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aenoue, eiua ea/anoaa, iiciaiiua a caiiie i?aeoeea naiaai iauaiey n
aeeaeieie.

Aieieci (io eao. anima – aeooa) – ia?aia ieoieiae/aneia o/aiea i aeooa.
Aieieci aeeth/ae a naay i?aaenoaaeaiea i ne?uoii ca eiie?aoiuie
aeaeeiuie aauaie niiia aeoo eae iniauo i?ec?aeia, eioi?ua iieeaeatho
/aeiaa/aneia oaei n iineaaeiei aeuoaieai. Yeaiaiou aieiecia
i?aaenoaaeaiu a ethaie ?aeeaee. Aai ?oaeeiaiou aeatho i naaa ciaoue a
iaeioi?uo nia?aiaiiuo ineoieiae/aneeo o/aieyo e ne?uaathony iiae “ss”
(eee “niciaiea”, eee “aeooa”), eioi?ia aini?eieiaao aia/aoeaiey,
?aciuoeyao, i?eieiaao ?aoaiey e i?eaiaeeo a aeaenoaea iuooeu.

A iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo o/aieyo oiai a?aiaie (iai?eia?, ciaiaieoiai
iaoaiaoeea e oeeinioa, /aiieiia Ieeiieeneeo ea? ii eoea/iiio aith
Ieoaai?a) aeooe i?aaenoaaeyeenue aannia?oiuie, aa/ii no?ainoaothueie ii
oaeai aeeaioiuo e ?anoaiee.

Iicaea ae?aaiea a?aee iiae “psycho” iiieiaee aeaeaeouaa ia/aei anao
aauae. Ei i?eiaaeeaaeeo o/aiea i anaiauae iaeooaae?iiinoe iaoa?ee –
aeeicieci (io a?a/. hyle – aauanoai e zoe – aeeciue): aanue ie? –
oieaa?noi, einiin – ecia/aeueii aeeaie, iaaeae?iiue niiniaiinoueth
iuouaoue, caiiieiaoue e aeaenoaiaaoue. A?aieoeu iaaeaeo aeeaui, iaaeeaui
e ineoe/aneei ia i?iaiaeeeenue. An? ?anniao?eaaeinue eae ii?iaeaeaiea
aaeeiie ia?ae/iie iaoa?ee (i?aiaoa?ee). Oae, ii iiaieth
ae?aaiaa?a/aneiai ioae?aoea Oaeana, iaaieo i?eoyaeaaao iaoaee, aeaiueia
i?eoyaeaaao ioae/eio, iioiio, /oi iaaieo, eae e aeaiueia, iaeaaeaao
aeooie. Aeeieci aia?aua “iinoaaee” aeooo (ineoeeo) iiae iauea caeiiu
anoanoaa. Yoei o/aieai ooaa?aeaeaeny iai?aeiaeiue e aeey nia?aiaiiie
iaoee iinooeao ia ecia/aeueiie aiaea/?iiinoe ineoe/aneeo yaeaiee a
e?oaiiai?io i?e?iaeu. A iniiaa aeeiciecia eaaeae i?eioeei iiiecia.

Aeaeueiaeoaa ?acaeoea aeeiecia naycaii n eiaiai Aa?aeeeoa,
?anniao?eaaaoaai oieaa?noi (einiin) eae aa/ii eciaiythueeny (aeeaie)
iaiiue, a aeooo eae aai ene?o. (“Iaoe oaea e aeooe oaeoo, eae ?o/uee”).
Ei aia?aua auea auneacaia iuneue i aiciiaeiii eciaiaiee, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii, e caeiiiia?iii ?acaeoee anaai nouaai, a oii /enea e
aeooe. ?acaeoea aeooe, ii Aa?aeeeoo, i?ienoiaeeo /a?ac naay: “Iiciae
naiiai naay”). Oeeinio o/ee: “Ii eaeei au aei?iaai ie o?e, ia iaeae?oue
a?aieoe aeooe, oae aeoaie a? Eiain”.

Oa?iei “Eiain”, aaaae?iiue Aa?aeeeoii, i?eiaiyaiue e iiiuia, aeey iaai
iaicia/ae Caeii, ii eioi?iio “an? oa/?o”, i?eaea?o anaeaineiio oiaeo
aauae nioeaiiiio ec i?ioeai?a/ee e eaoaeeeciia, aa?iiieth. Aa?aeeeo
n/eoae, /oi oiae aauae caaeneo io Caeiia, a ia io i?iecaiea aiaia. Ec-ca
o?oaeiinoae iiieiaiey aoi?eciia oeeinioa nia?aiaiieee iacuaaee Aa?aeeeoa
“o?iiui”.

Eaeay ?acaeoey a o/aiee Aa?aeeeoa “ia?aoea” a eaeath i?e/eiiinoe
Aeaiie?eoa. Ii Aeaiie?eoo, aeooa, oaei e iae?ieiniin ninoiyo ec aoiiia
iaiy; neo/aeiuie iai eaaeoony oieueei oa niauoey, i?e/eio eioi?uo iu ia
ciaai; niaeanii Eiaino iao aani?e/eiiuo yaeaiee, ana iie – iaioa?aoeiue
?acoeueoao nioaea?aiey aoiiia. Aiineaaenoaee i?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe
iacaaee aeaoa?ieieciii.

I?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe iicaieee Aeiiie?aoo, ae?oaeeaoaio n Aeaiie?eoii,
iino?ieoue o/aiea i oaiia?aiaioao. Ia?ooaiea caei?iauey Aeiiie?ao
niioiinee n aeenaaeainii ?acee/iuo “nieia”, i?enoonoaothueo a i?aaiecia.
Niioiioaiea yoeo i?iii?oeee Aeiiie?ao iacaae oaiia?aiaioii. Iacaaiey
/aou??o oaiia?aiaioia aeioee aei iaoeo aeiae: naiaaeienoe/aneee
(i?aiaeaaeaao e?iaue), oiea?e/aneee (i?aiaeaaeaao ae?eoay aeae/ue),
iaeaioiee/aneee (i?aiaeaaeaao /??iay aeae/ue), oeaaiaoe/aneee
(i?aiaeaaeaao neecue). Oae auea ioi?ieaia aeiioaca, niaeanii eioi?ie
aan/eneaiiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ethaeueie oiauaeenue a ianeieueei iaueo
ea?oei iiaaaeaiey. Oai naiui Aeiiie?ao iieiaeee ia/aei iao/iie
oeiieiaee, aac eioi?ie ia aicieeee au nia?aiaiiua o/aiey ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?acee/eyo iaaeaeo ethaeueie. Enoi/iee e i?e/eio
?acee/ee Aeiiie?ao eneae aioo?e i?aaiecia. Aeooaaiua ea/anoaa noaaeeenue
a caaeneiinoue io oaeaniuo.

Iaeiaei ia ana oeeiniou i?eieiaee eaeae Aa?aeeeoa e aai aicc?aiea ia
ie? eae iaiaiiue iioie, eaeae Aeaiie?eoa – ia ie? aoiiiuo aeo?ae. Iie
no?ieee naie eiioeaioeee. Oae, aoeineee oeeinio Aiaenaai? eneae ia/aei,
aeaaiaea?y eioi?iio ec aanii?yaei/iiai neiieaiey e aeaeaeaiey
iaeue/aeoeo /anoeoe aicieeatho oeaeinoiua aaue, ec oaina –
i?aaieciaaiiue ie?. Ii i?eciae oaeei ia/aeii ?acoi; io oiai, eaeiaa
noaiaiue aai i?aaenoaaeaiiinoe a ?acee/iuo oaeao, caaeneo eo
niaa?oainoai.

Eaeay i?aaiecaoeee (nenoaiiinoe) Aiaenaai?a, eaeay i?e/eiiinoe
Aeaiie?eoa e eaeay caeiiiia?iinoe Aa?aeeeoa, ioe?uoua aeaa n iieiaeiie
ouny/e eao iacaae, noaee ia ana a?aiaia iniiaie iiciaiey aeooaaiuo
yaeaiee.

