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Уравнение стационарного режима автогенератора и его анализ

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УРАВНЕНИЕ САЦИОНАРНОГО РЕЖИМА АВТОГЕНЕРАТОРА И ЕГО АНАЛИЗ

Содержание

Введение

Анализ стационарного режима автогенератора

Графический анализ стационарного режима автогенератора

Литература

Введение

Теория и техника генерирования гармонических высокочастотных колебаний в
нынешнем виде сложилась не сразу. Она подготовлена усилиями ученых и
инженеров всех стран мира и прошла в своем развитии ряд этапов. Как уже
отмечалось в лекциях по данной теме, на смену дуговым генераторам
незатухающих высокочастотных колебаний пришла электромашинная
высокочастотная техника, с которой неразрывно связано имя Валентина
Петровича Вологдина. Его высокочастотные электромашинные генераторы
являлись надежным источником радиоколебаний на начальном этапе развития
радиотехники.

В. П. Вологдин родился в 1881 году в бывшей Пермской губернии в семье
инженера горного дела. Окончил Петербургский технологический институт в
1907 году. Первая русская машина высокой частоты была построена В. П.
Вологдиным в 1912 году. Мощность ее составляла 2 кВт при частоте 60 кГц.
Машина отвечала всем требованиям времени и превосходила, по оценкам
специалистов, иностранные разработки. После Октябрьской революции В. П.
Вологдин возглавил в качестве одного из научных руководителей вновь
созданную Нижегородскую радиолабораторию. Здесь под его руководством
были построены электромашины на 50, а затем на 150 кВт. В 1925 году
последняя была установлена на Октябрьской радиостанции в Москве и
обеспечивала связь с городами Европы и Америки.

Под руководством В. П. Вологдина были созданы и первые ртутные
выпрямители мощностью до 10 кВт при напряжении 3,5 кВ для питания
ламповых радиопередатчиков, а также большая работа была проделана по
разработке других выпрямительных устройств.

В 1939 году В. П. Вологдин был избран членом-корреспондентом Академии
наук СССР, не раз удостаивался Государственных премий СССР. Он первым
награжден Золотой медалью им. А. С. Попова.

В. П. Вологдин умер 23 апреля 1953 года. Его имя носит
научно-исследовательский институт токов высокой частоты, в котором ему
пришлось работать в последние годы жизни.

Анализ стационарного режима автогенератора.

Сущность квазилинейного метода анализа

Как радиотехническое устройство генератор используется в режиме
стационарных колебаний с постоянными их параметрами (амплитудой и
частотой). При исследовании стационарного режима работы основными
задачами являются:

– определение условий возникновения режима стационарных колебаний;

– определение амплитуды и частоты стационарных колебаний;

– оценка устойчивости автоколебаний (стационарных режимов).

При выполнении условий самовозбуждения в генераторе возникают
автоколебания, и их амплитуда непрерывно растет (рис. 1).

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8019c0333019d0340019e034e01a0035d01a1036d01a2037e01a4038f01a503a001a603b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Рис. 1. Возникновение и стабилизация колебаний в автогенераторе

Затем усилительный элемент (транзистор) входит в нелинейный режим и его
усилительные свойства, вследствие ограничения выходного тока, падают,
рост амплитуды колебаний замедляется, а затем прекращается вовсе, тогда
наступает стационарный режим.

Выходной ток в силу нелинейности рабочей области АБ является
негармоническим, но периодическим, имеющим частоту колебаний, равную
резонансной частоте контура. Напряжение на контуре, при достаточно
высокой его добротности, создается только первой гармоникой тока и
является гармоническим.

Таким образом, в стационарном режиме нелинейный усилительный элемент
можно рассматривать по отношению к контуру как источник первой
гармоники, который поддерживает автоколебания в контуре. Схема замещения
генератора по переменному току в стационарном режиме имеет такой же вид,
что и в режиме самовозбуждения, с той лишь разницей, что теперь вместо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следует считать среднюю крутизну усилительного элемента по первой
гармонике выходного тока

picscalex89010009000003e401000003001700000000000500000009020000000004000
00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000
0000b0200000000050000000c02600500141200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000
000c0ffffffaaffffffc01300000a0500000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650
000200109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402b
0026205050000001302b0027f0a17000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc04020
01054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc6040000002d010100080000003
20a20037113010000002c0008000000320a2003930f01000000650008000000320a20034
a0c01000000530008000000320a8004430501000000550008000000320ad401980601000
000490008000000320a20032b0001000000530017000000fb02c0fe00000000000090010
10000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc6040000002d010
20004000000f001010008000000320aa6021f1201000000530017000000fb0280fe00000
00000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc60
40000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a3402c610010000006a00080000003
20a0605d106010000006d0008000000320a5a027707010000006d0010000000fb0280fe0
000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f
001010008000000320a34022c11010000006a0017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010
00000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccc6040000002d010
10004000000f001020008000000320aa603690d02000000435008000000320a0605f7070
2000000c2d508000000320a5a027e0801000000310008000000320aa6034a01020000004
35010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000
0002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a2003f80a010000003d0008000000320a2
003fb03010000003d0011000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000002040200104d542
045787472610002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a1a04fc0501000
000260008000000320a6e01da0601000000260008000000320ab3029f000100000026000
a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc020
00000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000
000

где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 – комплексная амплитуда первой гармоники выходного
тока усилительного элемента;
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 – комплексная амплитуда управляющего напряжения,
под которым понимается напряжение на входе усилительного прибора
трехполюсного типа или напряжение на нелинейном элементе двухполюсного
типа
(picscalex100010009000003d7000000020017000000000005000000090200000000040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 в генераторе с трансформаторной обратной связью или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 в генераторе на туннельном диоде).

