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IP-телефония (реферат)

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МОУ Коробовская СОШ

Управления образования Администрации Шатурского района Московской
области

РЕФЕРАТ

ПО ТЕМЕ

IP-ТЕЛЕФОНИЯ

Реферат подготовила

ученица 11 класса:

Павлухина Мария

Преподаватель информатики:

Киселёв Владимир Николаевич

2005 год

Содержание

Введение 2

История развития IP-телефонии[1] 3

Принцип действия[2] 5

Качество IP-телефонии[2] 6

Словарь терминов[3] 8

Литература 12

Введение

IP-телефония – технология, позволяющая использовать Интернет или другую
IP-сеть в качестве средства организации и ведения международных
телефонных разговоров и передачи факсов в режиме реального времени.

Интернет-телефония – частный случай IP-телефонии, когда в качестве линий
передачи телефонного трафика используются каналы сети Интернета.

Как работает IP-телефония?

При разговоре, наши голосовые сигналы (слова, которые мы произносим)
преобразуются в сжатые пакеты данных. После эти пакеты данных посылаются
через Интернет другой стороне. Когда пакеты данных достигают адресата,
они декодируются в голосовые сигналы оригинала.

Существуют два базовых типа телефонных запросов Интернет-телефонии:

1. С компьютера на компьютер

2. С компьютера на телефон

В чём отличие Интернет-телефонии от обычной телефонии?

В обычном телефонном звонке подключение между обоими собеседниками
устанавливается через телефонную станцию исключительно с целью
разговора. Голосовые сигналы передаются по определённым телефонным
линиям, через выделенное подключение.

При запросе же по Интернет, сжатые пакеты данных поступают в Интернет с
адресом назначения. Каждый пакет данных проходит собственный путь до
адресата, по различным маршрутам. Для адресата, пакеты данных
перегруппировываются и декодируются в голосовые сигналы оригинала.

В чём отличие Интернет-телефонии от IP-телефонии?

Интернет-телефония частный случай IP-телефонии, здесь в качестве линий
передачи используются обычные каналы Интернет. В чистом виде
IP-телефония, в качестве линий передачи телефонного трафика использует
выделенные цифровые каналы.

Почему Интернет-телефония стоит меньше?

Обычные телефонные звонки требуют разветвлённой сети связи телефонных
станций, связанных закреплёнными телефонными линиями, подвода
волоконно-оптических кабелей и спутников связи. Высокие затраты
телефонных компаний приводят для нас к дорогим междугородним разговорам.
Выделенное подключение телефонной станции также имеет много избыточной
производительности или времени простоя в течение речевого сеанса.

Интернет-телефония частично основывается на существующей сети
закреплённых телефонных линий. Но главное, она использует самую
передовую технологию сжатия наших голосовых сигналов, и полностью
использует ёмкость телефонных линий. Поэтому пакеты данных от разных
запросов, и даже различные их типы, могут перемещаться по одной и той же
линии в одно и тоже время.

История развития IP-телефонии[1]

По мнению некоторых, концепция передачи голоса по сети с помощью
профессионального компьютера зародилась в Университете штата Иллинойс
(США). В 1993 году Чарли Кляйн выпустил в свет Maven, первую программу
для перестройки голоса с помощью РС. Одновременно одним из самых
популярных мультимедийных приложений в сети стала CU-SeeMe, программа
видеоконференций для Macintosh (Mac), разработанная в Корнельском
Университете.

Апрель 1994 года. Во время полёта челнока Endeavor NASA передало на
Землю его изображение с помощью программы CU-SeeMe. Одновременно
попробовали передать и звук. Полученный сигнал из Льюисовского
исследовательского центра поступал на Мае, соединённый с Интернет, и
любой желающий мог услышать голоса астронавтов. Потом одну программу
встроили в другую, и появился вариант CU-SeeMe с полными функциями аудио
и видео, как для Мае, так и для РС.

