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Манипулятивные технологии в системе массовых коммуникаций

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Iaieioeyoeaiua oaoiieiaee a nenoaia ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee.

I. Aaaaeaiea.

Ii?aaeaeaiea iaieioeyoeee. I?eciaee iaieioeyoeee. . . . . . 1

II. Ineoieiaey iaieioeyoeee.

Iaieioeyoeey ia o?iaia ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia. Iaieioeyoeey ia o?iaia
ineoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Ia?oeaioeaiua, iiaie/aneea,
eioaeeaeooaeueiua i?ioeannu. Iaoaieciu ?aaeecothuea iaieioeyoeaiia
aicaeaenoaea. . . . 4

III. Iaieioeyoeey a NIE.

NIE. Eioi?iaoeey. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eiiioieeaoeey. Ianniaay eiiioieeaoeey.
Iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NIE. O/anoea oaeaaeaeaiey a
iieeoe/aneie iaieioeyoeee. Iniiaiua iaieioeyoeaiua oaoiieiaee a nenoaia
ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee. . . . . . . . . . .14

IV. Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey.

Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey. Neiaiee/aneay iieeoeea. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay
aneiiao?ey. Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey a NOA. Iineaaenoaey “?inneeneiai
iai?aaeaiey” iieeoe/aneie iaieioeyoeee NOA.. . . . . .29

V. Caeeth/aiea.

Nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee ?inneeneeo NIE ai aeeyiee ia iieeoe/aneia
niciaiea. . . . . . . . . . . .37

VI. Nienie eniieueciaaaoaeny eeoa?aoo?u. . . . .40

I. Aaaaeaiea.

Aaaaeaiea. Ii?aaeaeaiea iaieioeyoeee. I?eciaee iaieioeyoeee.

Neiai «iaieioeyoeey» eiaao ei?iai eaoeineia neiai manus – ?oea
(manipulus – i?eai?oiy, ai?noue, io manus e ple – iaiieiyoue). A
neiaa?yo aa?iiaeneeo ycueia neiai oieeoaony eae ia?auaiea n iauaeoaie n
ii?aaeaeaiiuie iaia?aieyie, oeaeyie (iai?eia?, ?o/iia oi?aaeaiea,
inaeaeaoaeuenoaiaaiea iaoeeaioa a?a/ii n iiiiuueth ?oe e o.ae.). Eiaaony
a aeaeo, /oi aeey oaeeo aeaenoaee o?aaoaony eiaeinoue e nii?iaea. A
oaoieea oa i?eniiniaeaiey aeey oi?aaeaiey iaoaieciaie, eioi?ua eae au
yaeythony i?iaeieaeaieai ?oe (?u/aae, ?oeiyoee), iacuaathony
iaieioeyoi?aie. A oio, eoi ?aaioae n ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie iaoa?eaeaie, ciaeii
n iaieioeyoi?aie, eioi?ua i?inoi eieoe?otho /aeiaa/aneoth ?oeo.

Ionthaea i?iecioei e nia?aiaiiia ia?aiiniia cia/aiea neiaa – eiaeia
ia?auaiea n ethaeueie eae n iauaeoaie, aauaie. Ienoi?aeneee neiaa?ue
aiaeeeneiai ycuea o?aeooao iaieioeyoeeth eae “aeo aeeyiey ia ethaeae eee
oi?aaeaiey eie n eiaeinoueth, iniaaiii n i?aiaa?aaeeoaeueiui
iiaeoaenoii, eae ne?uoia oi?aaeaiea eee ia?aaioea”. Ecaeaiiue a 1969
aiaeo a Iueth-Ei?ea “Nia?aiaiiue neiaa?ue nioeeieiaee” ii?aaeaeyao
iaieioeyoeeth eae “aeae i?eiaiaiey aeanoe, i?e eioi?ii iaeaaeathuee ath
aeeyao ia iiaaaeaiea ae?oaeo, ia ?ane?uaay oa?aeoa? iiaaaeaiey, eioi?ia
ii io ieo iaeeaeaao”.

N. Ea?a-Io?ca[3] auaeaeyao o?e aeaaiuo, ?iaeiauo i?eciaeia
iaieioeyoeee. Ai-ia?auo, yoi – aeae aeooiaiiai, ineoieiae/aneiai
aicaeaenoaey (a ia oece/aneia ianeeea eee oa?ica ianeeey). Ieoaiueth
aeaenoaee iaieioeyoi?a yaeyaony aeoo, ineoe/aneea no?oeoo?u /aeiaa/aneie
ee/iinoe.

Ai aoi?uo, iaieioeyoeey – yoi ne?uoia aicaeaenoaea, oaeo eioi?iai ia
aeieaeai auoue caia/ai iauaeoii iaieioeyoeee. Eiaaea iiiuoea
iaieioeyoeee ane?uaaaony e ?aciaea/aiea noaiiaeony aeinoaoi/ii oe?iei
ecaanoiui, aeoeey iau/ii naa?ouaaaony, iineieueeo ?ane?uoue oaeo oaeie
iiiuoee iaiineo iaieioeyoi?o cia/eoaeueiue oua?a. Aua aieaa ouaoaeueii
ne?uaaaony aeaaiay oeaeue – oae, /oiau aeaaea ?aciaea/aiea naiiai oaeoa
iiiuoee iaieioeyoeee ia i?eaaei e auyniaieth aeaeueieo iaia?aiee.
Iiyoiio nie?uoea, ooaeaaiea eioi?iaoeee – iaycaoaeueiue i?eciae, oioy
iaeioi?ua i?eaiu iaieioeyoeee aeeth/atho a naay “i?aaeaeueiia
naii?ane?uoea”, ea?o a ene?aiiinoue, eiaaea iieeoee ?aao ia a?oaee
?oaaoo e ioneaao ii uaea neoioth ioaeneoth neaco.

A-o?aoueeo, iaieioeyoeey – yoi aicaeaenoaea, eioi?ia o?aaoao
cia/eoaeueiiai ianoa?noaa e ciaiee. Ano?a/athony, eiia/ii, oaeaioeeaua
naii?iaeee n iiuiie eiooeoeeae, niiniaiua e iaieioeyoeee niciaieai
ie?oaeathueo n iiiiuueth aeiii?iuaiiuo n?aaenoa. Ii ?aciao eo aeaenoaee
ia aaeee, ia?aie/eaaaony ee/iui aicaeaenoaeai – a naiuea, a a?eaaaea, a
?ioa eee aaiaea. Anee aea ?a/ue eaeao ia iauanoaaiiii niciaiee, i
iieeoeea, oioy au ianoiiai ianooaaa, oi, eae i?aaeei, e ?ac?aaioea
aeoeee i?eaeaeathony niaoeeaeenou eee oioy au niaoeeaeueiua ciaiey,
ii/a?iiooua ec eeoa?aoo?u eee eino?oeoeee. Iineieueeo iaieioeyoeey
iauanoaaiiui niciaieai noaea oaoiieiaeae, iiyaeeenue i?ioanneiiaeueiua
?aaioieee, aeaaeathuea yoie oaoiieiaeae (eee aa /anoyie).

Eae iu onoaiiaeee, iaieioeyoeey – niinia ainiiaenoaa iooai aeooiaiiai
aicaeaenoaey ia ethaeae /a?ac i?ia?aiie?iaaiea eo iiaaaeaiey. Yoi
aicaeaenoaea iai?aaeaiii ia ineoe/aneea no?oeoo?u /aeiaaea,
inouanoaeyaony ne?uoii e noaaeo naiae caaea/ae eciaiaiea iiaiee,
iiaoaeaeaiee e oeaeae ethaeae a ioaeiii aeanoe iai?aaeaiee. Eae caia/aao
A. Oeeea?, «aeey aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa iaieioeyoeey aeieaeia inoaaaoueny
iacaiaoiie. Oniao iaieioeyoeee aa?aioe?iaai, eiaaea iaieioee?oaiue
aa?eo, /oi ana i?ienoiaeyuaa anoanoaaiii e iaecaaaeii. Ei?i/a aiai?y,
aeey iaieioeyoeee o?aaoaony oaeueoeaay aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue, a eioi?ie aa
i?enoonoaea ia aoaeao iuouaoueny». Iaeiie ec ia?auo eiea, i?yii
iinayuaiiuo iaieioeyoeee niciaieai, auea eieaa nioeeieiaa ec O?A
Aa?aa?oa O?aiea “Iaieioee?oaiue /aeiaae” (1964). Ii aeaao oaeia
ii?aaeaeaiea: “Iiae iaieioee?iaaieai a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa neaaeoao
iiieiaoue ineoe/aneia aicaeaenoaea, eioi?ia i?iecaiaeeony oaeii, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e a oua?a oai eeoeai, ia eioi?uo iii iai?aaeaii”.

I?e?iaea iaieioeyoeee ninoieo a iaee/ee aeaieiiai aicaeaenoaey – ia?yaeo
n iinueaaiui ioe?uoi niiauaieai iaieioeyoi? iinueaao aae?anaoo
“caeiaee?iaaiiue” neaiae, iaaeaynue ia oi, /oi yoio neaiae ?acaoaeeo a
niciaiee aae?anaoa oa ia?acu, eioi?ua ioaeiu iaieioeyoi?o. Yoi ne?uoia
aicaeaenoaea iie?aaony ia “iayaiia ciaiea”, eioi?ui iaeaaeaao aae?anao,
ia aai niiniaiinoue nicaeaaaoue a naiai niciaiee ia?acu, aeeythuea ia
aai /oanoaa, iiaiey e iiaaaeaiea. Eneonnoai iaieioeyoeee ninoieo a oii,
/oiau ionoeoue i?ioeann aiia?aaeaiey ii ioaeiiio ?oneo, ii oae, /oiau
/aeiaae ia caiaoee ne?uoiai aicaeaenoaey.

II. Ineoieiaey iaieioeyoeee.

Iaieioeyoeey ia o?iaia ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.

A oii eneonnoaaiiii ie?a eoeueoo?u, eioi?ue ie?oaeaao /aeiaaea,
auaeaeyaony iniaue ie? neia – eiainoa?a. Ii aeeth/aao a naay ycue eae
n?aaenoai iauaiey e ana oi?iu «aa?aaeueiiai iuoeaiey», a eioi?ii iunee
iaeaeathony a neiaa. sscue eae nenoaia iiiyoee, a eioi?uo /aeiaae
aini?eieiaao ie? e iauanoai, anoue naiia aeaaiia n?aaenoai iiae/eiaiey.
A eoeueoo?iue aaaaae nia?aiaiiiai /aeiaaea aioei i?aaenoaaeaiea, aoaeoi
iiae/eiaiea ia/eiaaony n iiciaiey, eioi?ia neoaeeo iniiaie oaaaeaeaiey.
Iaeiaei a iineaaeiea aiaeu ana aieueoa o/aiuo neeiiyaony e iiaieth, /oi
i?iaeaia aeoaaea, e ia?aiia/aeueiie ooieoeeae neiaa ia ca?a /aeiaa/anoaa
auei aai noaaanoi?iia aicaeaenoaea – aiooaiea, iiae/eiaiea ia /a?ac
?annoaeie, a /a?ac /oanoaa. Aiooaaiinoue – aeoaeiiia naienoai ineoeee,
aicieeoaa ai?acaei ?aiueoa, iaaeaee niiniaiinoue e aiaeeoe/aneiio
iuoeaieth.

Iiiaea o/aiua e niaoeeaeenou aeoeaioe?iaaee aieiaiea ia cia/aiee
aiooaiey a iauanoaaiiuo i?ioeannao. Iaiaoiaeeii iiae/a?eiooue ?acee/ey
aiooaiey e oaaaeaeaiey, eae iaiin?aaenoaaiiuo yeaiaioia aicaeaenoaey.
Aiooaiea inouanoaeyaony iaieioeyoeaiui iaoiaeii, oaeaea aeaenoaoao
eiio?aiooaiea aeey nio?aiaiey naiiauoiinoe aini?eyoey eiaeeaeaea.
Oaaaeaeaiea – i?ioeann eiae/aneiai iainiiaaiey, n oeaeueth aeiaeoueny
?acoeueoaoa. A oiaea oaaaeaeaiey i?eaiaeyony oaeou, a?aoiaiou,
?acuyniaiey. Oaaaeaeaiea i?aaeiieaaaao aeoeaiia o/anoea noauaeoa, eai
aio i?aaeeaaaaony ?yae aeiaiaeia, eioi?ua ii iniuneeaaao e i?eieiaao eee
ioaa?aaao. “Aiooaiea, iai?ioea, “iaoiaeeo” ?acoi noauaeoa e i?iieeaao a
ineoe/aneoth noa?o iiieii ee/iiai niciaiey, aoiaey aac iniaie
ia?a?aaioee iaiin?aaenoaaiii a noa?o iauaai niciaiey e oe?aieyynue oai,
eae anyeee i?aaeiao ianneaiiai aini?eyoey”[3].

Aiooaiea i?yii naycuaaaony n iaieioeyoeeae niciaieai, iineieueeo
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aoi?aeaiea a niciaiea iinoi?iiiae eaeae aac i?yiiai
e iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai o/anoey a yoii aeoa “ss” noauaeoa. A yoii
i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea aiooaiey io oaaaeaeaiey. I?iecaiaeeony ee
aiooaiea neiaaie eee ae?oaeie ciaeaie, aacaea iii aeeyao ia iooai
eiae/aneiai oaaaeaeaiey, a iaiin?aaenoaaiii aicaeaenoaoao ia
ineoe/aneoth noa?o aac niioaaonoaothuae ia?a?aaioee, aeaaiaea?y /aio
i?ienoiaeeo ianoiyuaa i?eaeaaiea eaeae, /oanoaa, yiioeee eee oiai eee
eiiai ineoioece/aneiai ninoiyiey.

Ianiio?y ia nouanoaaiioth ?ieue aiooaiey a i?aeoeea ianniauo
eiiioieeaoeee, auoiaaea e eiay oi/ea c?aiey, io?eoeathuay
e??aoeeiiaeueiue, i?ienoiaeyuee iiieii ?acoia, i?ioeann aiooaiey.
Niaeanii yoie oi/ea c?aiey, i?e aiooaiee /aeiaae ia iaiyao naie
oaaaeaeaiey e ioeaiee, a iaiyao iauaeo ioeaiee. Oi anoue, n iiiiuueth
aiooaiey a niciaiee i?iecaiaeeony iiaeiaia iauaeoa noaeaeaiey, oae /oi
/aeiaae iuneaiii aineeeoeaao: “Ao, aio iii /oi! Aio eoi aeiiaao!” e o.i.
Yoa iiaeiaia i?iecaiaeeony iooai oiaeiai nicaeaiey oaeiai eiioaenoa, a
eioi?ii iunee /aeiaaea eaeoo a ioaeiii aeey iaieioeyoi?a iai?aaeaiee. Ia
yoie oai?ee auea iniiaaia oae iacuaaaiay «eiiiaioe?iaaiiay i?anna» –
niiauaiea i oaeoa nii?iaiaeaeaaony eioa?i?aoaoeeae eiiiaioaoi?a, eioi?ue
i?aaeeaaaao /eoaoaeth eee neooaoaeth ianeieueei ?acoiiuo aa?eaioia
iauyniaiey. A ?aiee yoeo aa?eaioia caaiiyaony iuneue – ii ana aea iuneue
/aeiaaea. Io eiaeinoe eiiiaioaoi?a caaeneo aiciiaeiinoue naeaeaoue
iaiaoiaeeiue iaieioeyoi?o aa?eaio iaeaieaa i?aaaeiiiaeiaiui.