Iiai?io io i?e?iaeu e /aeiaaeo aue niaa?o?i a?oiiie oeeinioia,
iacaaiiuo nioenoaie (“o/eoaeyie ioae?inoe”). Eo eioa?aniaaea ia i?e?iaea
n a? ia caaenyueie io /aeiaaea caeiiaie, a nai /aeiaae, eioi?iai iie
iacuaaee “ia?ie anao aauae”. A enoi?ee ineoieiae/aneiai iiciaiey aue
ioe?uo iiaue iauaeo – ioiioaiey iaaeaeo ethaeueie n eniieueciaaieai
n?aaenoa, aeieacuaathueo ethaia iieiaeaiea, iacaaeneii io aai
aeinoiaa?iinoe. A nayce n yoei aeaoaeueiiio ianoaeaeaieth auee
iiaeaa?aioou i?e?iu eiae/aneeo ?annoaeaeaiee, no?iaiea ?a/e, oa?aeoa?
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo neiaii, iuneueth e aini?eieiaaiuie i?aaeiaoaie. Ia
ia?aaeiee ieai aunooieee ?a/ue e iuoeaiea eae n?aaenoaa iaieioee?iaaiey
ethaeueie. Ec i?aaenoaaeaiee i aeooa en/acaee i?eciaee a? iiae/ei?iiinoe
no?iaei caeiiai e iaioa?aoeiui i?e/eiai, aeaenoaothuei a oece/aneie
i?e?iaea, oae eae ycue e iuneue eeoaiu iiaeiaiie iaioa?aoeiinoe. Iie
iieiu oneiaiinoae a caaeneiinoe io /aeiaa/aneeo eioa?ania e i?eno?anoee.

Aiineaaenoaee neiai “nioeno” noaea i?eiaiyoueny e ethaeyi, eioi?ua n
iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo oeiaie auaeatho iieiua aeieacaoaeuenoaa ca enoeiiua.

Aa?iooue i?aaenoaaeaieth i aeooa, i iuoeaiee i?i/iinoue e iaae?aeiinoue
no?aieeny Nie?ao. Oi?ioea Aa?aeeeoa “iiciae naiiai naay” icia/aea o
Nie?aoa ia?auaiea ia e anaeaineiio caeiio (Eiaino), a e aioo?aiiaio ie?o
noauaeoa, aai oaaaeaeaieyi e oeaiiinoyi, aai oiaieth aeaenoaiaaoue eae
?acoiiia nouanoai.

Nie?ao aue ianoa?ii onoiiai iauaiey, ieiia?ii aiaeeca, oeaeue eioi?iai
– n iiiiuueth neiaa iaiaaeeoue oi, /oi ne?uoi ca iie?iaii niciaiey.
Iiaeae?ay ii?aaeae?iiua aii?inu, Nie?ao iiiiaae niaanaaeieeo i?eioe?uoue
yoe iie?iau. Nicaeaiea oaoieee aeeaeiaa aiineaaenoaee noaee iacuaaoue
nie?aoe/aneei iaoiaeii. A aai iaoiaeeea oaeeenue eaeae, nua?aaoea /a?ac
iiiai noieaoee eeth/aaoth ?ieue a ineoieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaieyo
iuoeaiey.

Ai-ia?auo, ?aaioa iunee ecia/aeueii iineea oa?aeoa? aeeaeiaa.
Ai-aoi?uo, iia noaaeeanue a caaeneiinoue io caaea/, nicaeathueo
i?aiyonoaea a a? i?eau/iii oa/aiee. Eiaiii n oaeeie caaea/aie noaaeeenue
aii?inu, auioaeaeay niaanaaeieea ia?aoeoueny e ?aaioa nianoaaiiiai oia.
Iaa i?eciaea – aeeaeiaeci, i?aaeiieaaathuee, /oi iiciaiea ecia/aeueii
nioeeaeueii, e aeaoa?ieie?othuay oaiaeaioeey, nicaeaaaaiay caaea/ae, –
noaee a XX aaea iniiaie yenia?eiaioaeueiie ineoieiaeae iuoeaiey.

Aaieaeueiue o/aiee Nie?aoa Ieaoii noae ?iaeiia/aeueieeii oeeinioee
eaeaaeecia. Ii ooaa?aeee i?eioeei ia?ae/iinoe aa/iuo eaeae ii ioiioaieth
ei anaio i?aoiaeyuaio a oeaiiii oaeaniii ie?a. Niaeanii Ieaoiio, anyeia
ciaiea, anoue ainiiieiaiea; aeooa aniiieiaao (aeey yoiai o?aaothony
niaoeeaeueiua oneeey) oi, /oi ae aeiaaeinue nica?oeaoue aei naiaai
caiiiai ?iaeaeaiey. Ieaoii neoiae ni/eiaiey Aeaiie?eoa n oeaeueth eo
oie/oiaeaiey. Ii-yoiio io o/aiey Aeaiie?eoa inoaeenue eeoue o?aaiaiou, a
oi a?aiy eae aei ian aeioei /ooue ee ia iieiia nia?aiea ni/eiaiee
Ieaoiia.

Iie?aynue ia iiuo Nie?aoa, aeieacaaoaai ia?acaeaeueiinoue iuoeaiey e
iauaiey, Ieaoii naeaeae neaaeothuee oaa. Ii ioeaiee i?ioeann iuoeaiey,
ia iieo/eaoee au?aaeaiey a nie?aoiaii aiaoiai aeeaeiaa, eae aeeaeia
aioo?aiiee. (“Aeooa, ?acuoeyy, ie/aai eiiai ia aeaeaao, eae
?acaiaa?eaaao, ni?aoeaay naia naay, ioaa/ay, ooaa?aeaeay e io?eoeay”).
Oaiiiai, iienaiiue Ieaoiiii, ecaanoai nia?aiaiiie ineoieiaee eae
aioo?aiiyy ?a/ue, a i?ioeann a? ii?iaeaeaiey ec ?a/e aiaoiae
(nioeeaeueiie) iieo/ee iacaaiea “eioa?ei?ecaoeey” (io eao. internus –
aioo?aiiee). Aeaeaa Ieaoii iiiuoaeny auaeaeeoue e ?aca?aie/eoue a aeooa
?acee/iua /anoe e ooieoeee. Eo iiyniye ieaoiiianeee ieo i aicieoea,
i?aayuai eieanieoeae, a eioi?oth ai?yaeaiu aeaa eiiy: aeeeee, ?aoueeny
ec oi?yaee, e ii?iaeenoue, iiaeaeathueeny oi?aaeaieth. Aicieoea
neiaieece?oao ?acoiioth /anoue aeooe, eiie – aeaa oeia iioeaia: iecoea e
aunoea. ?acoi, i?ecaaiiue niaeaniaaoue yoe aeaa iioeaa, eniuouaaao,
niaeanii Ieaoiio, aieueoea o?oaeiinoe ec-ca

ianiaianoeiinoe ieciaiiuo e aeaai?iaeiuo aea/aiee. Oae a noa?o eco/aiey
aeooe aaiaeeeny aniaeo eiioeeeoa iioeaia, eiathueo i?aanoaaiioth
oeaiiinoue, e ?ieue ?acoia a aai i?aiaeieaiee e eioaa?aoeee iiaaaeaiey.
*a?ac ianeieueei noieaoee eaeay ee/iinoe, ?acaee?aaiie eiioeeeoaie,
iaeea?o a ineoiaiaeeca C.O?aeaea.