Февраль 1995 года. Израильская компания Vocal Tec предложила первую
версию программы Internet Phone, разработанную для владельцев
мультимедийных компьютеров, работающих под Windows. Это стало важной
вехой в развитии Интернет-телефонии! Vocal Tec надеялась использовать
очень популярные каналы Internet Relay Chat (IRC) в качестве
двустороннего средства общения между людьми, имеющими сходные интересы.
Но компании не удалось связаться с Eras Free Network (Feet), курирующей
IRC, и проинформировали о потенциально возможном увеличении графика,
поэтому доступ к общественным каналам для Internet Phone был закрыт.
Через несколько недель компания Vocal Tec уладила свои разногласия с
EFNet. За это время была создана частная сеть серверов Internet Phone, и
уже тысячи людей загрузили программу с домашней страницы Vocal Tec и
начали общаться. Собственно, этим они занимаются до настоящего времени.

В том же 1995 г. Другие компании очень быстро оценили перспективы,
которые открывали возможность разговаривать, находясь в разных
полушарьях и не платя при этом за международные звонки!!! На рынок
обрушилась гора продукции, предназначенной для телефонии через Сеть.

В сентябре того же года в розничной продаже появилась первая из таких
программ- DigiPhone, разработанная небольшой компанией в Далласе (штате
Техас), которая предложила «дуплексные» возможности, позволяя говорить и
слушать одновременно. Вот в этот момент и родилась привлекательная для
абонентов настоящая интерактивная связь. А нам, абонентам, какая
собственно разница, каким именно способом передается речь. Было бы
слышно Крыжо из Нью-Йорка.

Вскоре нашлись энтузиасты, которые с помощью программ подобного типа
стали организовывать марафоны. Целью было научить работать через
Интернет обычный телефонный аппарат типа «сеанс разговора», во время
которых люди всей страны могли подключаться и говорить часами.

В марте 1996 г. произошло еще одно памятное событие. Тогда было
объявлено о совместном проекте под названием «Internet Telephone Gate»
двух компаний: уже известно нам Vocal Tec и крупнейшего производителя
для компьютерной телефонный Dialogic, для чего между Сетью и телефоном
устанавливается специализированный шлюз. Последний получил название
(Vocal Tec Telephone Gateway) и представлял собой специализированную
программу, которая использовала голосовые платы Dialogic. Многоканальные
голосовые платы позволяют, во-первых, одной системе VTG поддерживать до
восьми независимых телефонных разговоров через сеть, а во-вторых, убрали
проблему адреса, взяв на себя преобразование обычных телефонных номеров
в IP-адрес и обратно. Для разговора одного пользователя в том продукте
достаточно будет ширины полосы канала порядка 11 кбит/с. Вот так
возможность высокого уплотнения канала и малая стоимость связи создали
предпосылки для коренных изменений телекоммуникационного мира. Сегодня
многое ясно, что ИТ – лишь шаг на пути к глобальной мультимедиа-связи.

Ёще через год стали вполне обычными соединения через Интернет двух
обычных телефонных абонентов, находившихся в совершенно разных местах
планеты. Вот так в течение всего каких-то двух лет стал на ноги
альтернативный способ телефонной связи.

Принцип действия[2]

Общий принцип действия телефонных серверов IP-телефонии таков: с одной
стороны, сервер связан с телефонными линиями и может соединиться с любым
телефоном мира. С другой стороны, сервер связан с Интернетом и может
связаться с любым компьютером в мире. Сервер принимает стандартный
телефонный сигнал, оцифровывает его, значительно сжимает, разбивает на
пакеты и отправляет через Интернет по назначению с использованием
протокола Интернет (ТСР/|Р). Для пакетов, приходящих из сети на
телефонный сервер и уходящих в телефонную линию, операция происходит в
обратном порядке. Обе составляющие операции происходят практически
одновременно, что позволяет обеспечить полнодуплекационный разговор. На
основе этих базовых операций можно построить много различных
конфигураций. Допустим, звонок телефон-компьютер или компьютер-телефон
может обеспечивать один телефонный сервер.(рис.1) Для организации связи
телефон(факс)- телефон(факс) нужно два сервера (рис.2).