Iaieioeyoeey ia o?iaia ineoieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia. Ia?oeaioeaiua,
iiaie/aneea, eioaeeaeooaeueiua i?ioeannu.

Aini?eyoea ia?ac?uaii naycaii a aiia?aaeaieai, eioi?ia iiaui ia?acii
eiiaeie?oao oi, /oi iu eiaaea-oi iiciaee ia iiuoa e caoeene?iaaee yoi a
iaiyoe: iaeuecy aiia?aceoue oi, /oi a ?aciuo naieo yeaiaioao ia
i?enoonoaiaaei au a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Ieaoii n?aaieaae aini?eyoea n
i?ioeannii oeniaiey ia/aoe ia aineiaie ieanoeiea, a aiia?aaeaiea,
niaeanii Ieaoiio, yoi iooene, eioi?ue inoaaony iinea oaeaeaiey ia/aoe.
Aeaoe aei iieooi?a eao ia i?iyaeytho ieeaeeo i?eciaeia aiia?aaeaiey – ei
aeey yoiai ia oaaoaao iaoa?eaea.

Oae eae aiia?aaeaiea – niiniaiinoue oai?/aneay, iii ai?acaei iaiueoa,
/ai iuoeaiea, iiaeaa?aeaii aeenoeeieeia (eiaeee, o?aaeeoeee). Cia/eo,
aieaa oycaeii aeey aicaeaenoaey ecaia. I?aia?acoy a iaoai niciaiee
iieo/aiiua eiaaea-oi e aaea-oi io aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe aia/aoeaiey,
aiia?aaeaiea nicaeaao ia?acu e iuneeoaeueiua, e /oanoaaiiua.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /a?ac aiia?aaeaiea iaieioeyoi? iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue
e ia iuoeaiea, e ia /oanoaa. Iaeneiaeueiie iiaeaeaeiinoueth e
oycaeiinoueth ia?aae iaieioeyoeeae iaeaaeaao ni/aoaiea aeaoo «aeaeeo»
ie?ia – aiia?aaeaiey e /oanoa. Aiai?yo, /oi yiioeee – iniiaiua aeayoaee
a ineoe/aneii ie?a, a ia?acu – no?ieoaeueiue iaoa?eae aeey yiioeee.

Ia ni/aoaiee aiia?aaeaiey e /oanoa iniiaaii, iai?eia?, iaeii ec naiuo
iiuiuo n?aaenoa aicaeaenoaey ia iauanoaaiiia niciaiea – oa??i?eci,
niaaeeiaiiue n oaeaaeaeaieai. Ia?ac eco?iaeiaaiiie ac?uaii iaaeiiie
aea?oau aeiaiaeeony oaeaaeaeaieai aoeaaeueii aei eaaeaeie naiuee, a
aiia?aaeaiea «iiaenoaaeyao» ia ianoi aea?oau naiiai oaeac?eoaey eee aai
aeeceeo, e yoi ii?iaeaeaao oeaeoth ao?th /oanoa. Caoai oaea aeaei
oaoieee – iai?aaeoue yoe /oanoaa ia oio ia?ac, eioi?ue iiae?yaeeeenue
?ac?ooeoue iaieioeyoi?u (ia?ac a?iee, oaaea?aeueiiai oeaio?a, eneaineeo
ooiaeaiaioaeenoia, /a/aioeaa e o.ae.). A yoie aeoeee iaiaoiaeeia eeoue
oeaii/ea: oa??i?enoe/aneee aeo – oaeaaeaeaiea – aiia?aaeaiea – /oanoaa –
ioaeiia iiaaaeaiea. AEaeaoaeueii i?e yoii ioeeth/eoue iuoeaiea (cae?aaue
niune), iioiio /oi oa??i? ia yaeyaony ?aaeueiui n?aaenoaii oie/oiaeaiey
e aeaaea ia nicaeaao cia/eoaeueiie ?aaeueiie iianiinoe. Aai oeaeue –
ono?aoaiea, o.a. nicaeaiea iaaaeaeaaoiiai /oanoaa no?aoa.

Aeey iiieiaiey i?ioeannia ianniaiai niciaiey aaaeii, /oi aiia?aaeaiea
oanii naycaii n eieoaoeeae – iu “aiia?aaeaai naay ia ianoa eiai-oi”. I?e
yoii eieoaoeey /anoi i?iecaiaeeony iai?iecaieueii e oneieuecaao io
e?eoe/aneiai naiiaiaeeca. Oae, iaaethaeay aeaeaeaiey oaioeothueo, ethaee
ii?ie ia/eiatho iiaoi?youe yoe aeaeaeaiey, oioy au iiea/eaaieai ?oe eee
iuneaiii – i?e yoii ia ioaeaaay naaa io/aoa a oii, /oi iie aiaea/aiu a
eieoaoeeth. Oae aiia?aaeaiea, anee aai oiaei iai?aaeyoue, iiaeao
i?eaanoe e ianniaiio “ca?aaeaieth” iano?iaieai e aeaaea aeaenoaeai.
Iaeioi?ua eeaea?u e oa?eciaoe/aneea oa?eaoaiu iaeaaeatho eneonnoaii
i?iaioee?iaaoue oaeea ninoiyiey.

Aaaeiaeoeie ieoaiyie, ia eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii ieacuaaoue aicaeaenoaea i?e
iaieioeyoeee niciaieai yaeythony iaiyoue e aieiaiea. Caaea/a
iaieioeyoi?a – a /ai-oi oaaaeeoue ethaeae. Aeey yoiai iaaei i?aaeaea
anaai i?eaea/ue aieiaiea ethaeae e aai niiauaieth, a /ai au iii ia
au?aaeaeinue. Caoai iaaei, /oiau /aeiaae caiiiiee yoi niiauaiea, eai
iiiaie?aoii i?iaa?aiiue caeii aeaneo: oaaaeeoaeueii oi, /oi inoaaony a
iaiyoe.

“Aiaeeoe/aneia e oai?aoe/aneia eco/aiea aieiaiey nii?yaeaii n aieueoeie
o?oaeiinoyie, ii caoi aio iinayuaii ia?iiiia eiee/anoai iiuoiuo
enneaaeiaaiee, oae /oi oaoiieiae iaieioeyoeee niciaieai eiatho
iaia?aie/aiiue caian “?acae?aaeeoaeae”, iicaieythueo i?eaea/ue,
ia?aeeth/eoue eee ?annayoue aieiaiea, a oaeaea iiaeeyoue ia aai
onoie/eainoue e eioaineaiinoue. Yoi eanaaony anao niiniaia iiaea/e
c?eoaeueiie e neooiaie eioi?iaoeee, anao oa?aeoa?enoee aa niaea?aeaiey e
oi?iu (aieioue aei eniieueciaaiey i?oia?aoe/aneeo e eiae/aneeo ioeaie
eae n?aaenoaa i?eaea/aiey aieiaiey)”[3]. Iiiyoii, /oi aeey oeaeae
iaieioeyoeee iaeeiaeiai aaaeiu i?eaiu i?eaea/aiey e oaea?aeaiey aieiaiey
ia oaaaeaeathuai niiauaiee (caoaao aoaeeoi?ee), e a oi aea a?aiy
ioaea/aiey aieiaiey io iaeioi?uo noi?ii ?aaeueiinoe eee iaeioi?uo /anoae
niiauaiey – anaaaea i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ia eaaoue, a aeiaeoueny, /oiau
/aeiaae ia caiaoee «iaioaeiie» i?aaaeu.

Aeey oniaoiie iaieioeyoeee aieiaieai aaaeii aa?ii ioeaieoue oaeea
oa?aeoa?enoeee aoaeeoi?ee, eae onoie/eainoue e eioaineaiinoue aieiaiey.
Iie caaenyo io o?iaiy ia?aciaaiey, aic?anoa, i?ioannee, o?aie?iaee
ethaeae e iiaeaeathony yenia?eiaioaeueiiio eco/aieth. Ia iaiaa aaaeia e
oaoiieiae/aneay aaca iaieioeyoi?a. Oaeaaeaeaiea, eioi?ia iia?e?oao
iaeiia?aiaiii oaenoii, iocueie e c?eoaeueii aini?eieiaaiuie
aeaeaeoueieny ia?acaie, iaeaaeaao eneeth/eoaeueii aunieie, iaae/aneie
niiniaiinoueth nin?aaeioi/eaaoue, ?annaeaaoue e ia?aeeth/aoue aieiaiea
c?eoaey. Yooaeoeaiinoue oaeaaeaeaiey naycaia n oai, /oi iii iiaeeecoao
ia?eoa?e/aneea nenoaiu aieiaiey, /oi iaania/eaaao aieueooth
ecauoi/iinoue eioi?iaoeee a oeaio?aeueiie eioaa?e?othuae nenoaia. *ai
aieueoa ecauoi/iinoue, oai iaiueoeo oneeee o?aaoao aini?eyoea niiauaiey.

A oeaeyo iaieioeyoeee niciaieai i?eoiaeeony aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ana
aeaeu iaiyoe /aeiaaea e ?aciuie niiniaaie. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iaaei,
/oiau /aeiaae caiiiiee (a oi e cao/ee aei aaoiiaoecia) eaeoth-oi iuneue,
iaoaoi?o, oi?ioeo (“AeA-AeA-IAO-AeA!”). N ae?oaie noi?iiu, auaaao
iaiaoiaeeii “ioeeth/eoue” aai e?aoein?i/ioth eee enoi?e/aneoth iaiyoue –
iie nicaeatho ineoieiae/aneee aa?uea? i?ioea aiooaiey.

?anniio?ei nia/aea aaaeiinoue caiiieiaiey. Eiaaea /aeiaae iieo/aao
eaeia-oi niiauaiea, aai acaeiiaeaenoaea n iaiyoueth aeaeeony ia aeaa
yoaia: nia/aea i?ienoiaeeo ianneaiia caiiieiaiea. Caoai eioi?iaoeey
ia?a?aaaouaaaony ?annoaeeii, e anee iia i?eciaaony iaei-iaeuenee
oaaaeeoaeueiie, yiioeeiiaeueii ie?aoaiiie e i?aaenoaaeythuae eioa?an,
iia «aiaae?yaony» a iaiyoue e ia/eiaao aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia niciaiea.

Enneaaeiaaoaee i?eoee e ia/aeueiiio aeey i?inoiai /aeiaaea auaiaeo: oi,
/oi a ?acoeueoaoa /anoiai iiaoi?aiey i?i/ii caiiieiaaony, aeaenoaoao ia
niciaiea iacaaeneii io oiai, aucuaaao ee yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea aic?aaeaiey
eee iaeia?aiea. Yoio auaiae i?iaa?ai ia eiiia?/aneie ?aeeaia, oeaiiinoue
eioi?ie aeey o/aiuo – a ia?iiiii eiee/anoaa yiie?e/aneiai iaoa?eaea.
Ianoa?a ?aeeaiu ciatho, /oi aeey aa yooaeoeaiinoe iaaaaeii, aucuaaao ee
iia iieiaeeoaeueioth eee io?eoeaoaeueioth ?aaeoeeth, aaaeii, /oiau iia
cano?yea a iaiyoe. Oae aiciee iniaue aeae – «?acae?aaeathuay ?aeeaia»,
iiaeniciaoaeueiia aeeyiea eioi?ie oai aieueoa, /ai neeueiaa iia
aiciouaao eee ?acae?aaeaao ethaeae.

Iiae?iaii eco/aii aeeyiea yiioeeiiaeueiuo yeaiaioia niiauaiey ia aai
caiiieiaaiinoue. Ai anai aaeaina ?aciuo aeaeia iaiyoe (ia?aciie,
neiaaniie, caoeiaie e o.ae.) aeaaiie aeey iaieioeyoeee niciaieai
yaeyaony eiaiii yiioeeiiaeueiay iaiyoue. Caiiieiaaony e aeaenoaoao
i?aaeaea anaai oi, /oi aucaaei aia/aoeaiea. Ethaay eioi?iaoeey, anee iia
ia iiaee?aieaia «iaiyoueth /oanoa», auno?i noe?aaony, auoaniyaony.

I/aiue aaaeia naycue yiioeeiiaeueiie iaiyoe e ociaaaiey. A iaieioeyoeee
niciaieai ociaaaiea ea?aao eeth/aaoth ?ieue, iioiio /oi ii?iaeaeaao
eiaeiia /oanoai ciaeiinoaa. Yoi noaiiaeony i?aaeiinueeie niaeaney
aoaeeoi?ee n eiiioieeaoi?ii (ioi?aaeoaeai niiauaiey) – ii aini?eieiaaony
aoaeeoi?eae eae naie. Aeey “caoaaoa” aoaeeoi?ee ociaaaiea ai?acaei
aaaeiaa niciaoaeueiiai niaeaney n aai ooaa?aeaeaieyie. Iiyoiio oae
aaaeii iaiicieeoue ethaeyi aeaca n oaeaye?aia.

Aeaenoaoy /a?ac n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, iaieioeyoi?u aeaaioth
noaaeo aeaeatho ia iai?iecaieueiia caiiieiaiea. Iiyoiio aeey ieo
ai?acaei aaaeiaa nicaeaoue iioie noiao?iuo niiauaiee, /ai eceiaeeoue
iaeio naycioth eaeath, eioi?oth /aeiaae iaaeoiaao e i?aaeiaia?aiii
caiiiieo. Noiao?iua niiauaiey ioeeaaeuaathony a eaoaioiuo, ae?aiethueo
neiyo iaiyoe e aeaenoaotho iiaenioaeii, aieueoa ia iiaeniciaiea. Iie
iaeeaeythony annioeeaoeeyie, iiauie ia?acaie e niiauaieyie, eioi?ua eo
“aoaeyo”. I?e yoii aeey iaieioeyoi?a aeaaea ia aaaeii, eae ioianny
/aeiaae e niiauaieth, eioi?ia ii caiiiiee iai?iecaieueii.

Iaoaieciu ?aaeecothuea iaieioeyoeaiia aicaeaenoaea (ii Aeioeaiei).

I?eniaaeeiaiea e aioo?aiiaio ie?a aoaeeoi?ee. “Aeeth/aaony a ?aaioo a
oao neo/ayo, eiaaea no?oeoo?a neooaoeee … ieacuaaaony noiaeiie ii
naiei oa?aeoa?enoeeai n niioaaonoaothuae /anoueth aioo?aiiaai ie?a”[1].
N. Ea?a-Io?ca[3] iacuaaao yoi aoi?ui yoaiii iinea onoaiiaeaiey eiioaeoa
n aoaeeoi?eae (onoaiiaeaiea eiioaeoa i?aaeiieaaaao nicaeaiea eaiaea, ii
eioi?iio iiaeao i?ieoe niiauaiea). I?eniaaeeiaieai iacuaatho oaeie
eiioaeo, eioi?ue a neeo iieiaeeoaeueiiai ioiioaiey e iaio aoaeeoi?ee
eiaao oaiaeaioeeth nai naay iiaeaea?aeeaaoue, aini?iecaiaeeony oaea aac
niaoeeaeueiuo aieueoeo oneeee iaieioeyoi?a. ?acee/atho “i?eniaaeeiaiea
ii…” e “i?eniaaeeiaiea e…”. Ia?aia – yoi eiioaeo, eioi?ue
iiaeaea?aeeaaaony a neeo eaeeo-oi iauaeoeaiuo i?eciaeia iauiinoe (ii
ycueo, yoie/aneie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe e o.ae.). Aeaaiay caaea/a
iaieioeyoi?a – “i?eniaaeeiaiea e…” (e eaeei-oi oeaiiinoyi, eicoiaai,
aeaenoaeyi).

