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Специфика конструирования деталей получаемых гибкой

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Учреждение образования

БЕЛОРУССКИЙ ГОСУДАРСТВЕННЫЙ УНИВЕРСИТЕТ

ИНФОРМАТИКИ И РАДИОЭЛЕКТРОНИКИ

Кафедра электронной техники и технологии

РЕФЕРАТ

На тему:

«Специфика конструирования деталей получаемых гибкой»

МИНСК, 2008

При штамповке деталей, которые применяются в несущих конструкциях
электронных систем, широкое распространение получили детали,
изготовленные гибкой (хомутики, скобы, каркасы и т.д.).

Одной из особенностей гибки, является искажение поперечного сечения
деталей в месте гибки (рис.1), которое заметно тем значительнее, чем
более узкая полоса подвергается изгибу. Там возникают внутренние
напряжения, которые могут привести к трещинам, если не будет учтен
минимально допустимый радиус гибки (рис. 2). Минимальный радиус изгиба
зависит от многих факторов, например, от толщины и марки материала,
состояния материала при поставке, способа гибки угла изгиба, ориентации.
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picscalex890100090000032a0200000200a20100000000a201000026060f003a03574d4
6430100000000000100d8750000000001000000180300000000000018030000010000006
c000000000000000000000008000000100000000000000000000000323200007f1f00002
0454d4600000100180300001200000002000000000000000000000000000000000500000
004000040010000f000000000000000000000000000000000e2040080a90300160000000
c000000180000000a0000001000000000000000000000000900000010000000020200005
8010000250000000c0000000e000080250000000c0000000e000080120000000c0000000
1000000520000007001000001000000f1ffffff000000000000000000000000900100000
00000cc04400022430061006c00690062007200690000000000000000000000000000000
000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000
0001100c0b211001000000024b61100a4b31100cb4f603224b611001cb31100100000008
cb4110008b611001c4f603224b611001cb311002000000091772f311cb3110024b611002
0000000ffffffff5c3cee0018782f31ffffffffffff0180ffff01800fff0180ffffffff0
00000000008000000080000f0ba120001000000000000006000000025000000372e9001c
c00020f0502020204030204ef0200a07b20004000000000000000009f000000000000004
30061006c006900620072000000000000000000e4b311006e282f31e88d083244b711005
0b311006a3a273108000000010000008cb311008cb31100a079253108000000b4b311005
c3cee006476000800000000250000000c00000001000000250000000c000000010000002
50000000c00000001000000180000000c000000000000025400000054000000000000000
00000000800000010000000010000000000c8410080bb41000000000d000000010000004
c00000004000000000000000000000002020000580100005000000020000d00090000004
6000000280000001c0000004744494302000000ffffffffffffffff03020000590100000
00000004600000014000000080000004744494303000000250000000c0000000e0000802
50000000c0000000e0000800e00000014000000000000001000000014000000040000000
3010800050000000b0200000000050000000c0258010202040000002e0118001c000000f
b021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d000000000000000000000
0000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010000040000002d010000040000000
20101001c000000fb02f1ff0000000000009001000000cc0440002243616c69627269000
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000040000002d010100040000002
d010100040000002d010100050000000902000000020d000000320a0d000000010004000
00000000202580120140900040000002d010000040000002d010000030000000000

Минимальный радиус при гибке листового проката в холодном состоянии
определяется по (1).
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(1)

где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 – коэффициент зависящий от марки материала, его
состояния и ориентации относительно направления проката;
picscalex112010009000003c900000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c022002a0011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffff60010000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050001c00
0000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320ae001fb00
0100000032791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d657320
4e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d0101000400
0000f001000008000000320a80013a00010000006b790a00000026060f000a00ffffffff
0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d
000000000a0021008a010000000000000000fcf312002942c877040000002d0100000400
0000f0010100030000000000 – коэффициент зависящий от угла гибки;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 –
толщина листа.

Таблица 1. Значение коэффициента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 для гибки листа в холодном состоянии.