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1000400000000008001a80020f80700040000002d010000030000000000

3

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0002a0020002a002100170021000e00000025030500190023001c0023001c00260019002
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Рис. 1. Соединение компьютер-телефон

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телефон-факс
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3

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picscalex41010009000003560300000400140200000000050000000b020000000005000
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0000000000000000000000000000002000af00800000000040000050000000f0004f0f40
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520f14401000000000000ffffff00ff00000000ff00000000ff00ffff0000ff00ff0000f
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3001d007700b2007700ae007300210073000e000000240305001c00790018007d00b7007
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000f001010007000000fc020000ffffff000000040000002d0101000800000026060f000
600ffffffff010005000000090200000000050000000102ffffff00040000002d0101000
40000002701ffff04000000f0010200030000000000

Рис.2. Система для звонков по телефону и посылки факсов средствами IP.

Междугородняя (международная) связь осуществляется с помощью телефонных
серверов, организация или оператор услуги должны иметь сервер в тех
местах, куда и откуда планируются звонки. Стоимость такой связи на
порядок меньше стоимости телефонного звонка по обычным телефонным
линиям. Особенно велика эта разница для международных переговоров.

Качество IP-телефонии[2]

Телефонная сеть была создана таким образом, чтобы гарантировать высокое
качество услуги даже при больших нагрузках IP-телефония, напротив, не
гарантирует качества, причём при больших нагрузках оно значительно
падает.

Стоимость любой услуги, как правило, и её качество прямо
пропорциональны. Однако понятно и то, что в ряде случаев представляется
неразумным сравнительно небольшое увеличение качества оплачивать
относительно большим увеличением цены. Вряд ли праздничные
поздравительные открытки целесообразно отправлять фельдъегерской связью:
хорошо, да дорого.

Качество связи можно оценить следующими основными характеристиками:

1. уровень искажения голоса;

2. частота «пропадания» голосовых пакетов;

3. время задержки (между произнесением фразы первого абонента и
моментом, когда она будет услышана вторым абонентом).

По первым двум характеристикам качество связи значительно улучшилось в
сравнении с первыми версиями решений IP-телефонии, которые допускали
искажение и прерывание речи. Улучшение кодирования голоса и
восстановление потерянных пакетов позволило достичь уровня, когда речь
понимается абонентами достаточно легко. Понятно, что задержки влияют на
темп беседы. Известно, что для человека задержка до 250 миллисекунд
практически незаметна. Существующие на сегодняшний день решения
IP-телефонии превышают этот предел, так что разговор похож на связь по
обычной телефонной сети через спутник, которую обычно оценивают как
связь вполне удовлетворительного качества, требующую лишь некоторого
привыкания, после которого задержки для пользователя становятся
неощутимы. Отметим, что даже в таком виде связи решения IP-телефонии
вполне подходят для многих приложений.

Задержки можно уменьшить благодаря следующим трем факторам:

1. Во-первых, совершенствуются телефонные серверы (их разработчики
борются с задержками, улучшая алгоритмы работы).

2. Во-вторых, развиваются частные сети (их владельцы могут
контролировать ширину полосы пропускания и, следовательно, величины
задержки).

3. В-третьих, развивается сама сеть Интернет – современный Интернет не
был рассчитан на коммуникации в режиме реального времени. Хотя на
обновление роутеров по всему миру и на организационные мероприятия
(например, решить вопрос, как в денежном выражении оценить сервис более
высокого качества) потребуется некоторое время, мир Интернета, вне
зависимости от вышесказанного, двигается очень быстро и в правильном
направлении.