Ia?aia i?aaeei aeey oniaoiiai eiioaeoa – cayaeoue i oii, /oi
ioi?aaeoaeue niiauaiey aoiaeeo n aoaeeoi?eae a eaeoth-oi iauiinoue (ii
nioeeaeueiiio, iaoeeiiaeueiiio, eoeueoo?iiio i?eciaeo e o.ae.). Aeey
yoiai au?aaioai oeaeue ycue e iaia?a ia?auaiey: eieeaae, ioaeeee,
i?aaineaaiua e o.ae. Oae /oi ia?aua aea oaae ii onoaiiaeaieth eiioaeoa
neoaeao eee/ai “iu n oiaie iaeiie e?iae – ou e y!”. Iiyoiio ia?aue
i?eciae iaieioeyoeee – oeeii/eainoue a eceiaeaiee nianoaaiiie iiceoeee,
eniieueciaaiea ooiaiiuo neia e iaoaoi?. ssniia iaia?oaeaiea eaeaaeia e
eioa?ania, eioi?ua ionoaeaaao «ioi?aaeoaeue niiauaiey», n?aco aeeth/aao
ineoieiae/aneoth caueoo oao, eoi ia ?acaeaeyao yoie iiceoeee, a
aeaaiia, iiaoaeaeaao e iuneaiiiio aeeaeiao, a ii ?acei cao?oaeiyao
iaieioeyoeeth.

Ineoe/aneea aaoiiaoeciu. “Ineoe/aneea aaoiiaoeciu aunooiatho a ?iee
ia?aaeaoi/iuo ?u/aaia, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui yia?aey aicaeaenoaey
iaieioeyoi?a i?aa?auaaony a yia?aeth aeaenoaey aae?anaoa”[1].
Ineoe/aneea aaoiiaoeciu – yoi oeie/iua noaiu iiaaaeaiey, anoanoaaiiua
aeey aieueoeinoaa ethaeae. Ie iaeei /aeiaae ia iiaeao i?iaeeoue aac
«aaoiiaoeciia» a aini?eyoee e iuoeaiee – iaaeoiuaaoue caiiai eaaeaeoth
neooaoeeth o iaai ia oaaoeo ie ineoe/aneeo nee, ie a?aiaie. Caeanue
aia?aua iiyaeyaony iiiyoea “noa?aioeia”. Iieaciinoue noa?aioeiia aeey
/aeiaaea caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau aini?eieiaoue e ioeaieaaoue niiauaiea
auno?i, ia aeoiay; iaieioeyoi? iiaeao i?eiaiyoue eo eae “oeeueo?u”,
/a?ac eioi?ua aai aea?oau aeaeyo aeaenoaeoaeueiinoue.

Iaeiei ec aeaaiuo “iaoa?eaeia”, n eioi?ui i?oaeoao iaieioeyoi?,
yaeythony nioeeaeueiua noa?aioeiu. A neiaa?yo neacaii: “Nioeeaeueiue
noa?aioei – onoie/eaay niaieoiiinoue i?aaenoaaeaiee, neeaaeuaathueony a
niciaiee eae ia iniiaa ee/iiai aeeciaiiiai iiuoa, oae e n iiiiuueth
iiiaiia?aciuo enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee. Neaicue i?ecio noa?aioeiia
aini?eieiathony ?aaeueiua i?aaeiaou, ioiioaiey, niauoey, aeaenoaothuea
eeoea. Noa?aioeiu – iaiouaieaiua eiiiiiaiou eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai e
ianniaiai niciaiey. Aeaaiaea?y ei i?ienoiaeeo iaiaoiaeeiia nie?auaiea
aini?eyoey e eiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo e eaeaieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia a
niciaiee…” Iau/ii noa?aioeiu aeeth/atho a naay yiioeeiiaeueiia ioiioaiea
/aeiaaea e eaeei-oi iauaeoai e yaeaieyi, oae /oi i?e eo au?aaioea ?a/ue
eaeao ia oieueei ia eioi?iaoeee e iuoeaiee, a i neiaeiii
nioeeaeueii-ineoieiae/aneii i?ioeanna. Oaeei ia?acii, noa?aioeiu, eae
iaiaoiaeeiue /aeiaaeo eino?oiaio aini?eyoey e iuoeaiey, iaeaaeatho
onoie/eainoueth, iiaoo auoue auyaeaiu, eco/aiu e eniieueciaaiu eae
ieoaie aeey iaieioeyoeee.

Aua aieaa oaeiaiu aeey iaieioeyoi?a iaoaoi?u – au?aaeaiiua
ooaeiaeanoaaiii noa?aioeiu – yoi aioiaua ooaiiu iuoeaiey, ii ooaiiu
ynoaoe/anee i?eaeaeaoaeueiua. Iiyoe/anee au?aaeaiiay iuneue anaaaea
ea?aea ia?iiioth ?ieue a niaaeeiaiee ethaeae e i?ia?aiie?iaaiee eo
iiaaaeaiey. “Iaoaoi?u, aeeth/ay annioeeaoeaiia iuoeaiea, aeatho
ia?iiioth yeiiiieth eioaeeaeooaeueiuo oneeee”[3]. Ecaanoii, /oi /aeiaae,
/oiau aeaenoaiaaoue a naieo eioa?anao (a ia a eioa?anao iaieioeyoi?a),
aeieaeai ?aaeenoe/ii ii?aaeaeeoue o?e aaue: iuiaoiaa ninoiyiea,
aeaeaoaeueiia aeey iaai aoaeouaa ninoiyiea, iooue ia?aoiaea io iuiaoiaai
ninoiyiey e aoaeouaio. Niaeaci nyeiiiieoue eioaeeaeooaeueiua oneeey
canoaaeyao /aeiaaea aianoi eco/aiey e iniuneaiey anao yoeo o?ao aauae
i?eaaaaoue e annioeeaoeeyi e aiaeiaeyi: iacuaaoue yoe aaue eaeie-oi
iaoaoi?ie, eioi?ay ionueaao aai e eiui, oaea eco/aiiui ninoiyieyi. *aua
anaai, eeethci?ia e naia oaa?aiiinoue a oii, /oi oa, eiua ninoiyiey,
/a?ac eioi?ua ii iauyniyao naaa iuiaoiaa, aio ecaanoiu eee iiiyoiu.

Iaoaieci “aeeth/aiey” aaoiiaoeciia – iioeaaoeeiiiia iaania/aiea. Ieeaeie
aaoiiaoeci ia aoaeao ?aaioaoue aac iioeaaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeee. Ai?i/ai,
iaieioeyoeeiiiia aicaeaenoaea a /enea ieoaiae iaycaoaeueii eiaao e
iioeaaoeeiiiua no?oeoo?u. A. Aeioeaiei auaeaeyao oaeea niiniau
oi?aaeaiey iioeaaoeeiiiuie i?aaeii/oaieyie /aeiaaea, eae i?yiay
aeooaeecaoeey iioeaia, i?inoia iaoneiaeeaaiea e ciaeiaia
iiin?aaenoaiaaiea.

I?yiay aeooaeecaoeey o?aaoaiiai iioeaa iiaeao i?ienoiaeeoue a ioaao ia
iiyaeaiea ?aeaaaioiuo yoiio iioeao ?acae?aaeeoaeae. “Ioe?uoia
iiaoaeaeaiea ni noi?iiu aeoi?a ia?aaeei i?eieiaao oi?io niaeaciaiey – io
aiieia eaaaeueiiai e iaaeiiiai aei ne?uoiai e ceiiaia?aiiiai”[1]. N
iaieioeyoeaiie oeaeueth i?yiay aeooaeecaoeey iioeaa eniieuecoaony a
iniiaiii a ninoaaa eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee: aeey ianee?iaee iniiaiiai
aicaeaenoaey, ioaea/aiey aieiaiey ia aoi?inoaiaiiua yeaiaiou neooaoeee,
i?eaaaeaiey aae?anaoa a iaiaoiaeeiia ninoiyiea (aeeneiioi?o, aacaeoiiay
eaaeinoue).

Iaoneiaeeaaiea – “ia?aianaiea iiaoaeeoaeueiie neeu eaeiai-ieaoaeue
iioeaa ia aeaenoaey, e eioi?ui ?aiueoa yoio iioea ia iiaoaeaeae”[1].
Aeaiiue iaoaieci eaaeeo a iniiaa ae?enne?iaee aeeaioiuo.

Iioeaaoeeiiiia iiin?aaenoaiaaiea – “yiioeeiiaeueiia ia?aeeth/aiea ia
iniiaa i?aaenoaaeyaiuo, aiia?aaeaaiuo, ainnoaiaaeeaaaiuo aneaaenoaea
iieo/aiiie neiaanii eioi?iaoeee niauoee”[1]. Iiiaiia?acea aiciiaeiuo
aeey /aeiaa/aneie ineoeee ia?aeeth/aiee iicaieyao naycaoue ana ni anai,
neieue au neaauie eee iaaeoiaiiuie ie eacaeenue iniiaaiey aeey oaeie
nayce.

Ioiaeaeanoaeaiea “ss” aae?anaoa ni naiae aeoeaiinoueth.
“Noauaeoeaiinoue, ee/iinoiia ia/aei a /aeiaaea, ii eaeei-oi aua iaei
iiiyoiui caeiiai i?enaaeaaao ineoe/aneea i?ioeannu e niaea?aeaiey,
i?eaeaao ei noaoon “iiaai”. Yoi ee/iinoiia ia/aei, eee “ss”, aoaeo/e
iaiaiooui, i?eieiaao /oaeia aeaeaiea ca naia”[1].

III. Iaieioeyoeey a NIE.

NIE. Eioi?iaoeey. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eiiioieeaoeey.

N?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee noaee aeaaiui eino?oiaioii aeey
?ani?ino?aiaiey niiauaiee, aicaeaenoaothueo ia iauanoaaiiia niciaiea.
Oioy, eiia/ii, noa?ua eino?oiaiou i?iaeieaeaee eniieueciaaoueny, ii e
iie auee oneeaiu o/anoeai ianniaie i?annu. A. Iieue ieoao i NIE: “Iie
oaeoe/anee eiio?iee?otho anth iaoo eoeueoo?o, i?iioneay aa /a?ac naie
oeeueo?u, auaeaeytho ioaeaeueiua yeaiaiou ec iauae iannu eoeueoo?iuo
yaeaiee e i?eaeatho ei iniaue aan, iiauoatho oeaiiinoue iaeiie eaeae,
iaanoeaieaatho ae?oaoth, iiey?ecotho oaeei ia?acii ana iiea eoeueoo?u.
Oi, /oi ia iiiaei a eaiaeu ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee, a iaoa a?aiy ii/oe
ia ieacuaaao aeeyiey ia ?acaeoea iauanoaa”[4]. Oaeei ia?acii,
nia?aiaiiue /aeiaae ia iiaeao oeeiieoueny io aicaeaenoaey NIE (iiae
eoeueoo?ie A. Iieue iiieiaao ana noi?iiu i?aaiecaoeee iauanoaaiiie
aeecie, eioi?ua ia aeaiu i?e?iaeie a ia?aicaeaiiii aeaea).

I.N.Eaiiia ni?aaaaeeeai ioia/aao: “Eioi?iaoeey, eae ieeiaaea, noaea
eino?oiaioii aeanoe. Eiaaea auea iaia?oaeaia aini?eei/eainoue
/aeiaa/aneie ineoeee e aiooaieth, eioi?iaoeey a oi?ia i?iiaaaiaeu e
aaeoaoeee noaea aeaaiui ?u/aaii oi?aaeaiey ethaeueie. Iia iinoaiaiii
caiaieea niaie a?oaoth neeo, ianeeea, eioi?ia aeieaia a?aiy n/eoaeinue
aaeeinoaaiiui e iai?aiaiiui i?oaeeai oi?aaeaiey. Iieieiue iuia
i?aceaeaio NOA ?e/a?ae Ieenii, aunooiay iaeiaaeaeu a Niaaoa
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe ii aii?ino athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia, neacae,
/oi ii n/eoaao 1 aeieea?, aeiaeaiiue a eioi?iaoeeth e i?iiaaaiaeo, aieaa
oeaiiui, /ai aeanyoue aeieea?ia, aeiaeaiiuo a nicaeaiea nenoai i?oaeey,
eai iineaaeiaa a?yae ee aoaeao eiaaea-eeai oiio?aaeaii a aeaei, a oi
a?aiy eae eioi?iaoeey ?aaioaao aaea/anii e iianaianoii”[8].

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay eiiioieeaoeey inouanoaeyaony eai-oi e aeey eiai-oi, eee
/aai-oi. Ana, /oi i?ienoiaeeo a ?aieao eioi?iaoeeiiiie eiiioieeaoeee,
oae eee eia/a naycaii n aeinoeaeaieai iaeioi?uo oeaeae eiaeeaeaeaie eee
nioeeaeueiuie a?oiiaie. Iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue yoaiia acaeiiaeaenoaey
iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue a aeaea neaaeothueo ae?oa ca ae?oaii oac, a iniiaa
eaaeaeie ec ieo eaaeeo ninoiyiea eioi?iaoeee e oa?aeoa? ?aaeecaoeee
ioiioaiee.

1 oaca. Ia yoie noaaeee i?ienoiaeeo eiioaeo n aaciaui oaeoii,
iiyaeythueiny a i?ioeanna /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe – iaiaoiaeeiia
oneiaea aeey ia/aea eioi?iaoeeiiiie eiiioieeaoeee.

2 oaca (i?iecaiaeyuay). Ia yoie noaaeee i?iecaiaeyuee eioi?iaoeeth
i?eaeaao iieo/aiiui naaaeaieyi, aunooiathuei a ?iee niaea?aeaiey, oo eee
eioth ciaeiaoth oi?io, oai naiui nicaeaaay niiauaiea. E yoie aea noaaeee
neaaeoao ioianoe ana i?ioeaaeo?u, naycaiiua n oii?yaei/aieai eioi?iaoeee
e oi?ie?iaaieai ianneaia eioi?iaoeee, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey
iineaaeothuae ia?aaea/e.

3 oaca (ia?aaea/a). Ia?aaeathuee e iio?aaeythuee iaicia/eeenue oieueei
niioaaonoaothuae iioaioeeae, eioi?ay aeooaeece?oaony ia aeaiiii yoaia –
oaca ia?aaea/e. Caeanue i?ienoiaeeo ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee i?e iiiiue
niioaaonoaothuae nenoaiu oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa.