Ciaiea i aeooa ?inei a caaeneiinoe io o?iaiy ciaiee i aiaoiae i?e?iaea,
n iaeiie noi?iiu, e io iauaiey n oeaiiinoyie eoeueoo?u – n ae?oaie. Ie
i?e?iaea, ie eoeueoo?a naie ii naaa ia ia?acotho iaeanoue ineoe/aneiai.
Iaeiaei aa iao aac acaeiiaeaenoaey n ieie. Nioenou e Nie?ao a
iauyniaieyo aeooe i?eoee e iiieiaieth a? aeayoaeueiinoe eae oaiiiaia
eoeueoo?u. Eai aoiaeyuea a ninoaa aeooe aano?aeoiua iiiyoey e
i?aanoaaiiua eaeaaeu iaauaiaeeiu ec aauanoaa i?e?iaeu. Iie ii?iaeaeaiey
aeooiaiie eoeueoo?u. I?e yoii i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi aeooa caiineony a
i?aaieci ecaia.

?aaioa ii iino?iaieth i?aaeiaoa ineoieiaee i?eiaaeeaaeae A?enoioaeth,
ae?aaiaa?a/aneiio oeeinioo e anoanoaieniuoaoaeth, aeeaoaio a IV aaea aei
i.y., ioe?uaoaio iiaoth yiioo a iiieiaiee aeooe eae i?aaeiaoa
ineoieiae/aneiai ciaiey. Ia oece/aneea oaea e ia aanoaeaniua eaeae noaee
aeey iaai enoi/ieeii ciaiey, a i?aaieci, aaea oaeaniia e aeooiaiia
ia?acotho ia?acaeaeueioth oeaeinoiinoue. Aeooa, ii A?enoioaeth, yoi ia
naiinoiyoaeueiay nouiinoue, a oi?ia, niinia i?aaiecaoeee aeeaiai oaea.
“I?aaeeueii aeoiatho oa, – aiai?ee A?enoioaeue, – eiio i?aaenoaaeyaony,
/oi aeooa ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac oaea e ia yaeyaony oaeii”.
Ineoieiae/aneia o/aiea A?enoioaey no?ieeinue ia iaiauaiee
iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo oaeoia. Ii yoi iaiauaiea i?eaaei e i?aia?aciaaieth
aeaaiuo i?eioeeiia ineoieiaee: i?aaiecaoeee (nenoaiiinoe), ?acaeoey e
i?e/eiiinoe.

Ii A?enoioaeth oaea naii neiai “i?aaieci” neaaeoao ?anniao?eaaoue a
nayce n ?iaenoaaiiui neiaii “i?aaiecaoeey”, eioi?ia eiaao cia/aiea
“i?iaeoiaiiia ono?ienoai”, eioi?ia iiae/eiyao naaa naie /anoe aeey
?aoaiey eaeie-eeai caaea/e; ono?ienoai yoiai oeaeiai e aai ?aaioa
(ooieoeey) ia?acaeaeeiu; aeooa i?aaiecia – yoi aai ooieoeey,
aeayoaeueiinoue. O?aeooy i?aaieci eae nenoaio, A?enoioaeue auaeaeye a
iae ?acee/iua o?iaie niiniaiinoae e aeayoaeueiinoe. Yoi iicaieeei
iiae?acaeaeyoue aiciiaeiinoe i?aaiecia (caeiaeaiiua a i?i
ineoieiae/aneea ?ano?nu) e eo ?aaeecaoeeth ia aeaea. I?e yoii
iaia/aeanue ea?a?oey niiniaiinoae – ooieoeee aeooe: a) aaaaoaoeaiay
(eiaaony o aeeaioiuo, ?anoaiee e /aeiaaea); a) /oanoaaiii-aeaeaaoaeueiay
(eiaaony o aeeaioiuo e o /aeiaaea); a) ?acoiiay (i?enouay oieueei
/aeiaaeo). Ooieoeee aeooe – o?iaie a? ?acaeoey, aaea ec iecoae e ia a?
iniiaa aicieeaao ooieoeey aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy: aneaae ca aaaaoaoeaiie
oi?ie?oaony niiniaiinoue iuouaoue, ec eioi?ie ?acaeaaaony niiniaiinoue
iuneeoue. A ioaeaeueiii /aeiaaea i?e aai i?aa?auaiee ec ieaaeaioea a
c?aeia nouanoai iiaoi?ythony oa nooiaie, eioi?ua i?io?e ca naith
enoi?eth aanue i?aaie/aneee ie?. Aiineaaenoaee yoi auei iacaaii
aeiaaiaoe/aneei caeiiii.

Iauyniyy caeiiiia?iinoe ?acaeoey oa?aeoa?a, A?enoioaeue ooaa?aeaeae, /oi
/aeiaae noaiiaeony oai, /oi ii anoue, niaa?oay oa eee eiua iinooiee.
Iuneue i oi?ie?iaaiee oa?aeoa?a a ?aaeueiuo iinooieao, eioi?ua o ethaeae
anaaaea i?aaeiieaaatho i?aanoaaiiia ioiioaiea e iei, noaaeei ineoe/aneia
?acaeoea /aeiaaea a i?e/eiioth, caeiiiia?ioth caaeneiinoue io aai
aeayoaeueiinoe.

?ane?uaay i?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe, A?enoioaeue iieacae, /oi “i?e?iaea
ie/aai ia aeaeaao iai?anii”; “ioaeii aeaeaoue oi, ?aaee /aai niaa?oaaony
aeaenoaea”. Ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi eiia/iue ?acoeueoao i?ioeanna (oeaeue)
ca?aiaa aicaeaenoaoao ia aai oiae; ineoe/aneay aeeciue a aeaiiue iiiaio
caaeneo ia oieueei io i?ioeiai, ii e aeaeaaiiai aoaeouaai.

A?enoioaey ii i?aao neaaeoao n/eoaoue iooeii ineoieiaee eae iaoee. Aai
?aaioa “I aeooa” – ia?aue eo?n iauae ineoieiaee, aaea ii eceiaeee
enoi?eth aii?ina, iiaiey naieo i?aaeoanoaaiieeia, iauyniee ioiioaiea e
iei, a caoai, eniieuecoy eo aeinoeaeaiey e i?in/?ou, i?aaeeiaeee naie
?aoaiey.

Ineoieiae/aneay iuneue yiioe yeeeiecia enoi?e/anee naycaia n
aicieeiiaaieai e iineaaeothuei auno?ui ?aniaaeii e?oiiaeoae ie?iaie
iiia?oee (IV aae aei i.y.) iaeaaeiineiai oea?y Aeaenaiae?a. Aicieeaao
neioac yeaiaioia eoeueoo? A?aoeee e no?ai Aeeaeiaai Ainoiea, oa?aeoa?iue
aeey eieiieaeueiie aea?aeaau. Eciaiyaony iieiaeaiea ee/iinoe a iauanoaa.
Naiaiaeiay ee/iinoue a?aea oo?a/eaaea nayce ni naiei ?iaeiui ai?iaeii,
aai noaaeeueiie nioeeaeueiie n?aaeie. Ii ieacuaaeny ia?aae
eeoeii

iai?aaeneacoaiuo ia?aiai, aea?iaaiiuo naiaiaeie auai?a. Ni an? aieueoae
ino?ioie ii

iuouae cuaeinoue naiaai nouanoaiaaiey a eciaieaoainy “naiaiaeiii” ie?a.
Yoe naeaeae a naiiaini?eyoee ee/iinoe iaeiaeeee ioia/aoie ia
i?aaenoaaeaiey i aeooaaiie aeecie. Aa?a a eioaeeaeooaeueiua aeinoeaeaiey
i?aaeiae yiioe, a iiaouanoai ?acoia ia/aee noaaeony iiae niiiaiea.
Aicieeaao neaioeoeeci, aicaea?aeaiea io noaeaeaiee, eanathueony
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, ii i?e/eia eo iaaeieacoaiinoe, ioiineoaeueiinoe,
caaeneiinoe io iau/aaa e o.i. Ioeac io iieneia enoeiu iicaieye ia?anoe
aeooaaiue iieie, aeinoe/ue ninoiyiey aoa?aenee (io a?a/aneiai neiaa,
icia/aaoaai ionoonoaea aieiaiee). Iiae ioae?inoueth iiieiaeinue
io?aoaiea io iio?ynaiee aiaoiaai ie?a, iiiuoea nio?aieoue naith
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue. Ethaee eniuouaaee iio?aaiinoue a oii, /oiau
onoiyoue ia?aae i?aa?aoiinoyie aeecie n a? ae?aiaoe/aneeie iiai?ioaie,
eeoathueie aeooaaiiai ?aaiiaaney.