Металл, сплавЗначение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 тонколистового проката до 2ммВ отожженном и
нормализованном состоянии

Без отжига (холоднотянутый)При ориентации линии гибаПоперек прокатаВдоль
прокатаПоперек прокатаВдоль прокатаСталь 10кп0,050,40,40,8Сталь 20,
G30,100,50,51,0Сталь 450,51,01,01,7Алюминий А2

АД1

0,2

0,4

0,6

0,8Алюминеевые сплавы

АМц

Д16м

В95А

АМгА

0,3

1,0

1,7

0,6

0,5

1,5

3,3

1,2

0,8

1,5

2,0

1,5

2,5

4,0При гибке от 900 до 1800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1, а при 450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1,5.

Минимальный радиус, который получен по формуле (1) следует округлять до
ближнего значения из ряда 0,3; 0,5; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 3; 4; 5; 6; 8; 10; 12
(мм).

Если осуществляется, гибка на ребро (рис 2б), минимальный радиус для
алюминия и алюминиевых сплавов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. При гибке труб (рис. 2в) с
наружным диаметром до 20 мм, минимальный радиус для алюминиевых сплавов
из сталей
picscalex1120100090000033a01000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c022002c0061200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffff80060000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000008000000320a80015905
01000000447908000000320a80013a000100000072791c000000fb0280fe000000000000
9001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e001643c8771f43c87720c0
ca7700003000040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a80018d0401000000
357908000000320a80013304010000002c7908000000320a800197030100000031791c00
0000fb0220ff0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e001643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000040000002d01000004000000f00101000900
0000320ae001b700030000006d696e651c000000fb0280fe000000000000900100000002
0002001053796d626f6c0077400000007b070aa01643c8771f43c87720c0ca7700003000
040000002d01010004000000f001000008000000320a8001980201000000b3690a000000
26060f000a00ffffffff0100000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc
0102022253797374656d000000000a0021008a0100000000000000009cf312002942c877
040000002d01000004000000f0010100030000000000, а для титановых сплавов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.

На минимальный радиус гибки оказывает влияние отношение наружного
диаметра к толщине стенки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, следовательно,
при увеличении этого отношения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 увеличивается.

При гибке П-образных деталей минимальная длина прямого участка полки
должна быть равной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 (рис.3).

При минимальной длине деформируемого участка:
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 (2)
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Для мягких металлов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, как правило, в
месте гибки делают вырезы для того, что бы отогнутая полка не выходила
за пределы контура детали (рис. 4).
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picscalex870100090000032a0200000200a20100000000a201000026060f003a03574d4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Отгибка язычков и отбортовка крышек:

а) простая отгибка язычка;

б) отгибка язычка в пределах кромки;

в) отбортовка крышки по прямому углу;

г) по радиусу;

д) по сфере.

При конструировании детали типа крышек в местах гибки, в узлах
необходимо выполнять технологические отверстия в зависимости от
конфигурации развертки. В месте гибки должны быть предусмотрены вырезы
соответствующей формы (рис 4г,д). Диаметр отверстия зависит от
материала:

S, мм = 0,6; 1,0; 1,5; 2,0; 3,0.

d, мм = 3,0; 4,0; 5,0; 6,0; 8,0.

Размеры детали, которые получаются гибкой не стоит привязывать к
оптимальному и отгибаемому уг-ку, чтобы не было погрешности от толщины
листа.
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В несущих конструкциях электронных систем широкое распространение
получили выдавки, отбортовки, ребра жесткости, которые позволяют
увеличить жесткость тонколистового материала и повысить теплообмен.
Выдавки прямоугольной формы применяют как опорные площадки для крепления
тяжелых узлов, а круглой – для крепления амортизаторов (рис. 6)
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Размеры ребер жесткости и выдавки зависят от толщины материала. Глубины
выдавки>3S, минимальный радиус гибки r=S, шаг ребер жесткости l=20S;
радиус закругления выдавки R1=5S.

Технологичность деталей, получаемых вытяжкой.

Основные требования к технологичности таких деталей: ограниченная высота
Н, а также ее отношение к радиусу сопряжения на стенки. В деталях
коробчатой формы H/r?6 для мягких материалов, применяемых для вытяжки
(рис. 7).
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Предпочтительно, чтобы высота детали не превышала 3/4 ее диаметра или
меньшей стороны прямоугольного основания коробки. Радиус скругления в
три раза больше толщины металла.