Метод расчета генератора, основанный на представлении нелинейного
усилительного элемента в виде линейного со средними по первой гармонике
параметрами, разработан русским академиком Ю. Б. Кобзаревым в 30-е годы
и получил название квазилинейного метода. Он находит самое широкое
применение в инженерной практике.

В общем случае средняя крутизна
picscalex100010009000003d70000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c00280031200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa6ffffff40030000660200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000700017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200ccd2040000002d01000008000000320a66024a0102000000
d1d017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720
526f6d616e2043797200ccd2040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320ae001
2b0001000000530011000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000002040200104d542045
787472610002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a72019f0001000000
26000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000
bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f00100000300
00000000 является комплексной величиной. Одной из причин появления
фазового сдвига S между выходным током и управляющим напряжением может
быть конечное время пролета носителей заряда в усилительном элементе.
Кроме того, сдвиг по фазе S может быть обусловлен самой формой
ограниченного выходного тока, из состава которого выделяется первая
гармоника.

При анализе стационарного режима генератора принято за коэффициент
обратной связи считать не

picscalex100010009000003560100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02600520081200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffaaffffffe00700000a0500000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000200109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402
b0024603050000001302b002310717000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cccd040000002d01010008000000
320a20039807010000002c0008000000320a80042d0301000000550008000000320ad401
270301000000550017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d65
73204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cccd040000002d01020004000000f00101000800
0000320a0605af0402000000cadd08000000320a5a02a904020000004f4311000000fb02
40fe000000000000900100000002040200104d542045787472610002040000002d010100
04000000f001020008000000320a1a04e60301000000260008000000320a6e01e0030100
0000260008000000320aba02b90001000000260010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001
000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000
320a2003df01010000003d0010000000fb0240fe00000000000090010100000200020010
53796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a200347000100
000062000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007000000
0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100
030000000000

picscalex100010009000003460100000300170000000000050000000902000000000400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Так как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, то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 и эквивалентную схему
генератора с трансформаторной обратной связью представим, с учетом
приведенных рассуждений, в следующем виде.

