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История магнитных дисков (реферат)

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История магнитных дисков

В 2006 году устройства хранения данных на магнитных дисках отметят
полувековой юбилей.

Идея хранения больших объемов данных на внешних магнитных носителях
возникла практически одновременно с самими компьютерами. Первыми
появились ленты, а вслед за ними — барабаны. Преимуществом лент была
практически неограниченная площадь носителя, а недостатком —
необходимость последовательного доступа. Напротив, достоинство барабанов
состояло в возможности прямого доступа, зато увеличить площадь их
магнитной поверхности в заданном объеме было нельзя. С «геометрической»
точки зрения единственной альтернативой этим типам носителей оказались
накопители, в которых магнитная поверхность располагается на стеке
вращающихся дисков, в просторечии — «блинов». Во-первых, их площадь
можно увеличивать за счет количества «блинов», а во-вторых, возможен
прямой доступ к записанным данным. Магнитные диски впервые были
реализованы в начале 50-х годов в исследовательской лаборатории
корпорации IBM, расположенной в Сан-Хосе (Калифорния).

С тех пор прошло более полувека, но чего-то иного, способного заменить
диски, пока не придумано. По всей Земле вращается свыше 2 млрд
шпинделей, на которых записаны петабайты данных, и так будет, по всей
видимости, еще много лет. При этом «привязанность» процессоров,
содержащих сотни миллионов транзисторов на одном кристалле, к довольно
примитивному на первый взгляд механическому устройству выглядит довольно
странной. Не случайно на протяжении долгой истории дисков им (как, к
примеру, и мэйнфреймам), неоднократно предсказывали неизбежную кончину.
Однако и те и другие с завидной регулярностью реинкаринировались,
появлялись все новые и новые технические решения, которые позволяли
отложить казавшееся делом решенным расставание на неопределенное время.
Современные диски настолько миниатюрны и совершенны, что пользователи
забывают или даже не догадываются об их механической природе.
Твердотельные диски, которые, несомненно, когда-то придут на смену
традиционным механическим устройствам, уже сейчас превосходят их по всем
показателям, но стоят на порядки дороже и в обозримом будущем вряд ли
смогут с ними конкурировать.

Одна из самых важных технических тенденций, обеспечившая дискам
долгожительство, — уменьшение их физических размеров. Миниатюризация
позволяет радикально снижать необходимую для вращения потребляемую
мощность, величина которой пропорциональна диаметру в четвертой степени.
Обычно при переходе на стандарт, подразумевающий меньший диаметр дисков,
их емкость сначала уменьшается, но потом, благодаря повышению плотности
записи, резко растет. В свою очередь, уменьшение размеров и потребляемой
мощности приводит к расширению сферы применения. Когда-то диски могли
использоваться только в компьютерных центрах, затем — в персональных
компьютерах, а в современных условиях — в мобильных устройствах. На
каждой новой «волне» рынок возрастает на порядки.

Дисковый накопитель, как и большинство изобретений, связанных с
компьютерами, появился в результате индивидуального творчества.
Создатель этого незаменимого устройства Рейнолд Джонсон (1906-1998) —
неутомимый изобретатель-универсал и обладатель множества патентов —
почти всю свою долгую жизнь проработал в IBM. Даже уйдя в отставку,
Джонсон продолжал творить и в дополнение к славе изобретателя дисков
получил широкую известность как автор игрушек.

Изобретательская карьера Джонсона началась с создания электронного
устройства для считывания бланков в 30-е годы XX века, когда он работал
школьным учителем. Предложенный им прибор оказался настолько
эффективным, что компания IBM пригласила его к себе на работу.
Использованная в этом приборе технология (в последующем она была названа
электрографией) позволяла переводить метки, нанесенные специальным
карандашом, с бумажного бланка на единственный существовавший в ту пору
машинный носитель — перфокарты. Потом Джонсон сделал множество других
изобретений, в том числе создал кассетные магнитные ленты, но,
разумеется, главное его достижение — первый в истории компьютерных
систем дисковый накопитель. За свои изобретения Джонсон был награжден в
1986 году Национальной технологической медалью.