Основные материалы для штампованных деталей.

Для несущих конструкций нужно применять материалы, которые обладают
достаточной жесткостью при малой массе. При этом надо использовать
тонколистовые сплавы: Al, Mg, Ti. Обычно исполоьзуют прокат до 2 м в
виде листов, плит, гнутых профилей и так далее. Для глубоких вытяжек и
штамповки широко применяются: сталь 10КП, Al, Mg, Д16, Мl, Ti, ВТ1 и
ВТ5. Широко применяется сталь 10КП, обладающая высокими пластичностью и
вязкостью, низким пределом текучести, хорошо сваривается. Наиболее
пластичным из алюминиевых сплавов является Al-Mn, обладающий повышенной
коррозионной стойкостью. Материал в три раза легче стали, используется в
отожженном состоянии для обеспечения мягкости и вязкости, необходимых
при штамповке и гибке. Д16 используется в виде листов. Титановые сплавы
тяжелее алюминиевых, но в два раза легче стали. Обладают высокой
прочностью и твердостью.

В точке 2 снова произойдет преломление и отражение от границы
«Ме-воздух». Преломленная волна Р2 выйдет в экранирующее пространство, а
отраженная (Р2m) будет затухать в точке 3 и можно утверждать, что в т.3
напряженность полей будет в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раз меньше, чем в точке 1.
Аналогично будут происходить отражения в точках 3,4,5 и так далее до тех
пор, пока волна полностью не затухнет в Ме. В экранирующее пространство
будут проникать волны Р2, Р4, Р6, их суммарное воздействие определяет
напряженность полей ЕхН в этом пространстве, причем напряженность поля
волны Р4 будет в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мень
ше, чем Р2 и т.д. Наибольший интерес представляет экранирование
электромагнитного поля на частоте выше 10 МГц, у которых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 при толщине
применяемых материалов
picscalex1000100090000033201000002001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c024002a0061200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffff60060000e60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000060001c00
0000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000000402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d61
6e00be62f577c762f5770100000000003000040000002d01000008000000320a8001b505
01000000317908000000320a80015505010000002e7908000000320a8001950401000000
30791c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001000000020002001053796d626f6c00774000
000033080ae5be62f577c762f5770100000000003000040000002d01010004000000f001
000008000000320a80016303010000003e791c000000fb0220ff00000000000090010100
00cc0402001054696d6573204e657720526f6d616e00be62f577c762f577010000000000
3000040000002d01000004000000f001010009000000320ae001130103000000ddcad065
1c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c007740000000
33080ae6be62f577c762f5770100000000003000040000002d01010004000000f0010000
08000000320a800122000100000064ca0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000
1c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d000000000a00
0000040000000000000000000100000000003000040000002d01000004000000f0010100
030000000000. Возьмем min соотношение, когда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. Получим:
напряженность поля волны Р4 будет в е4=55 раз меньше, чем у Р2.

Исходя из данного предположения, можно считать, что из всех длин волн в
экранируемое пространство проникают только волны Р2 и при этом ошибка не
превосходит 2/r. Следовательно, эффективность экрана равна:
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(2)

где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337 Ом – характерное сопротивление воздуха (и
вакуума);
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- модуль
характерного сопротивления Ме, которое в 100-1000 раз меньше
характерного сопротивления воздуха .

Можно утверждать, что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 является
приближенным значением.

Экранирование проводов и кабелей.

Оплетка проводов, не соединенная с корпусом, экранирующего действия
вызывать не будет. При соединении с корпусом в одной точке в окружающее
пространство будет проникать только электрическое поле.

По цепивнутренней «провод-оплетка-корпус» протекает емкостной ток,
который растет с ростом частоты . В этом случае эффект экранирования
полностью зависит от качества контакта между оплеткой и корпусом.