Оценить качество при использовании различных протоколов сжатия можно
различными способами. Один из подходов для таких измерений –
использование субъективных методов. В субъективных методах группа людей,
обычно достаточно большая, оценивает качество связи по определенной
стандартной процедуре. Самый известный субъективный метод – это метод
общего мнения. В этом методе, качество связи оценивается большой группой
разных людей, и затем их мнение усредняется.

Ниже приведена таблица оценок, которые просили проставить экспертов для
оценки качества связи. Оценки могли колебаться от 1 (неприемлемо) до 5
(отлично – нет дискомфорта при прослушивании).

Качество
Оценка МОS

Высокое 4.0 – 5.0

Стандартное телефонное 3.5 – 4.0

Приемлемое 3.0 – 3.5

Синтезированный звук 2.5 – 3.0

На графике (рис.3) показана оценка методом общего мнения различных
популярных звуковых кодер-декодеров. По горизонтальной оси отложена
требуемая ширина канала для передачи речи, сжатой определённым кодером,
по вертикальной оси – собственно оценка.

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00002d010c00040000002d010800040000002d010d00050000000102ffffff0005000000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Рис. 3. Зависимость качества связи от ширины канала пропускания

Словарь терминов[3]

Тип обслуживания (TOS), который иногда еще обозначается как DSCP, это
сегмент IP-протокола, позволяющий идентифицировать тип передаваемого
пакета информации (речь или данные).

Протоколы G.XXX. Существует семь стандартных протоколов G.XXX, на основе
которых осуществляется преобразование речи в цифровой формат. Наиболее
распространены следующие протоколы:G.711 – предусматривает передачу со
скоростью 64 Кбит/с (килобит в секунду); этот протокол обеспечивает
самое высокое качество, но требует большой части спектра полосы
пропускания.G.729 и G.729 – предусматривают сжатие речи до 8 Кбит/с; эти
протоколы обеспечивают низкое значение задержки и качество речи,
приближенное к качеству в операторских сетях. G.729A -это протокол
кодирования/ декодирования, который по умолчанию используется шлюзовым
устройством ITG и является предпочтительным для него.G.723.1 –
обеспечивает максимальную степень сжатия речи (5.3 или 6.3 Кбит/с;  этот
протокол принят наибольшим числом изготовителей оборудования.

Н.323 Наиболее распространенный стандарт мультимедийной связи. Компания
Nortel поддерживает стандарт Н.323 и обеспечивает стык со шлюзовыми
устройствами и клиентскими приложениями третьих поставщиков.

Стандарт Media Gateway Control, который раньше называли MGCP,
представляет собой результат слияния двух инициатив, предложенных
компанией Bellcore. MEGACO позволяет разрабатывать простые и недорогие
устройства. Этот стандарт поддерживается всеми шлюзами VoIP компании
Nortel Networks.

Voice Profile Internet Mail – это стандарт передачи сообщений голосовой
почты по сети Интернет от одной системы к другой, который поддерживается
компанией Nortel Networks и другими изготовителями.

Монитор – необязательный модуль сети IP-телефонии, подключаемый только к
IP-сети, используемый для удаленного конфигурирования и поддержки
остальных устройств сети – шлюзов и диспетчеров.

Биллинговая система – программный продукт, обычно интегрированный с
системой IP-телефонии, предназначенный для учёта, тарификации, анализа
расходов и выставления счётов за телефонные переговоры.

Кодекс – общий термин, используемый в цифровой обработке аудио и видео –
алгоритм сжатия и восстановления речи. В IP-телефонии наиболее часто
используются кодеки G.723 и G.729. Алгоритмы кодеков определены в
стандарте Н.323.

Шлюз – это основная и неотъемлемая часть архитектуры IP-телефонии,
непосредственно соединяющая телефонную сеть с сетью IP.

Диспетчер – дополнительное устройство, подключенное только к IP-сети и
несущее в себе всю логику работы сети IP-телефонии. Выполняет функции
аутентификации и авторизации абонента, распределения вызовов между
шлюзами и биллинга.