Noieee (“noiy” – ii?oee a Aoeineeo o?aiao) iauyaeee a?aaeiuie ethaua
aooaeou, oniao?eaay a ieo ii?/o ?acoia. Ii eo iiaieth oaeiaieuenoaea e
no?aaeaiea – eiaeiua noaeaeaiey i ianoiyuai, aeaeaiea e no?ao – eiaeiua
noaeaeaiey i aoaeothuai. Oieueei ?acoi, naiaiaeiue io ethauo
yiioeeiiaeueiuo iio?ynaiee, niiniaai i?aaeeueii ?oeiaiaeeoue
iiaaaeaieai. Eiaiii yoi iicaieyao /aeiaaeo auiieiyoue nai?
i?aaeiacia/aiea, naie aeiea.

N yoe/aneie i?eaioaoeee ia iienee n/anouey e eneonoaa aeeoue, ii ia
ae?oaeo einiieiae/aneeo ia/aeao neiaeeeanue oeiea aaciyoaaeiinoe aeooa
Yieeo?a, eioi?ue ioio?e io io aa?nee Aeaiie?eoa i “ae?noeie”
i?e/eiiinoe, oea?yuae ai an?i, /oi niaa?oaaony a ie?a (e, noaei auoue, a
aeooa). Yieeo? aeiioneae naiii?iecaieueiinoue, niiioaiiinoue eciaiaiee,
eo neo/aeiue oa?aeoa?. Caia/aoeaa iuouaiea iai?aaeneacoaiinoe oiai, /oi
iiaeao i?iecieoe n /aeiaaeii a iioiea niauoee, aeaeathueo nouanoaiaaiea
iai?i/iui, yieeo?aeoeu caeeaaeuaaee a i?e?iaeo aauae aiciiaeiinoue
naiii?iecaieueiuo ioeeiiaiee e oai naiui iai?aaeneacoaiinoue iinooieia,
naiaiaeo auai?a. Iie iiae/??eeaaee eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeeth ee/iinoe eae
aaee/eiu, niiniaiie aeaenoaiaaoue naiinoiyoaeueii, ecaaaeaoenue io
no?aoa ia?aae oaioiaaiiui nauoa. “Nia?oue ia eiaao e iai ieeaeiai
ioiioaiey; eiaaea iu anoue, oi nia?oe au? iao, eiaaea aea nia?oue
ianooiaao, oi ian oaea iao”. Eneonnoai aeeoue a aiaeiai?ioa niauoee
naycaii n ecaaaeaieai io no?aoia ia?aae caa?iaiui iaeacaieai e
iioonoi?iiieie neeaie, eai a ie?a iao ie/aai, e?iia aoiiia e ionoiou.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n iino?iaieyie yoeo iao/iuo oeie i?iaiaeeeenue aaaeiua
enneaaeiaaiey a iaaeeei-aeieiae/aneeo iaeanoyo ciaiey. A?a/e
Aeaenaiae?eeneiai iao/iiai oeaio?a Aa?ioee e Y?aceno?ao onoaiiaeee
aiaoiii-oeceieiae/aneea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo /oanoaeoaeueiuie ia?aaie,
eaeoueie io i?aaiia /oanoa (aeaca, ooe, eiaea e ae?.) e iicao e
aeaeaaoaeueiuie aieieiaie, eaeoueie io iicaa e iuooeai. Ioe?uoea auei
caauoi, ii /a?ac aeaa n eeoiei ouny/e eao aiiaue onoaiiaeaii e eaaei a
iniiao aaaeiaeoaai aeey ineoieiaee o/aiey i ?aoeaenao.

Iicaea ae?aaia?eineee a?a/ Aaeai (II aae i.y.) a o?oaea “I /anoyo
/aeiaa/aneiai oaea), iienae caaeneiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia io ia?aiie nenoaiu. A oa a?aiaia cai?auaeenue
aiaoiie/aneea enneaaeiaaiey, ii Aaeai, a?a/othuee aeaaeeaoi?ia,
iaaethaeaaoee ioe?uoua ?aiu aieiaiiai iicaa, n/eoae aai i?iecaiaeeoaeai
e o?aieoaeai ?acoia. Aaeai ?acaeaae, aneaae ca Aeiiie?aoii, o/aiea i
oaiia?aiaioao. Ii ooaa?aeaeae, /oi ia?ae/iuie i?e aooaeoao yaeythony
eciaiaiea a i?aaiecia (“eeiaiea e?iae”), noauaeoeaiua, aeooaaiua
ia?aaeeaaiey (iai?eia?, aiaa), aoi?e/iu.

Aac yiie?e/aneie oeaie ineoieiae/aneie iunee aioe/iinoe ia iiaee
iiyaeoueny oai?aoe/aneea oniaoe, i?eaaaeoea anoanoaiciaiea e nia?aiaiiie
ineoieiaee. Ae?aaiea a?aee auaeaeioee eaeath ia ii?aaeaeythuae
caaeneiinoe aeooaaiuo i?iyaeaiee io iauaai no?iy aauae, eo oece/aneie
i?e?iaeu (i?iaeaia ineoe/aneiai a iaoa?eaeueiii ie?a). Ai-aoi?uo,
ii?aaeaeeee ineoeeo eae oi?io aeecie (ineoiaeieiae/aneay i?iaeaia).
A-o?aoueeo, iinoaaeee aeooaaioth aeayoaeueiinoue a caaeneiinoue io oi?i,
eioi?ua nicaeathony ia i?e?iaeie, a /aeiaa/aneie eoeueoo?ie
(ineoiaiinoe/aneay i?iaeaia). Oaeei ia?acii auee noi?ioee?iaaiu
i?iaeaiu, aaeaie iai?aaeyaoea ?acaeoea iaoee i /aeiaaea.

Aianoa n oai, aaaenoaey, eioi?ua ia?aaeeaaee ia?iaeu Ainoiea a
aeanoieeo aieiao

n Aaeeeei ?eiii, a caoai iiae aai aeaaeu/anoaii, niinianoaiaaee
?acaeoeth eaeaaeenoe/aneeo o/aiee i aeooa, eioi?ua iiaeaioiaeee
aicc?aiey, anneieee?iaaiiua iicaea o?enoeaineie ?aeeaeae. E yoei o/aieyi
ioiinyony, iai?eia?, acaeyaeu Oeeiia (I aae i.y.), /oi oaei yoi i?ao,
eioi?ue iieo/aao aeeciue io aeuoaiey aiaeanoaa. Yoi aeuoaiea e anoue
“iiaaia”, i eioi?ie iu aiai?eee auoa.

ENOI?Ess ?ACAEOEss INEOIEIAE*ANEIE IUNEE

A YIIOO OAIAeAEECIA E A IA?EIAe AIC?IAEAeAIEss

Iiaaaeeaoaa a Aa?iia O?enoeainoai i?eaianei aieinoaaiioth iaoa?ieiinoue
ei anai “ycu/aneei” ciaieyi. A IV aaea aue oie/oiaeai iao/iue oeaio? a
Aeaenaiae?ee, a ia/aea VI aaea cae?uaaeanue Aoeineay oeiea. O?enoeainoai
eoeueoeae?iaaei iai?eyoea anyeiai ciaiey, iniiaaiiiai ia iiuoa,
a?aoiaiinoue iiiuoee iiiyoue ono?ienoai e i?aaeiacia/aiea /aeiaa/aneie
aeooe, ioee/iia io aeaeaeneiai iiieiaiey. Anoanoaaiii-iao/iia
enneaaeiaaiea i?e?iaeu i?einoaiiaeeinue. A eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeecie
Aa?iiu iinoaiaiii aioea?eeanue noieanoeea, eioi?ay naiaeeeanue e
?aoeeiiaeueiiio iainiiaaieth o?enoeaineiai aa?io/aiey. Iaeiieaiea ciaiee
i i?e?iaea i?ienoiaeeei a iaae?ao a?aaiycu/iie eoeueoo?u,
i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia naeeaeaiea oeeinioneiai iuoeaiey n yiie?e/aneei
iiuoii.