picscalex61010009000003970b000010005600000000000400000003010800050000000
b0200000000050000000c0272020305040000002e0118001c000000fb020000000000000
0000000000000cc00000001436f7572696572204e657700b700000060d6a6a4a4a400000
c000000b448b700040000002d010000030000001e00030000001e00030000001e0004000
0002e010000040000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010
10007000000fc020100000000000000040000002d01020008000000250302008c04c9018
c04df0008000000fa02050000000000ffffff00040000002d01030004000000f00101000
400000002010200040000002d01030007000000fc020000000000000000040000002d010
1000c000000240304009704e2008c04c3008204e2009704e200040000000201010008000
000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010400040000002d0102005600000025032
900d802c300ce02c400c502c800be02d000b902d900b702e300b902ee00be02f700c502f
e00ce020301d8020401ce020501c5020a01be021101b9021b01b7022501b9022f01be023
901c5024001ce024401d8024601ce024701c5024c01be025301b9025c01b7026701b9027
101be027a01c5028201ce028601d8028701ce028901c5028d01be029401b9029e01b702a
801b902b301be02bc01c502c301ce02c801d802c9010800000025030200d802c300dd02c
3000800000025030200d802c901dd02c901040000002d01030004000000f001040004000
0002e0118001c000000fb02ceff1400000000009001010000cc0700001254696d6573204
e657720526f6d616e2043797200000000000000000000000000040000002d01040009000
000320a6801f802010000004c101c001c000000fb02dfff0e00000000009001000000cc0
700001254696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20437972000000000000000000000000000
40000002d01050009000000320a7801190301000000ca101700040000000201020004000
0000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d010
200080000002503020006044d01c1034d01080000002503020006043b01c1033b0104000
0002d01030004000000f00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa020
0000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000800000025030200e303d
701e3034d010800000025030200e3033b01e303c300040000002d01030004000000f0010
600040000002d01040009000000320a4b01220401000000d1102100040000002d0105000
9000000320a5c01460401000000ca101700040000000201020008000000fa02000003000
00000000000040000002d01060007000000fc020000ffffff000000040000002d0107000
e000000240305004a030e014a037e0177037e0177030e014a030e01040000002d0103000
4000000f00106000400000002010100040000002d010200040000002d010400090000003
20a550184030100000047102400040000002d01050009000000320a6501a80301000000d
d1017000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa02000003000000000000000
40000002d010600040000002d0102000c00000025030400dd02c300dd025200e3035200e
303c300040000002d01030004000000f0010600040000000201020004000000020101000
8000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000c0000002
5030400dd02c901dd021402e3031402e303d701040000002d01030004000000f00106000
400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002
d010600040000002d010200080000002503020060030e0160035200040000002d0103000
4000000f00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa020000030000000
0000000040000002d010600040000002d010200080000002503020060037e01600314020
40000002d01030004000000f0010600040000000201020008000000fa020000030000000
0000000040000002d010600040000002d0101001a00000024030b00590352005a034e005
e034b0062034b0066034e006703520066035600620359005e0359005a035600590352000
40000002d01030004000000f001060008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002
d010600040000002d0101001a00000024030b00590314025a0310025e030d0262030d026
6031002670314026603180262031b025e031b025a03180259031402040000002d0103000
4000000f0010600040000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002
d010600040000002d0102000a0000002503030060035200600307008b010700040000002
d01030004000000f00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa0200000
300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000a00000025030300600314026
0035f028b015f02040000002d01030004000000f0010600040000000201020008000000f
a0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0107003a00000024031b004
a012a014c011a0151010b015a01fe006601f4007401ec008301e8009301e800a301ec00b
101f400bc01fe00c5010b01cb011a01cd012a01cb013901c5014801bc015501b1016001a
301670193016b0183016b0174016701660160015a015501510148014c0139014a012a010
40000002d01030004000000f001060004000000020101000400000002010200040000000
201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000
8000000250302008b0107008b011701040000002d01030004000000f0010600040000000
2010200040000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d0106000
40000002d01020008000000250302008b015f028b012a01040000002d01030004000000f
00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa02000003000000000000000
40000002d010600040000002d0102000a00000025030300990137018b012a017e0137010
40000002d01030004000000f00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000f
a0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000800000025030200d
d026500dd029d00040000002d01030004000000f00106000400000002010200040000000
201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000
a00000025030300cf029000dd029d00ea029000040000002d01030004000000f00106000
400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002
d010600040000002d0102000800000025030200600378006003d500040000002d0103000
4000000f00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa020000030000000
0000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000a000000250303005303c8006003d5006
e03c800040000002d01030004000000f0010600040000000201020004000000020101000
8000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d010200080000002
5030200e3037800e303c300040000002d01030004000000f001060004000000020102000
40000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010600040000002
d0102000a00000025030300d603b500e303c300f103b500040000002d01030004000000f
00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa02000003000000000000000
40000002d010600040000002d01020008000000250302008b01b0008b013f00040000002
d01030004000000f00106000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa0200000
300000000000000040000002d010600040000002d0102000a0000002503030099014d008
b013f007e014d00040000002d01030004000000f0010600040000002d0103001c000000f
b021000070000000000bc02000000cc0702022253797374656d000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010600030000001e000700000016048
900e0012d00a8010400000002010200040000002e01000008000000fa020000000000000
0000000040000002d010800040000002d010700040000002d010600030000001e0004000
00002010100040000002e011800050000003102010000001c000000fb02c6ff000000000
0009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200000000000
000000000000000040000002d01090009000000320a6300ae0101000000691010001c000
000fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc0702022253797374656d00000000000000000
00000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010a0004000000f001090004000
0002d010a00040000002701ffff040000002701ffff030000001e00070000001604c4003
7036f00f4020400000002010200040000002e010000040000002d010800040000002d010
700040000002d010600030000001e000400000002010100040000002e011800050000003
102010000001c000000fb02ceff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204
e657720526f6d616e2043797200000000000000000000000000040000002d01090009000
000320ab7000b03010000004c101c001c000000fb02c5ff0000000000009001010000cc0
702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20437972000000000000000000000000000
40000002d010b0004000000f0010900040000002d010b0009000000320aa600fa0201000
000691010001c000000fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc0702022253797374656d0
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d01090004000
000f0010b00040000002d010900040000002701ffff040000002701ffff030000001e000
70000001604e900bb03950077030400000002010200040000002e010000040000002d010
800040000002d010700040000002d010600030000001e000400000002010100040000002
e011800050000003102010000001c000000fb02ceff0000000000009001010000cc07020
01054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204379720000000000000000000000000004000
0002d010b0009000000320adc008b0301000000471024001c000000fb02c6ff000000000
0009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200000000000
000000000000000040000002d010c0004000000f0010b00040000002d010c00090000003
20acb007d0301000000691010001c000000fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc07020
22253797374656d000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000004000
0002d010b0004000000f0010c00040000002d010b00040000002701ffff040000002701f
fff030000001e00070000001604da003e048600fa030400000002010200040000002e010
000040000002d010800040000002d010700040000002d010600030000001e00040000000
2010100040000002e011800050000003102010000001c000000fb02ceff0000000000009
001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e20437972000000000000000
00000000000040000002d010c0009000000320acd000e0401000000431021001c000000f
b02c6ff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204
3797200000000000000000000000000040000002d010d0004000000f0010c00040000002
d010d0009000000320abc00000401000000691010001c000000fb020200010000000000b
c02000000cc0702022253797374656d00000000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000040000002d010c0004000000f0010d00040000002d010c00040000002701f
fff040000002701ffff0400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa02000003000
00000000000040000002d010d00040000002d01020008000000250302008b01170179012
a01040000002d01030004000000f0010d000400000002010200040000000201010008000
000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d010d00040000002d0102000800000025030
2008b0117019e012a01040000002d01030004000000f0010d00040000002d01030003000
0001e0007000000160457013f01fb0002000400000002010200040000002e01000004000
0002d010800040000002d010700040000002d010600030000001e0004000000020101000
40000002e011800050000003102010000001c000000fb02ceff000000000000900100000
0cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200000000000000000000000
000040000002d010d0009000000320a4a010c01010000004b1023000a000000320a4a019
900020000004f43240021000a000000320a4a01290002000000435021001c001c000000f
b02c6ff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204
3797200000000000000000000000000040000002d010e0004000000f0010d00040000002
d010e0009000000320a3901dd000100000055102a0009000000320a39016d00010000004
b10270009000000320a390108000100000053101d001c000000fb02c6ff0000000000009
00100000002070200104d542045787472610000000000000000000000000000000000000
00000000000040000002d010d0004000000f0010e00040000002d010d0009000000320a2
c01f500010000002600130009000000320a2c018100010000002608130009000000320a2
b01170001000000260013001c000000fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc070202225
3797374656d0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002
d010e0004000000f0010d00040000002d010e00040000002701ffff040000002701ffff0
30000001e000700000016047301fc041a019b040400000002010200040000002e0100000
40000002d010800040000002d010700040000002d010600030000001e000400000002010
100040000002e011800050000003102010000001c000000fb02ceff00000000000090010
00000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204379720000000000000000000
0000000040000002d010d0009000000320a6601ca0401000000ca1021001c000000fb02c
5ff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797
200000000000000000000000000040000002d010f0004000000f0010d00040000002d010
f0009000000320a55019b040100000055102b001c000000fb02c5ff00000000000090010
0000002070200104d5420457874726100000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0000000040000002d010d0004000000f0010f00040000002d010d0009000000320a4701b
30401000000260014001c000000fb020200010000000000bc02000000cc0702022253797
374656d0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010
f0004000000f0010d00040000002d010f00040000002701ffff040000002701ffff04000
0002d01070004000000f001020008000000fa0200000000000000000000040000002d010
20004000000f0010800040000002d01020004000000f0010300040000002d01000004000
000f0010600040000002d01000004000000f0010400040000002d01000004000000f0010
500040000002d01000004000000f0010900040000002d01000004000000f0010a0004000
0002d01000004000000f0010b00040000002d01000004000000f0010c00040000002d010
00004000000f0010e00040000002d01000004000000f0010f00040000002d01020004000
0002d010700040000002d010000040000002701ffff1c000000fb021000070000000000b
c02000000cc0102022253797374656d00577081e4e2ce81d04cf4debcb462006ea2f6bf8
7b4f6bf0000040000002d010300040000002701ffff040000002701ffff030000000000