В 1953 году Джонсон был назначен на должность руководителя
исследовательской лаборатории IBM, расположенной в Сан-Хосе, и в
последующем она стала для корпорации основным центром разработки
технологий магнитных дисков. Географическая удаленность лаборатории от
штаб-квартиры обеспечивала относительную свободу действий и позволяла
вести несанкционированную разработку прибора, получившего название RAMAC
(Random-Access Method of Accounting and Control — «произвольный метод
доступа и управления»). Самодеятельность Джонсона не сразу была оценена
по достоинству, и по результатам инспекционной поездки высшее
руководство сначала выразило недоверие к проекту, посчитав его излишне
затратным. Но Джонсон проявил упорство и в феврале 1954 года сумел
впервые переписать данные с перфокарт на диск.

В ноябре того же года разработка RAMAC получила официальное признание, а
в 1956 году был выпущен серийный дисковый накопитель IBM 350 — первое
устройство с подвижной головкой для чтения и записи. Этот диск стал
частью системы IBM 305, в состав которой входили также считыватель с
карт и принтер. RAMAC весил более тонны и был способен хранить 5 млн
символов в 7-битовой кодировке на 50 (!) «блинах» диаметром 24 дюйма,
покрытых краской с окисью железа. Кстати, точно такая же краска и поныне
используется для окрашивания моста Golden Gate в Сан-Франциско.

При проектировании первого магнитного диска инженеры столкнулись с целым
комплексом проблем, который сопровождал эти устройства на протяжении
всех последующих лет: необходимость повышения плотности записи и
скорости вращения, уменьшения толщины магнитного покрытия и расстояния
от головки до поверхности. В RAMAC была применена головка, которая не
соприкасается с диском, а находится на воздушной подушке. Эта идея с
небольшими изменениями остается основополагающей и поныне. В первых
конструкциях головка поддерживалась на нужном расстоянии от диска с
помощью воздушной струи. Вскоре появились «летающие» головки, чей
«полет» обеспечивался за счет эффекта Бернулли, и затем такой
конструктивный принцип не менялся. Иногда считают, что современные диски
работают в вакууме, но головка может «летать» только в воздушной среде.
Одна из проблем состоит в необходимости обеспечения «аварийной посадки»
в случае отключения питания; она решается благодаря инерционности
вращающихся «блинов».

Справедливости ради отметим, что работа Джонсона не была уникальной. К
идее создания дисковых накопителей почти одновременно подошли несколько
компаний, но наиболее близко — ведущая компьютерная компания 50-х,
Univac, в которой работали изобретатели компьютера ENIAC Преспер Эккерт
и Джон Мочли. Однако по соображениям внутренней политики в Univac
предпочтение было отдано магнитным барабанам — направлению, в конечном
счете, оказавшемуся тупиковым.

Некоторые конструкции дисков начала 60-х годов поистине поразительны. К
числу уникальных относится устройство компании Bryant Computer, которое
имело самый большой в истории дисков диаметр (почти 1 метр) и емкость до
90 Мбайт. Но единственным серьезным конкурентом IBM по части дисков была
компания Telex, которая в начале 60-х годов смогла выпустить собственные
устройства, поставлявшиеся в качестве дополнительного оборудования к
компьютерам IBM. Это, пожалуй, первый известный прецедент комплектования
компьютеров системами хранения независимых производителей. В последующие
годы количество компаний, производящих диски, заметно увеличилось,
причем многие из них были созданы выходцами из IBM. Одним из наиболее
ярких представителей нового поколения стал легендарный Алан Шугарт,
который после целого ряда метаморфоз образовал компанию Seagate
Technology.

Следующим шагом было создание накопителей со сменными пакетами диаметром
14 дюймов. Эти практичные устройства позволяли многократно увеличивать
объем хранимых на дисках данных без существенных затрат. Из-за их
габаритов и внешнего сходства эти дисководы называли «стиральными
машинами». С таких конструкций началось серийное тиражирование дисков,
которыми комплектовались до середины 80-х годов мини-ЭВМ и мэйнфреймы.

