaoeony a oa/aiea aeanyoeia eao, aei
aaaenoaey. Ii iieacae, /oi ionoonoaea naycae, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey ia?ae/iie
a?oiiu, caiaoii aeeyei ia /eaiia iauiinoe; iinea noeoeeiiai aaaenoaey
iie aeieai eniuouaaee /oanoai aeoaieiai io/ayiey e aacunoiaeiinoe.

NIOeEAEUeIUE EIIO?IEUe: EEOAENEEE I?EIA?

I?eia?u iiaaaeaiey a oneiaeyo i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e a
neooaoeeyo noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi ia?ae/iua
a?oiiu ea?atho aaaeioth ?ieue a no?oeoo?a nioeeaeueiie aeecie. Ia
ae?oaii i?eia?a iiaeii oaaaeeoueny, eaeei ia?acii iieeoe/aneea
?oeiaiaeeoaee eniieuecotho iaeua a?oiiu aeey inouanoaeaiey nioeeaeueiii
eiio?iey e oi?aaeaiey ia?iaeii.

A Eeoaeneie Ia?iaeiie ?anioaeeea n?aaee ?aciuo neiaa ianaeaiey auee
i?aaieciaaiu a?oiiu, iacuaaaiua “nyi-, aeeth/athuea io 8 aei
15 /aeiaae. Yoe a?oiiu auee i?aaieciaaiu ia oaa?eeao, a oaooao,
ieienoa?noaao, a aiaiiuo iiae?acaeaeaieyo e ai?iaeneeo eaa?oaeao. Iiieii
o/anoey a aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiecaoeee /eaiu “nyi-oeo’ ia?eiaee/anee
i?iaiaeeee nia?aiey, iinayuaiiua oae iacuaaaiie acaeiiie e?eoeea. Ia
nia?aieyo eaaeaeue o/anoiee a?oiiu iaycai iiaeaa?aiooue e?eoeea naie
nianoaaiiua iaaeinoaoee e auneooaoue e?eoe/aneea caia/aiey ae?oaeo, a
oaeaea ianoaeeoue iaaeinoaoee ae?oaeo /eaiia a?oiiu. Oaeei ia?acii
a?oiia ieacuaaea ia?iiiia e aeeeoaeueiia aeaaeaiea ia eaaeaeii naiaai
/eaia; aeanoe eniieueciaaee oaeea a?oiiu, /oiau iaania/eoue
anaia?iaeioth iiaeaea?aeeo ioeoeeaeueiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeea
(Oaeo, 1974).

I?eaaaeaiiua i?eia?u iieacuaatho, ianeieueei aaaeia ia?ae/iay a?oiia a
nia?aiaiiie aeecie. Yoe a?oiiu ia oieueei ia oo?aoeee naiaai
cia/aiey ia oiia oneeeaoeony aoi?e/iuo a?oii, ii, eae ieacaeinue,
niinianoaotho oniaoiiio ooieoeeiie?iaaieth e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeee. Oaeea
aeaaioneea einoeooou, eae oi?aiaey, i?aaeoaeuenoai, aii?oaeaiiua neeu,
?aeeaey e ia?aciaaiea, iie?athony ia iaeua ia?ae/iua a?oiiu.

II*AIO ETHAeE IA?ACOTHO A?OIIU?

Aiaeece?oy a?oiiu, i?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao iiiyoue, ii/aio ethaee
anooiatho a ieo. I?e aeoaieii eco/aiee yoiai aii?ina iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue
a aeaeo ineoieiae/aneea e aeieiae/aneea oaeoi?u, ia iniiaa eioi?uo
onoaiaaeeaathony nayce n?aaee ethaeae e i?eiaoia. Ia aaeaaaynue a
iiae?iaiinoe, ia?aie/einy eeoue oiiieiaieai oii, /oi aeey iiiaeo aeaeia
iaacueyi (?a/ue eaeao i naiuo aunieii?aaieciaaiiuo i?eiaoao), a
oaeaea ethaeae, oa?aeoa?ii no?aieaiea aeeoue a?oiiaie. Oaeoe/anee
a?oiia yaeyaony iniiaiui oaeoi?ii, niinianoaothuei auaeeaaieth.
Aeaaiaea?y ?acaeaeaieth ?ieae (iaaethaeaoaey, ?oeiaiaeeoaey, caueoieea
a?oiiu e ae?.) /eaiu a?oiiu iiaoo aeiauaaoue ieuo e caueuaoueny io
a?aaia aieaa yooaeoeaii, /ai aeaenoaoy a iaeeii/eo.