4 oaca (iio?aaeaiea). Yoa oaca i?aaenoaaeyao ec naay aanueia neiaeiue
i?ioeann, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony aeoeaiui aeeth/aieai ineoieiae/aneeo
iaoaieciia. Eeoue ia oaca iio?aaeaiey ia/eiathony eciaiaiey a nenoaia
onoaiiaie e oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioaoeee.

5 oaca (iinooaca). Eniieueciaaiea eioi?iaoeee eiaeeaeaeii e a?oiiaie
ethaeae a?yae ee iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae i?ioeann, anaaaea i?ioiaeyuee
a yaiie oi?ia. Aicaeaenoaea eioi?iaoeee ia niciaiea iauaeoa iiaeao
i?ienoiaeeoue ia oieueei iaeiie?aoii, nethieiooii, ii e iaeaaeaoue
a?aiaiiie i?ioyaeaiiinoueth. Eioi?iaoeey, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoue aicaeaenoaea ia ineoeeo a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie
iacaaeneii io oiai iniciaaony yoio i?ioeann eee iao.

Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi aeeth/aiea iaoaieciia ?aaeecothueo iaieioeyoeaiia
aicaeaenoaea i?eoiaeeony ia oacu ia?aaea/e e iio?aaeaiey. Ia iinooaca
i?ienoiaeeo iaeiieaiea iai?iecaieueii onaiaiiie eioi?iaoeee, niiniaiie
iiaenioaeii aeeyoue ia niciaiea e yaeythuaeny oi?ioei ooiaeaiaioii aeey
neaaeothueo na?ee iaieioeyoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey.

Iieuecoynue a?aaeaoeeae, eioi?oth i?aaeeiaeee A. Iioec iiaeii auaeaeeoue
oaeia iiiyoea eae ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, eioi?ay a ioee/ea io
naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ia iiae/eiyaony iauei caeiiai eiaeee.
Naiaioe/aneay eioi?iaoeey iano?aeaaao ethaeae aeaenoaiaaoue a
niioaaonoaee ni naieie oaaaeaeaieyie e eioa?anaie. Naiaioe/aneay
eioi?iaoeey a ioe?uooth iiaoaeaeaao /aeiaaea e ii?aaeaeaiiui aeaenoaeyi.
Iia ia?auaia e eiaeea e cae?aaiio niuneo /aeiaaea. Naiaioe/aneay
eioi?iaoeey “i?aaeea aae” a iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe aei aeoeaiiai
aiaae?aiey ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee a iieeoeeo. Ynoaoe/aneay aea
eioi?iaoeey yaeyaony i?aaaee?othuae a niiauaiey e nthaeaoao,
ia?aaeaaaaiuo NIE. A ioee/ea io naiaioe/aneie eioi?iaoeee iia ia
i?aaeiaoia. Ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, enoiaeyuay io n?aaenoa ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee, ia noieueei io?aaeaao ?aaeueiia iieiaeaiea aauae, neieueei
aucuaaao o aoaeeoi?ee ii?aaeaeaiiua aeooaaiua ninoiyiey, ?aaeoeee e
yiioeee.

Eioi?iaoeey, ia?aaeaiiay oaeei ia?acii, noaiiaeoueny aieaa onoie/eaie
aeey aoaeeoi?ee, /ai oaeou e aeiaiaeu, eceaaaaiua a oi?ia naiaioe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee. “Aeaaiaea?y” ynoaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee ethaee /anoi
aieinotho aii?aee naiei oaaaeaeaieyi e eioa?anai, a yoi i?yiie
?acoeueoao iaieioee?iaaiey NIE ca n/ao ia?aaeaaaaiie eie ynoaoe/aneie
eioi?iaoeee. Ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, canoaaeythuay ethaeae aieiniaaoue
ia oiii, a na?aeoeai, iiaeao auoue eino?oiaioii ceioiio?aaeaiee i?e
aicaeaenoaee ia niciaiea ethaeae.

Iauaeoii ynoaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee yaeythony oa oeaiiinoe ethaeae, ia
eioi?uo aace?othony eo oaaaeaeaiey. Yoe oeaiiinoe, ca/anooth,
iniiauaathony ia ia eaeeo-oi oaeoao e aeieacaoaeuenoaao, a nicaeathony
eieeaeoeaiui iiuoii. I?e yoii iie, eae i?aaeei, /aoei ia iniciathony
naiei /aeiaaeii. Ia?aae auai?aie ethaee eniuouaatho ii?aaeaeaiiue no?ao
ia?aae aoaeouei e aanniciaoaeueii ia?auathony e oeaiiinoyi,
ia?aaioaiiuie eieeaeoeaiui iiuoii. Ia aeaiiii yoaia e auoiaeeo ia ia?aue
ieai ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey, ia?aaeaaaaiay NIE. Ynoaoe/aneay
eioi?iaoeey a aeaiiii neo/aa neoaeeo eae au “eeaai” iaaeaeo iaeiaaeaeu
au?aaioaiiui eieeaeoeaiui iiuoii e yiioeeiiaeueiui iano?iai aoaeeoi?ee,
niiniaiui iai?aaeoue iannu a ioaeiii iai?aaeaiee. Ynoaoe/aneay
eioi?iaoeey i?e yoii aeieaeia auoue nicao/ia
yiioeeiiaeueii-ineoieiae/aneei ia?aaeeaaieyi ?aoeaieaioa.

Ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey ioe?uaaao a?iiaaeiua aiciiaeiinoe aeey
iiaeaea?aeee e ?ac?ooaiey i?enoueo iauanoao iieeoe/aneeo oaaaeaeaiee e
i?eno?anoee. A ?innee ainoaea?noai, iaeaaeay iiiiiieeae ia ia?aaea/o a
NIE ynoaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee, iiaeao niaeaenoaiaaoue neeaaeuaaieth
?aciiia?aciuo aia/aoeaiee, eioi?ua i?iaioee?otho o aoaeeoi?ee /oanoai
nieeaea?iinoe n ainiiaenoaothueie a?oiiaie (aeooaeueiui i?eia?ii yoiai
yaeyaony neooaoeey a *a/ia, eiaaea aeaaiaea?y oaea/iie i?iiaaaiaeenoneie
eaiiaiee a NIE aieaa 70% ianaeaiey ?inne iiaeaea?aeaee aiaiiia
aoi?aeaiea a *a/ith). A i?aeoe/aneii niunea ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey
auaeyaeeo aeey aeanoe i?aaeii/oeoaeueiae naiaioe/aneie, oae eae iia
niiniaia iiaeaioaaeeaaoue aeaenoaey, i?ioeai?a/auea eiaeea e ?aaeueiiio
iieiaeaieth aeae, ii auaiaeiua aeey aeanoaothuae yeeou. A ia?aaea/a, ii
i?aeiouanoao, ynoaoe/aneie eioi?iaoeee e caeeth/ai niune iieeoecaoeee
n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee, oae eae ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey
iaoeaeaia ia ia iiieiaiea, a ia aiooaiea onoie/eauo neiaieia
iin?aaenoaii ?acee/iuo oaoie/aneeo yooaeoia.

Ianniaay eiiioieeaoeey. Iaiaoiaeeiua oneiaey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey NIE.

Ianniaoth eiiioieeaoeeth noieo ?anniao?eaaoue a ea/anoaa nioeeaeueiiai
yaeaiey, iniiaiie ooieoeeae eioi?iai yaeyaony aicaeaenoaea ia
aoaeeoi?eth /a?ac niuneiaoth e ioeaii/ioth eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay
ia?aaeaaony ii eaiaeai NIE. Oaeaea neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue ianniaoth
eiiioieeaoeeth eae iaoaieci aeooaeecaoeee eioi?iaoeee i?e iiiiue
?acee/iuo eiiioieeaoeaiuo n?aaenoa. Nouanoaotho iauea oneiaey
iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ooieoeeiie?iaaiey n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee
[11]. E iei iiaeii ioianoe oaeea oneiaey, eae:

Aoaeeoi?ey. Aoaeeoi?ey yaeyaony iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai aeey
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee, aac iaa naii
nouanoaiaaiea NIE oa?yao anyeee niune. Iiae aoaeeoi?eae iiieiaaony
niaieoiiinoue eiaeeaeaeia, oa?aeoa?ecothuayny iaiaeii?iaeiinoueth,
aiiieiiinoueth, ?ann?aaeioi/aiiinoueth. Aoaeeoi?ey – yoi eiaeeaeaeu,
aeeth/aiiua a naoue ?aaeueiuo iauanoaaiiuo ioiioaiee e naycae. I?e
iiiiue n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee aoaeeoi?ey iiaeaea?aeeaaao
ioiioaiey ia oieueei aioo?e naiae nioeeaeueiie a?oiiu, ii e n aieaa
oe?ieie nioeeaeueiie n?aaeie.

Nioeeaeueiay cia/eiinoue ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. Niaea?aeaiea
eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaeaaaaiie ii n?aaenoaai ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee,
ieacuaaao aieueoia aeeyiea ia ianniaoth aoaeeoi?eth a naiuo
?aciiia?aciuo oi?iao (a o. /. a oi?ia oaaaeaeaiey e aiooaiey).
Aicaeaenoaea eioi?iaoeee caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei iia niioaaonoaoao
nioeeaeueiui cai?inai aoaeeoi?ee e ianeieueei eioi?iaoeey, iinooiathuay
ec n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ?aaoey?ia. “Iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi
oaia?ue n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee naie niiniaiu oi?ie?iaaoue e
eoeueoeae?iaaoue nioeeaeueiua cai?inu aoaeeoi?ee”[7]. Ia?yaeo n
nioeeaeueiie aeooaeueiinoueth niuneiaie eioi?iaoeee aieueoia cia/aiea
eiaao ioeaii/iay eioi?iaoeey. Iieo/aoaeue eioi?iaoeee aieueii eee
iaaieueii iaeeaeaao ioeaii/ioth eioi?iaoeeth.

Iaeeaeaiea ioeaii/iie eioi?iaoeee io NIE iauyniyaony oai, /oi iie eae
nioeeaeueiua einoeooou eiatho noaoon ioeoeeaeueiiai enoi/ieea
eioi?iaoeee, e eioi?iio ianniaay aoaeeoi?ey eiaao aunieoth noaiaiue
aeiaa?ey. Enoeiiinoue niuneiaie eioi?iaoeee o?oaeii i?iaa?eoue, iiyoiio
aoaeeoi?ey /ooei i?eneooeaaaony e eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ay, eae ae eaaeaony,
io?aaeaao aeiieie?othuea oaiaeaioeee a iauanoaa. Ioeaii/iay eioi?iaoeey
ai iiiaii niinianoaoao oi?ie?iaaieth iauanoaaiiiai iiaiey.

Iaee/ea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua aeieaeiu iaania/eaaoue
?aaoey?iinoue e oe?aaee?iaaiiinoue ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee. O aoaeeoi?ee
anoue aiciiaeiinoue caiieieoue ie?oaeathuee ie? eioi?iaoeeae,
iinooiathuae ec n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee, a yoii i?aaeaea anaai
caneoaa oaoie/aneeo aiciiaeiinoae n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee.

?acee/ea a oaoie/aneie aii?oaeaiiinoe iaaeaeo i?annie e oaeaaeaeaieai
aace?oaony a eo ?aciuo iano?ieeao ia aoaeeoi?eth. Anee i?anna a iniiaiii
iano?iaia ia naiaioe/aneoth aieio aini?eyoey aoaeeoi?ee, oi oaeaaeaeaiea
eniieuecoao naie aoaeei-aecoaeueiue iioaioeeae. Neooaoeaiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee a oaeaia?aaea/a, a ioee/ea io i?annu,
eneeth/aao aeaoniuneaiiinoue. aeeiaieea ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, yooaeo
nio/anoey – ana yoe ?acee/ey oaeaaeaeaiey io i?annu iaoneiaeaiu a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eo ?aciuie oaoie/aneei oi?iaoii.

O/anoea oaeaaeaeaiey a iieeoe/aneie iaieioeyoeee.

Oaeaaeaeaiea – iaeaieaa iiioey?iue enoi/iee eioi?iaoeee aeey aoaeeoi?ee.
Eiaiii oaeaaeaeaiea yaeyaony iniiaiui eino?oiaioii iieeoe/aneiai aeeyiey
ia aoaeeoi?eth a neeo iauaeoeaiuo oaoie/aneeo ea/anoa.

Ynoaoeea oaeaaeaeaiey aiieiuaao a naay aeaa i?eioeeia. Ai-ia?auo, yoi –
iicae/iinoue ecia?aaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeythuaai aanue ie? a ea/anoaa
ianaycaiiuo iaeiicia/iie eiae/aneie naycueth niiauaiee (eiaaea,
iai?eia?, ca ei?ioeee io?acie a?aiaie iiyaeyaony ?aciiianooaaiay e
?aciiieaiiaay eioi?iaoeey ec ?acee/iuo iaeanoae aeecie). Ai-aoi?uo, yoi
– ?aciiain (acaeiioneeaiea) iinooiathueo a niciaiea oaeac?eoaey
niiauaiee, eioi?ue i?aiaeieaaaao eo iicae/ioth ?acae?iaeaiiinoue,
iauaaeeiyy a onoaiaaeeaaaiia ?aaioie niciaiey niuneiaia aaeeinoai.
“*aeiaae iiaeao eiio?iee?iaaoue, “oeeueo?iaaoue” niiauaiey, eioi?ua ii
iieo/aao ii iaeiiio eaiaeo, iai?eia?, /a?ac neiai e /a?ac c?eoaeueiua
ia?acu. Eiaaea yoe eaiaeu niaaeeiythony, yooaeoeaiinoue aiaae?aiey a
niciaiea ?acei aic?anoaao – «oeeueo?u» ?aooueny. Oaeno, /eoaaiue
aeeeoi?ii, aini?eieiaaony eae i/aaeaeiay enoeia, anee aeaaony ia oiia
aeaeai?yaea – ia?acia, niyouo “ia ianoa niauoee”. E?eoe/aneia iniuneaiea
?acei cao?oaeiyaony, aeaaea anee aeaeai?yae ia eiaao ieeaeie nayce n
oaenoii”[3].

Nia?aiaiiua iieeoe/aneea oaoiieiaee iaycaiu naiei aicaeaenoaeai ia iannu
a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue aecoaeueiui ia?acai oaeaaeaeaiey. Oaeaaeceiiiue
ia?ac ?acai?a/eaaaony ia ye?aia a aeaea iicaeee i?acaioaoeaiuo neiaieia,
eioi?ua ia i?aoaiaeotho ia enoeiiinoue i?aaenoaaeyaiuo eie ea?oeiie eee
ia eiaeiinoue, ii ieacuaathony aeey ethaeae iniiaiui enoi/ieeii
eioi?iaoeee ia ie?oaeathuai ie?a. Oaeaia?acu iai?yioth naycaiu e
iiae/eiaiu iaieioeyoeaiiio aicaeaenoaeth ia aoaeeoi?eth. Oaeaaeceiiiay
eioi?iaoeey – yoi i?aaeaea anaai ynoaoe/aneay eioi?iaoeey.
Oaeaaeceiiiiio aoaeei-aecoaeueiiio eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iioieo /oaeaeu
oeaiiinoe eiaeee: iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue, a?aoiaioaoeey, iniuneaiiue
eiioaeno, anee iie iaoatho ?acaeaeaoue eee ii?aaeaeaiiui ia?acii
“iano?aeaaoue” ioaeeeo. Oaeaia?acu, ii ii?aaeaeaieth, anoue
“ioia?aaeaiea” ?aaeueiie aeecie, ii einoeaie?othony iie eae /anoue yoie
?aaeueiinoe. Iaaei i?e yoii ioiaoeoue, /oi yoa ?aaeueiinoue i/aiue /anoi
i?aiiaeiineoueny aac eiae/aneie nayce e a?aoiaioaoeee ?a/ae. Oaeei
ia?acii, o aoaeeoi?ee neeaaeuaaaony oaeie aea acaeyae ia ie?oaeathuee
ie?, eae ei aiooaao ia?aciay oaeaeiiioieeaoeey.

