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Функциональная электроника

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14

Расчетно-графическая работа

по предмету: Функциональная электроника

СОДЕРЖАНИЕ

1. ВВЕДЕНИЕ 3

2. НЕКОГЕРЕНТНЫЕ ИЗЛУЧАТЕЛИ 5

2.1. Принцип действия светодиодов 5

2.2. Конструкции светодиодов 10

3. Когерентные излучатели 14

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ 19

1. ВВЕДЕНИЕ

Оптоэлектроника (ОЭ) – это область науки и техники, связанная с
разработкой и применением комбинированных электронно-оптических
устройств и систем для передачи, приема, обработки, хранения и
отображения информации.

ОЭ оказывает заметное влияние на сферу информатики и индустрии обработки
данных.

В последнее время интенсивно развиваются оптические методы обработки
информации в основном по трем направлениям:

1) создание цифровых оптических вычислительных машин (ОВМ) с широким
применением различных оптоэлектронных и оптических компонентов,
волоконной оптики, оптических запоминающих устройств и процессоров и др.
Теоретические оценки показывают, что такие машины могут иметь
быстродействие порядка нескольких миллиардов операций в секунду и
повышенную надежность благодаря отсутствию задержек, присущих
электрическим сигналам, двумерному характеру исходной информации
нечувствительности к внешним и перекрестным помехам и т.д.;

2) создание аналоговых ОВМ, принцип действия которых основан на том, что
определенная комбинация достаточно простых оптических элементов (линз,
дифракционных решеток, голограмм и др.) позволяет осуществлять над
оптическим сигналом весьма сложные интегральные преобразования,
используемые вместо элементарных операций арифметического суммирования и
логического сравнения в ЭВМ. Однако, ОВМ аналогового типа имеют
сравнительно малую точность вычислений (в пределах нескольких
процентов), и их целесообразно применять в тех случаях, когда требуется
быстро обрабатывать значительные объемы информации без повышенных
требований к точности вычислений;

3) создание ОВМ с картинной логикой, осуществляющих одновременную
обработку больших массивов информации в виде двухмерных изображений.

Перспективы практического применения большей части рассмотренных
устройств определяются уровнем развития интегральной оптики – нового
физико-технического и схемотехнического направления ОЭ, позволяющего
создать методами интегральной технологии микроминиатюрные твердотельные
устройства, содержащие как пассивные (линзы, зеркала, призмы,
дифракционные решетки), так и активные (излучатели, фото приемники,
модуляторы, дефлекторы и т.д.) оптоэлектронные элементы.

В зависимости от характера оптического сигнала различают когерентную и
некогерентную оптоэлектронику.

Когерентная ОЭ базируется на использовании лазерного излучения. К
некогерентной ОЭ относят дискретные и матричные некогерентные излучатели
и построенные на их основе цифровые индикаторные устройства визуального
представления информации, шкалы, табло, экраны, а также фото приемные
устройства, оптопары, оптронные интегральные микросхемы (ИМС) и др.

2. НЕКОГЕРЕНТНЫЕ ИЗЛУЧАТЕЛИ

2.1. Принцип действия светодиодов

В качестве некогерентных излучателей можно использовать сверх
миниатюрные накальные и газоразрядные лампочки, порошковые, пленочные
люминофоры, светоизлучающие диоды и т.д. Однако требованиям
предъявляемым к оптоэлектронному прибору, удовлетворяют лишь
светоизлучающие диоды, характеризующиеся высокой эффективностью прямого
преобразования электрической энергии в световую, надежностью и большим
сроком службы, устойчивостью к механическим и климатическим
воздействиям, высоким быстродействием.

Целесообразно разделить светодиоды на две группы: 1) светодиоды,
излучающие в видимом диапазоне спектра и используемые, главным образом,
для отображения информации; 2) ИК светодиоды, применяемые в оптронах и
волоконно-оптических линиях связи.

Хотя изготавливают светодиоды обеих групп из различных полупроводниковых
материалов, принцип действия их одинаков и основан на явлении спонтанной
инжекционной электролюминисценции – инжекции неосновных носителей в
активную область прямосмещенного p-n-, гомо – или гетероперехода с
последующей излучательной рекомбинацией в этой области.

Специфика процессов инжекции в светодиодах заключается в том, что одна
из областей p-n-перехода должна быть оптически активна, т.е. должна
обладать высоким внутренним квантовым выходом излучения.

Как известно, полное число излучательных переходов в единице объема при
межзонной рекомбинации равно произведению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, где В – коэффициент
рекомбинации; np – неравновесная концентрация электронов в активной
p-области; pp0 – равновесная концентрация дырок в этой области.

Очевидно, что p-n-переход с высоким внутренним квантовым выходом звн,
равным отношению числа генерируемых в базе фотонов к числу
инжектированных в нее неосновных носителей, должен быть изготовлен из
прямозонного полупроводника, для которого
Вpicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c000000000005000000090200000000050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-10
см3/с (для непрямозонных полупроводников В?10-14 см3/с). В отношении
уровня легирования p – и n-областей возникают противоречивые требования:
с одной стороны, для увеличения np необходимо, чтобы коэффициент
инжекции гп?1, а это связано с понижением уровня легирования базы Na; с
другой стороны, для увеличения pp0 этот уровень следует повышать. Как
правило, выбирают компромиссный вариант: оптимальный уровень легирования
активной области составляет 1017 – 1018 см-3 для доноров и 3.1018 –
3.1019 см-3 для акцепторов.