A VII aaea ia ooiaeaiaioa eneaia i?iecioei iauaaeeiaiea a?aaneeo
ieai?i. Anei?a a?aaaie auee iiei?aiu ia?iaeu Ainoiea, iaeaaeaaoea
ciaieyie ae?aaieo eoeueoo? (yeeeiu, ia?iaeu Eiaeee e ae?.). Aicieeei
a?aaiycu/iia ainoaea?noai Oaeeoao. Ni/eiaiey Ieaoiia e A?enoioaey
naeeaaeenue a Aa?iia. Ii ia Ainoiea ia?aaiaeeeenue ia a?aaneee ycue,
ia?aienuaaeenue e ?ani?ino?aiyeenue – io Ie?aiaeneiai iieoino?iaa aei
N?aaeiae Acee. Iiyaeyeny iiuiue eoeueoo?ii-iao/iue no?ie, a eioi?ii
i?iyaeeenue e?oiiaeoea oiu. N?aaee ieo iniai neaaeoao auaeaeeoue
n?aaeiaaceaoneiai a?a/a XI aaea Aao Aee Eai Neio, ecaanoiiai a Aa?iia
eae Aaeoeaiia.

Eai Neia aue iaeiei ec ia?auo enneaaeiaaoaeae a iaeanoe aic?anoiie
ineoieiaee. Ii eco/ae naycue iaaeaeo oece/anei ?acaeoeai i?aaiecia e aai
ineoieiae/aneeie iniaaiiinoyie a ?acee/iua aic?anoiua ia?eiaeu. I?e yoii
aaaeiia cia/aiea ei i?eaeaaaeinue ?acaeoeth oai?ee ainieoaiey,
ii?aaeaeythuaai aicaeaenoaea ineoe/aneiai ninoiyiey i?aaiecia ia aai
no?oeoo?o. Ii iiaieth Aaeoeaiiu, ac?ineua, aucuaay o aeaoae oa eee eiua
aooaeou, eciaiythuea oa/aiea oeceieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, oi?ie?otho eo
iaoo?o. Eaeath i acaeiinayce ineoe/aneiai e oeceieiae/aneiai – ia
oieueei caaeneiinoue ineoeee io oaeaniuo ninoiyiee, ii e a? niiniaiinoue
(i?e ineoe/aneeo o?aaiao, aeayoaeueiinoe aiia?aaeaiey) aeeyoue ia ieo –
ii ?ac?aaaouaae, enoiaey ec naiaai iaoe?iiai iaaeeoeeineiai iiuoa a
iaeanoe ineoioeceieiaee yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee.

A yoi a?aiy a aa?iiaeneie noieanoeea noaee aaeaioe?iaaoueny iaeioi?ua
iieiaeaiey aioe/iiai anoanoaiciaiey, i?aaeaea anaai – eioaeeaeooaeueiiai
ianeaaeey A?enoioaey. Iie iaeaieaa oaaaeeoaeueii ?ane?uou a o/aiee Oiiu
Aeaeineiai (1225-1274), eioi?ia auei eaiiiece?iaaii eae enoeiii
eaoiee/aneay oeeinioey (e ineoieiaey). Yoi o/aiea iieo/eei iacaaiea
oiiecia (ianeieueei iiaea?iece?iaaiiia a iaoe aeie – iaioiiecia). Oiia
Aeaeineee ?ani?ino?aiee ea?a?oe/aneee oaaeii ia iienaiea aeooaaiie
aeecie: eaaeaeia yaeaiea eiaao nai? ianoi; a nooiai/aoii ?yaeo
?aniieiaeaiu aeooe (?anoeoaeueiay, aeeaioiay, /aeiaa/aneay); aioo?e
naiie aeooe ea?a?oe/anee ?aniieaaathony niiniaiinoe e eo i?iaeoeou
(iuouaiea, i?aaenoaaeaiea,

iiiyoea).

Eaeaieiae ia?aoiaeiiai ia?eiaea io oaiaeaeueiie eoeueoo?u e ao?aeoaciie
– yiioe Aic?iaeaeaiey n/eoaee aeaaiie caaea/ae aic?iaeaeaiea aioe/iuo
oeaiiinoae.

Iaeei ec oeoaiia yoiai ia?eiaea Eaiia?aei aea Aei/e (XV – XVIa.),
n/eoae, /oi /aeiaae iiaeao aiieiuaoue naie aeooiaiua neeu a ?aaeueiua
oeaiiinoe, i?aia?aciauaaoue i?e?iaeo naiei oai?/anoaii. Eniaineee a?a/
O.Aeaan a eieaa “I aeooa e aeecie” ienae, /oi i?e?iaea /aeiaaea ei
iicia?ony ioo?i iaaethaeaiey e iiuoii; ia i?e?iaeo ?aa?iea iiaeii
aeeyoue, anee i?aaeeueii aai ainieouaaoue. Ae?oaie eniaineee a?a/,
O.Oa?oa, a

eieaa “Enneaaeiaaiea niiniaiinoae e iaoeai” aia?aua a enoi?ee ineoieiaee
iinoaaee caaea/o eco/eoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua ?acee/ey iaaeaeo ethaeueie n
oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey eo i?eaiaeiinoe e ?acee/iui i?ioanneyi.

?ACAEOEA INEOIEIAE*ANEIE IUNEE A XVII AAEA

E A YIIOO I?INAAUAIEss (XVIII AAE)

N ooaa?aeaeaieai i?inouo oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa a iauanoaaiiii
i?iecaiaenoaa i?eioeei eo aeaenoaey an? aieueoa i?eaeaeae iao/ioth
iuneue, aeey iauyniaiey ii eo ia?aco e iiaeiaeth ooieoeee i?aaiecia.
Ia?aui aieueoei aeinoeaeaieai a yoii aniaeoa noaei ioe?uoea Aa?aaai
nenoaiu e?iaiia?auaiey, a eioi?ie na?aeoea i?aaenoaaeyeinue naiaai ?iaea
iiiiie, ia?aea/eaathuae aeeaeeinoue, aeey /aai ia o?aaoaony o/anoey
aeooe.

Iiaue iaa?inie ineoieiae/aneie oai?ee, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia iauyniaiea
i?eioeeiia Aaeeeay e iiaie iaoaieee Iuethoiia, i?eiaaeeaaeae
o?aioeocneiio anoanoaieniuoaoaeth ?aia Aeaea?oo (1596 – 1650aa.). Ii
i?aaenoaaee oai?aoe/aneoth iiaeaeue i?aaiecia eae iaoaie/anee
?aaioathuaai aaoiiaoa. I?e oaeii iiieiaiee aeeaia oaei, eioi?ia ?aiaa
?anniao?eaaeinue eae oi?aaeyaiia aeooie, inaiaiaeaeaeinue io a? aeeyiey
e aiaoaoaeuenoaa; ooieoeee “iaoeiu oaea”, e eioi?ui ioiinyony
“aini?eyoea, caia/aoeaiea eaeae, oaea?aeaiea eaeae a iaiyoe, aioo?aiiea
no?aieaiey … niaa?oathony a yoie iaoeia eae aeaeaeaiey /ania”.