Рис. 2. Эквивалентная схема автогенератора в стационарном режиме

Из схемы видно, что
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Из выражения получаем условие стационарного режима

picscalex100010009000003560100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c02c002000d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffa5ffffffc00c0000650200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000700017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200cc9b040000002d01000008000000320ae001770c01000000
2e0008000000320ae0013a07010000005a0008000000320ae0017003010000004b000800
0000320ae0012b0001000000530017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9b040000002d01010004000000
f001000008000000320ae001970b01000000310017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001
000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc9b040000002d01
000004000000f001010008000000320a66028f08010000004b0008000000320a6602db04
020000004f4308000000320a6602480102000000435010000000fb0240fe000000000000
9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00100000800
0000320ae0017a0a010000003d0011000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020402
00104d542045787472610002040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a7a01
bf0701000000260008000000320a7a01060401000000260008000000320a73019f000100
000026000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb02100007000000
0000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f0010000
030000000000

Представим через модули и фазы средней крутизны SСР и S, коэффициента
обратной связи КОС и ОС и сопротивления контура ZK и К:
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Из данного выражения следуют два соотношения, определяющие стационарный
режим:

picscalex100010009000003250100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400
000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010000000500
00000b0200000000050000000c028002200d1200000026060f001a00ffffffff00001000
0000c0ffffffbeffffffe00c00003e0200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065
0000700017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e65
7720526f6d616e2043797200ccf9040000002d01000008000000320aa001610c01000000
3b0008000000320aa0014207010000005a0008000000320aa0017403010000004b000800
0000320aa0012b0001000000530017000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402
001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccf9040000002d01010004000000
f001000008000000320aa001ab0b01000000310017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001
000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200ccf9040000002d01
000004000000f001010008000000320a26029908010000004b0008000000320a2602e104
020000004f4308000000320a26024a0102000000435010000000fb0240fe000000000000
9001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f00100000800
0000320aa0018a0a010000003d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001000
0000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01
000004000000f0010100030000000000 (1)
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 (2)

Уравнение (1) называют уравнением баланса амплитуд, а уравнение (2) –
уравнением баланса фаз. Уравнение баланса амплитуд позволяет определить
амплитуду колебаний в стационарном режиме работы автогенератора, а
уравнение баланса фаз – частоту этих колебаний, так как хотя бы один из
фазовых сдвигов зависит от частоты.

Для генераторов с внешней цепью обратной связи условия стационарности
иногда используют в виде
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Первое равенство очевидно, потому что К = SСРZК, а КОС = . В уравнении
баланса фаз К = S + Z + , а = ОС + .

Пример

Средняя крутизна имеет выражение SСР =
0,06–0,25picscalex100010009000003e50000000200170000000000050000000902000
000000400000002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e011800050000003102010
00000050000000b0200000000050000000c02200300051200000026060f001a00fffffff
f000010000000c0ffffffb5ffffffc0040000d50200000b00000026060f000c004d61746
8547970650000700017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6
573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cceb040000002d01000008000000320a7701a30
101000000320008000000320ac602b50202000000c1dd17000000fb0280fe00000000000
09001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cceb0400000
02d01010004000000f001000008000000320ac6028f01010000006d0017000000fb0240f
e0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204379720
0cceb040000002d01000004000000f001010008000000320a400201000100000055000a0
0000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000
000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001000003000000000
0 мА/В. Определить амплитуду напряжений на базе и коллекторе
транзистора, если КОС = 0,02 и ZК = 2 кОм.