Кардинальное решение данной проблемы дает использование гетеропереходов.
В этом случае благодаря эффекту суперинжекции можно получить заданное np
при не очень сильно легированном эмиттере. Односторонняя инжекция (гп?1)
обеспечивается за счет разницы в ширине запрещенных зон используемых
полупроводников: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.

Межзонные излучательные переходы конкурируют с безызлучательными и
излучательными переходами, связанными с рекомбинацией через
промежуточные состояния (дефекты структуры, посторонние примеси и
включения, глубокие примесные центры, поверхностные состояния и т.д.).
Все эти конкурирующие переходы, которые можно охарактеризовать некоторым
эффективным временем жизни фбезизл, снижают величину звн, поскольку
сопровождаются исчезновением инжектированных в базу носителей для
генерирования фотона соответствующей энергии.

Снижение доли безызлучательной рекомбинации (увеличение фбезызл) – одна
из важнейших задач технологии светодиодов, направленная на повышение
звн. Для подавления безызлучательных переходов принимают разнообразные
меры: 1) оптимизируют излучательные структуры с целью снижения
концентрации дефектов на границах слоев, исключения безызлучательной
рекомбинации на поверхности и т.д.; 2) используют качественные
эпитаксиальные слои, полученные методами жидкостной, газовой или
молекулярно-лучевой эпитаксии. Из-за низкой температуры и невысокой
скорости роста таких слоев резко снижается плотность дислокаций и других
дефектов структуры, концентрация посторонних примесей. Например, в слоях
Ga1-xAlxAs при x‹0.3, полученных методом жидкостной эпитаксии,
вероятность безызлучательной рекомбинации сведена практически к нулю
(фбезызл??), и, следовательно, звн приближается к 100%.

Важной задачей является также снижение доли поглощаемого внутри
кристалла излучения. Существует три метода борьбы с этим явлением.

Уменьшение энергии фотонов за счет компенсации примесей в активной
области. По такому принципу созданы эпитаксиальные p-n-структуры в GaAs,
легированным кремнием, в которых генерируются фотоны с энергией, меньшей
ширины запрещенной зоны (hvизл‹Eg). При этом коэффициент поглощения не
превышает 100 см-1. В GaAs: Si-структурах звн составляет 40 – 70%.
Основным недостатком таких структур является невысокое быстродействие.

Использование непрямозонных полупроводников в частности GaP. Известно,
вероятность межзонной рекомбинации в GaP невелика
(Вpicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c00000000000500000009020000000005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.10-1
4 см3/с), однако при наличии подходящего промежуточного примесного
центра она резко возрастает. К сожалению, выбор таких центров ограничен.
Так, для GaP ими могут служить азот и комплексы Zn-O. Эти центры создают
глубокие энергетические уровни в запрещенной зоне, поэтому потери на
межзонное поглощение отсутствуют
(picscalex1190100090000039201000002001c000000000005000000090200000000050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).

Использование эффекта «широкозонного окна» в гетероструктурах. Следует
отметить, что применение гетероструктур в светодиодах выгодно и по
другим причинам. Благодаря эффектам «электронного» ограничения и
суперинжекции можно резко повысить концентрацию неосновных носителей в
активной области и достигнуть высокого внутреннего квантового выхода при
малых прямых токах. В таких случаях рекомбинация носителей происходит в
ограниченной по размерам области, в которой концентрация неравновесных
носителей повышается в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 раз по сравнению с
гомопереходом при этом же уровне возбеждения (L – диффузионная длина
неосновных носителей, d – толщина базы).

Естественно, большое значение звн не гарантирует высокой эффективности
светодиода как оптоэлектронного прибора, поэтому при его эксплуатации
более важным является такой параметр, как внешний квантовый выход звнш
(или КПД преобразования электрической энергии в световую), определяемый
отношением числа фотонов, выведенных за пределы кристалла, к числу
носителей заряда, проходящих через p-n-переход.

Как правило, величина звн не превышает нескольких процентов, так как за
пределы кристалла можно вынести лишь небольшую часть генерируемого
внутри активной области излучения. Наиболее существенны следующие виды
потерь: 1) на полное внутреннее отражение излучения, падающего на
границу раздела полупроводник – окружающая среда под углом, большим
критического; 2) на френелевское отражение для излучения, падающего на
границу раздела под углом, меньшим критического; 3) на поглощение
излучения в объеме полупроводника и в приконтактных областях.

Наиболее значителен первый вид потерь. Дело в том, что доля выходящего
за пределы кристалла излучателя определяется значением критического угла
цкр между направлением светового луча и нормалью к поверхности раздела:
picscalex115010009000003d601000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c026002a00c1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffff600c0000060200000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000070000800
0000fa0200000100000000000000040000002d0100000500000014025a008b0a05000000
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2020f5777e0866ed040000002d01020004000000f001010008000000320a800180020100
00003d721c000000fb0280fe0000000000009001010000020402001053796d626f6c0000
b1060aa040f11200d89ff377e19ff3772020f5777e0866ed040000002d01010004000000
f001020008000000320a80011c00010000006a720a00000026060f000a00ffffffff0100
000000001c000000fb021000070000000000bc02000000cc0102022253797374656d00ed
7e0866ed00000a0021008a0100000000020000005cf31200040000002d01020004000000
f0010100030000000000. В связи с большим различием показателей
преломления используемых полупроводников nп и окружающей среды nокр
значения цкр невелики. Например, для GaAs и GaP с показателями
преломления 3.54 и 3.3. значения критического угла при выводе излучения
в воздух соответственно равны 16 и 17.70. это означает, что наружу
выйдут световые лучи, распространяющиеся в заштрихованном конусе с углом
при вершине 2цкр (рис.2.1). В пределах этого конуса потери на
френелевское отражение определяются выражением вида
picscalex108010009000003ca01000003001c0000000000050000000902000000000500
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0000050000000c028005a00b1200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff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и составляют для границ
раздела GaAs – воздух и GaP – воздух соответственно 31 и 29%.