A?oiia aeeciaiii iaiaoiaeeia aeey ethaeae. Ieaaeaioeu a oa/aiea
aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie ioaeaeathony a caaioa ac?ineuo. A yoi a?aiy iie
aini?eieiatho iaeioi?ua iaauee e iiiaea o?aaiaaiey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey
aeecie a a?oiiao. Noaiiaynue noa?oa, iie onaaeaatho ciaiey, iiiyoey,
oeaiiinoe e i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey, naienoaaiiua a?oiia, e eioi?ie
i?eiaaeeaaeao. Nioeeaeecaoeey niinianoaoao eo i?eniiniaeaieth e
iauanoaaiiie aeecie e nio?aiaieth a?oiiu aeaaea iinea nia?oe eiai-oi ec
aa /eaiia. Iiieii nioeeaeecaoeee, a?oiiu inouanoaeytho iiiai ae?oaeo
ooieoeee.

Eino?oiaioaeueiay ?ieue a?oiiu

Iiiaea a?oiiu ia?acothony ?aaee auiieiaiey ii?aaeaeaiiie ?aaiou. Yoe
eino?oiaioaeueiua a?oiiu iaiaoiaeeiu aeey inouanoaeaiey aeae, eioi?ua
o?oaeii eee iaaiciiaeii auiieieoue iaeiiio /aeiaaeo. A?eaaaea
no?ieoaeae, a?oiia oe?o?aia, iioi/iay eeiey ia i?iecaiaenoaa e
oooaieueiay eiiaiaea nicaeathony aeey aeinoeaeaiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo oeaeae.

Yeni?anneaiue aniaeo a oi?ie?iaaiee a?oii

Iaeioi?ua aeaeu a?oii iacuaathony yeni?anneaiuie. Iie eiatho naiae
oeaeueth oaeiaeaoai?eoue no?aieaiea /eaiia a?oii e nioeeaeueiiio
iaeia?aieth; oaaaeaieth e aeiaa?eth. Oaeea a?oiiu ia?acothony noeoeeii
i?e n?aaieoaeueii iaaieueoii aicaeaenoaee ecaia. I?eia?aie iiaeiaiuo
a?oii iiaoo neoaeeoue eiiiaiee ae?ocae e iiae?inoeia, eioi?ui i?aaeony
aianoa ea?aoue, caieiaoueny nii?oii eee ono?aeaaoue aa/a?eiee. Iaeiaei
iao /aoei au?aaeaiiie a?aieoeu iaaeaeo eino?oiaioaeueiuie e
yeni?anneaiuie a?oiiaie. Eino?oiaioaeueiua /anoi auiieiytho
yeni?anneaiua ooieoeee. Iaaeaeo /eaiaie aieneiauo niaaeeiaiee iiaoo
neiaeeoueny ai?acaei aieaa aeoaieea yiioeeiiaeueiua ioiioaiey, /ai oa,
/oi iaiaoiaeeiu aeey iiaaaeu a n?aaeaiee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu,
yeni?anneaiua a?oiiu iiaeii n/eoaoue eino?oiaioaeueiuie, iineieueeo iie
nicaeathony n ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaeueth – aeey iieo/aiey oaeiaieuenoaey io
/aeiaa/aneiai iauaiey. Eiiaaea yeni?anneaiay a?oiia yaeyaony
eino?oiaioaeueiie a aua aieueoae ia?a; neaaeai, coi iaaethaeaaony,
eiaaea ninaaee i?aaiecotho annioeeaoeeth eaa?oe?inuaiueeia.