Iicaeiaa Aeaea?o aa?e iiiyoea i ?aoeaena, noaaoaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiui
aeey ineoieiaee. Anee Aa?aae “ono?aiee” aeooo ec ?ac?yaea ?aaoeyoi?ia
aioo?aiieo i?aaiia, oi Aeaea?o “iieii/ee” n iae ia o?iaia oeaeinoiiai
i?aaiecia. Noaia ?aoeaena naiaeeeanue e neaaeothuaio. Aiaoiee eiioeuen
i?eaiaeeo a aeaeaeaiea e?aeea aicaeooiia?aciua /anoeoeu, “aeeaioiua
aeooe”, caiineiua a iica ii “o?oaeai”, ec eioi?uo neeaaeuaaaony
ia?eoa?e/aneay ia?aiay nenoaia, ioooaea “aeeaioiua aeooe” io?aaeathony e
iuooeai. Noaia Aeaea?oa iauyniea aeaeaeouoth oaeii neeo, ioe?uea
?aoeaeoi?ioth i?e?iaeo iiaaaeaiey.

Iaeii ec aaaeiaeoeo aeey ineoieiaee ni/eiaiee Aeaea?oa iacuaaaony
“No?anoe aeooe”. A i?i o/?iue ia oieueei “eeoee” aeooo oea?noaaiiie ?iee
ai Anaeaiiie, ii e “aica?e” a noaiaiue noanoaioeee, ?aaiii?aaiie ae?oaei
noanoaioeeyi i?e?iaeu. I?iecio?e iiai?io a iiiyoee i aeooa. I?aaeiaoii
ineoieiaee noaei niciaiea. Iieaaay, /oi iaoeia oaea e caiyoia
nianoaaiiuie iuneyie, eaeayie e aeaeaieyie niciaiea – yoi aeaa
iacaaeneiua ae?oa io ae?oaa nouiinoe (noanoaioeee), Aeaea?o noieeioeny n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iauynieoue, eae aea iie ninouanoaotho a /aeiaaea.
Iauyniaiea, eioi?ia ii i?aaeeiaeee, auei iacaaii ineoioece/aneei
acaeiiaeaenoaeai. Iii ninoiyei a neaaeothuai: oaei aeeyao ia aeooo,
i?iaoaeaeay a iae no?anoe a aeaea /oanoaaiiuo aini?eyoee, yiioeee e o.i.
Aeooa, iaeaaeay iuoeaieai e aieae, aicaeaenoaoao ia oaei, iiioaeaeay aai
?aaioaoue e eciaiyoue naie oiae. I?aai, aaea yoe aeaa ianiaianoeiua
noanoaioeee iauathony, – iaeia ec aeae?c aioo?aiiae nae?aoeee –
“oeoeiaeaeiay” (yieoec).

Aii?in i acaeiiaeaenoaee aeooe e oaea iiaeioee ia noieaoey
eioaeeaeooaeueioth yia?aeth iiiaeanoaa oiia. Inaiaiaeea oaei io aeooe,
Aeaea?o “inaiaiaeee” e aeooo (ineoeeo) io oaea; oaei iiaeao oieueei
aeaeaaoueny, aeooa – oieueei iuneeoue; i?eioeei ?aaiou oaea – ?aoeaen
(o.a. iica io?aaeaao aiaoiea aicaeaenoaey); i?eioeei ?aaiou aeooe –
?aoeaeney (io eao. – “ia?auaiea iacaae”, o.a. niciaiea io?aaeaao
nianoaaiiua iunee, eaeae, iuouaiey).

Aeaea?o nicaeae iiaoth oi?io aeoaeecia a aeaea ioiioaiey aeooe e oaea,
?acaeaeee /oanoaa ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: ei?aiyueany a aeecie i?aaiecia e
/enoi eioaeeaeooaeueiua. A nai?i iineaaeiai ni/eiaiee – ienueia e
oaaaeneie ei?ieaaa O?enoeia – ii iauyniye nouiinoue ethaae eae /oanoaa,
eiathuaai aeaa oi?iu – oaeanioth no?anoue aac ethaae e
eioaeeaeooaeueioth ethaiaue aac no?anoe. Ii aai iiaieth, i?e/eiiiio
iauyniaieth iiaeaea?ony oieueei ia?aay, iineieueeo iia caaeneo io
i?aaiecia e aeieiae/aneie iaoaieee; aoi?oth iiaeii oieueei iiiyoue e
iienaoue. Aeaea?o iieaaae, /oi iaoea eae iiciaiea i?e/ei yaeaiee
aanneeueia ia?aae aunoeie e iaeaieaa cia/eiuie i?iyaeaieyie ineoe/aneie
aeecie ee/iinoe. ?acoeueoaoii aai iiaeiaiuo ?annoaeaeaiee

noaea eiioeaioeey “aeaoo ineoieiaee” – iauynieoaeueiie, aiiaee?othuae e
i?e/eiai, nii?yae?iiui n ooieoeeyie i?aaiecia, e iienaoaeueiie,
ninoiyuae a oii, /oi oieueei oaei iu iauyniyai, oiaaea eae aeooo –
iiieiaai.

Iiiuoee ii?iaa?aiooue aeoaeeci Aeaea?oa, ooaa?aeeoue aaeeinoai
ie?icaeaiey, iieii/eoue n ?ac?uaii oaeaniiai e aeooiaiiai, i?e?iaeu e
niciaiey, i?aaei?eiye oeaeue ?yae aaeeeeo iuneeoaeae XVII aaea. Iaeiei
ec aue aieeaiaeneee oeeinio Aa?oo (Aaiaaeeeo) Nieiica (1632-1677). Ii
o/ee, /oi eiaaony aaeeiay aa/iay noanoaioeey – Aia, eee I?e?iaea, – n
aaneiia/iui iiiaeanoaii ao?eaooia (iaiouaieaiuo naienoa). Ec ieo, n/eoae
oeeinio, iaoaio ia?aie/aiiiio ?acoiaieth ioe?uou oieueei aeaa –
i?ioyae?iiinoue e iuoeaiea; ec yoiai yanoaoao, /oi aanniuneaiii
i?aaenoaaeyoue /aeiaaea eae ianoi ano?a/e aeaoo noanoaioeee: /aeiaae –
oeaeinoiia oaeanii-aeooiaiia nouanoai.

Iiiuoea iino?ieoue ineoieiae/aneia o/aiea i /aeiaaea eae oeaeinoiii
nouanoaa caia/aoeaia a aai aeaaiii o?oaea – “Yoeea”. A i?i iinoaaeaia
caaea/a iauynieoue an? iiiaiia?acea /oanoa (aooaeoia) eae
iiaoaeeoaeueiuo nee /aeiaa/aneiai iiaaaeaiey n oi/iinoueth e
no?iainoueth aaiiao?e/aneeo aeieacaoaeuenoa. Ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi
nouanoaotho o?e iiaoaeeoaeueiua neeu: aea/aiea, ?aaeinoue e ia/aeue.
Aeieacuaaeinue, /oi ec yoeo ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo aooaeoia auaiaeeony an?
iiiaia?acea yiioeeiiaeueiuo ninoiyiee; i?e yoii ?aaeinoue oaaee/eaaao
niiniaiinoue oaea e aeaenoaeth, oiaaea eae ia/aeue a? oiaiueoaao.

Nieiica aini?eiye io iaiaoeeiai oeeinioa e iaoaiaoeea Eaeaieoea
(1646-1716), ioe?uaoaai aeeooa?aioeeaeueiia e eioaa?aeueiia en/eneaiea,
neaaeothuaa i?aaenoaaeaiea i aaeeinoaa oaeaniiai e ineoe/aneiai.
Iniiaaieai yoiai aaeeinoaa yaeyaony aeooiaiia ia/aei. Ie? ninoieo ec
aan/eneaiiiai iiiaeanoaa aeooiaiuo nouiinoae – iiiaae (io a?. monos –
aaeeiia). Eaaeaeay ec ieo “ineoe/ia”, o.a. ia iaoa?eaeueia (eae aoii),
ii iaaeaeaia niiniaiinoueth aini?eieiaoue an?, /oi i?ienoiaeeo ai
Anaeaiiie. A aeooa iai?a?uaii i?ienoiaeeo iacaiaoiay aeayoaeueiinoue
“iaeuo ia?oeaioeee” – iainiciaaaaiuo aini?eyoee. A oao aea neo/ayo,
eiaaea iie iniciathony, yoi noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi e
i?inoie ia?oeaioeee (aini?eyoeth) i?eniaaeeiyaony iniaue aeo –
aiia?oeaioeey. Iia aeeth/aao aieiaiea e iaiyoue. Eoae, Eaeaieoe a?e a
iai?io iiiyoea aanniciaoaeueiie ineoeee.