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fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff03e7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc3f3fe000ff
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ffffffffffffffc3c7ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe7f3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe7ffffffff
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ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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7f7f1f80e3f8807f3f3fc073f9f9fcfe1996f31cff731fe7fdfc0381f000ffefffffffff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Рис.2.1

Дальнейшая судьба отраженного от границы раздела излучения зависит от
коэффициента поглощения в объеме полупроводника. Если этот коэффициент
достаточно велик, то все излучение поглотится внутри кристалла. Если же
кристалл прозрачен для генерируемого излучения, то оно, отражаясь от его
граней, может повторно (и не один раз) падать на поверхность раздела и
частично выводиться за пределы кристалла.

Ясно, что сверхизлучающие структуры с плоской геометрией не могут
обладать высоким значением звнш даже при звн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 100%.
Поэтому в современных светодиодах используют кристаллы в виде полусферы
параболоида или усеченной сферы Вейерштрасса. При этом наблюдается
увеличение доли выводимого излучения до 30 – 35%.

Другие методы повышения звн связаны с помещением кристалла в среду с
промежуточным показателем преломления
(picscalex1000100090000033a01000002001c000000000005000000090200000000050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), когда критический угол
возрастает до 25 – 300, а для выводимого излучения увеличивается в 2.5.
– 3 раза; нанесением «просветляющих» покрытий на поверхность кристалла
для сокращения френелевских потерь (применение диэлектрических пленок
SiO, SiO2, Si3N4 позволяет увеличить выход излучения на 25 – 30%);
уменьшением площади контактов; выводом излучения вдоль p-n-переходов с
использованием эффекта «оптического» ограничения в двойных
гетероструктурах и др.

2.2. Конструкции светодиодов

Основу любого светодиода составляет светоизлучающий кристалл с
определенной комбинацией эпитаксиальных слоев, чаще всего выраженных на
подложках из GaAs или GaP. Кристалл имеет, как правило, форму квадрата
со стороной 0.35 – 0.5 мм. Для повышения плотности тока через
p-n-переход уменьшают размеры активной области до нескольких десятков
микрометров путем формирования мезаструктуры или изолирующих аморфных
слоев, полученных протонной бомбардировкой.

Омические контакты к кристаллам изготавливают традиционными методами
тонкопленочной технологии – вакуумным напылением, электрохимическим или
химическим осаждением. Как правило, применяют многокомпонентные сплавы
типа Au – Zn, Au – Be, Au – Ni, Aa – Ge – Ni и др. После операции
нанесения контактов проводится их вжигание при температурах 500 – 6000С.

Для соединения верхних контактов с выводами применяют
термокомпрессионную или лазерную сварку, а нижних – припои или
токопроводящие клеи. Верхний омический контакт светодиода должен, с
одной стороны, иметь минимальную поверхность для уменьшения потерь
света, а с другой стороны, содержать площадку, достаточную для сварки, и
иметь форму, обеспечивающую равномерное растекание тока по площади
p-n-перехода (рис.2.1).

Нижний контакт может быть сплошным при непрозрачной подложке и в виде
сетки или набора точек малой площади для кристаллов с прозрачной
подложкой. В последнем случае контактный сплав должен обладать хорошими
отражающими свойствами.

На рис.2.2. показаны конструкции некоторых наиболее распространенных
типов светодиодов и их диаграммы направленности. Как видно, существуют
три типа светодиодов: в металлостеклянном (АЛ 102), пластмассовом (АЛ
307) корпусе и бескорпусные (АЛ 301). Первый тип светодиодов
характеризуется высокой надежностью и стабильностью параметров, а второй
– технологичностью и низкой стоимостью, большой стойкостью к действию
ударных и вибрационных нагрузок, возможностью управления диаграммой
направленности излучения в направлении как ее расширения, так и сужения.
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fffffffffffc01017ffffffc07ff8fffffffcfffffffe7ff80ffffffffffffffffffffff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Рис.2.2

Как правило, кристалл помещают в специальное углубление с отражающими
свет стенками, что позволяет увеличить силу света в осевом направлении
при одновременном улучшении восприятия излучения в результате расширения
светящейся площадки и повышения контрастности.

Пластмассовый корпус светодиодов изготавливают в виде полусферической
полимерной линзы, которая перераспределяет световой поток и формирует
диаграмму направленности светодиода. Чаще всего такие линзы делают на
основе эпоксидных компаундов с добавкой красителей или светорассеивающих
наполнителей.

Светодиоды видимого диапазона характеризуются следующими основными
параметрами: силой света IV, длиной волны излучения в максимуме
спектральной полосы лmax (цветом свечения), полушириной спектральной
линии излучения ?л, диаграммой направленности (или углом излучения ц),
прямым напряжением Uпр при заданном прямом токе Iпр, световой отдачей по
мощности или по току, внешним квантовым выходом звнш или КПД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,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. Для большинства светодиодов звнш примерно равен КПД.