Oaeaaeaeaiea i?eioeeieaeueii ioee/aaony io ae?oaeo aeaeia eiiioieeaoeee.
Ai-ia?auo, ciaee oaeaia?acu, a ioee/ea io ciaeia ycuea eee ienueia,
aanueia i?aae?aniieiaeaiu e oiio, /oiau c?eoaeue i?i/eouaae eo eae
anoanoaaiiia aeeciaiiia niauoea. Ai-aoi?uo, oaeaia?acu i?e anae eo
iioiaeanoe ia ?aaeueiua aeeciaiiua niauoey yaeythony eae e ana ae?oaea
ciaee eiaeii, a ia i?inoui ioia?aaeaieai ?aaeueiuo aeeciaiiuo
ianoiyoaeuenoa. Yoe ciaee, eioi?ua aaia?e?oao oaeaaeaeaiea, eiatho
ii?aaeaeaiiue niune, eioi?ue /anoi ia eaeaioe/ai oiio niuneo, eioi?ue
caeiaeai a aauao, ioia?aaeaaiuo ia oaeaaeceiiiii ye?aia. Oaeei ia?acii,
eiaee?iaaiea inoaaony aeey ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee ia caiaoiui, e o eeoe,
inouanoaeythueo naeaeoeeth e ioi?ieaiea oaeaeioi?iaoeee, aicieeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aiooaoue, oi anoue aeoeaece?iaaoue iaieioeyoeaiua
iaoaieciu.

Naie iaieioeyoeaiue iioaioeeae oaeaaeaeaiea ?acaeaaao eiaiii ca n/ao
oiai, /oi iii eneonii ne?uaaao ?acee/ea iaaeaeo oeeoeeae e
?aaeueiinoueth. E eiaiii iiyoiio eioi?iaoeey i?aiiaeianaiiay ec
oaeaaeci?a ieacuaaaony eoaea aieaa oaaaeeoaeueiie aeey ioaeeee, /ai
a?aoiaiou oai?aoe/aneiai eee eaeaieiae/aneiai naienoaa.

Ethaee, aeeth/ay oaeaaeci?, iaeeaeatho a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ?acaea/aiee,
eiaiii iiyoiio oaeaaeaeaiea, neaaeoy yoei aeaeaieyi c?eoaey, auae?aao
niauoey n i?inoie no?oeoo?ie, n eiioeeeoii a oeaio?a niauoey, n aieueoie
noaiaiueth i?eaycee e oie eee eiie ia?niia. Oi, /oi ia iiiaaeaao a
aeieaeioth noaio oaeaaeaeaieai ioa?anuaaaony eee ia?aaiaeeoueny ia
aoi?ie ieai. A ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey oaeeo i?aaee iieeoeea ecia?aaeaaony
ia oaeaye?aia i?inoui, iacaiuneiaaoui aeaeii, eioi?ia aeaeaaony aa?iyie
aeiy a iaiiaaiea iea. Oaeaia?acu iacaiaoii nicaeatho oaeia iiaiea i
iieeoeea o oaeac?eoaey, eioi?iio iieeoeea aeaaea anee au oioaea ia iiaea
neaaeiaaoue.

Iniiaiua iaieioeyoeaiua oaoiieiaee a nenoaia ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee.

Iaeiei ec naiuo /anoi ano?a/athueony i?eaiia iaieioeyoeee a NIE yaeyaony
eneaaeaiea eioi?iaoeee. A oi a?aiy eae A. Aeioeaiei enneaaeoao oaeea
eiie?aoiua i?eaiu eae iiaeoaniaea oaeoia eee niauaiea ii naiaioe/aneiio
iieth iiiyoey, N. Ea?a-Io?ca auaeaeyao: oaa?eeaoeeth oaeoia,
iaieioeyoeaioth naiaioeeo, oi?iuaiea, noa?aioeiecaoeeth. Ii/oe anaaaea
eneaaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey eniieuecoaony aianoa n niioaaonoaothuei niiniaii
iiaea/e. Caeanue iu ioiaoei oaeea i?eaiu eae ooaa?aeaeaiea, iiaoi?aiea,
ae?iaeaiea, n?i/iinoue, nainaoeeiiiinoue, a oaeaea ionoonoaea
aeueoa?iaoeaiuo enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee (eee ionoonoaea o ieo
aeueoa?iaoeaiie eioi?iaoeee).

Oaa?eeaoeey oaeoia (i?yiay eiaeue). E iieeoeee, e aeayoaee nia?aiaiiie
i?annu /anoi cayaeytho, /oi i?anna ia eniieuecoao i?yiie eaee – yoi e
aei?iai, e iianii. A ?aciuo aa?eaioao iiaoi?yaony oaeie aoi?eci: «Eaeie
niune eaaoue, anee oiai aea ?acoeueoaoa iiaeii aeiaeoueny, ouaoaeueii
aeice?oy i?aaaeo?». A. Iieue [4] ieoao, /oi eneaaeaiea ?aaeueiinoe
aeinoeaaaony /aua /a?ac i?ioeann «eoioeyoeee iaeeeo ioeeiiaiee,
i?ienoiaeyueo anaaaea a iaeiii e oii aea iai?aaeaiee, /ai ?aoeoaeueiuo,
a?inathueony a aeaca aeaenoaee. «Honesty is the best policy» – anaaaea
ai?acaei auaiaeiaa auoue /anoiui, anee ?a/ue eaeao i oaeoao, /ai eo
niciaoaeueii caiae/eaaoue». Iiae/a?eeaaaony oaeaea, /oi iaeua naeaeae,
i?eaiaeyuea e «iiey?ecaoeee» iioiea niiauaiee, aeieaeiu auoue ieaea
ii?iaa naiaioe/aneie aini?eei/eainoe n?aaeiaai iieo/aoaey (oi anoue, a
n?aaeiai aeieaeiu ia caia/aoueny).

Iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo i?aaee iaieioeyoeee niciaieai aeaneo, /oi oniao
caaeneo io oiai, ianeieueei iieii oaeaeinue eciee?iaaoue aae?anaoa io
iinoi?iiiaai aeeyiey. Eaeaaeueiie neooaoeeae aeey yoiai auea au
oioaeeoa?iinoue aicaeaenoaey – iieiia ionoonoaea aeueoa?iaoeaiuo,
iaeiio?iee?oaiuo enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee e iiaiey. Neiaeiinoue auiieiaiey
yoiai i?aaeea i?aaeaea anaai a oii, /oiau nicaeaoue o aae?anaoa
eeethceth iacaaeneiinoe, eeethceth ieth?aeecia eaiaeia eioi?iaoeee. Aeey
yoiai nicaeaaony aeaeeiinoue iiiaiia?acey NIE ii oeio i?aaiecaoeee,
iieeoe/aneie ie?anea, aeai?ai e noeeyi – i?e oneiaee, /oi ?aaeueii any
yoa nenoaia iiae/eiyaony aaeeiui aeaaiui onoaiiaeai. Eaeaaeueiue neo/ae
– eiaaea oaeaaony nicaeaoue (oi/iaa, aeiionoeoue nicaeaiea)
?aaeeeaeueiuo iiiiceoeeiiiuo enoi/ieeia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua, iaeiaei,
ia?aie/eaatho naith eioi?iaoeeiiioth ai?ueao n ?aaeeiii aii?inaie,
eioi?ua ia cao?aaeaatho nooe aeaaiuo i?ia?aii iaieioeyoeee.

Iiieii caiae/eaaiey «iaioaeiie» eioi?iaoeee e nicaeaiey oaeei ia?acii
«ae?ooaeueiie» ?aaeueiinoe aianoi io?aaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, NIE
oe?iei eniieuecotho i?eioeei aeaiie?aoee ooia – iioiieaiea niiauaiey,
eioi?iai iaaiciiaeii ecaaaeaoue, a oaioe/aneii iioiea aanniuneaiiie,
ionoiii?iaeiae eioi?iaoeee. A. Oeeea? [2] ieoao: «Iiaeiaii oiio eae
?aeeaia iaoaao nin?aaeioi/eoueny e eeoaao aaniiinoe i?a?uaaaioth
eioi?iaoeeth, iiaay oaoieea ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee iicaieyao caiieieoue
yoe? iioieaie iee/aiiie eioi?iaoeee, aua aieaa ineiaeiythuae aeey
eiaeeaeaea e aac oiai aaciaaeaaeiua iienee niunea».

“sscue, eae n?aaenoai aa?aaeueiie eiiioieeaoeee, no?iai ii?ie?iaai, eae
a iaaeee/iinoiii, oae e a einoeoooeeiiaeueiii iauaiee. Nia?aiaiiua
iann-iaaeea, n ?aciaoii ainiieueciaaaoenue naiaiaeie neiaa e aa
eioa?i?aoaoeeyie, ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieee iauanoaaiioth eoeueoo?o
ycuea. sscueiaay eoeueoo?a iaiaaoeeanue, a iniiaiii, aeaaiaea?y
eniieueciaaieth NIE ioeoeeaeueiiai ycuea niiauaiey, ninoiyuaai ec
i?ioanneiiaeueiie eaeneee iieeoeee e ie?iauo noaiaea?oia, acyoie ia
aii?oaeaiea i?e inaauaiee aeooaeueiuo i?iaeai iianaaeiaaiinoe. Yoa
noaiaea?oecaoeey ycuea i?iecaiaeeony ii aaeeiiio oaaeiio, eioi?ue
aeieaeai io?aaeaoue eiiiaoaioiinoue NIE, eae ioeoeeaeueiiai enoi/ieea
iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee”[3]. Oaeei ia?acii, ycue iann-iaaeea i?aa?auaaony
a aauaiea i?aeoea, ycue eca?aiiuo i?ioeaiiinoaaeyaony ycueo oieiu.

N. Ea?a-Io?ca [3] ii?aaeaeyao iaioeoeeaeueiue ycue oieiu eae «oocaiiue»,
a ioee/ea io «i?aaeeueiiai» ioeoeeaeueiiai ycuea. Ii yoiio iiaiaeo ii
ieoao: «Oocaiiue» ycue ?iaeaeaaony ec ee/iiai iauaiey ethaeae, eioi?ua
eceaaatho naie iunee – a aoua iianaaeiaaiie aeecie. Iiyoiio ii iai?yioth
naycai ni cae?aaui niuneii (iiaeii neacaoue, /oi aiein cae?aaiai niunea
«aiai?eo ia ?iaeiii ycuea»). «I?aaeeueiue» – yoi ycue aeeeoi?a,
ca/eouaathuaai oaeno, aeaiiue aio ?aaeaeoi?ii, eioi?ue aei?aaioae
iaoa?eae ioaeeoeenoa a niioaaonoaee n caia/aieyie niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia.
Yoi aacee/iay ?eoi?eea, nicaeaiiay oeaeui eiiaaea?ii ieaoiuo ?aaioieeia.
sscue aeeeoi?a a nia?aiaiiii iauanoaa nayce ni cae?aaui niuneii ia
eiaao, ii ianao niuneu, eioi?ua caeeaaeuaatho a iaai oa, eoi
eiio?iee?oao n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Ethaee, eioi?ua, naie oiai
ia caia/ay, ia/eiatho naie aiai?eoue ia oaeii ycuea, io?uaathony io
cae?aaiai niunea e noaiiayony eaaeeie iauaeoaie iaieioeyoeee.

Iaieioeyoeaiay naiaioeea: eciaiaiea niunea neia e iiiyoee.
?aciiaeaeiinoueth eaee a i?anna yaeyaony «eiino?oe?iaaiea» niiauaiey ec
ia?uaeia auneacuaaiey eee aeaeai?yaea. I?e yoii iaiyaony eiioaeno, e ec
oao aea neia nicaeaaony niaa?oaiii eiie niune. Ioaeaeueiua «e?oieoeu»
niiauaiey a?iaea au eiaeueth ia yaeythony, ii oi oeaeia, /oi neaiee ec
ieo ?aii?oa? eee ?aaeaeoi?, iiaeao ia eiaoue n aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth
ie/aai iauaai. Naaiaeiy iieeoeee e i?anna iinoiyiii iaiytho niune neia e
i?aaeea ea?u a caaeneiinoe io eiiuthieoo?u. Iieeoe/aneea yaoaieciu,
ianee?othuea enoeiiue niune yaeaiee, nicaeathony e n iiiiuueth oa?ieiia.
Yoi niaoeeaeueiua neiaa, eiathuea oi/iue niune, i?e/ai aoaeeoi?ey ?acei
?acaeaeyaony ia oao, eoi ciaao oi/iia cia/aiea oa?ieia, e ia oao, eoi ia
ciaao. Ii aeaaiia, /oi oa?ieiu iaeaaeatho iaae/aneei aicaeaenoaeai ia
niciaiea, eiay ia naaa ioia/aoie aaoi?eoaoa iaoee.

Oi?iuaiea, noa?aioeiecaoeey. I?anna (e aiiaua NIE) nua?aea aaaeiaeooth
?ieue a i?ioeanna «oieiiia?aciaaiey» a caiaaeiii iauanoaa. *aeiaae
iannu, i?iaeoeo iicae/iie eoeueoo?u, aue a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie nicaeai
i?annie. Naie NIE auno?i noaee iauaeoii eco/aiey a nioeeiaeeiaieea
eoeueoo?u, e anei?a auee iaia?oaeaiu e aeaaea iaoaiaoe/anee au?aaeaiu
nayce iaaeaeo i?inoioie niiauaiey e aai aini?eyoeai. NIE, a ioee/ea io
aunieie eoeueoo?u, i?aaeiacia/aiiu eiaiii aeey iannu. Iiyoiio a ieo auee
onoaiiaeaiu aeanoeea ia?aie/aiey ia neiaeiinoue e i?eaeiaeueiinoue
niiauaiee (aeaaea ia aeeeio neia, oioy aeaa-o?e caoiiuo neiaa anaaaea
aeiioneathony a noaouea a ea/anoaa «i?ei?aau» – iie iiauoatho
i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue noaouee a neeo «aiiaiiaoe/aneiai» yooaeoa). A iauai,
aeaaii auei noi?ioee?iaaiii oaeia i?aaeei: «Niiauaiea anaaaea aeieaeii
eiaoue o?iaaiue iiiyoiinoe, niioaaonoaothuee eiyooeoeeaioo
eioaeeaeooaeueiinoe i?eia?ii ia aeanyoue ioieoia ieaea n?aaeiaai
eiyooeoeeaioa oiai nioeeaeueiiai neiy, ia eioi?ue ?ann/eoaii
niiauaiea»[4].