Iiaeaea?aeeaathuay ?ieue a?oii

Ethaee iauaaeeiythony ia oieueei aeey auiieiaiey niaianoiie
aeayoaeueiinoe e oaeiaeaoai?aiey nioeeaeueiuo, iio?aaiinoae, ii oaeaea
e aeey ineaaeaiey iai?eyoiuo /oanoa. Oaooa? (1959) i?iaae ?yae
eeanne/aneeo yenia?eiaioia, aeey eioi?uo a ea/anoaa eniuooaiuo auee
aua?aiu nooaeaiou iineaaeiaai eo?na. Ei auei i?aaeeiaeaii a oa/aiea
iaeioi?ii a?aiaie “iaeeaeaoue” ia/aea yenia?eiaioa. Iaeioi?ui ec
eniuooaiuo niiaueee eiaeiua naaaeaiey i oa?aeoa?a iaeeaeaaiii
yenia?eiaioa, /oi aucaaei /oanoai o?aaiae. Auei neacaii, /oi iie aoaeoo
o/anoaiaaoue a yenia?eiaioa, naycaiiii n yooaeoaie yeaeo?ioiea. Caoai eo
iii?ineee iiaeiaeaeaoue aei oao ii?, iiea yenea?eiaioaoi?u iiaeaioiayony
e ia/aeo yenia?eiaioa. Eiio?ieueioth a?oiio oaeaea iii?ineee
iiaeiaeaeaoue, ii eniuooaiui yoie a?oiiu ia niiaueee ieeaeie
o?aaiaeauae eee, iai?ioea, oniieaeaathuae eioi?iaoeee i aioiayuainy
“yenia?eiaioa”. Oaooa? ia?aoeeny ei anai eniuooaiui n aii?inii, eae iie
i?aaeii/eoatho iaeeaeaoue ia/aea yenia?eiaioa: a iaeeii/anoaa eee aianoa
n ae?oaeie nooaeaioaie? Eae au a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea iineiaeoeu “Aaaea
ethaeo eiiiaieth” /eaiu yenia?eiaioaeueiie a?oiiu a aieueoae ia?a
no?aieeenue i?eniaaeeieony a ia?eiae iaeeaeaiey e ae?oaei, /ai
eniuooaiua ec eiio?ieueiie a?oiiu. Oaooa? naeaeae auaiae, /oi aianoa
eniuooaiui auei eaa/a i?aiaeieaaaoue io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee: ie
oniieaeaaeenue, ioaeaeaeenue io a?onoiuo iuneae e iieo/aee
aeiiieieoaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth.

Aeaeueiaeoea enneaaeiaaiey ianeieueei aeiiieieee yoio auaiae. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy onoaiiaeaii, /oi ia ana io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee
niinianoaotho ia?aciaaieth a?oii. Na?iio e Ceiaa?aei (1961) i?iaaee
iiaoth na?eth yenia?eiaioia a neooaoeee “iaeeaeaiey”, eiaaea ia
iiaaaeaiea eniuooaiuo aicaeaenoaiaaee oaeea naycaiiua iaaeaeo niaie
yiioeee, eae no?ao e aaniieienoai. Ii eo ii?aaeaeaieth, no?ao – aeoaiei
niaoeeoe/aneia yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea, iaoneiaeaiiia aiaoiei
enoi/ieeii iianiinoe, a aaniieienoai naycaii n aioo?aiiei enoi/ieeii
iianiinoe. *oiau aucaaoue no?ao enneaaeiaaoaee niiaueee eniuooaiui, /oi
iie aoaeoo iiaeaa?aioou aicaeaenoaeth yeaeo?ioieii. *oiau aucaaoue
aaniieienoai, ae?oaie a?oiia eniuooaiuo neacaee, /oi ai a?aiy
yenia?eiaioa ei i?eeaeaony – ninaoue eaaeaioeu, ia?iiiua ninee,
aoouei/ee aeey ieaaeaioeaa.

Yoi niiauaiea aeieaeii auei aucaaoue o eniuooaiuo ?anoa?yiiinoue.
*eaiu eiio?ieueiie a?oiiu ia iieo/eee ieeaeie eioi?iaoeee i oa?aeoa?a
yenia?eiaioa.

Eiaaea eniuooaiui auea aeaia aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue auai?

iaeeaeaoue ia/aea yenia?eiaioa a iaeeii/anoaa eee aianoa n ae?oaeie, –
/eaiu a?oiiu, eioi?ua ii/oanoaiaaee no?ao, i?iyaeee aieueoaa aeaeaiea
auouea eiiiaiee, /ai eniuooaiua ec eiio?ieueiie a?oiiu. A /eaiu a?oiiu
“iaaniieiaiiuo” i?aaeii/ee inoaoueny a iaeeii/anoaa. Na?iio e Ceiaa?aei
onoaiiaeee, /oi eniuooaiua, ioaa/aiiua no?aoii yeaeo?e/aneiai oaea?a,
no?aieeenue iiaeaeeoueny naieie /oanoaaie n ae?oaeie.

E?iia oiai, iie noa?aeenue ioaea/ueny e ecaaaeoueny io
io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee. Eniuouaaaoea aaniieienoai noa?aeenue
i?aiaeieaoue aai. Aa?iyoii, eiioaeo n ae?oaeie ano?aaiaeaiiuie i?eaae
au e oneeaieth, a ia e ineaaeaieth yoiai /oanoaa. Iiyoiio eniuooaiua,
/oanoaiaaaoea aaniieienoai, i?aaeii/eoaee iaeeii/anoai. Ii-aeaeeiiio,
iiae aicaeaenoaeai a?oiiu i?ienoiaeeo ineaaeaiea iaeioi?uo, ii ia anao,
io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee, ia?aaeeaaaiuo /eaiaie a?oiiu.