Для ИК светодиодов вместо силы света IV используют силу излучения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(picscalex1000100090000032301000003001c000000000005000000090200000000050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, где к – видность излучения). В некоторых
случаях важное значение имеют такие параметры и характеристики
светодиодов, как быстродействие и зависимость силы света (излучения) от
прямого тока.

Табл.2.1

МатериалСтруктура энергетических зонЦвет свеченияДлина волны лmax,
мкмСветовая отдачатипичнаямаксимальнаяGaP:
ZnOНепрямаяКрасный0,6990,43,0GaP: NТо жеЗеленый0,5700,34,0GaP: NТо
жеЖелтый0,5900,20,5GaAs0.35P0.65То жеОранжевый0,6320,40,9GaAs0.15P0.85:
NТо
жеЖелтый0,5890,20,9GaAs0.6P0.4ПрямаяКрасный0,6490,150,4Ga0.7Al0.3AsТо
жеКрасный0,675-0,4In0.42Ga0.58PТо
жеОранжевый0,617-0,3SiCНепрямаяЖелтый0,590–GaNПрямаяЗеленый0,575–GaxAl
1-xAsТо жеИК0,82-0,9–GaInAsPТо жеВидимый, ИК0,55-3,4–

Материалы, используемые для светодиодов, и их основные характеристики
приведены в табл.2.1. Анализируя приведенные данные, нетрудно заметить,
что отсутствуют материалы, позволяющие получать свечение в голубой и
синей областях спектра. В настоящее время осуществляется интенсивный
поиск таких материалов. Наиболее исследованными из них являются бинарные
соединения типа АIIIВV с шириной запрещенной зоны Еg > 3,0 эВ: GaN, SiC,
A1N и др.

Большие перспективы имеют тройные и четверные полупроводниковые
соединения, ширина запрещенной зоны которых непрерывно меняется в
зависимости от их состава. Используя четырехкомпонентные соединения,
можно управлять шириной запрещенной зоны Е и постоянной кристаллической
решетки а в довольно широких пределах. Например, для прямозонных
соединений InGaAsP Еg меняется от 0,36 до 2,2 эВ (л = 0,55-3,4 мкм при T
= 300 К). В качестве подложек можно использовать GaAs или GaAsP.

ИК светодиоды изготавливают на основе GaAs, GaAlAs и GalnAsP. Наиболее
эффективными из всех излучающих структур являются двойные
гетероструктуры в системе GaAs/GaAlAs, для которых может быть получен
звн, близкий к 100%, а звнш – более 45% в диапазоне длин волн 0,82-0,9
мкм. Как известно, качество гетероструктур определяется согласованием
параметров решеток подложки и эпитаксиальных слоев, т.е. возможностью
создания изорешеточной структуры. Для гетеропереходов GaAs/Ga1-хAlхAs
параметры решеток практически совпадают в широком диапазоне составов
тройного соединения. Поэтому возможно получение гетеропереходов с
минимальной плотностью дислокаций на границе раздела активный слой –
эмиттер.

3. Когерентные излучатели

Основной тип излучателей когерентной оптоэлектроники – инжекционные
полупроводниковые лазеры (ППЛ). Они представляют собой миниатюрные
твердотельные приборы, изготавливаемые методами планарно-эпитак-сиальной
технологии. Рассмотрим современные конструктивно-технологические
варианты и основные характеристики инжекционных ППЛ.

К числу важнейших параметров и характеристик инжекционных ППЛ от носят
пороговый ток Iпор (плотность порогового тока Jпор), длину волны л и
полуширину спектра излучения ?л, энергию Е или мощность излучения Р,
длительность ф и частоту f следования импульсов, диаграмму
направленности (угол расходимости), модовый состав излучения, КПД, срок
службы, модуляционные характеристики и др.

Совершенствование технологии создания ППЛ позволило значительно снизить
пороговые токи при одновременном повышении дифференциального КПД здиф,
определяемого тангенсом угла наклона ватт-амперной характеристики. Так,
для типичного гомолазера
Jпорpicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c000000000005000000090200000000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-
105А/см2,
здифpicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c000000000005000000090200000000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%
(приводятся усредненные значения, поскольку Jпор и здиф зависят от
температуры, толщины активного слоя и уровня легирования). Однако уже
для первых образцов гетеролазеров с односторонним ограничением,
появившихся в 1969г. и содержащих один гетеропереход, удалось снизить
Jпор до величины порядка 103А/см2 и повысить здиф до 40%. Несмотря на
это, такие лазеры не способны работать в непрерывном режиме. При
комнатной температуре может быть реализован импульсный режим работы с РИ
= 10 – 30 Вт, f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 25 кГц,
фpicscalex1000100090000039d00000002001c000000000005000000090200000000050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 нс.

В том же году Ж.И. Алфёровым были созданы более эффективные ППЛ на
основе двойных гетероструктур с Jпор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 400 –
800 А/см2 и здиф > 55%, способные генерировать в непрерывном режиме при
комнатной температуре.