Iiae yoei yiie?e/aneei i?aaeeii eaaeeo ineoieiae/aneia ii?aaaeaiea,
niaeanii eioi?iio /aeiaae iiaeniciaoaeueii oyaioaao e i?eieoeaiui
iauyniaieyi. Eiioeaioeeth oi?iuaiey auaeaeioe aua a ia/aea 20-o aiaeia
O. Eeiiiai (aoaeouee «aeo?iaeeno ?1» NOA). Ii n/eoae, /oi i?ioeann
aini?eyoey – yoi anaai-iaanaai iaoaie/aneay iiaeaiiea aua iaecaanoiiai
yaeaiey iiae onoie/eaoth iauoth oi?ioeo (noa?aioei). Iiyoiio i?anna
aeieaeia i?iecaanoe noaiaea?oecaoeeth yaeaiey, noaaoaai iauaeoii
niiauaiey. I?e yoii, ii aai au?aaeaieth, ?aaeaeoi? aeieaeai iie?aoueny
ia noa?aioeiu e ?ooeiiua iiaiey e «aacaeaeinoii eaii?e?iaaoue oiieinoe».
*aeiaae aeieaeai aini?eieiaoue niiauaiea aac oneeee e aaciaiai?i/ii, aac
aioo?aiiae ai?ueau e e?eoe/aneiai aiaeeca.

Ooaa?aeaeaiea e iiaoi?aiea. Oi?iuaiea iicaieyao auneacuaaoue aeaaioth
iuneue, eioi?oth o?aaoaony aiooeoue aoaeeoi?ee, a «e?aoeie, yia?ae/iie e
aia/aoeythuae oi?ia» – a oi?ia ooaa?aeaeaiey. Ooaa?aeaeaiea a ethaie
?a/e icia/aao ioeac io ianoaeaeaiey, iineieueeo aeanoue /aeiaaea eee
eaeae, eioi?ay iiaeao iiaeaa?aaoueny ianoaeaeaieth, oa?yao anyeia
i?aaaeiiiaeiaea. Yoi icia/aao oaeaea i?inueao e aoaeeoi?ee, e oieia
i?eiyoue eaeath aac ianoaeaeaiey oaeie, eaeie iia anoue, aac acaaoeaaiey
anao «ca» e «i?ioea» e ioaa/aoue «aea» ia ?acaeoiuaay.

Iie?aynue ia neiaeeaoeeny a iicae/iie eoeueoo?a oei iuoeaiey /aeiaaea
iannu, NIE a oi aea a?aiy noaee aaaeiaeoei oaeoi?ii oe?aieaiey yoiai
oeia iuoeaiey. Iie i?eo/aee /aeiaaea iuneeoue noa?aioeiaie e iinoaiaiii
nieaeaee eioaeeaeooaeueiue o?iaaiue niiauaiee oae, /oi i?aa?aoeeenue a
eino?oiaio iaeoieaiey. Yoiio iineoaeee aeaaiue iaoiae cae?aieaiey
ioaeiuo noa?aioeiia a niciaiee – iiaoi?aiea.

Iiaoi?aiea i?eaeaao ooaa?aeaeaieyi aan aeiiieieoaeueiiai oaaaeaeaiey e
i?aa?auaao eo a iaayc/eaua eaeae. Neuoa eo aiiaue e aiiaue, a ?acee/iuo
aaneyo e ii naiiio ?aciiio iiaiaeo, a eiioea eiioeia ia/eiaaoue
i?iieeaoueny eie. Aoaeo/e iaayc/eaie eaeaae, iiaoi?aiea noaiiaeony
aa?uea?ii i?ioea ioee/athueony eee i?ioeaiiieiaeiuo iiaiee. Oaeei
ia?acii, iii naiaeeo e ieieioio ?annoaeaeaiey e auno?i i?aa?auaao iuneue
a aeaenoaea, ia eioi?ia o iannu oaea noi?ie?iaaeny oneiaiue ?aoeaen, eae
o ciaiaieouo niaae Iaaeiaa… N iiiiuueth iiaoi?aiey iuneue ioaeaeyaony io
naiaai aaoi?a. Iia i?aa?auaaony a i/aaeaeiinoue, ia caaenyuoth io
a?aiaie, ianoa, ee/iinoe. Iia ia yaeyaony aieaa au?aaeaieai /aeiaaea,
eioi?ue aiai?eo, ii noaiiaeony au?aaeaieai i?aaeiaoa, i eioi?ii ii
aiai?eo.

Ae?iaeaiea e n?i/iinoue. ?acaeaeaiea oeaeinoiie i?iaeaiu ia ioaeaeueiua
o?aaiaiou – oae, /oiau /eoaoaeue eee c?eoaeue ia niia naycaoue eo
aiaaeeii e iniuneeoue i?iaeaio – iaeia ec iniauo e aaaeiuo noi?ii
oi?iuaiey. Yoi – ooiaeaiaioaeueiue i?eioeei iicae/iie eoeueoo?u.
Ae?iaeaieth neoaeeo iiiaeanoai oaoie/aneeo i?eaiia: noaouee a aacaoa
?acaeaathony ia /anoe e iiiauathony ia ?aciuo no?aieoeao, oaeno eee
oaeaia?aaea/a ?acaeaathony ?aeeaiie.

A. Oeeea? [2] aeaao iienaiea yoie oaoiieiaee: «Aicueiai, iai?eia?,
i?eioeei ninoaaeaiey iau/iie oaeaaeceiiiie eee ?aaeeii?ia?aiiu eee
eiiiiiiaee ia?aie no?aieoeu e?oiiie aaeaaeiaaiie aacaou. Iauei aeey anao
yaeyaony iieiay ?acii?iaeiinoue iiaeaaaaiiai iaoa?eaea e aaniethoiia
io?eoeaiea acaeiinayce inaauaaiuo nioeeaeueiuo yaeaiee. Aeeneonneiiiua
i?ia?aiiu, i?aiaeaaeathuea ia ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiee, i?aaenoaaeytho
niaie oaaaeeoaeueiua ia?acoeu o?aaiaioaoeee eae oi?iu iiaea/e iaoa?eaea.
*oi au ie auei neacaii, ana iieiinoueth ?anoai?yaony a iineaaeothueo
?aeeaiiuo iauyaeaieyo, eiie/aneeo o?theao, eioeiiuo noeaiao e nieaoiyo».

Iaeiei ec oneiaee oniaoiie e eae au ii?aaaeaiiie o?aaiaioaoeee i?iaeai
yaeyaony n?i/iinoue, iaiaaeeaiiinoue eioi?iaoeee, i?eaeaiea ae oa?aeoa?a
iacaiaaeeeoaeueiinoe e iaioeiaeiinoe niiauaiey. Yoi – iaeei ec naiuo
aeaaiuo i?eioeeiia aia?eeaineeo NIE. N/eoaaony, /oi iaaiaoaaiia iuouaiea
n?i/iinoe ?acei oneeeaaao eo iaieioeyoeaiua aiciiaeiinoe. Aaeaaeiaaiia,
a oi e aaea/aniia iaiiaeaiea eioi?iaoeee eeoaao aa eaeie-eeai iinoiyiiie
no?oeoo?u. *aeiaae i?inoi ia eiaao a?aiaie, /oiau iniuneeoue e iiiyoue
niiauaiey – iie auoaniythony ae?oaeie, aua aieaa iiauie.

A. Oeeea? [2] ieoao: «Eiaeiia /oanoai n?i/iinoe, aicieeathuaa a neeo
oii?a ia iaiaaeeaiiinoue, nicaeaao iuouaiea iaiau/aeiie aaaeiinoe
i?aaeiaoa eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ia oaeaea auno?i ?annaeaaaony.
Niioaaonoaaiii ineaaaaaao niiniaiinoue ?aca?aie/eaaoue eioi?iaoeeth ii
noaiaie aaaeiinoe. Auno?i /a?aaeothueany niiauaiey ia aaeaoeeiiiuo
eaoano?ioao e ianooieaiee iaoeeiiaeueii-inaiaiaeeoaeueiuo nee ai
Aueaoiaia, ?ano?aoao e caaanoiaeao, neeueiie aea?a e o.ae. iaoatho
ninoaaeaieth ioeaiie e noaeaeaiee. I?e oaeii iieiaeaiee aauae oinoaaiiue
i?ioeann ni?oe?iaaiey, eioi?ue a iau/iuo oneiaeyo niinianoaoao
iniuneaieth eioi?iaoeee, ia a ninoiyiee auiieiyoue yoo ooieoeeth. Iica
i?aa?auaaony a ?aoaoi, a eioi?ia aaea/anii auaaeeaaaony ai?io eiiaaea
aaaeiuo, ii a iniiaiii ionouo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo niiauaiee».

Nainaoeeiiiinoue. Iaania/eaaoue o?aaiaioaoeeth i?iaeai e ae?iaeoue
eioi?iaoeeth oae, /oiau /aeiaae ieeiaaea ia iieo/ae iieiiai,
caaa?oathuaai ciaiey, iicaieyao eniieueciaaiea nainaoeee. Yoi –
niiauaiey i niauoeyo, eioi?ui i?eaeaaony noieue aunieay aaaeiinoue e
oieeaeueiinoue, /oi ia ieo eiioeaio?e?oaony e ioaeiia a?aiy
oaea?aeeaaaony ii/oe ana aieiaiea ioaeeee. Iiae i?ee?uoeai nainaoeee
iiaeii eee oiie/aoue i aaaeiuo niauoeyo, eioi?uo ioaeeea ia aeieaeia
caiaoeoue, eee i?ae?aoeoue neaiaeae eee ineoic, eioi?ue oaea ii?a
i?ae?aoeoue – ii oae, /oiau i iai ia aniiiieee.

Iiaeaioiaea nainaoeee – e?iiioeeaay e aei?iaay ?aaioa, eioi?oth
auiieiytho i?ioanneiiaeueiua niaoeeaeenou. Caia/aoaeueii oi, /oi
iiaeaiiay a aeaea nainaoeee ia oaeaaeaeaiee eioi?iaoeey, ni anaie
?aii?oaaeaie n ianoa niauoey, eioa?aueth a i?yiii yoe?a e o.ae., eae
i?aaeei, i?eioeeieaeueii eneaaeaao i?ienoaaeoaa niauoea. Yoi ioia/aaony
a niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?a ii aeaiiie oaia. Ii yoi e ia aaaeii, aaaeai
yooaeo, ?aaee eioi?iai caioneaaony nainaoeey. I?e yoii c?eoaeue i/a?iaai
eiaiii oai, /oi ii iaaethaeaao «iaiaeeaeaiiia», iaioia?aiiue aeeciaiiue
iaoa?eae, oae /oi iaaeaeo iei e ?aaeueiinoueth iao ieeaeiai iin?aaeieea.
Yoa eeethcey aeinoiaa?iinoe – neeueiia naienoai oaeaaeaeaiey.

IV. Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey.

Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey. Neiaiee/aneay iieeoeea.

Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue eanaaony oaoiieiaee
inaauaiey iieeoe/aneeo i?ioeannia a NIE. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iu
iaaethaeaai iiaeiaio oiai, /oi ?aiueoa iiieiaeinue iiae iieeoeeie.
Oaia?ue ianoi aeeneonnee, iieeoe/aneeo ?aoaiee ana /aua caieiatho iaeea
neiaiee/aneea aeaenoaey. Yoa neiaiee/aneay iieeoeea iiyaeyaony oai, aaea
aeanoue ie/aai ia iiaeao, eee ia oi/ao iaiyoue, aaea iaeeaeaiey, eioi?ua
iie iiaoaeaeatho o ianaeaiey naieie i?aaeauai?iuie iaauaieyie, ia iiaoo
auoue oaeiaeaoai?aiu. Iu /anoi aeaeei, neuoei, /eoaai inaaaeiniauoey,
eioi?ua i?ienoiaeyo eeoue iinoieueeo, iineieueeo i ieo ?anneacuaatho.

Yoe inaaaeiniauoey cae?uaatho aei?iao e aeaenoaeoaeueii aaaeiui aeey
iauanoaa niauoeyi e e?eoe/aneei iuneyi. Eiieo?aioiay ai?ueaa ca
aoaeeoi?eth e oe?aae ana /aua auioaeaeaao aeo?iaeenoia i?aoaaee/eaaoue
aaaeiinoue niauoey, caia/aoue iaiau/iinoue oai, aaea aa iao, aueneeaaoue
iieiua nainaoeee eee aeaaea nicaeaaaoue eo. “Ai?i/ai ia noieo
aeaiiiece?iaaoue a aeaiiii neo/aa n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, iaaei
i?eciaoue, /oi ecia/aeueii ii naiae i?e?iaea iie neeiiiu e
iaieioeyoeee”[7].

A iieeoe/aneie ?aaeueiinoe iineaaeieo aeanyoeeaoee auoiaeeo ia ia?aia
ianoi neiaiee/aneay iieeoeea, e iniiaiay caneoaa a yoii i?eiaaeeaaeeo
eiaiii auno?iio ?acaeoeth n?aaenoa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee. Iiae
neiaiee/aneie iieeoeeie E. Cano?neee iiieiaao iniaue aeae eiiioieeaoeee,
iai?aaeaiiue ia ia “?aoeeiiaeueiie iniuneaiea niauoee, a ia onoaiiaeo
onoie/eauo iiiyoee o aoaeeoi?ee ca n/ao einoeaie?iaaiey
aoaeei-aecoaeueiuo yooaeoia”.

Iaiaoiaeeii iiieiaoue, /oi ethaia iieeoe/aneia aeaenoaea eiaao naith
neiaiee/aneoth noi?iio, eioi?ay iai?aaeaia ia iaiai /oanoa aoaeeoi?ee. A
aeaiiuo neo/ayo neiaiee/aneee aniaeo iieeoeee aiieia ii?aaaeai e ia
eiaao naiae oeaeueth “iaaeia?iniaanoii” aeeyoue ia aoaeeoi?eth.
Neiaiee/aneay iieeoeea aicieeaao oiaaea, eiaaea neiaieu eniieuecothony
yeeoie aeey oi?i/aiey eo iin?aaenoaii ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee a niciaiee
ethaeae. Oaeei ia?acii neiaie iaaeia?iniaanoii eniieuecoaony eae oaeay
ia?aciay eiino?oeoeey, eioi?ay iiaeao ecia?aceoue “eae au” ?aaeueiinoue
ec ethaie noa?u ?aaeueiie aeecie.