Для экранирования магнитного поля необходимо, чтобы весь обратный ток
протекал по оплетке, что предполагает, что оба тока (iПР и iОБР) , будут
создавать магнитные потоки, равные по величине и обратные по
направлению, что вызовет их компенсацию. Полная компенсация получится
только тогда, когда оплетка является единственным соединением корпусов
источника напряжений с отсеком нагрузки. На низких частотах в тело
корпуса и оплетки будут проникать токи и при дополнительном замыкании
часть обратного тока будет протекать, минуя оплетку, что вызовет
нарушение экранирования. Можно утверждать, что чем выше частота, тем
меньше вероятность понижения эффективности при замыкании корпусов и
оплетки. Следовательно, при проектировании электронных систем применение
экранирования проводов ля внутри приборного монтажа всегда является
нежелательным, так как увеличивается емкость провода на корпус,
усложняется монтаж и требуются предохранители от случайных соединений с
другими деталями.

Экранирование провода, коаксиальные кабели следует использовать для
соединения отдельных блоков и узлов друг с другом.

Фильтрующие цепи.

В фильтрующий провод включают последовательно Z1, Z2, Z3 и параллельно
Z4, Z5, Z6 и т.д. сопротивления. Величина последовательного
сопротивления для фильтрующей цепи выбирается большой, а параллельного –
маленькой. При этом фильтрующую цепь можно рассматривать, как серию
последовательно включенных делителей напряжения.

Если напряжение источника наводки равно UUH, то в результате действия
первого делителя, состоящего из Z1 и Z2, напряжение снизится до
величины:
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(3).

После второго делителя напряжение будет равно:
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(4)

К последнему делителю подключен приемник наводок. Напряжение на его
входе будет равно:
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(5)

Под эффектом фильтрации будем понимать отношение:
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(6)

показывающее, во сколько раз изменится напряжение на входе приемника
наводок от включения фильтра. Полезное (не паразитное) действие
фильтруемого провода заключается в передаче постоянных UПИТАНИЯ,
переменных U силовой сети, импульсных или медленно изменяемых напряжений
управления. Одновременно с необходимостью подавления помех, фильтрующая
цепь должна передавать полезное напряжение без значительных потерь и
искажений. В качестве последовательных сопротивлений в фильтрующих цепях
используют непроволочные постоянные резисторы или дроссели. Применение
таких резисторов целесообразно по той причине, что их сопротивление не
зависит от частоты. Они имеют небольшие размеры и достаточно дешевые.
Вместе с тем использование резисторов ограничивается падением
напряжений, а также некоторыми конструктивными соображениями. Резисторы
используются при малых токах и высоких напряжениях, передаваемых по
фильтрующему проводу, когда падение напряженности и мощности не
существенно.

Если применение сопротивление недопустимо, то в цепь включают дроссели,
которые имеют собственную распределительную емкость и собственную
резонансную частоту. Именно поэтому реактивное сопротивление дросселя
при изменении частоты сначала имеет индуктивный характер и увеличивается
с увеличением частоты, затем принимает максимальное значение, после чего
становится емкостным и дальнейшее увеличение частоты приводит к
понижению емкостного сопротивления. Чтобы получить развязку во всем
диапазоне частот, рекомендуется не использовать в развязывающей ячейке
слишком большие индуктивности.

В параллельные ветви включают конденсаторы, с помощью которых можно
создать рациональный монтаж и обеспечить минимально возможное
сопротивление развязывающих ячеек.

Большое значение имеет монтаж. Ошибки в монтаже могут привести к резкому
снижению эффективности. Так, для устранения паразитной взаимоиндукции
между дросселями устанавливают экранирующую перегородку или дроссели
монтируются с разных сторон металлической или фольгированной платы
корпуса с использованием проходных или опорных конденсаторов. В том
случае, если опорные конденсаторы отсутствуют, надо каждый конденсатор
отдельно соединять с корпусом в ближайшей точке на перегородке.

ЛИТЕРАТУРА

1. Изнар А.Н. Электронно-оптические приборы, Машиностроение, 2007. – 166
с.

2. Криксунов Л.З., Падалко Г.А. Тепловизоры, справочник. Техника, 2007.
– 166 с.

3. Креопалова Г.В., Пуряев Д.Г. Исследование и контроль оптических
систем. Машиностроение, 2005, – 224 с.

4. Креопалова Г.В., Лазарева Н.Л., Пуряев Д.Г. Оптические измерения,
Машиностроение, 2005. – 264 с.

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