Современная технология позволяет создавать гетеролазеры с контролируемым
модовым составом излучения при Jпор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 100
А/см2, генерирующим в диапазоне длин волн от 0,3 до 32 мкм. Активный
слой изготавливают из легированных соответствующим образом трех – или
четырехкомпонентных полупроводниковых соединений, выращенных методом
газофазной, жидкофазной или молекулярно-лучевой эпитаксии на основе GaAs
– или GaP-подложки. Высокой эффективностью вследствие малого
рассогласования периодов кристаллических решеток отличаются
гетероструктуры типа GaAs/GaAlAs, InP/GalnAsP, InP/AlGaAsSb, CdTe/CdHgTe
и др.

picscalex124010009000003d61400000000b11400000000040000000301080005000000
0b0200000000050000000c02a900cc00030000001e000400000007010400b1140000410b
2000cc0007013d0100000000a800cb0000000000280000003d0100000701000001000100
00000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff00ffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffff8ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffff8ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffff8ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8fffedffffc3fffffffffffffffc0001f80000000
fffffffffffffff00007c00001007ffffffffff800000000000000ffffffffffff800000
000000003fffffffffffffe00000000000001ffffffffff8000000000000007fffffffff
ff800000000000001fffffffffffffe000000000000007fffffffff8000000000000001f
ffffffffff800000000001f00fffffffffffffe000000000000003fffffffff81fffffff
fffff807ffffffffff801ffffffffffc03ffffffffffffc7ffffffffffff01fffffffff8
1ffffffffffff801ffffffffff800ffffffffffcc0ffffffffffffc7ffffffffffff207f
fffffff81ffffffffffff980ffffffffff803ffffffffffce07fffffffffffc07fffffff
ffff383ffffffff81ffffffffffff9e03fffffffff900ffffffffffcf83fffffffffffc0
07ffffffffff3e0ffffffff83ffffffffffff9f81fffffffff9807fffffffffcfe0fffff
ffffffc401ffffffffff3f07fffffff83ffffffffffff9fe07ffffffff9d81fffffffffc
ff07ffffffffffc607ffffffffff3fc3fffffff81ffffffffffff9ff83ffffffff9cc07f
fffffffcffc1ffffffffffc601ffffffffff3fe0fffffff800fffffffffff9ffe0ffffff
ff9ff03ffffffffcffe07fffffffffc700ffffffffff3ff83ffffff8003ffffffffff9ff
f07fffffff80000f80000000fff03fffffffffc7b03fffffffff3ffc1ffffff8007fffff
fffff9fffc1fffffff800000000001003ffe0fffffffffc7981fffffffff3fff87fffff8
003ffffffffff9fffe0fffffff9fff01fffffffc0fff07ffffffffc7fe07ffffffff3fff
c3fffff8201ffffffffff9ffff83ffffff9fffc03ffffffcc3ffc1ffffffffc7ff03dfff
ffff3fffe0fffff83007fffffffff9ffffe0ffffff9fffe03ffffffcf1fff0ffffffffc0
004003ffffff3ffff87ffff83b01fffffffff9fffff07fffff9ffff80ffffffcf8fff87f
ffffffc0006001ffffff3ffffc3ffff8000007ff800001fffff81fffff9ffffe0ffffffc
fe3ffc1fffffffc7fff809ffffff3fffff0ffff8000003ff020000fffffe07ffff8fffff
000000007f0fff07ffffffc7fffc01ffff801fffff87fff83ff8080c7ffff83fffff83ff
ff800000000000003fc7ffc3ffffffc00002000000000fffffc1fff83ffe00003ffff987
ffffe0ffff87bff001ffff000ff0fff0ffffffe00003807fffff03fffff8fff83fff80ff
3ffff9e1fffff83fff8000000000000003fc3ff87fffffe3fffff07fffffb0fffffc3ff8
3fffe07f3ffff9f87ffffe0fff80000077ffd1fc00ff1ffc1fffffe7fffff83fffffbc7f
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ff801f1fffffc7f83ffffc003ffff9ff8fffffc1ff8fffffc1ffff00611ff3ffc3ffffe0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fe2000000003ffc0187ffff871800001fff801fe23c7f80e01f9fff18fe38061fffff03e
1f10f0f8ff1c001f001ffff80e3ffffe11e1fff8fffe3fff98f0fe038079fffc0fe3e038
fffff80f87847e38ffc7c3c7c3fffffe078fffff81f8fffe1fff9fffe47c7f81c039ffff
0fe3f80e3ffffe03e3e11f88fff0f8f1f0ffffff81e3ffffe1ff1fffcfffe7fff91f8fc0
7080ffff87e1ff01c7ffff8078fc07e0fffc3e3c7c7fffffe070fffff1ff8ffff3fff9ff
fc47c3f01e00ffff81e1ffc0f3ffffe01c3e03f0ffff1f1f3f1ffffff01c7ffff9ffe3ff
fcfffc7fff10f0fc0780ffff8c61ffe038fffff80f0f8078ffffc7cf8fcffffffc0f1fff
f9fff8fffe3fff9fffc01c7f01c0ffff8f03fff80e3ffffc03c7e218fffff1f1e3f3ffff
ff0387fff9fffe3fff8fffe7fff00a3fc070ffff8fc1fffe078fffff80f1f000fffffc7c
f8f8ffffff81c1fff9ffff9fffe7fff3fff807cfe038ffff8fe1ffff01e3ffffe03c7d20
fffffe3e3f3e3fffffe078fff1ffffe7fff9fffcffff03e3f800ffff8fe07fffc078ffff
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f80e1ffffe078fc0ffffffe3e7e7c7fffffc070ff9fffffc7fff3fff8ffff03c3f80ffff
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fffffffffe0fffffffffffff01fffc00fffffffffffff07fffffff0007fffffffc001fff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Рис.3.1