Niauoea a iieeoeea ieeiaaea ia aoaeao iineoue neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?.
Auaeeaaao oieueei nenoaiiia, i?ecaaiiia io?aaeaoue ioaeiua ia aeaiiue
iiiaio oa?aeoa?enoeee. Io?eoeaoaeueiua niauoey oeia aieacie Aeueoeeia, a
iiainoeeiii i?ino?ainoaa iiaeiaiyeenue iieiaeeoaeueiuie ?anneacaie i aai
neeueiii ?oeiiiaeaoee. Iiaeiaiua i?eia?u aiai?yo i oii, /oi niauoea a
neiaiee/aneii ie?a ioee/aaony io niauoey a ie?a ?aaeueiii. A ie?
neiaiee/aneee iiiaaeaao oieueei iaiaoiaeeiia, oi /oi oioyo, /oiau
neuoaee neooaoaee, aeaeaee c?eoaee. A iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea auoaneacaiiiai
iiaeii i?eaanoe neiaa Iuea?a Ao?aeuea[10]: “Neiaiee/aneay aeanoue – yoi
aiciiaeiinoue nicaeaiey ?aaeueiinoe i?e iiiiue neia, /oi oaeaaony eeoue
oiaaea, eiaaea iiiyoey aaeaeaaoiu ?aaeeyi. A yoii niunea neiaiee/aneay
aeanoue iaeaaeaao naienoaii ne?uaaoue eee iaia?oaeeaaoue ?aaeueii
nouanoaothuea iauaeou”.

Yeeoa einoeaie?oao oa niauoey, eioi?uo ?aaeueii iao, ii eioi?ua
aoaeeoi?ey ii ii?aaeaeaieth aini?eiao. Iai?eia?, ioa/aneia eeoei Iooeia
i?e iinauaiee aeaoneiai aeiia eee ia ano?a/a n nooaeaioaie aiana ia
icia/aao, /oi aoaeoo oaaee/aiu nioeeaeueiua auieaou ia ia?aciaaiea e
iiaeaea?aeeo aeaoneeo aeiiia. Iaeiaei a aeaiiii neo/aa oaeaaeaeaiea
iieacaei neiaie caaiou e iiaee i nooaeaioao e i aeaoaeiiianeeo aeaoyo.
*oiau iieeoe/aneia aeaenoaea oaeaaaeinue oniaoii “nauoue” aoaeeoi?ee,
n?aaenoaa ianniaie eiiioieeaoeee auioaeaeaiu aeaeaoue neiaieu i?eyoiuie
e eaaeeie aeey aini?eyoey c?eoaey. Eae neaaenoaey, iieeoe/aneea
aeaenoaey ia/eiatho ioeaieaaoueny ia ii e?eoa?eth eo naiaa?aiaiiinoe,
yooaeoeaiinoe e ae?oaei ?aoeeiiaeueiui e?eoa?eyi, a enoiaey ec eo
c?aeeuiinoe e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoe.

Caeanue iaiaoiaeeii aua ?ac iaiiiieoue, /oi oi/ee c?aiey aia?eeaineiai
?oeiaiaenoaa ii ineoieiae/aneei iia?aoeeyi niiauaiea (a iaoai neo/aa
iieeoe/aneia aeaenoaea) aeieaeii auoue “eiiaeiaoeeae ?acaeaeaoaeueiie,
eioi?iaoeeiiiie e oaaaeaeathuae ninoaaeythueo”[5]. Aaea iiae
?acaea/aieai iiieiaaony ethaia n?aaenoai aicaoaeaeaiey eioa?ana e
niiauaieth: oie, oaeeaeaiea, ynoaoe/aneia oaeiaieuenoaea io aecoaeueiie
eee caoeiaie eioi?iaoeee.

Ia yoii oaeaea ieoao E. Cano?neee: “…a aieueoeinoaa no?ai, aaea
noaeueaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo iinoia ?aoaaony ia auai?ao, oniao oao eee eiuo
iieeoe/aneeo nee caaeneo ia io oiai, ianeieueei oaaaeeoaeueiay e
a?aiioiay eaeaieiae/aneay i?ia?aiia aoaeao eie i?aaeeiaeaia, a io oiai,
ianeieueei yooaeoeaii ei oaeanony i?aaieciaaoue oio a n?aaenoaao
ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e ianeieueei y?eay ia?niia noaiao oeaio?ii
iaaeea-eaiiaiee”.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aneiiao?ey.

Aiai?y ia inaauaiee iieeoe/aneeo niauoee a NIE, neaaeoao oiiiyiooue i
oaeii yaeaiee eae eioi?iaoeeiiiay aneiiao?ey. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aneiiao?ey
aace?oaony ia aiciiaeiinoe inaauaiey niauoey, enoiaey ec ?acee/iuo aai
aniaeoia, nicaeaaay ?acee/iua aeaeu iiainoae. Iai?eia?, aieia iiaeao
eioa?i?aoe?iaaoueny eee n iao?eioe/aneeo, eee n aeiiaoieo, naiaeiuo
iiceoeee. A ia?aii neo/aa aoaeoo neeueiaa ioeoeeaeueiua enoi/ieee, ai
aoi?ii – iaioeoeeaeueiua. Iiyoiio eae ?ac aneiiao?e/iinoue ?ac?aoaao
anee ia iiaaaeaeaoue neeueiaeoaai, oi iaiineoue aio na?ueaciue a?aae,
eai anaaaea iaoiaeeo neaaua ianoa a “iai?iia” iai?eyoaey.

Iiainoue – yoi a?aiaiiia nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aneiiao?ee. Eiaaea
iia noaiiaeony iauaecaanoiie, iiainoue neaaeothuaai aeiy au/a?eeaaao
iiainoue aeiy i?ioaaeoaai, iiaeaea?aeeaay i?eioeei eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aneiiao?ee. Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aneiiao?ey iiaeao iauynieoue ethaiaue NIE e
/?acau/aeiui neooaoeeyi. N iaeiie noi?iiu, oaeea /?acau/aeiua niauoey
eaeaaeueii noe?atho i?ioeua niiauaiey ec iauanoaaiiiai niciaiey, nianay
iaoo iaiyoue. N ae?oaie, yeno?aiaeueiay neooaoeey anaaaea yaeyaony
i?iyaeaieai aneiiao?e/iinoe, eai ia yaeyaony i?iaiice?oaiui, a eiaiii
yoi ioaa/aao nouiinoe iiainoae eae oaeiauo.

Iiainoe, eae n/eoatho niaoeeaeenou, iiaeaea?aeeaatho oaea eiathuaany
?ani?aaeaeaiea nee a iauanoaa. Yoi eanaaony, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue,
ioeoeeaeueiuo iiainoae. Iaioeoeeaeueiua iiainoe a ea/anoaa enoiaeyueo io
iiiiceoeeiiiuo enoi/ieeia, iaiai?io, noa?athony ?anea/eaaoue yoi
?ani?aaeaeaiea. Iai?eia?, ?aaee yoiai nicaeaaony niiauaiea i
ei??oioeeiiiinoe aa?oia iauanoaa, /oi eniieuecoaony eae a iieeoe/aneie
ai?ueaa, oae e a i?iiaaaiaea ia iai?eyoaey e a aiaiiii i?ioeainoiyiee.
Aeey i?iiaaaiaeenoneeo oeaeae eioi?iaoeeiiiay aneiiao?ey anaaaea iaeaeao
naia ianoi, iineieueeo a eaaeaeii iauanoaa nouanoaoao i?ioeaiiinoaaeaiea
ioeoeeaeueiie e iaioeoeeaeueiie eaeaieiaee.

Neaaeoao oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi ia ana iieeoe/aneea aeoa?u iieo/atho
iaeeiaeiaia inaauaiea a iann-iaaeea. Aeaenoaey iaeiiai iieo/atho iieiia
inaauaiea, aeaenoaey ae?oaiai caiae/eaathony. Iaciaai yoi aneiiao?eae
inaauaiey. Nthaea aea iiaeii ioianoe iiiuoee eneeth/eoaeueii
iieiaeeoaeueiiai eee eneeth/eoaeueii io?eoeaoaeueiiai inaauaiey oiai eee
eiiai iieeoe/aneiai aeoa?a, /oi iniaaiii iaino?yaony a ia?eiae
i?aaeauai?iie ai?ueau. I?e yoii iiyaeyaony i?iaeaia aaoiiaoecaoeee
aini?eyoey, eai i?ienoiaeeo en/aciiaaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aneiiao?ee a
niunea i?eaueaiey e iaeiiio oeio eioa?i?aoaoeee. Iai?eia?, A. Cthaaiia
anaaaea iiaeaaony io?eoeaoaeueii ia I?O, a ?acoeueoaoa c?eoaeue anaaaea
o/eouaaao iiaeiaiia ioeeiiaiea. Ethaia aaoiiaoe/aneia aini?eyoea ia
?ac?aoaao iieueciaaoueny eioi?iaoeeiiiie aneiiao?eae.

Iieeoe/aneay iaieioeyoeey a NOA.

Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou Aia?eee i?aaenoaaeytho iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?e
eco/aiee iaieioeyoeee ia iaoeeiiaeueiii e iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. Aeey
enneaaeiaaiey yoie oaiu iu ainiieuecoainy ?aaioie A. Oeeea?a
“Iaieioeyoi?u niciaieai”[2]. Ii aai neiaai “Niaaeeiaiiua Ooaou
niaa?oaiii oi/ii iiaeii ioa?aeoa?eciaaoue eae iauanoai, aaea
iaieioeyoeey neoaeeo iaeiei ec aeaaiuo eino?oiaioia oi?aaeaiey,
iaoiaeyuaainy a ?oeao iaaieueoie i?aayuae a?oiiu ei?ii?aoeaiuo e
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo ainnia”. Oai aea ii auaeaeyao iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey
ianniaie iaieioeyoeee a NOA:

Ieo ia eiaeeaeaeoaeecia e ee/iii auai?a. Eiioeaioeey eiaeeaeaeoaeecia
aeeth/aao a naay aeaa iieiaeaiey: ainoaea?noai iaa?aaaao i?aai /anoiie
nianoaaiiinoe; ainoaea?noai – aethnoeoaeue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
aeaaininoiyiey. Iaieioeyoeaiay ninoaaeythuay oai?ee ee/iiai auai?a
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi o /aeiaaea iao aiciiaeiinoe auae?aoue, oae eae
aai aeaenoaey a ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea yaeythony “cai?ia?aiie?iaaiiuie”.

Ieo i iaeo?aeeoaoa. Aeey aeinoeaeaiey iaeaieueoaai oniaoa iaieioeyoeey
aeieaeia inoaaaoueny iacaiaoiie. Oniao iaieioeyoeee aa?aioe?iaai, eiaaea
iaieioee?oaiue aa?eo, /oi ana i?ienoiaeyuaa anoanoaaiii e iaecaaaeii.
Aeaaiia ianoi a ieoa i iaeo?aeeoaoa caieiaao i?aaeoaeuenoai, a
iniaaiiinoe oaaea?aeueiia i?aaeoaeuenoai. Ieo i?aaeiieaaaao /anoiinoue e
aani?eno?anoiinoue i?aaeoaeuenoaa a iauai e aai ninoaaiuo /anoae:
eiia?anna, noaeaaiuo i?aaiia e i?aceaeaioneie aeanoe.

N/eoaaony, /oi NIE oiaea aeieaeiu auoue iaeo?aeueiu. Ieeiai ia niouaao
oio oaeo, /oi NIE ii/oe aac eneeth/aiey yaeythony aeaeiauie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, iieo/athueie aeioiaeu io oi?aiaee naiei a?aiaiai eee
iieinaie, a cia/eo i iaiiaeeoiiinoe ia iiaeao auoue e ?a/e.

Ieo i iaeciaiiie i?e?iaea /aeiaaea. Iiaaaeaiea ethaeae ia iiaeao ia
caaenaoue io oai?ee, eioi?uo iie naie i?eaea?aeeaathony. NIE ?acaeaatho
oa oai?ee, eioi?ua auaiaeiu iaieioeyoi?ai, oaeaaeaeaiea aeaao ethaeyi
eeoue oi, /oi iie naie oioyo.

Ieo ia ionoonoaee nioeeaeueiuo eiioeeeoia. Eae caia/aao Oeeea?,
iann-iaaeea Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia io?eoeatho iaee/ea nioeeaeueiuo
eiioeeeoia, oioy ianeeea a iaeanoe nioeeaeueiuo ioiioaiee aeaaii
n/eoaaony iauei ianoii. Iaoeeiiaeueiue aiia?ao ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee
iiaeaao oaeiai ?iaea eiioeeeou eae eneeth/eoaeueii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia
niauoea, e ii i?ienoiaeaeaieth, e ii i?iyaeaieth. A noa?a iann-eoeueoo?u
iaeaieueoei oniaoii e anaiauaiethuae eioi?iaoeeiiiie iiaeaea?aeeie
iieuecothony eeiioeeueiu, oaeaaeceiiiua i?ia?aiiu, eieae e c?aeeua,
eioi?ua i?aaeeaaatho “aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ioth ii?oeeth ianeeey, ii
ieeiaaea ia cao?aaeaatho nioeeaeueiua eiioeeeou”.

Ieo i ieth?aeecia NIE. I?aaenoaaeaiea i ee/iii auai?a a oneiaeyo
?aciiia?acey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aeeaie?oaony a ie?iaii ianooaaa
eae oa?aeoa?iay /a?oa aeecie a NOA. Oai?ey auai?a i?eia?aoaao
iaieioeyoeaiue oa?aeoa?, eiaaea nicaeaaony eeethcey oiai, /oi ii eiaao
niune. Oi anoue aiooaaony noaia: iaeeea NIE = ?aciiia?acea iiaiee,
niaea?aeaiey. Eae i?aaeei, ca ?aciiia?aceai niaea?aeaiey ne?uaaaony
eeoue ?acee/iay aai iiaea/a ia aaeeiii eaeaieiae/aneii ea?eana.

A. Oeeea?, enneaaeoy iaieioeyoeaiua oaoiieiaee Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia,
aiai?eo i oii, /oi eiia/iie oeaeueth iaieioeyoeee yaeyaony ianneaiinoue,
ninoiyiea eia?oiinoe, eioi?ia i?aaeioa?auaao aeaenoaea. Ianneaiinoue i?e
yoii auaaao eae oece/aneay (iiiaea /anu, i?iaaaeaiiua a aacaeaenoaee
ia?aae oaeaaeci?ii), oae e eioaeeaeooaeueiay (nie?auaiea oinoaaiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, iooieythuaa aicaeaenoaea iaeeueiiai iioiea eioi?iaoeee).
“Oeaeue ?aaeei- e oaeaaeceiiiuo i?ia?aii, oeeueiia a eiiia?/aneii
iauanoaa ninoieo ia a oii, /oiau i?iaoaeaeaoue, a a oii, /oiau onuieyoue
iaaniieiaiiinoue nioeeaeueiie e yeiiiie/aneie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth”.

Aiai?y i iieeoe/aneie iaieioeyoeee a Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoao, iniaia
aieiaiea neaaeoao oaeaeeoue i?aaeoaeuenoao – iiiiiieenoo a iaeanoe
nai?a, ia?aaioee e ?ani?ino?aiaiey eioi?iaoeee. I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay
oeiia?aoey yaeyaony e?oiiaeoei ecaeaieai a ie?a.

Nicaeaiea eioi?iaoeee e eiio?ieue ca iae ia oaaea?aeueiii o?iaia a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie iiae/eiythony oaeiaeaoai?aieth iio?aaiinoae,
?anoe?aieth aeeyiey e iiaeoaa?aeaeaieth iaaeaaeiinoe nenoaiu.
I?aaeoaeuenoai oi?aaeyao aeiaaeueiui aiia?aoii ii ia?aaioea niciaiey e
oaaaeaeaieth ianaeaiey ae?oaeo no?ai, naii ?aoaao eaeay eiaiii
eioi?iaoeey aeieaeia auoue iaia?iaeiaaia, eae aa iiaeaoue, /a?ac eaeie
i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie e a eaeeo aeicao.