NO?OEOO?A A?OII

A ia/aea yoie aeaau iu e?aoei ioa?aeoa?eciaaee oii?yaei/aiiia
acaeiiaeaenoaea, eioi?ia yaeyaony iaeiie ec iniiaiuo ooieoeee a?oii.
Eiaaea niaieoiiinoue ethaeae noaiiaeony a?oiiie, oi?ie?othony ii?iu e
?iee, ia iniiaa eioi?uo onoaiaaeeaaaony ii?yaeie (eee ia?acaoe)
acaeiiaeaenoaey. Nioeeieiae eco/atho yoe ia?acoeu, e ei oaeaeinue
onoaiiaeoue ?yae oaeoi?ia, aicaeaenoaothueo ia eo oi?ie?iaaiea. N?aaee
yoeo oaeoi?ia iaeiei ec naiuo aaaeiuo yaeyaony ?acia? a?oiiu.

?ACIA? A?OIIU

Aeeaaeu

Aeeaaea, eee a?oiia, ninoiyuay ec aeaoo /aeiaae iai?eia?,

aethaeaiiuo eee aeaoo eo/oeo ae?ocae), ioee/aaony iaeioi?uie
oieeaeueiuie /a?oaie. Iia yaeyaony i/aiue o?oieie e ?ac?ooaaony, anee
iaeei ec /eaiia auaeaaao ec a?oiiu. *eaiu aeeaaeu aeieaeiu
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue onoie/eaua ioiioaiey iaaeaeo niaie, eia/a eo niiauanoai
ia?anoaiao nouanoaiaaoue. *eaiu aieaa e?oiiuo a?oii ciatho, /oi a?oiia
nio?aieony a neo/aa eo auoiaea, eneeth/aiey ec a?oiiu eee nia?oe.
Aoaeo/e o?oieie ii naiae i?e?iaea, aeeaaea o?aaoao aieaa oaniii,
oii?yaei/aiiii e iiceoeaiii acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo aa /eaiaie, /ai
a?oiia ethaiai ae?oaiai oeia. A oi aea a?aiy a iae nicaeathony oneiaey
aeey aieaa aeoaieiai yiioeeiiaeueiii oaeiaeaoai?aiey, /ai a ethaie
ae?oaie a?oiia.

O?eaaeu

Eiaaea e a?oiia ec aeaoo /aeiaae i?eniaaeeiyaony o?aoee, ia?acoaony
o?eaaea, a eioi?ie iau/ii neeaaeuaathony eiaeiua ioiioaiey. ?aii eee
iicaeii i?iecieaeao naeeaeaiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy /eaiaie a?oiiu e
eneeth/aiea ec iaa o?aoueaai. “Aeaa /aeiaaea ninoaaeytho eiiiaieth,
o?ia ia?acotho oieio”: eiaiii oae iaaeaoniuneaiii aeatho iiiyoue
o?aoueaio /eaio a?oiiu, /oi ii eeoiee. Niaeanii oi/ea c?aiey
iaiaoeeii nioeeieiaa O1O a. Aai?aa Ceiiaey, eioi?ue ieacae
aieueoia aeeyiea ia enneaaeiaaiea a?oii, o?aoee /eai a?oiiu iiaeao
ea?aoue iaeio ec neaaeothueo ?ieae: aaco/anoiii iin?aaeieea,
iiii?ooienoa, eioi?ue eniieuecoao ae?oaeo a naieo eioa?anao, e
oaeoeea, neaaeothuaai i?eioeeio “?acaeaeye e aeanoaoe”.

Iai?eia?, ia?aue ?aaaiie a naiuea iiaeao oe?aieoue ocu, naycuaathuea
?iaeeoaeae, noaa iauaeoii eo iauae ethaae. Aianoa n oai iiyaeaiea
?aaaiea iiaeao niinianoaiaaoue ?aciauaieth ?iaeeoaeae e noaoue
i?e/eiie ?aaiinoe e eiioeeeoa iaaeaeo ieie. Anee ?iaeeoaee ia eaaeyo
ae?oa n ae?oaii, ?aaaiie iiaeao noaoue ia noi?iio iaeiiai ec ieo.

Aieaa e?oiiua a?oiiu.