Но самым радикальным изобретением, изменившим дисковую индустрию, стали
диски-винчестеры. Первый накопитель такого типа, IBM 3340, хранил 30
Мбайт на сменном пакете и еще 30 Мбайт — на фиксированном. С 1973 года
винчестерами стали называть неразборные диски, расположенные вместе с
головками в замкнутом пространстве. (Утверждается, что такое название
было дано по имени винтовки «Винчестер 30-30», которой владел менеджер
проекта; а может, дело состояло в том, что одна из исследовательских
лабораторий IBM расположена в английском городе Винчестер.)
Выпускавшиеся в 80-е годы винчестеры имели емкость, измерявшуюся сотнями
мегабайт, и были довольно громоздкими — они весили десятки килограмм.

Дальнейшая эволюция дисков была связана с входящими в их состав
компонентами. При этом приходилось решать множество конструктивных,
аэродинамических и материаловедческих задач, а также проблем, связанных
с управлением в процессе перемещения головок. Управление сервоприводами
и точное динамическое позиционирование головок относительно дорожек
составляют одно из самых интересных направлений в современной теории
автоматического регулирования. Общий тренд в развитии дисков
определяется тем, что качество поверхности диска, допускаемая материалом
плотность записи, высота «полета» головки и другие характеристики
взаимозависимы. Эта зависимость определяется прежде всего законами
физики: напряженность магнитного поля падает пропорционально кубу
расстояния между головкой и носителем. К тому же чем меньше диаметр
диска, тем меньше линейная скорость на периметре и вызываемая вращением
турбулентность. Уменьшение размеров диска, напрямую приводящее к
увеличению его емкости, ограничивается только имеющимися технологиями.

Первым серьезным шагом в этом направлении было создание в 1979 году
8-дюймового дисковода IBM Piccolo (IBM 3350). Поначалу такие дисководы
уступали по емкости более распространенным на тот момент 14-дюймовым
дисководам, но со временем превзошли их. В 1980 году компания Seagate
Technology создала диски размером 5,25 дюйма, в 1983 году Rodime
запустила в продажу 3,5-дюймовые диски, а в 1988-м PrairieTek уменьшила
размер дисков до 2,5 дюймов. В настоящее время миниатюризация дисков,
преодолев барьер в 1 дюйм (IBM Microdrive), достигла показателя 0,85
дюйма. Компьютеры IBM PC и их многочисленные клоны комплектовались
5-дюймовыми дисками емкостью 10 Мбайт, с которых и началось производство
дисков миллионными тиражами.

Одновременно с уменьшением диметра совершенствовались материалы,
используемые для создания магнитной поверхности и самих вращающихся
дисков, а электрический привод сместился вовнутрь шпинделя. Наиболее
заметным было повышение скорости вращения. Первый диск RAMAC вращался со
скоростью 1200 оборотов в минуту, 14-дюймовые — со скоростью 5400
оборотов в минуту, а скорость вращения дисков диаметром 5,25, 3,5 и 2,5
дюймов возросла с 7200 до 10 тыс. и даже до 15 тыс. оборотов. Но,
пожалуй, самым ярким показателем прогресса дисковых технологий является
снижение удельной стоимости хранения. В 60-е годы она превышала 2 тыс.
долл. за мегабайт, а сейчас за тот же объем нужно заплатить десятые доли
цента.

Современные диски подключаются по одному из следующих типов интерфейсов:
ATA (IDE, EIDE), SCSI, FireWire/IEEE 1394, USB и Fibre Channel. Их
собирают в дисковые массивы, но это уже другая история. В конце 2002
года был предложен последовательный интерфейс Serial ATA, позволивший
создавать недорогие массивы большой емкости, что открывает новые
возможности для оперативного хранения данных.

Как измерять емкость дисков

Быстрый рост емкости дисков обнажил на первый взгляд неожиданную
проблему, а именно — недостаточную определенность единиц измерения этой
емкости. Несколько лет назад в Соединенных Штатах состоялись судебные
процессы в связи с обвинением производителей компьютеров в том, что
заявленные ими емкости дисков не соответствуют тому, что показывает
операционная система. Скажем, в спецификации компьютера указано, что в
нем установлен диск 120 Гбайт, а система показывает только 115. Многие
из нас пытались понять, почему на 30-гигабайтном диске можно записать
только 28 Гбайт данных, для чего соотносили значения степени двойки со
степенью десятки. А виной всему — несогласованность терминов,
использование вперемежку десятичных (кило-, мега-) префиксов и двоичных
значений, коварная близость пресловутых значений 1024 и 1000,
побуждающая приравнять их, чтобы при дальнейших расчетах отождествлять
103 и 210.