Nicaeaiea a 1953 aiaeo Eioi?iaoeeiiiiai Aaaionoaa Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia
Aia?eee eae ioeoeeaeueiiai aiia?aoa iaieioeyoeee ca ?oaaaeii niaiaei n
iineaaiaiiui ?acaeoeai aia?eeaineiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa e oneeaieai
aai aeeyiey ia ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie a?aia. Oae eae NOA aeaeaee aeaaioth
caaea/o naiae aiaoiae iieeoeee a oii, /oiau oi?iiceoue eciaiaiey eee
?acaeoea a ae?oaeo no?aiao a oeaeyo iaania/aiey auaiaeiuo
eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee aeey aia?eeaineiai eaieoaeecia, oi nicaeaiea oaeiai
?iaea aiia?aoa iiiiaaei caaoaee?iaaoue iaieioeyoeaiia aicaeaenoaea.

Iineaaenoaey “?inneeneiai iai?aaeaiey” iieeoe/aneie iaieioeyoeee NOA.

Eieue oae ?a/ue caoea i no?aoaaee aiaoiae yeiiiie/aneie yeniainee, oi
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue aeaa nouanoaaiiuo iiiaioa: 1) A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
aiaoiaiieeoe/aneee eo?n NOA ii ioiioaieth e ?innee niaiaaeaao n eo?nii
ia 1953 aiae (oi?iiaeaiea eciaiaiee eee ?acaeoey); 2) Yoiio eo?no a
80-90-o aa. i?aaeoanoaiaaea oae iacuaaaiay “aiiaa caiaaeiecaoeee”.

Eae ieoao A. Ceiiaueaa[9], “aiiaa caiaaeiecaoeee”, aci?aaiiay a ?innee,
i?iecaaea a iae ianeuoaiiua ?aiaa iionoioaiey ia oieueei a noa?ao
ainoaea?noaaiiinoe, yeiiiieee, eaeaieiaee e eoeueoo?u, ii e a naiii
/aeiaa/aneii iaoa?eaea iauanoaa. Aoaeo/e i?aaeiacia/aia (ii caiuneo
ecia?aoaoaeae) aeey ii?aaeaiey eiiioiecia, “aiiaa caiaaeiecaoeee” a
i?aeoe/aneii i?eiaiaiee ieacaeanue iaecia?eii iiuiaa: iia ?ac?ooeea
iiao/aa iiiaiaaeiaia iauaaeeiaiea ethaeae, aua iaaeaaii auaoaa aoi?ie
naa?oaea?aeaaie ieaiaou e i?aoaiaeiaaaoaa ia ?ieue aaaaiiia ie?iaie
enoi?ee… Caiaae n iiiiuueth yoiai i?oaeey iaea?aeae naioth
a?aiaeeicioth a enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa iiaaaeo, i?aaeii?aaeaeeaooth, ia
iie acaeyae, oiae aeaeueiaeoae nioeeaeueiie yaiethoeee ia iiiai aaeia
aia?aae”.

Aio eae ioeaieaaao aeaiiue ia?aai?io a noa?ao eoeueoo?u, yeiiiieee e
iieeoeee A. Ii/aioeia[6]: “A ?acoeueoaoa ca aeinoaoi/ii ia?aie/aiiue
n?ie oaeaea i?iecioei eciaiaiea nenoaiu oeaiiinoae ia i?ioeaiiieiaeiua,
a i?aaeuaeouae nenoaia ?anniao?eaaaiua eae “a?aaeaeaaiua”. Oi anoue
eiio?iee?oaiay eiiioieeaoeaiay n?aaea i?e ionoonoaee eiuo enoi/ieeia
aicaeaenoaey iaeaaeaao i/aiue aieueoeie aiciiaeiinoyie. I?e yoii
iaycaoaeueiui yeaiaioii ai anao yoeo neo/ayo yaeyaony ?ac?ooaiea i?ioeie
eaeaioe/iinoe /aeiaaea e iino?iaiea iiaie”. I?e yoii i?iecioae iiaue
ea/anoaaiiue ia?aoiae e aieaa oi?aaeyaiie nioeeaeueiie iiaeaee,
iiyaeeanue aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaoue iiiaeanoai iaieioeyoeaiuo
oaoiieiaee ia ?aaioaaoeo ia i?aaeuaeouae iiaeaee.

V. Caeeth/aiea.

Nia?aiaiiua oaiaeaioeee ?inneeneeo NIE ai aeeyiee ia iieeoe/aneia
niciaiea.

Aanoea?aiiiiua, ia naea?aeeaaaiua ieeaeeie eaaaeueiuie eee ii?aeueiuie
ia?aie/eoaeyie i?iiaaaiaeenoneea eaiiaiee a ?innee eciaieee nenoaio
n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e ianniaie niciaiea.

Iauanoaaiiia iiaiea a ?inne oaia?ue a?yae ee iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue a
ea/anoaa aeoeaiiai yeaiaioa iieeoe/aneie nenoaiu. Iu ia iiaeai
iaaethaeaoue nae/an a ?innee oaiiiaia a?oeeoee?iaaiey nioeeaeueiuie
a?oiiaie naiaai aieaecuyaeaiey. Ana, /oi iu iiaeai aeaeaoue nae/an, yoi
a eo/oai neo/aa iioiaea ia ianneaiia e iaeia?acoieoaeueiia “ianniaia
iano?iaiea”. ?inneeneia iauanoai eia?oii e ?aaiiaeooii ace?aao ca oai
eae n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee eniieuecoao yeiau eo iiaiea aeey
a?oeeoeyoeee naieo nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania. Iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue oaeo,
/oi a ianoiyuee iiiaio a ?innee iauanoaaiiia iiaiea iaeaaeaao aieueoei
iieeoe/aneei aanii, ii oieueei “eae neiaie naiiai naay” a NIE.

Aianoi oiai, /oiau iinoaiaiii ac?aueaaoue iieiaeia a?aaeaeaineia
iauanoai a ?innee, eoeueoeae?iaaoue aeaiie?aoe/aneea oeaiiinoe e
oi?ie?iaaoue ?aaeueiia iauanoaaiiia iiaiea, /oiau iioii iie?aynue oaea
ia yoi “ianoiyuaa” iiaiea iauanoaa, aeeyoue ia iieeoe/aneee eo?n,
aeaaeaeueoeai n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee ai?acaei oaeiaiaa naiei
nino?yiaoue oeeoeaiue “aean ia?iaea” e, iie?aynue ia inaaaeiiiaeaea?aeeo
ia?iaeiuo iann, aeeyoue ia iieeoe/anee cia/eiua niauoey. A oeaeyo
aeinoeaeaiey iieeoe/aneiai ?acoeueoaoa n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee
eniieueciaaee iieoia?aeiaeueioth ioeaii/ioth noeeenoeeo, ii?ith
auoiaeyuoth ca i?aaeaeu yeaiaioa?iuo i?eee/ee. Aianoi iieeoe/aneie
no?aoaaee, ?ac?aaioee, i?eiyoey e i?eiaiaiey oao eee eiuo iieeoe/aneee
?aoaiee, aeanoue ana a?aiy ia?auaaony e oaoieeai e?eceniiai oi?aaeaiey
eioi?iaoeeae, aaea ana n?aaenoaa oi?ioe.

Ia aaca iineaaeieo niauoee a iieeoe/aneie aeecie no?aiu e a ?inneeneeo
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee iiaeii au?aaioaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue
aeai?eoi aeinoeaeaiey oniaoa iaeiie iieeoe/aneie oeao?u e ii?aaeaeaiiie
ia?oee (i?aaeauai?iiai iauaaeeiaiey). Iaiaoiaeeiuie yeaiaioaie aeey
iieo/aiey oeooea “aeaaiiai au?aceoaey eioa?ania ia?iaea” yaeythony
(anoanoaaiii i?e iiaeaea?aeea NIE): i?aeoe/aneay iaaiciiaeiinoue e?eoeee
eaiaeeaeaoa ia yoio oeooe, iiceoeaiue oa?aeoa? eaiaeeaeaoa, iaieioeyoeey
ni noi?iiu n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee.

Iieo/aiea oeooea “aeaaiiai au?aceoaey eioa?ania ia?iaea” i?e neaaeiaaiee
yoiio aeai?eoio aa?aioe?iaai, a iieo/aiea yoiai oeooea nicaeaao aeey aai
iaeaaeaoaey oieeaeueioth auea?uoioth iiceoeeth e aannii?iua
ecae?aoaeueiua ia?niaeoeau.

Nae/an iiaeii eiinoaoe?iaaoue oaeo, /oi n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee a
?innee iioa?yee niiniaiinoue neoaeeoue n?aaenoaii aeeaeiaa aeey
?acee/iuo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii. Eo ?ieue naaeanue ii nooe e oie ?iee,
eioi?oth ea?aea a naia a?aiy niaaoneay i?iiaaaiaea. Ethaua iiiuoee
?inneeneeo NIE i?iaiaeeoue ioee/ioth io ioeoeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiioth
iieeoeeo aeanoei i?anaeathony Ieienoa?noaii ii aeaeai ia/aoe,
oaea?aaeeiaauaiey e ianniauo eiiioieeaoeee.

E?aaeeoa “ia?iaeiiai aeiaa?ey”, auaeaiiiai Iooeio ia i?aceaeaioneeo
auai?ao, n eeoaie oaaoeo aeey iiaeaaeaiey iiiuoie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eiio?iioaoeee ii ioiioaieth e aeanoe. Inoaaony iaaeayoueny, /oi aeaiiay
ainoaea?noaaiiay iieeoeea a iaeanoe NIE auea a?aiaiiie, e iinea
caoooaiey i?aaeauai?iuo no?anoae, iiaue enoyaeeoiaio ia ioieaeao io
iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia aeaiie?aoee: naiaiaea neiaa, naiaiaeiie
?ani?ino?aiaiea eioi?iaoeee e o.ae.

Iieeoeea, i?iaiaeeiay a iineaaeiaa a?aiy a n?aaenoaao ianniaie
eioi?iaoeee niaeaenoaiaaea cia/eoaeueiiio nieaeaieth niiniaiinoe
e?eoe/anee iuneeoue o ianniaie aoaeeoi?ee. Iauanoao aeaeatho aiooaoue
iieeoeeo eiaiii a oie “neiaiee/aneie” oi?ia, a eaeie aa iiaeatho a
n?aaenoaao ianniaie eioi?iaoeee. Iieeoe/anee aeoeaiue iioaioeeae
iauanoaa o?aoeoueny eneeth/eoaeueii ia nica?oeaiea iieeoe/aneiai oio.
Iaeeoei io/oaeaeaiea io aeoeaiie aeayoaeueiinoe a iieeoeea , naiaeeiia e
ianneaiiio iaaethaeaieth ca i?ienoiaeyueie niauoeyie.

Ai?i/ai ia noieo eceeoia ae?aiaoece?iaaoue neooaoeeth. Ia ia?ooea
iuiaoiee nioeeaeueiue ii?yaeie, eeeaeaee?iaaoue aai ia aiciiaeii. Anee
enoiaeeoue ec cae?aaiai i?aaiaoe/aneiai ?aaeecia , ioaeii i?eciaoue, /oi
NIE ia iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a iauanoaa aac ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?aaee
i?iecaiaenoaa “?aaeueiinoe” e ioiaieoue yoe i?aaeea aeaaea ?aaee aaaeiuo
ii?aeueiuo niia?aaeaiee iaaiciiaeii. Iu iiaeai au/eaieoue iieaciua /a?ou
n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee a iieeoeea, oae eae oii?yaei/aiea ianniauo
aeaenoaee, eiio?ieue ca iauanoaaiiui yiioeeiiaeueiui iano?iaieai iiaeao
ea?aoue aaaeioth e iieiaeeoaeueioth ?ieue a iieeoeea. A oneiaeyo, eiaaea
iiiaiieeeeiiiua iauanoaa, ia?iiiua yeiiiie/aneea e oaoiieiae/aneea ?uiee
e oaniay acaeiinaycue yeiiiieee e ainoaea?noaa noaiiayony iauaeoeaiie
?aaeueiinoueth, eiio?iee?oaiinoue e oi?aaeyaiinoue iauanoaaiiui iiaieai
iin?aaenoaii NIE noaiiaeoueny ia iaiaa aaaeiui oaeoi?ii, /ai /anoiua
ia?eaiaioneea auai?u. Iaeiaei neeoeii /anoia ceioiio?aaeaiea
iaieioeyoeaiiai iioaioeeaeii NIE ia a eioa?anao oe?ieeo iann, oiaeyao
“caei?iaue” iioaioeeae neiaiee/aneie iieeoeea a NIE.

I?aa?auaiea iieeoeee a «o?aieaeeecaoi?» eeoue ia a?aiy niiniaii
nio?aieoue eiyeueiinoue iauanoaa ii ioiioaiea e aeanoe, anee i?iaeaia
?aaeueia ia ?aoaaony neooaoeey ?aii eee iicaeii iaa?iaony
nioeei-yeiiiie/aneei e?ecenii. E oiaaea, ia niio?y ia ana iiaouanoai
NIE, ?ac?ua iaaeaeo iauaeoeaiie ?aaeueiinoueth e ae?ooaeueiie
?aaeueiinoueth ia niiaeao auoue caiieiai. Iaiai?io, /ai aieueoa
iaoaieciia «neiaiee/aneie iieeoeee» NIE aoaeao caaeaenoaiaaii, oai aieaa
aeanoieei aoaeao oie aeey ethaeae io nii?eeiniiaaiey n ?aaeueiinoueth.

VI. Nienie eniieueciaaaoaeny eeoa?aoo?u:

Aeioeaiei A. E. Ineoieiaey iaieioeyoeee. Oaiiiaiu, iaoaieciu, caueoa. –
I., 1996

Oeeea? A. Iaieioeyoi?u niciaieai. – I.: “Iuneue”, 1980

Ea?a-Io?ca N. Iaieioeyoeey niciaieai. – I.: “Aeai?eoi”, 2000

Iieue A. Nioeeiaeeiaieea eoeueoo?u. – I.: I?ia?ann, 1973

Ii/aioeia A. A. Ineoieiae/aneea aieiu. – Iineaa – Eeaa: “?aoe-aoe”, 2000

Ii/aioeia A. A. Eiiioieeaoeaiua oaoiieiaee OO aaea. – Iineaa – Eeaa:
“?aoe-aoe”, 2000

Cano?neee E. Iann-iaaeea aoi?ie ?anioaeeee. – I.: Ecae-ai IAO, 1999

Eaiiia I.N. Eioi?iaoeeiiii-aiaeeoe/aneay ?aaioa a caa?aio/?aaeaeaieyo. –
I., 1996

Ceiiaueaa A. ?onneee yenia?eiaio. – I.: “Iao aeii – L’age d’homme”, 1995

Ao?aeuea I. Nioeeaeueiia i?ino?ainoai e neiaiee/aneay aeanoueth. –
“Thesis” ?2, 1993

Eiiaoeeay A. I. Nioeeieiaey eiiioieeaoeee. – I., 1997

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