На рис.3.1. приведены наиболее распространенные конструкции инжекционных
ППЛ. Импульсные лазеры имеют обычно широкие контакты, плоский или
гофрированный активный слой (рис.3.1, а, б). Для большинства непрерывных
лазеров, работающих при комнатной температуре, характерна полосковая
геометрия с резонатором, образованным зеркальными сколами торцевых
поверхностей кристалла. Полосковый контакт (рис.3.1, в) обеспечивает
уменьшение ширины активного слоя W до величины 3-25 мкм и резкое
снижение порогового тока. На практике применяют различные методы
формирования полосковых структур – с использованием окисной изоляции
(рис.3.1, в), мезаструктур, создание высокоомных областей, окружающих
активный слой с боковых сторон, и др. При W < 10 мкм удается устранить
возникновение в пределах активного слоя нескольких областей с высокой
интенсивностью излучения (так называемых световых “шнуров”), которые
можно трактовать как поперечные моды. На рис.3.2. показана структура
таких мод при различной ширине активного слоя W. Видно, что при W = 10
мкм излучается одна мода, характеризуемая гауссовским распределением
интенсивности.

picscalex680100090000031e4d00000000f94c000000000400000003010800050000000
b0200000000050000000c021f01b001030000001e000400000007010400f94c0000410b2
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0000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000000ffffff0003fffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffc1fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff80fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe007
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8007ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0000001fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe0003ffffffff
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fffffffffffffffffff80003ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff7f3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
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fff1fffffff8000000001ffffffc3ff1ff000001ffe000ffe0000fe1ff1fffffffffffff
ffffffffff0ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe0fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffff0003ffff1fffffff8000000001ffffffc3ff1ff800003
fff803fff8007fe1ff1fffffffffffffffffffffff0ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe0fc
0010000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe001fffff1ffff
fff0000000001ffffffc3ff1ffc00007ffff9fffffcfffe1ff1fffffffffffffffffffff
ff0ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe0fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffbfffc07ffffff1fffffff8000000003ffffffc3ff1fff8003fffffffff
ffffffe1ff1fffffffffffffffffffffff0ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe0fc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff83fffffff0fffffff80000
00007ffffffc3ff1ffffcfffffffffffffffffe1ff1fffffffffffffffffffffff0ff1ff
ffffffffffffffffffff80fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffff9ffffffff8fffffffc00000000fffffffc3ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe1
ff1fffffffffffffffffffffff0ff0fffffffffe0ff00000000000fc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8ffffffff00000001ffff
fffc3ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe0ff1fffffffffffffffffffffff0ff0c01e000000
00000000000001fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffff8ffffffff80000003fffffffc3ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffe0ff1fffff
fffffffeff600000000ff8000000000000000000000003fc0010101fffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8fffffffff000000ffffffffc3ff1
ffffffffffffffffffffffe0ff0fff81fc00000000000000001ff80000000001f007ffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fff8fffffffffe00003ffffffffc3ff1ffffffffffffffffff800000ff00000000000000
00000000c03ffc3ffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8ffffffffff8003fffffffffc3ff1ffffff9f
f000000000000001ff000000000003ff1ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8ffff
ffffffffffffc0ffc0003ff0000000000000000000000003ff8007feffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffff8ffffff8000000000000000003ff000000000000001f0
07fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff8000000000000
000000000000fff00007ffefffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffff8000000000000000fff7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0400ffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff9ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff9
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1fc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffe7fffffffe1fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0f83fffffffe3fc0010101fffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffbffeffffffffe1
80701e1fffffe3fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffff1ffc7ffff3e18080300c0fe3ffe3fc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffbffdfffffffffffffffffffffff1ffc3fffe1c00000000007
c3ffe3fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff1ff8fffffffffffff
ffffffffff1ffe3fe3c1c0080e01800781ffe3fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff9ffffffff
ffffffffffffffe1ff8ffffffffffffffffffffffe3ffe3fc38180181e03808701ffc7fc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffff07fffffffffffffffffffffe3ff87ffffffffffffffffe3ff
fe3ffe3f8181081c3f03c1c701ffc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffcfff83fffffffffffffff
ffffffe3ffc7ffffffffffffc7ff81fffe3ffe1f81800c1f7f87e3c310ffc7fc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffff87ffe1fffffffffffffffffffffe3ffe3fffffffff3ff81ff00fffe3fff1f
81800e3fffffffc310ffc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffc0fffffffffffffffffffffe0ffff0fffffffffffffffffffffe3
ffe3ffffc1ffe0ff00fe007ffe3fff0f01800fffffffffc310ffc7fc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff807ffffffffffffffffff
ffc0ffff87ffffffffffffffffffffc3ffe1ffff80ff807e10fe3c3ffc3fff0f81800fff
ffffffe018ffc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffc01ffffffffffffffffffff83ffffc7ffffffffffffffffffffc3fff1ffff
00ff807c387c3c3ffc3fff8f00800fffffffffe018ffc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe07fffffffffffffffffff0fffff
c3fffffffffffff80fffffc3fff0fffe187f0c3c387c7e1ffe3fff8780800fffffffffe0
187fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffff81ffffffffffffffffffe1fffffe3ffffffe0ffffe007ffffc7fff8fffe3c3f1c3c
3c387e1ffe3fffc780841ffffffffff0187fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc07fffffffffffffffffc3fffffe1ffffff
803fff8003ffffc7fff8fffe3c3e1e1c3c387f0ffc3fffc780863ffffffffff01c7fc7fc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff03
fffffffffffffffff8fffffff1ffffff001fff03e0ffffc7fff87ffc3e3e1e1c3e387f0f
fc3fffc38087fffffffffff01c7fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff81fffffffffffffffff0fffffff0fffffe1e0fff0f