Ia aii?in i oii, eae niioiinyony iaaeaeo niaie aeooiaiua e oaeaniua
yaeaiey, Eaeaieoe ioaaoee oi?ioeie, ecaanoiie eae ineoioece/aneee
ia?aeeaeeci. Ii aai iiaieth iie ia iiaoo aeeyoue iaeii ia ae?oaia.
Caaeneiinoue ineoeee io oaeaniuo aicaeaenoaee – yoi eeethcey. Aeooa e
oaei niaa?oatho naie iia?aoeee naiinoiyoaeueii e aaoiiaoe/anee. Iaeiaei
aiaeanoaaiiay ioae?inoue neacuaaaony a oii, /oi iaaeaeo ieie nouanoaoao
i?aaeonoaiiaeaiiay aa?iiiey. iie iiaeiaii ia?a /ania, eioi?ua anaaaea
iieacuaatho iaeii e oiaea a?aiy, oae eae caiouaiu n aaee/aeoae
oi/iinoueth.

I?e caaa?oaiee yoiai ?acaeaea ineoieiaee iaiaoiaeeii oiiiyiooue eiy

aiaeeeneiai oeeinioa Oiiana Aiaana (1588-1679). Aei iaai a
ineoieiae/aneeo o/aieyo oea?ee ?aoeeiiaeeci (io eao. racio – ?acoi).
Aiaan i?aaeeiaeee ca iniiao iiciaiey i?eiyoue iiuo. ?aoeeiiaeecio ei aue
i?ioeaiiinoaaeai yiie?eci (io eao. empirio – iiuo). Oae aicieeea
yiie?e/aneay ineoieiaey.

A XVIII aaea a Aa?iia, eiaaea i?iaeieaeaeny i?ioeann oe?aieaiey
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo ioiioaiee, ?anoe?yeinue e e?aiei iiaia aeaeaeaiea –
I?inaauaiea. Aai i?aaenoaaeoaee n/eoaee aeaaiie i?e/eiie anao
/aeiaa/aneeo aaae iaaaaeanoai. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi a ai?ueaa n iei
iauanoai ecaaaeony io nioeeaeueiuo aaaenoaee e ii?ieia e a i?i
iianaianoii aioea?yony aeia?i e ni?aaaaeeeainoue. Yoe eaeae i?eia?aoaee
a ?acee/iuo no?aiao ?acioth oiiaeueiinoue a nayce ni naiaia?aceai eo
iauanoaaiii-enoi?e/aneiai ?acaeoey. Oae, a Aiaeee E.Iuethoii
(1643-1727aa.) nicaeae iiaoth iaoaieeo, aini?eiyooth eae ia?acaoe e
eaeaae oi/iiai ciaiey, eae oi?aeanoai ?acoia.

A niioaaonoaee n iuethoiiianeei iiieiaieai i?e?iaeu aiaeeeneee a?a/
Aa?oee (1705-1757aa.) iauyniee ineoe/aneee ie? /aeiaaea. Ii i?aaenoaaee
aai eae i?iaeoeo ?aaiou i?aaiecia – “aea?aoi?iie iaoeiu”.
I?aaeiieaaaeinue neaaeothuaa. Aea?aoeey aiaoiaai yoe?a iin?aaenoaii
aea?aoeee ia?aia aucuaatho aea?aoeee iicaiaiai aauanoaa, eioi?ua
ia?aoiaeyo a aea?aoeee iuooe. Ia?aeeaeueii n yoei a iicao

aicieeatho, ni/aoathony e niaiytho ae?oa ae?oaa ineoe/aneea “niooieee”
aea?aoeee – io /oanoaiaaiey aei aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey e i?iecaieueiuo
aeaenoaee. An? yoi i?ienoiaeeo ia iniiaa caeiia annioeeaoeee. Aa?oee
n/eoae. /oi ineoe/aneee ie? /aeiaaea neeaaeuaaaony iinoaiaiii a
?acoeueoaoa oneiaeiaiey ia?ae/iuo naini?iuo yeaiaioia ioo?i annioeeaoeee
niaaeiinoe yeaiaioia ai a?aiaie. E i?eia?o, iiaaaeaiea ?aa?iea
?aaoee?otho aeaa iioeaaoeeiiiua neeu – oaeiaieuenoaea e no?aaeaiea.

Caaea/a ainieoaiey, ii aai iiaieth, naiaeeony e cae?aieaieth o ethaeae
oaeeo naycae, eioi?ua au ioa?auaee io aaci?aanoaaiiuo aeae e aeinoaaeyee
oaeiaieuenoaea io i?aanoaaiiuo. e /ai yoe nayce i?i/iaa, oai aieueoa
oainia aeey /aeiaaea noaoue i?aanoaaiii aeia?iaeaoaeueiie ee/iinoueth, a
aeey anaai iauanoaa – aieaa niaa?oaiiui.

Ae?oaeie auaeathueieny iuneeoaeyie yiioe I?inaauaiey auee E.Aaeueaaoeee

(1715-1771aa.), I.Aieueaao (1723-1789aa.) e Ae.Aeeae?i (1713-1784aa.).
Ionoaeaay eaeath aicieeiiaaiey ie?a aeooiaiiai ec ie?a oece/aneiai, iie
i?aaenoaaeyee iaaeae?iiiai ineoeeie “/aeiaaea-iaoeio” eae i?iaeoeo
aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee e anoanoaaiiie enoi?ee. A caaa?oathuee ia?eiae
yiioe I?inaauaiey i?aaenoaaeai a?a/-oeeinio I.Eaaaien (1757-1808aa.)
auaeaeioe iieiaeaiea, niaeanii eioi?iio iuoeaiea – yoi ooieoeey iicaa.

I?e yoii ii enoiaeee ec iaaethaeaiee e?iaaaiai iiuoa ?aaiethoeee,
?oeiaiaeeoaee eioi?ie ii?o/eee aio auynieoue iniciaiea inoaeae?iiui,
eioi?iio ionaeatho aieiao ia aeeueioeia, naieo no?aaeaiee,
naeaeaoaeuenoaii eioi?uo iiaoo auoue eiiaoeuenee. Eaaaien ioaaoee ia
yoio aii?in io?eoeaoaeueii. Oieueei iaeaaeathuee aieiaiui iicaii /aeiaae
niiniaai iuneeoue. Aeaeaeaiey aea iaacaeaaeaiiiai oaea iinyo
?aoeaeoi?iue oa?aeoa? e ia iniciathony. Niciaiea – yoi ooieoeey iicaa. E
aiaoiei i?iaeoeoai iicaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe I.Eaaaien ioiinee au?aaeaiea
iunee a neiaao e aeanoao. E aiaoiei i?iaeoeoai iicaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe –
au?aaeaiea iunee a neiaao e aeanoao. Ca naiie iuneueth, ii aai iiaieth,
ne?uo iaecaanoiue ia?aiue i?ioeann, ia?acaeaeueiinoue ineoe/aneeo
yaeaiee e ia?aiiai noano?aoa. Aeieacuaay iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aeoe io
oiic?eoaeueiiai e yiie?e/aneiio eco/aieth yoie ia?acaeaeueiinoe, ii
iiaeaioiaeee ii/ao aeey aeaeaeaiey iao/iie iunee a neaaeothuai noieaoee.