Oaaee/aiea ?acia?a a?oiiu aeeyao ia iiaaaeaiea aa /eaiia ai iiiaeo
ioiioaieyo. Iieo/aiu aeaiiua, /oi aieaa e?oiiua a?oiiu (ninoiyuea ec
iyoe eee oanoe /aeiaae) aieaa i?iaeoeoeaiu, /ai aeeaaeu e o?eaaeu.
*eaiu aieaa e?oiiuo a?oii iau/ii aiinyo aieueoa oeaiiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee,
/ai i?aaenoaaeoaee iaiueoeo a?oii. A aieaa e?oiiie a?oiia, aa?iyoii,
iaiueoa niaeaney, ii oaeaea iaiueoa e iai?yaeaiiinoue. Yoe ?acee/ey,
aiciiaeii, naycaiu n oai, /oi aeey e?oiiuo a?oii ?aoaiea
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?iaeai aieaa iaiaoiaeeii. *eaiu oaeie a?oiiu,
aa?iyoii, iiieiatho, /oi eo iiaaaeaiea aeieaeii auoue iiae/eiaii
ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaee, iineieueeo iie auioaeaeaiu i?eeaaaoue oneeey, /oiau
eii?aeeie?iaaoue naie aeaenoaey. E?iia oio, e?oiiua a?oiiu ieacuaatho
aieueoaa aeaaeaiea ia naieo /eaiia, oneeeaay eo eiioi?ieci. A oaeeo
a?oiiao iaaethaeaaony ia?aaainoai iaaeaeo /eaiaie; eaaeaeue eniuouaaao
aieueoa o?oaeiinoae, no?aiynue ia?aaia n ae?oaeie o/anoaiaaoue a
ianoaeaeaiee i?iaeai e aeeyoue ia i?eiyoea ?aoaiee. Ia oaeeaeoaeueii,
/oi /eaiu aieaa e?oiiuo a?oii iaiueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiu naiae ?ieueth a
niaianoiuo aeeneonneyo, /ai /eaiu iaeuo a?oii (Oiian, Oeie, 1965).

Nouanoaotho aeaiiua, /oi a?oiiu n /aoiii /eneii /eaiia ioee/athony
io a?oii n ia/aoiui ninoaaii. A ia?auo a aieueoae ia?a i?iyaeythony
?aciiaeaney, /ai a iineaaeieo, iiyoiio a?oiiu n /aoiui /eneii /eaiia
iaiaa onoie/eau. Iie iiaoo ?aniaaeaoueny ia o?aeoeee n ?aaiui /eneii
/eaiia. Yoi iaaiciiaeii a a?oiiao n ia/aoiui /eneii /eaiia: a ieo iaeia
ec noi?ii anaaaea eiaao /eneaiiia i?aeiouanoai.

Niaeanii oi/ea c?aiey iaeioi?uo enneaaeiaaoaeae, /enei iyoue eiaao
iniaia cia/aiea. A?oiiu ec iyoe /aeiaae iau/ii ia noaeeeaathony n
i?iaeaiaie, eioi?ua iu oieueei /oi ioiaoeee. A oi aea a?aiy eo /eaiu ia
no?aaeatho io iai?i/iinoe e iai?yaeaiiinoe, naienoaaiiuo aeeaaeai e
o?eaaeai. A a?oiiao ec iyoe /aeiaae eaaeaeue aeoaiei oaeiaeaoai?ai naiae
?ieueth, a neo/aa ?aciiaeanee oaeea a?oiiu, eae i?aaeei, ia
?aniaaeathony..E?iia oiai, a yoeo a?oiiao aeenneaeaiou iieo/atho
iiaeaea?aeeo ni noi?iiu iaeioi?uo aa /eaiia, ei ia oa?iaeaao iieiue
?ac?ua ni anae a?oiiie. Anee aea a a?oiio aoiaeeo aieaa iyoe /aeiaae,
iaeioi?ua ec na /eaiia iiaoo ii/oanoaiaaoue naay a ecieyoeee (Oye,
1962).

*eaiu aieueoeo a?oii /anoi no?aaeatho ec-ca ieceiai ii?aeueiii
aeooa, ainiiaenoaothuai a a?oiia; e aunieiai o?iaiy aanaioaecia
(iao/anoey). Iiaoo aeoue ineaaeaiu nayce ioaeaeueiuo /eaiia ni anae
a?oiiie, ii?ie iie i?iyaeytho iaaeaeaiea nio?oaeie/aoue a a?oiia e oai
aieaa ia no?aiyi e aeinoeaeaieth a?oiiiaie aa?iiiee. Eae neaaenoaea
ia?anoathuaai ?ac?uaa iaaeaeo eeaea?aie e ?yaeiauie /eaiaie a?oiiu, a
iae iiaoo ooaa?aeeoueny aeanoeea, iaacee/aiiua oi?iu eiio?iey, eiaaea
i?eeacu, ianaaeaeaaiua naa?oo, caiaiytho caaeooaaioth ee/ioth aanaaeo.
Iaeiiaoe, a a?oiia iiaoo aicieeaoue o?aeoeee e a?aaeaea (Noyaeaeae,
Aa?iaoo, 1977).