Решение

В работающем генераторе обязательно выполняется уравнение баланса
амплитуд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Отсюда
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Решая это уравнение относительно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, получим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 0,2 В. Далее нетрудно найти амплитуду
напряжения на коллекторе транзистора

picscalex62010009000003e501000003001700000000000500000009020000000004000
00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000
0000b0200000000050000000c020005c0171200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000
000c0ffffffaaffffff80170000aa0400000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650
000100109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d0100000500000014027
002ca050500000013027002760a05000000140270024e0c0500000013027002f11117000
000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616
e2043797200cc81040000002d01010008000000320ae002151602000000c22e080000003
20ae0023c1502000000202008000000320ae002911302000000313008000000320aad042
30e02000000313008000000320aad04670c01000000320008000000320ac501540f01000
000320008000000320ac501120e01000000300017000000fb0280fe00000000000090010
00000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc81040000002d010
20004000000f001010008000000320ae403e51001000000320008000000320ab004ac070
2000000ced108000000320a1d024a0802000000c1dd08000000320a5003a002010000004
b0010000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c000204000
0002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ae0026612010000003d0008000000320aa
d04920d01000000d70008000000320ae002eb0a010000003d0008000000320ae00267040
10000003d0010000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0
002040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320ae4030610010000002d0017000
000fb0240fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616
e2043797200cc81040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320ac501000f01000
0002c0008000000320a4004590601000000ca0008000000320aad01b9050100000055000
8000000320ae0020f0001000000550017000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000cc0
402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cc81040000002d01020004000
000f001010008000000320a1d023607010000006d0008000000320a50038c01010000006
d000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff01000000000010000000fb021000070000000000b
c02000000cc0102022253797374656d00cc040000002d01010004000000f001020003000
0000000

Пример

Фаза средней крутизны в автогенераторе S = 5,7. Найти частоту
генерируемых колебаний, если добротность колебательного контура Q = 100,
резонансная частота колебательного контура 0 = 4 МГц, фазовый сдвиг по
цепи обратной связи ОС = 0.

Решение

В работающем генераторе обязательно выполняется уравнение баланса фаз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 Отсюда Z = – S. Для параллельного контура
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следовательно,

picscalex77010009000003d902000003001700000000000500000009020000000004000
00002010100050000000102ffffff00040000002e0118000500000031020100000005000
0000b0200000000050000000c02800500311200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000
000c0ffffffb7ffffffc0300000370500000b00000026060f000c004d617468547970650
000100109000000fa02000010000000000000002200040000002d010000050000001402f
0027e05050000001302f002920b10000000fb025dfc09010000000090010000000200020
01053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010008000000320a3c02991801000000280010000
000fb025dfc0901000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d010
20004000000f001010008000000320a3a026d1d010000002900050000001402f0027a120
50000001302f002c91d17000000fb0240fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696
d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cca6040000002d01010004000000f00102000
9000000320a6003482e03000000c3f62e0008000000320a60037d2d02000000202008000
000320a6003b82a02000000313009000000320a600335270300000030303200080000003
20a6003ed2501000000340008000000320a60035d2102000000313008000000320a60039
a1f01000000340009000000320ac004ce16030000003230300008000000320a3e02881b0
1000000370008000000320a3e02461a01000000350008000000320a3e024814020000003
13008000000320a3e02851201000000340008000000320ac0046a0701000000320017000
000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616
e2043797200cca6040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a9702902c01000
000360008000000320a9702352301000000360008000000320a750120160100000036000
8000000320ae6036d0e01000000300008000000320a9a029306010000003000080000003
20ae603350101000000c30010000000fb0240fe000000000000900100000002000200105
3796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a6003312a01000
000d70008000000320a60039b24010000003d0008000000320a6003d62001000000d7000
8000000320a6003421e010000002b0008000000320a3e02fb18010000002d00080000003
20a3e02c11301000000d70008000000320a60033311010000002d0008000000320a6003d
30f010000003d0008000000320a60030b0c010000002b0008000000320a6003370401000
0002d0008000000320a6003d702010000003d0017000000fb0240fe00000000000090010
10000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200cca6040000002d010
20004000000f001010008000000320a6003ef26010000002c0008000000320a3e02421b0
10000002c0008000000320a3e02141702000000746708000000320a6003be0d010000006
60008000000320ac0043b0801000000510008000000320a1402640702000000746708000
000320a1402e40501000000660008000000320a6003860001000000660017000000fb028
0fe0000000000009001010000cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797
200cca6040000002d01010004000000f001020008000000320a9a02180a010000005a001
1000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002040200104d54204578747261000204000
0002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a7501801c010000006f0010000000fb024
0fe0000000000009001010000020002001053796d626f6c0002040000002d01010004000
000f001020008000000320a1402d708010000006a000a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0
1000000000010000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d0
0cc040000002d01020004000000f0010100030000000000

Выводы:

1. Целью анализа стационарного режима является выявление условий
наступления этого режима и определение амплитуды и частоты
установившихся колебаний.