К чему это приводит, станет ясно, если в качестве примера рассмотреть
такую единицу измерения, как мегабайт. Оказывается, ее можно трактовать
тремя различными способами.

1. Ме?????я э????????я ???ия (International Electrotechnical Commission,
IEC), ?????ю?яся ???ы СИ, ???т, ?о 1 М?? ??н 1 ?н. ?? (106). В ??й ????е
э? ???у ????я ????ют ????е ??????и ???х ??? и DVD.

2. П?я? ??ью??в ?? ??ря?ся ?????и, ? ? ??д??ию, я?я?ся «??о ????», ?э??
в э?м ??ае 1 М?? ??н 1048576 ?? (220).

3. П?????? ?б?х ??? ???? ??????й ???. О? ????и ???? ????, ?э?? у ?х 1
М?? ??н 1 ?с. К??, ? ?? 1024000 ?? (1024 x 1000). О?ю? ???т, ?о ???а
???ью 1,44 М?? на ?? ??т ???ь 1474560 ??.

По очевидным арифметическим причинам расхождение между двоичными
значениями и десятичными будет тем больше, чем больше абсолютная
величина. Между десятичной тысячей байт и килобайтом (1024 байт) —
разница всего 2,4%; однако между йоттабайтом (280) и обычно ставящимся
ему в соответствие числом 1024 различие составляет уже 20,8%. На
гигабайтном уровне различие меньше, но и его оказалось достаточно для
того, чтобы организации, защищающие права потребителей, возбудили
судебные процессы против производителей дисков. Имели место попытки
доказать, что они вводят в заблуждение покупателей, завышая истинные
объемы дисков, но это совсем не так. Использование десятичных единиц
измерения в накопителях является инженерной традицией, которая началась
еще со времен перфолент, а двоичная интерпретация дискового пространства
связана с особенностями операционной системы.

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Для преодоления противоречия в 1999 году IEC разработала новый стандарт
IEC 60027-2, в котором предлагается заменить десятичные префиксы
двоичными, отличающимися двумя буквами bi (от binary), и полностью
отказаться от использования основания 10 в пользу основания 2. За
прошедшие с тех пор годы наблюдался определенный рост популярности новой
системы измерений, и в 2005 году ее приняли американский институт IEEE
(Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers) и Международный
комитет мер и весов (Comite International des Poids et Mesures, CIPM).

Аналогичные изменения предложены и для единиц измерения, определяющих
скорость передачи данных. Как сейчас принято, единица измерения частоты
герц взята из системы СИ, следовательно, передаваемые данные считаются в
десятичной системе и скорость передачи, скажем, 128 Кбит/с означает
передачу 128 тыс. десятичных битов в секунду, что равно 15,625 Ki в
секунду, а, например, скорость передачи 1 Мбит/с 122 Ki в секунду.

Важные даты из истории магнитных дисков

· 1956 ?д — ??? ???? ????? RAMAC 350 (5 М??, 24 ??а)

· 1961 ?д — ????? с ???? ? ???ы Bryant Computer 4240 (90 М??, 24 ??а
????м 39 дю??, т.е. 99 ?)

· 1963 ?д — ????? ? ???? 14-дю???и ???? IBM 1311 (2,69 М??, 6 ???)

· 1971 ?д — ????? ? ??я?м ???????м IBM 3330-1 Merlin (100 М??, 11 ???)

· 1971 ?д — ??? ?? IBM 23FD (0,816 М??, 1 ?? ????м 8 дю??)

· 1973 ?д — ????? ?? «В????» IBM 3340

· 1976 ?д — ??? ?? ????м 5, 25 дю?а Shugart Associates SA400

· 1980 ?д — ???й ?? ????м 5,25 дю?а Seagate Technology ST506 (5 М??)

· 1985 ?д — ?? ? ??е Quantum Hardcard (10,5 М??, 3,5 дю?а)

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