EIIIOIEEAOeEss E AEANOUe

Aneaaenoaea oaaee/aiey ?acia?a a?oiiu n?aaee aa /eaiia i?iyaeyaony
oaiaeaioeey ana iaiueoa iauaoueny ae?oa n ae?oaii e /aua ia?auaoueny e
eeaea?o, ?ieue eioi?iai aic?anoaao. A oi aea a?aiy a a?oiia aieaa iyoe
/aeiaae, eeaea?, eae i?aaeei, ia?auaaony ei anae a?oiia a oeaeii, a ia e
ioaeaeueiui aa /eaiai. Eeaea? noaiiaeony oeaio?ii eiiioieeaoeee, ii
inouanoaeyao i?eai e ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee (Ayeen, 1965). Ai a?aiy
naieia?a iaaieueoie a?oiia nooaeaioia eaa/a iaiaieaaoueny iuneyie
iaaeaeo niaie e n i?ioanni?ii, /ai i?aaenoaaeoaeyi iaoe?iie aoaeeoi?ee
ia eaeoeee. Ia eaeoeee aiai?eo oieueei i?ioanni?, niiauathuee
eioi?iaoeeth anae a?oiia a oeaeii. A aieueoeo e iaeuo a?oiiao niiniau
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeanoe oanii naycaiu n oa?aeoa?ii eiiioieeaoeee. Eaeei
ia?acii a a?oiia oniaoii inouanoaeyaony iaiai eaeayie e eioi?iaoeeae?
Eaeia aicaeaenoaea ieacuaaao yoio iaiai ia niiniau i?eiyoey ?aoaiee,
neiaeeaoeany a a?oiia? Iaoneiaeaiii ee iiaaaeaiea aeaoae, ea?athueo a
oeieo, a?oiiu ?aai/eo, oeeaaeuaathueo anoaeueo, e a?oiiu o/aiuo,
i?iaiaeyueo enneaaeiaaiea, iaueie niiniaaie eiiioieeaoeee, eioi?ua
iiaeii ca?aiaa i?aaeaeaeaoue?

Aa?ieueae Eeaeoo (1951) iaia?oaeee, /oi iaeioi?ua niiniau
eiiioieeaoeee yooaeoeaiaa, /ai ae?oaea. Ii ninoaaee ianeieueei a?oii ec
iyoe /aeiaae e eaaeaeie aeae nienie neiaieia. A ?anii?yaeaiee eaaeaeiai
/eaia a?oiiu auei ianeieueei neiaieia, i?e/ai, ianeieueei iaeeiaeiauo
eiaeenue o anao. A?oiia auei aeaii caaeaiea iaeoe iauea aeey anao
neiaieu. *eaiai a?oiiu ia ?ac?aoaeinue aiai?eoue iaaeaeo niaie, ii iie
iiaee ia?aaeaaaoue ae?oa ae?oao caienee.

Eeaeoo ?aniieiaeee a?oiiu oaeei ia?acii, /oi caienee iiaeii auei
ia?aaeaaaoue /aou?ueiy ?acee/iuie niiniaaie: ii “e?oao”, ii “oeaii/ea”,
“eieano” e ii “O”. Yoei niiniaai auee aeaiu iacaaiey a niioaaonoaee n eo
iaaeyaeiui ecia?aaeaieai. N iiiiuueth eeiee aini?iecaaaeaiu niiniau
eiiioieeaoeee, aiciiaeiua aeey eaaeaeiai oeia a?oiiu.

Eeaeoo iaia?oaeee, /oi niinia “eieani” (eiaaea iauai?eciaiiue
eeaea? caieiaao oeaio?aeueiia iieiaeaiea), ii-aeaeeiiio, iicaieyao
iaeaieaa oniaoii ?aoaoue i?iaeaiu; aeaeaa neaaeiaaee niiniao “O”,
“oeaii/ea” e “e?oa”. Ii ioiaoee, /oi /eaiu a?oiiu, iaoiaeeaoeany a
oeaio?a nenoaiu eiiioieeaoeee, auee cia/eoaeueii aieueoa oaeiaeaoai?aiu
a?oiiie, /ai oa, eoi ieacaeenue ia e?ath. Ii naeaeae auaiae, /oi “a
iaoai iauanoaa, a eioi?ii y?ei au?aaeaii no?aieaiea e
naiinoiyoaeueiinoe, nioeeaeueiiio i?eciaieth e oniaoo, aa?iyoii, ia
auaiaeii caieiaoue iieiaeaiey, ia?aie/eaathuea naiinoiyoaeueiinoue
aeaenoaee (eiaaony a aeaeo ia?eoa?eeiia iieiaeaiea).