f07fffc7fffc7ffc3e1e1f1c3e187f0ffc3fffc38087fffffffffff81c3fc7fc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe0ffffffff
fffffffff1fffffff8fffffc3f87fe1ff87fffc7fffc7ffc7f1e3f187f007f87fc3fffe3
8047fffffffffff83c3fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffff03fffffffffffffffe3fffffff8fffffc7f87fe3ffc3fffc7
fffc3ffc7f0e3f007f80ff87fc3fffe38007fffffffffff83e3fc7fc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc1fffffffffffffff
e3fffffff87ffff87fc3fc3ffc3fff87fffe3ffc7f8c3f007f80ff87fc3fffe18007ffff
fffffffc3e1fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffe0fffffffffffffffc7fffffffc7ffff8ffc3fc3ffe1fff87fffe3ffc
7f803f80ffc1ffc7fc3fffe18407fffffffffffe7f1fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff87ffffffffffffff8fffffff
fc7ffff8ffe3f87fff1fff87fffe3ffc7fc07fc0fff7ffc3fc3fffe18407ffffffffffff
ff1fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffc3ffffffffffffff0ffffffffc3ffff1ffe1f8ffff0fff87fffe1ff87fe0fff3
ffffffc3fc3fffe18407ffffffffffffff0fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc1ffffffffffffff1ffffffffe3ffff1
fff0f0ffff8fff87ffff1ff87ffbffffffffffc3fc3fffe18407ffffffffffffff0fc7fc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
e1fffffffffffffe1ffffffffe3ffff1fff861ffff8fff8fffff1ff87fffffffffffffe3
fc3ffff1c607ffffffffffffff8fc7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0fffffffffffffe3ffffffffe1ffff1fff801ff
ff87ff8fffff0ff8ffffffffffffffe1fc3ffff1c707ffffffffffffff8fc7fc0010101f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff87fffff
fffffffc7fffffffff1ffff1fffc03ffff87ff8fffff0ff8ffffffffffffffe1fc3ffff0
c78fffffffffffffff87c7fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffc7ffffffffffffc7fffffffff1fffe3fffe07ffffc7ff8f
ffff8ff8ffffffffffffffe1fc7ffff0c7ffffffffffffffff8787fc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc3ffffffffffff8
ffffffffff1fffe3ffff9fffffc7ff8fffff8ff8ffffffffffffffe1fc7ffff0c7ffffff
ffffffffff8787fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffe1ffffffffffff8ffffffffff0fffe3ffffffffffc7ff8fffff8ff8
fffffffffffffff1fc7ffff0c3ffffffffffffffffc787fc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0ffffffffffff1ffffffff
ff8fffc3ffffffffffc3ff0fffff87f8fffffffffffffff1fc7ffff8c7ffffffffffffff
ffc787fc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffff0ffffffffffff1ffffffffff8fffc7ffffffffffc3ff0fffff87f8ffffffff
fffffff0fc7ffff8c7ffffffffffffffffc78ffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff87ffffffffffe3ffffffffff87ffc7
ffffffffffe3ff0fffffc7f8fffffffffffffff0fc7ffff843ffffffffffffffffc38ffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffc3ffffffffffc3ffffffffffc7ff87ffffffffffe3ff1fffffc7f0fffffffffffffff0
fc7ffff843ffffffffffffffffc38ffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc3ffffffffffc7ffffffffffc3ff8fffffffff
ffe1ff1fffffc3f0fffffffffffffff0fc7ffff843ffffffffffffffffe38ffc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe1ffff
ffffffc7ffffffffffc3ff8fffffffffffe1fe1fffffc3f1fffffffffffffff0f87ffffc
43ffffffffffffffffe10ffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffff0ffffffffff8fffffffffffe3ff0ffffffffffff1fe3f
ffffe3f1fffffffffffffff8787ffffc03ffffffffffffffffe10ffc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0ffffffffff8f
ffffffffffe1ff1ffffffffffff1fe3fffffe1f1fffffffffffffff8787ffffc03ffffff
ffffffffffe00ffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffff07fffffffff1fffffffffffe1fe1ffffffffffff1fc7fffffe1e1
fffffffffffffff830fffffc03fffffffffffffffff01ffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff87ffffffffc3fffffffff
fff0fc3ffffffffffff0f87fffffe1e3fffffffffffffffc00fffffe03ffffffffffffff
fff03ffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffff83ffffffffc3ffffffffffff0f87ffffffffffff0f0fffffff0c3ffffffff
fffffffe01fffffe07fffffffffffffffff87ffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc3ffffffff87ffffffffffff878ff
fffffffffff800fffffff807ffffffffffffffff03ffffff0ffffffffffffffffffefffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffe1ffffffff0fffffffffffffc00fffffffffffffc01fffffffc07ffffffffffffffff
cfffffffdffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0ffffffff0fffffffffffffc01ffffffffff
fffe07fffffffe0ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff0fff
ffffe1ffffffffffffff07ffffffffffffff1fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff87ffffffc3ffffffffffffffdfffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc3ffffff87ff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffe3ffffff0fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe1fffffe1fffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0000001fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffff0fffffc3fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff87ffff87fffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffc3ffff0ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0fffc1ffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe03
fe03ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff80000fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0001fffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffe0007fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0000001fffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc07ffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0000000fffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff7fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101f
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff3fffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffc0000101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffff99fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffd9ffffffefc3bff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffc18f87fb36f8307fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc19f009933f9f23fffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffff3ff30c991f8f31fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe3ff3a4c99fcf99fffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
f1ff3864c0fc01dfffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff9ff992640fe00cfffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101f
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffdff9c32
647f30c7ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffcffcc90327f0007ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffeffc480333f8603
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffe7fe0c0ffffffb3ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe7fffffffffff83ffffffff
ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
ffffffffff3fffffffffff07ffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffe0fffffffffffcfffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc
0010101fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fe0fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffff
fffffffffffffffffffffffffffffffc0010101040000002701ffff030000000000