Интернет – международное объединение сетей, в котором пользователи ПК,
при наличии прав доступа, могут получать информацию с любого другого
компьютера в сети. Первоначально сеть была разработана в Агентстве
Перспективных Исследовательских Проектов при американском правительстве
для военных в 1969 году. Раньше имела название Arpanet. Затем была
демилитаризована и передана в коммерческую эксплуатацию. За это время
была существенно усовершенствована. Одно из самых известных, но не
единственных усовершенствований – технология WWW (World Wide Web),
разработанная в 1991 году в институте CERN. Технология стала настолько
успешной, что часто в обиходе под Интернет имеют в виду именно WWW.

IP-телефония – также известная, как Интернет телефония или технология
передачи голоса по IP. Использует Интернет протокол для организации
двусторонней голосовой связи. IP-телефония предусматривает соединения
между телефонами пользователей при наличии соответствующих шлюзов с
телефонной сетью, а также IP терминалами или IP терминалом и ТФОП.

Провайдер Интернет-телефонии – оператор, предоставляющий услуги
IP-телефонии.

Международный Совет по электросвязи – международная организация,
занимающаяся разработкой стандартов, используемых в телекоммуникациях.
В частности, ITU одобрен стандарт Н.323, который используется в
IP-телефонии.

Система интерактивного голосового ответа осуществляет функции доступа к
удалённой компьютерной системы с помощью голосового меню, выбор опций в
котором осуществляется путём набора цифр или их комбинаций на телефонном
аппарате. Компьютерная система озвучивает затребованную информацию, либо
собирая сообщение из заранее записанных фрагментов, либо синтезируя
голосовое сообщение при помощи преобразования текст-речь.

ТСР/IP – общее название протоколов Интернет. ТСР и IP – наиболее
известны из них. ТСР гарантирует, что каждый посланный байт дойдёт до
получателя без потерь. IP присваивает локальные IP адреса физическим
сетевым адресам, обеспечивая тем самым адресное пространство, с которым
работают маршрутизаторы. Также в семейство протоколов входит протокол
Telnet, который позволяет удалённым терминалам подключаться к удалённым
узлам, система доменной адресации, которая позволяет пользователям
адресоваться к узлам сети по символьному доменному имени вместо
цифрового IP-адреса, протокол передачи файлов, который определяет
механизм хранения и передачи файлов, а также протокол передачи
гипертекста, который позволяет производить обмен и передачу информации
на компьютеры с WEB браузерами.

Коммутация пакетов означает организацию соединений путём разбивки
информации на пакеты, отправки их по сети передачи данных вместе с
другими потоками информации и восстановления исходной информации на
приемном конце. Основное достоинство коммутации пакетов – эффективность
использования каналов с фиксированной и ограниченной полосой. Недостаток
– невозможность гарантировать качество обслуживания.

Персональный код доступа – уникальный цифровой код для идентификации
пользователя, предназначенный для авторизации в начале сеанса работы со
шлюзом Интернет-телефонии.

Телефонная сеть общего пользования – общедоступная телефонная система. В
решениях IP-телефонии, предлагающих сервис типа звонка «телефон-телефон»
иногда используется как сеть доступа к услугам операторов
Интернет-телефонии.

Качество обслуживания – способность сети обеспечивать лучшее качество
для определённого вида сетевого трафика с различными приоритетами и
допустимыми временами задержки. В частности, при передачи голосовых
сообщений, IP-пакетам «с голосом» можно повышать приоритет, что повысит
качество услуги.

Маршрутизатор – устройство, или в некоторых случаях программное
обеспечение на компьютере, которое определяет следующую точку сети в
направлении точки назначения, куда будут направлены пакеты. Обычно, на
пути к получателю, пакеты проходят через несколько точек, в которых
установлены маршрутизаторы.

Литература

1. Журнал «Мобильные системы» №12, стр. 10 (декабрь 1999).

2. www.comptek.ru.

3. Материалы сервера Международного Совета по Электросвязи.

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