2. Выявление условий стационарности сводится к анализу нелинейной
электрической цепи приближенными методами, среди которых широкое
применение нашел квазилинейный метод анализа.

3. В квазилинейном методе анализа нелинейный элемент заменяется линейным
со средними параметрами (в частности, средней крутизной) по отношению к
первой гармонике выходного тока. Необходимым условием применения
квазилинейного метода является высокая добротность контура.

4. Условия стационарности могут иметь различные формы записи, в
зависимости от конкретной схемы автогенератора:
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picscalex100010009000003270100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400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Эти условия записываются обычно в виде двух вещественных уравнений
каждое, первое из которых называется уравнением баланса фаз, позволяющим
определить частоту колебаний автогенератора, а второе – уравнением
баланса амплитуд, позволяющим определить амплитуду колебаний в
стационарном режиме:
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picscalex100010009000003250100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400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picscalex1000100090000035d0100000200170000000000050000000902000000000400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picscalex100010009000003fe0000000200170000000000050000000902000000000400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5. В стационарном режиме энергия колебаний, вносимая активным прибором в
контур, равна энергии потерь в нем (GАП = GЭ). На резонансной частоте
эквивалентная проводимость колебательного контура во много раз больше
собственной проводимости активного прибора GЭ >> 1/R i, поэтому можно
полагать, что GЭ 1/RЭ, а на резонансной частоте контура ZК = RЭ0.

Графический анализ стационарного режима автогенератора

При изменении амплитуды колебаний вследствие нелинейности вольт-амперной
характеристики активного прибора (например, транзистора) средняя
крутизна SСР будет зависеть не только от типа усилительного прибора, но
и от амплитуды напряжения на управляющем электроде (базе транзистора):
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Зависимость называют характеристикой средней крутизны. Обычно она
снимается экспериментально для конкретного активного прибора.

Амплитуда первой гармоники выходного тока Im1 активного прибора (тока
коллектора) тоже будет зависеть от амплитуды входного напряжения:
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Зависимость называют колебательной характеристикой.

Обе характеристики отображают нелинейные свойства активного прибора.

Из равенства для стационарного режима, учитывая, что на резонансной
частоте контура ZК = RЭ0, следует
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Так как произведение
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есть не что иное, как коэффициент усиления активного прибора
автогенератора, то выражение можно представить как
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Таким образом, выражение является условием баланса амплитуд. В этом
условии две величины (КОС и RЭ0) от амплитуды колебаний не зависят, а
величина крутизны SСР зависит от UmБЭ. Следовательно, условие баланса
амплитуд выполняется лишь при определенной “стационарной” амплитуде
UmСТ.

Для определения амплитуды стационарных колебаний используется
характеристика средней крутизны (рис. 3).
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Рис. 3. Характеристика средней крутизны автогенератора

Характеристика SСР(UmБЭ) описывает свойства нелинейной части схемы
автогенератора. Прямая обратной связи, проведенная на уровне SСР =
1/КОСRЭ0 определяет свойства линейной части схемы. Точка А пересечения
этих зависимостей определяет амплитуду стационарных колебаний UmСТ, для
которой выполняется условие баланса амплитуд. Участок характеристики
средней крутизны, для которой UmБЭ < UmСТ, можно назвать областью возбуждения колебаний, а участок, где UmБЭ > UmСТ – областью затухания
колебаний.

Найти амплитуду колебаний можно и с помощью колебательной характеристики
Im1(UmБЭ). Если в выражении заменить SСР его значением из другого, то
можно получить зависимость для стационарного режима автогенератора
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На рисунке 4 построены колебательная характеристика Im1(UmБЭ) и прямая
обратной связи, проходящая через начало координат под углом , величина
которого определяется значением SСР для стационарного режима:
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picscalex64010009000003630700000f003800000000000400000003010800050000000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Рис. 4. Колебательная характеристика автогенератора

Точка А пересечения колебательной характеристики и прямой обратной связи
определяет амплитуду стационарных колебаний UmСТ.

Колебательная характеристика снимается экспериментально. На базу
транзистора (при разомкнутой ОС) подается гармоническое напряжение с
частотой, равной резонансной частоте колебательного контура, от внешнего
генератора и при каждом значении амплитуды UmБЭ измеряется амплитуда
первой гармоники коллекторного тока Im1. Вид колебательной
характеристики будет зависеть от выбора положения рабочей точки
(напряжения смещения).

Процесс возникновения колебаний в автогенераторе также зависит от
выбранного рабочего режима активного прибора, определяемого постоянными
питающими напряжениями, и величины коэффициента обратной связи. При этом
напряжение смещения играет особую роль – если рабочая точка выбрана в
области большой крутизны, то самовозбуждение наступает легко. Различают
два режима самовозбуждения автогенератора – мягкий и жесткий.