Рис.3.2

Гетероструктура с канавкой, которую формируют перед выращиванием
эпитаксиальных слоев (рис.3.1, г), обеспечивает одномодовую генерацию.
Иногда толщину слоев гетероструктуры делают переменной, а сами слои
располагают наклонно, как, например, в ППЛ «террасного» типа (рис.3.1,
д). Минимальный по ширине пучок излучения характерен для ППЛ с
«зарощенной» мезаполосковой структурой (рис.3.1, е), с V-образной
структурой (рис.3.1, ж) и с поперечным p-n-переходом (рис.3.1, з).

Наилучшими характеристиками обладают инжекционные ППЛ с «зарощенной»
мезаполосковой гетероструктурой, в которых активная область имеет форму
полоски прямоугольного сечения площадью dW < 1 мкм2, погруженной в среду с меньшим показателем преломления и более широкой запрещенной зоной. Эффективная электрическая изоляция вне активной области и малый объем активной области позволяют снизить пороговые токи до нескольких миллиампер, а потребляемую электрическую мощность – до нескольких десятков милливатт. Такие ППЛ имеют достаточно высокий КПД, могут излучать в одномодовом и даже одночастотном режиме мощность до 5 мВт, обладают хорошими модуляционными характеристиками (fмод > 2 ГГц). Срок
их службы превышает 10 000 ч.

При необходимости увеличить мощность излучения используют ППЛ с
дополнительными волноводными слоями, называемыми BOG-Lasers (лазеры с
«большим» оптическим резонатором). Такие лазеры при длине резонатора 300
мкм, ширине 2-4 мкм и толщине активного слоя 0,1 мкм стабильно
генерируют в одномодовом режиме мощности более 10 мВт (с защитными
покрытиями на зеркалах до 30 мВт) при КПД выше 30%. Типичные значения
Jпор составляют 1,4-1,8 кА/см2, минимальный пороговый ток в непрерывном
режиме 9 мА.

В настоящее время ведутся работы по совершенствованию инжекционных ППЛ,
направленные на увеличение срока их службы, КПД, мощности излучения,
расширение диапазона длин волн генерируемого излучения, создание
перестраиваемых лазеров. Одна из наиболее актуальных задач, особенно для
непрерывных лазеров, – увеличение гарантийного срока службы до 100 000
ч, характерного для других элементов электронной техники. В связи с этим
тщательно исследуются механизмы деградации инжекционных ППЛ, связанные с
длительным протеканием электрического тока большой плотности и
“старением” полупроводникового материала.

В зависимости от характера проявления и скорости развития выделяют три
группы деградационных процессов: 1) катастрофическая деградация; 2)
образование дефектов темных линий; 3) медленная деградация.

При катастрофической деградации происходит разрушение зеркал резонатора
(Ркр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 1,5-106
Вт/см2), появление трещин или оплавлений вблизи активного слоя при
недостаточном теплоотводе и т.д. Эффективное средство борьбы с такими
процессами – улучшение качества контактов и теплоотвода, введение
технологических тренировок и отбраковок.

Дефекты темных линий представляют собой трехмерную сетку дислокаций,
которая формируется в процессе работы ППЛ и внедряется внутрь
резонатора. Развитие дефектов ускоряется под действием механических
напряжений. В области таких дефектов скорость безызлучательной
рекомбинации высока, следовательно, велики потери генерируемого
излучения, а это приводит к увеличению Iпор. Для уменьшения вероятности
образования дефектов темных линий необходимо использовать совершенные
эпитаксиальные структуры с низкой плотностью дислокаций и малыми
механическими напряжениями.

Если устранить причины, вызывающие катастрофическую деградацию из-за
дефектов темных линий, ППЛ могут непрерывно работать в течение многих
лет с относительно медленной деградацией свойств, обусловленной
миграцией неконтролируемых примесей в активную область и постепенным
увеличением там концентрации безызлучательных центров, ростом теплового
сопротивления, а также последовательного сопротивления слоев и т.д. При
этом наблюдается однозначная связь: чем меньше значение Iпор, тем выше
долговечность ППЛ.

Отметим одну особенность инжекционных ППЛ, которую необходимо учитывать
при их использовании, а именно: большую угловую расходимость излучения.
Она различна в плоскости активного слоя (иII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°) и в
перпендикулярном направлении (и?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-60°)
(рис.3.4). Другими словами, степень пространственной когерентности
инжекционных ППЛ невелика.

СПИСОК ЛИТЕРАТУРЫ

1. Технологические лазеры. Справочник: 2 том. Под ред.В.Г. Гонтарь, А.А.
Колпаков, М., – 1991г.

2. Н.М. Тугов, Б.А. Глебов. Полупроводниковые приборы. М., – 1990г.

3. А.Г. Смирнов. Квантовая электроника и оптоэлектроника. М., – 1987г.

4. В.В. Пасынков, Л.К. Чиркин. Полупроводниковые приборы. М., – 1978г.

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