AeEIAIEEA A?OIIU

A a?oiiao eiatho ianoi niauoey e aeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu,
ia?eiaee/anee iiaoi?ythueany a ii?aaeaeaiiie iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe. E
iei ioiinyony aeaaeaiea ia /eaiia a?oiiu, niinianoaothuea eo
eiioi?iecio, eneeth/aiea ec a?oiiu e oi?ie?iaaiea ?ieae.

AeAAEAIEA NIINIANOAOTHUAA EIIOI?IECIO

A eaeie ia?a ethaee neeiiiu iiae/eiyoueny o?aaiaaieyi
a?oiiu? A 40-o aiaeao Nieiiii Yo (1951) i?iaae ?yae aaaeiuo
yenia?eiaioia ioiineoaeueii aicaeaenoaey a?oiiu ia iiaaaeaiea aa
/eaiia. A ia?aii yenia?eiaioa o/anoaiaaee ainaiue annenoaioia
yenia?eiaioaoi?a (eioi?uo ca?aiaa iciaeiieee n oa?aeoa?ii
yenia?eiaioa e o?aaiaaieyie, i?aaeuyaeyaiuie e iei) e iaeei
eniuooaiue, eioi?iio ie/aai ia niiaueee. Anai auei aeaii caaeaiea
n?aaieoue iaeei io?acie n o?aiy ae?oaeie ?acee/iie aeeeiu. Eaaeaeue
/eai a?oiiu aeieaeai aue neacaoue anae a?oiia, eaeie ec o?ao
io?aceia niioaaonoaoao ii aeeeia ia?aiio. Annenoaioia yenia?eiaioaoi?a
i?ieino?oeoe?iaaee aeaoue iai?aaeeueiue ioaao. Oaeei ia?acii,
eniuooaiue, ca?aiaa ia iieo/eaoee ieeaeie eioi?iaoeee, aeieaeai
aue iaiaeeaeaiii ieacaoueny a iaiueoeinoaa n?aaee ethaeae, eioi?ua
auee ianiaeaniu n aai iiaieai.

I?aaeiea enneaaeiaaiey auee nin?aaeioi/aiu ia oii, a eaeie
ia?a ethaee iiae/eiythony o?aaiaaieyi a?oiiu. Ii oaia?ue Yo n
oaeeaeaieai iaia?oaeee, /oi aeaa o?aoe eniuooaiuo ioeacaeenue eciaieoue
naia iiaiea, oioy ia ieo ieacuaaee aeaaeaiea. Yo iienae iiiaea
oeiu iiaaaeaiey yoeo aeenneaeaioia.

Iaeioi?ua eniuooaiua i?iaeieaeaee ionoaeaaoue naith oi/eo c?aiey, a oi
a?aiy eae ae?oaea noaiiaeeenue iaoaa?aiiuie e iaaneo?aaeaiiuie. Iaeiaei
iaeia o?aoue eniuooaiuo iieiinoueth eciaieea naith oi/eo c?aiey
(ianiio?y ia aa i?aaeeueiinoue, /oiau ioaa/aoue o?aaiaaieyi
aieueoeinoaa.Aioia ee eniuooaiue aieaa ?aoeoaeueii ionoaeaaoue naith
oi/eo c?aiey, anee eiaiii oae iinooiaee ae?oaea /eaiu a?oiiu? Yo
enneaaeiaae yoio aii?in, aeeth/ea a eaaeaeoth a?oiio aeaoo ae?oaeo
eniuooaiuo. Ii iaia?oaeee, /oi, anee /aeiaae iuouae oioy au
ieieiaeueioth iiaeaea?aeeo, aicaeaenoaea ni noi?iiu a?oiiu
cia/eoaeueii nieaeaeinue.