При мягком режиме самовозбуждения начальную рабочую точку выбирают на
середине линейного участка вольт-амперной характеристики активного
нелинейного прибора (транзистора) в точке с максимальной крутизной (рис.
5).
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000f00104000400000002010200040000000201010008000000fa0200000300000000000
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0002d01030004000000f00104000400000002010200040000002d010300040000002d010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f008d0147039a014a03a5014d03af015003b8015303c0015603c7015903cd015c03d1015
f03d5016103d7016403d8016603d8016903d7016b03d5016e03d1017003cd017203c7017
403c0017603b8017803af017a03a5017c039a017d038d017f0381018103750183036b018
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30151049f014f0499014d0492014b048b01490481014704770146046c0144045f0142045
301410448013f043d013d0434013b042c01390426013704200135041b013204180130041
6012e0415012b041501290416012604180124041b01210420011e0426011b042c0118043
40115043d01120448010f0453010c045f01040000002d01030004000000f001040004000
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d03fe01ff03fc010104fa010304f6010504f1010704eb010804e4010a04db010c04d1010
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000f0011700040000002d011600040000002701ffff040000002701ffff030000001e000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Рис. 5. Выбор рабочей точки при мягком режиме самовозбуждения

Даже самые малые электрические возмущения в схеме (включение,
флуктуации) вызывают нарастание колебаний. Вначале амплитуда первой
гармоники выходного тока iК растет почти пропорционально амплитуде
входного напряжения uБЭ(t), а затем ее рост вследствие нелинейности
характеристики замедляется и прекращается вовсе. В схеме автогенератора
наступает установившийся режим.

При жестком режиме самовозбуждения начальную рабочую точку выбирают на
нижнем участке вольт-амперной характеристики активного прибора с малой
крутизной (рис. 6).
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Рис. 6. Выбор рабочей точки при жестком режиме самовозбуждения

При незначительных амплитудах входного колебания (u'(t), u”(t))
самовозбуждение автогенератора не наступает, так как из-за малой
крутизны не выполняются условия самовозбуждения К > 1. При достаточно
больших амплитудах входного напряжения (u”'(t)) возникают выходные
колебания активного прибора i”'(t), которые быстро нарастают до
значений установившегося (стационарного) режима.

Построим колебательные характеристики и характеристики средней крутизны
для указанных режимов.

При мягком режиме самовозбуждения (рис. 7), когда крутизна
вольт-амперной характеристики максимальна, имеем только одну точку
пересечения характеристик с прямой обратной связи (исключая состояние
покоя) и, следовательно, одно значение напряжения стационарных колебаний
UmСТ.
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Рис. 7. Характеристики мягкого режима

При жестком режиме самовозбуждения (рис. 8), когда крутизна
вольт-амперной характеристики мала, имеем две точки пересечения
характеристик с прямой обратной связи.
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Рис. 8. Характеристики жесткого режима

При малых амплитудах UmБЭ первая гармоника выходного тока растет
медленно из-за малой крутизны вольт-амперной характеристики. По мере
выхода рабочей точки на линейную часть характеристики iK(uБЭ) скорость
нарастания Im1 увеличивается (увеличивается SСР). Следующее снижение
темпа роста Im1 обусловлено заходом в режим ограничения тока коллектора.
Проводя прямую обратной связи убеждаемся, что могут существовать два
значения UmСТ, удовлетворяющие условию стационарности. Однако
стационарное состояние не может одновременно существовать в нескольких
точках. Чтобы ответить на вопрос, в какой из этих точек будет
происходить работа генератора, необходимо исследовать указанные
состояния на устойчивость.

Стационарное состояние системы называется абсолютно устойчивым, если
любое возмущение, вызванное в ней, со временем затухает.

Если в системе затухают лишь возмущения, интенсивность которых не
превышает заданной величины, то говорят, что состояние системы устойчиво
в малом.

Найдем устойчивое состояние работы генератора для мягкого и жесткого
режимов самовозбуждения.

Для мягкого режима самовозбуждения (рис. 9) предположим, что на вход
генератора подана небольшая амплитуда напряжения Um1.
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500000013026a02e8000500000014025b02e8000500000013024302e8000500000014023
402e8000500000013021c02e8000500000014020d02e8000500000013020b02e80004000
0002d01030004000000f00104000400000002010200040000002d010300040000002d010
1001000000024030600e800f701f5001202ec000f02e3000f02da001202e800f70104000
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d010400040000002d010200050000001302f7010001050000001402f7010f01050000001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3023b017e020500000014023b018e020500000013023b01a6020500000014023b01b5020
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0002d010300040000002d0101001000000024030600e3023b01c8024901cb024001cb023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104d4035f04c2035d04ae035a049803580481035604670353044b0351042e034f040e034
c04ed024a04ca024704a50245047d0243045402400429023e04fc013c04cd0139049d013
7046a0135043601320400013004c8002e048d002b0452002904040000002d01030004000
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3020e042204050000001402ff032204050000001302e7032204050000001402d80322040
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302af022204050000001402a002220405000000130288022204050000001402790222040
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2040500000014028f0122040500000013027701220405000000140268012204050000001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d01080004000000f0010700040000002d010800040000002701ffff040000002701ffff0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000000000000000000000000000040000002d010c0004000000f0010700040000002d010
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eff0000000000009001000000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797
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720526f6d616e2043797200000000000000000000000000040000002d010d0004000000f
0010700040000002d010d0009000000320a96046004010000006d7d24001c000000fb02c
6ff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797
200000000000000000000000000040000002d01070004000000f0010d00040000002d010
70009000000320a8504300401000000557d2a001c000000fb020200010000000000bc020
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0000000040000002d010d0004000000f0010700040000002d010d00040000002701ffff0
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4000000f00107000400000002010200040000002d010300040000002d010100100000002
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40000002d0101001000000024030600e8009303cd00a103cf009803cf008e03cd008603e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Рис. 9. Определение устойчивости в мягком режиме самовозбуждения

Тогда этому значению будет соответствовать небольшое значение тока Im1,
для которого находится соответствующее ему значение на прямой обратной
связи. Но последнему значению соответствует новое, более высокое
значение Im1 и новое значение на прямой обратной связи, и т. д. Таким
образом, видно, что в процессе динамики колебания перейдут в точку М.