Yo i?aaieciaae aiineaaenoaea yenia?eiaio oaeei ia?acii, /oi ia?oia?,
ieacaaoee iiaeaea?aeeo aeenneaeaioo, iaiaeeaeaiii ioeacuaaeny io naiaai
iiaiey e i?eniaaeeiyeny e aieueoeinoao. Eniuooaiue, eioi?iio ie/aai ia
niiauaee i oa?aeoa?a yenia?eiaioa, niiaa ieacuaaeny a iieiii
iaeeii/anoaa. A yoeo neo/ayo ainnoaiaaeeaaeanue aeanoue aieueoeinoaa
iaae eiaeeaeaeii. Aeaeaa Yo aa?uee?iaae /eneaiiinoue aieueoeinoaa:
a?oiia, ia ?acaeaeyaoay iiaiey eniuooaiiai, aeeth/aea io 2 aei 16
/aeiaae. Ii iaia?oaeee, /oi aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiia aieueoeinoai
(i?eia?ii 3 /aeiaaea) noeioee?oao yooaeo eiioi?iecia.

ENEETH*AIEA EC A?OIIU

Ai a?aiy yenia?eiaioa, i?iaaaeaiiiai Yoai, iaeioi?ua eniuooaiua
oioy au ia a?aiy auee eneeth/aiu ec a?oiiu ia oii iniiaaiee, /oi eo
(i?aaeeueiia) ?aoaiea caaea/e i?ioeai?a/eei (iai?aaeeueiiio) ?aoaieth
aieueoeinoaii, Eaeie yooaeo ieacaei oaeia eneeth/aiea ia eo /oanoai
nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa? *oiau ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in, THaeeo
Oeeeien e Aeaeii Ieo/aee (1979) i?iaaee yenia?eiaio, a oiaea eioi?iai
eniuooaiui auee aeaiu neaaeothuea eino?oeoeee: “Au iaeei ec oanoe
/aeiaae, iiiaaoeo a neooaoeeth, naycaiioth n ?eneii aeey aeecie.
Au aeieaeiu ionoaeaaoue naie i?aaa, naie aeiaiaeu, aeeciue, a oaeaea
?aoeoue, eiio ia aoaeao ?ac?aoaii inoaoueny n a?oiiie. Neooaoeey
ninoieo a neaaeothuai: ieaaineee eaeia? iaoieeioeny ia aenaa?a e
caoiioe a aiaeao A?eoeee. Oanoa?ui, aeeth/ay Aan, oaeaeinue
anea?aaeaoueny a iaaieueooth nianaoaeueioth oethieo, ii nuanoiuo
i?eiania oaaoeo oieueei ia iyoue /aeiaae, /oiau i?iaeeoue ainaiue
aeiae; ca yoi a?aiy eiaeea aeinoaaeo aan e aeeaeaeoaio iaoa?eeo. Any
aaoa a?oiia aeieaeia ?aoeoue, eoi ia niiaeao inoaoueny.a
nianaoaeueiie oethiea. *a?ac 30 ieioo iooai oaeiiai aieiniaaiey au
i?eiaoa ?aoaiea i oii, eoi aeieaeai iieeiooue oethieo”. Iinea
iiaeaaaeaiey eoiaia aieiniaaiey e aanaaeu n eaaeaeui eniuooaiui auei
iauyaeaii “?aoaiea”, yeiau i?eiyoia a?oiiie. Iaeioi?ui eniuooaiui
niiaueee, /oi iie iiaoo inoaoueny a nianaoaeueiie oethiea, o.a. iie
auee “i?eiyou”. Ae?oaei “eneeth/aiiui”) auei aeaii ?anii?yaeaiea
iieeiooue oethieo. Caoai n eniuooaiuie auei i?iaaaeaii eioa?aueth, e
iie au?aceee naie /oanoaa – /oanoai iaeaa/aiey eee iaeaeu. Iaeiiaoe,
enneaaeiaaoaeue iauyniee, /oi “?acoeueoaou” yenia?eiaioa auee
ii?aaeaeaiu iaoiaeii neo/aeiiai ioai?a e a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia
io?aaeaee iiaiea a?oiiu.

Oeeeien e Ieo/aee eiinoaoe?iaaee iiieaeaiea /oanoaa

nianoaaiiiai aeinoieinoaa o “eneeth/aiiuo” eniuooaiuo. Aaee/eia
naiiioeaiee o “i?eiyouo” eniuooaiuo ia eciaieeanue. (O “eneeth/aiiuo”
eniuooaiuo aeaaea iiaeienue oiaiueoeeanue ii ?acia?o. Enneaaeiaaoaee
iieaaatho, /oi yoi iiaei auoue aucaaii iiieaeaieai /oanoaa
naiioaaaeaiey.)

Eeoa?aoo?a:

I. Niaeca? “Nioeeieiaey” I., 1994a

PAGE

PAGE 13

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019