Теперь предположим, что на вход генератора подана большая амплитуда
напряжения Um2. Рассуждая аналогично предыдущему случаю нетрудно
определить, что колебания также перейдут в точку М. Таким образом точка
М является устойчивой и только в ней возможен стационарный режим.

При жестком режиме самовозбуждения, когда рабочая точка находится на
участке с малой крутизной, колебательная характеристика имеет вид,
представленный на рисунке 10.
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000320a1503b90402000000c1dd1d0021001c000000fb02ceff000000000000900101000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0000000000000000000040000002d0107000a000000320ab003b90402000000c1dd1d002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70009000000320a49005c000100000031f019001c000000fb02ceff00000000000090010
10000cc0702001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e204379720000000000000000000
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a00010000006df024001c000000fb02c6ff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696
d6573204e657720526f6d616e2043797200000000000000000000000000040000002d010
70004000000f0010a00040000002d01070009000000320a380020000100000049f013001
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000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010a0004000000f00107000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2004800f80262045500040000002d01030004000000f0010700040000000201020004000
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2002201000025038f004800f8025300f8025d00f8026400f8026900f8026d00f8026f00f
8027000f9026f00f9026e00f9026c00f9026900f9026500f9026100f9025d00f9025900f
9025500f9025100f9024d00f9024b00f8024900f8024800f7024800f7024900f6024c00f
5025000f4025600f3025e00f2026000f1026300f1026600f1026800f0026b00f0026e00e
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c029100eb029500eb029900ea029d00ea02a100e902a400e902a800e802ac00e802b000e
702b400e702b700e602bb00e602d300e202e900df02fd00db020f01d8021f01d5022e01d
1023b01ce024701ca025101c7025a01c3026201bf026901bc026f01b8027501b4027a01b
1027e01ad028101a9028501a5028801a1028b019d028e01990296018d029e018102a7017
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401e4020001f502fd000603fb001703f8002803f6003803f3004903f0005903ee007203e
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003f900eb03fe00e6030201e1030301db030301d6030201d103fe00cc03f900c703f200c
103e900bc03de00b703d100b203c300ad03b300a803a100a2038e009d037800980361009
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50000003102010000001c000000fb02ceff0000000000009001000000cc0702001054696
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70009000000320afb0369010100000031f019001c000000fb02ceff00000000000090010
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70004000000f0010c00040000002d01070009000000320aea0316010100000055f02b001
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500000014023601fe0208000000fa0200000300000000000000040000002d01070004000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0009001000000cc07000020417269616c000000000000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000040000002d01070009000000320adf01b901010000004ef0240004000
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000000000000000040000002d010f000a000000320a3f03d001020000006d4e240021001
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0000000000000000000040000002d010f0004000000f0011000040000002d010f0004000
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0002e010000040000002d010400040000002d010500040000002d010600030000001e000
400000002010100040000002e011800050000003102010000001c000000fb02ceff00000
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0000000000000000000040000002d0110000a000000320a3f036603020000006d4d24002
a001c000000fb02c6ff0000000000009001010000cc0702001054696d6573204e6577205
26f6d616e2043797200000000000000000000000000040000002d01110004000000f0011
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10000000000bc02000000cc0702022253797374656d00000000000000000000000000000
00000000000000000000000040000002d01100004000000f0011100040000002d0110000
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40000002e010000040000002d010400040000002d010500040000002d010600030000001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Рис. 10. Определение устойчивости в жестком режиме самовозбуждения

Прямая обратной связи пересекает колебательную характеристику в трех
точках (включая точку покоя 0). При малых амплитудах воздействия (UmБЭ <
UmN) генератор не возбудится, так как колебания стремятся перейти к
точке 0. Если же амплитуда воздействия больше UmN, то генератор
возбудится, и устойчивые колебания будут наблюдаться в точке М. Точка М
является устойчивой как слева, так и справа. Точка N является
неустойчивой как слева, так и справа, так как в первом случае колебания
затухают, и генератор не возбуждается, а во втором случае колебания
переходят в стационарное состояние (точка М).

В дальнейшем, чтобы не анализировать каждый раз на устойчивость,
заметим, что состояние устойчиво, когда справа от точки пересечения
колебательная характеристика (характеристика средней крутизны) проходит
ниже прямой обратной связи, а слева от точки – выше.

Следует также подчеркнуть, что выполнение амплитудного условия
самовозбуждения означает неустойчивость точки покоя (0). На рисунке 10
она неустойчива и генератор возбудится, а на рисунке 8 она неустойчива в
малом, и генератор возбудится только при условии, если первоначальное
возмущение UmБЭ будет не менее UmСТ1 = UmN..

Литература

1. Богданов Н. Г., Лисичкин В. Г. Основы радиотехники и электроники.
Часть 8,2000г.

2. Никольский И. Н., Хопов В. Б., Варокосин Н. П., Григорьев В. А.,
Колесников А. А. Нелинейные радиотехнические устройства связи., 1972.

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