Eoaeueyineee iuneeoaeue Ae.Aeei (1668-1744aa.) a o?aeoaoa “Iniiaaiey
iiaie iaoee ia iauae i?e?iaea aauae” (1725a.) auaeaeioe eaeath i oii,
/oi eaaeaeia iauanoai i?ioiaeeo iineaaeiaaoaeueii /a?ac o?e yiioe:
aiaia, aa?iaa e ethaeae. *oi eanaaony ineoe/aneeo naienoa /aeiaaea, oi
iie, niaeanii Ae.Aeei, aicieeatho a oiaea enoi?ee iauanoaa. A /anoiinoe,
iiyaeaiea aano?aeoiiai iuoeaiey ii naycuaae n ?acaeoeai oi?aiaee e
iieeoe/aneie aeecie. N eiaiai Ae.Aeei naycaii i?aaenoaaeaiea i
iaaeuiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeooiaiie neea, naienoaaiie ia?iaeo a oeaeii e
ninoaaeythuae ia?aiiniiao eoeueoo?u e enoi?ee.

A ?innee aeooiaiay aoiinoa?a yiioe I?inaauaiey iaoneiaeea
oeeinionei-ineoieiae/aneea aicc?aiey A.I.?aaeeuaaa (1749-1802aa.).
A.I.?aaeeuaa eneae eeth/ e ineoieiaee ethaeae a oneiaeyo eo iauanoaaiiie
aeecie (“Iooaoanoaea ec Iaoa?ao?aa a Iineao”), ca /oi aue i?eaiai??i e
nia?oiie eacie, caiai?iiie nnueeie a Neae?ue.

Eoae, a yiioo I?inaauaiey aicieeee aeaa iai?aaeaiey a ?ac?aaioea
i?iaeai ineoieiae/aneiai iiciaiey: o?aeoiaea ineoeee eae ooieoeee
aunieii?aaieciaaiiie iaoa?ee – aieiaiiai iicaa, /oi niinianoaiaaei
yenia?eiaioaeueiiio eco/aieth oao yaeaiee, eioi?ua n/eoaeenue
ii?iaeaeaieai aanoaeaniie aeooe; o/aiea, niaeanii eioi?iio
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay ineoeea ii?aaeaeyaony nioeeaeueiuie oneiaeyie,
i?aaaie, iau/ayie, aeooiaiui ie?ii ethaeae, eioi?uie aeaeaeao
nianoaaiiay yia?aey eoeueoo?iiai oai?/anoaa.

CA?IAEAeAIEA INEOIEIAEE EAE IAOEE

A ia/aea XIX noieaoey ?acaeoea ineoieiae/aneeo ciaiee noeioee?iaaeenue
ioe?uoeyie ia a iaeanoe iaoaieee, a a iaeanoe oeceieiaee, eioi?ay
?oeiaiaenoaiaaeanue “aiaoiie/aneei ia/aeii”. Ineoe/aneea ooieoeee
/aeiaaea enneaaeiaaeenue iiae oaeii c?aiey eo caaeneiinoe io no?iaiey
i?aaia, aai aiaoiiee. Aiiaue auee ioe?uou (ni. auoa) ?acee/ey iaaeaeo
/oanoaeoaeueiuie e aeaeaaoaeueiuie

aieieiaie ia?eoa?e/aneie ia?aiie nenoaiu, iienaia ?aoeaeoi?iay aeoaa.
Iicaea aue noi?ioee?iaai caeii “niaoeeoe/aneie yia?aee i?aaiia /oanoa”,
niaeanii eioi?iio ieeaeie ae?oaie yia?aeae, e?iia ecaanoiie a oeceea,
ia?aiay oeaiue ia iaeaaeaao. Aano?eeneee aiaoii O.Aaeue, eco/aaoee
caaeneiinoue iuouaiee io ia?aiiai noano?aoa, oeacae ia ecaeeeiu ei?u
aieueoeo iieooa?ee aieiaiiai iicaa eae ianoi, aaea eieaeeciaaiu
“oinoaaiiua neeu” (aei iaai auei i?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi iie – a iicaiauo
aeaeoaei/eao).

I?aaeaea /ai auee iaeaeaiu iauaeoeaiua iaoiaeu eco/aiey oeaeinoiiai
iiaaaeaiey, a yenia?eiaioaeueiii aiaeeca aeayoaeueiinoe i?aaiia /oanoa
auee aeinoeaioou e?oiiua oniaoe a nayce n ioe?uoeai caeiiiia?iie,
iaoaiaoe/anee en/eneyaiie caaeneiinoe iaaeaeo iauaeoeaiuie oece/aneeie
noeioeaie e i?iecaiaeeiuie eie ineoe/aneeie yooaeoaie – iuouaieyie. Yoi
nua?aei ?aoathuoth ?ieue a i?aa?auaiee ineoieiaee a naiinoiyoaeueioth
yenia?eiaioaeueioth iaoeo.

Oeceieia Y?ino Aaaa? (1795-1878aa.) enneaaeiaae caaeneiinoue eiioeieoia
iuouaiee io eiioeieoia aucuaathueo eo aiaoieo oece/aneeo noeioeia. Aai
iiuou e iaoaiaoe/aneea aueeaaeee noaee enoieaie ineoioeceee. Oaaeeoea
eiaa?eoiia ieacaeanue i?eeiaeeiie e yaeaieyi aeooaaiie aeecie,
iiaaaeaieth noauaeoa. I?i?ua io ineoioeceieiaee e ineoioeceea ?acaeaeee
i?eioeei i?e/eiiinoe e i?eioeei caeiiiia?iinoe. Ineoioeceea aeieacaea,
/oi a ineoieiaee e i?e ionoonoaee ciaiee i oaeaniii noano?aoa iiaoo
auoue ioe?uou no?iai yiie?e/anee caeiiu, eioi?ui iiaeaeanoiu a? yaeaiey.

Iaeiia?aiaiii aiaee/aiei Aeaeii Ieeue (1806-1873aa.) caaiai?ee i
iaioaeueiie oeiee.

A nicaeaiee iniia, ia eioi?uo no?ieeanue ineoieiaey eae iaoea, aaeeea
?ieue Aa?iaia Aaeueiaieueoea (1821-1894aa.). Aaieaeueiiio iuneeoaeth
i?eiaaeeaaeao iiiaea ioe?uoey, a oii /enea – i i?e?iaea ineoe/aneiai. Ei
auee ioe?uou nei?inoue i?ioiaeaeaiey eiioeuena ii ia?ao, caeii
nio?aiaiey yia?aee. “Iu ana aeaoe nieioea, – aiai?ee ii, – eai aeeaie
i?aaieci, n iiceoeee oeceea, – yoi nenoaia, a eioi?ie iao ie/aai, e?iia
i?aia?aciaaiee ?acee/iuo aeaeia yia?aee”. Aai iiuou oeacuaaee, /oi
aicieeathuee a niciaiee ia?ac aiaoiaai i?aaeiaoa ii?iaeaeaaony
iacaaeneiui io niciaiey oaeaniui iaoaieciii. Oae iaia/aeinue ?acaeaeaiea
ineoeee e niciaiey.

Aieeaiaeneee oeceieia O.Aeiiaea?n (1818-1898aa.) iinayoee naie
enneaaeiaaiey ecia?aieth nei?inoe ?aaeoeee noauaeoa ia aini?eieiaaiua ei
iauaeou. Anei?a E.I.Na/aiia, nnueaynue ia eco/aiea a?aiaie ?aaeoeee eae
i?ioeanna, o?aaothuaai oeaeinoiinoe aieiaiiai iicaa, iiae/??eeaae:
“Ineoe/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue eae anyeia caiiia yaeaiea i?ienoiaeeo ai
a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa”.

Iieiaeaiea i oii, /oi ineoe/aneee oaeoi? – ?aaoeyoi? iiaaaeaiey
i?aaiecia, iaoei i?eciaiea e a ?aaioao oeceieiaa Y.Ioethaa?a. O/?iue
iiaeaa?a e?eoeea noaio ?aoeaena eae aeoae, a eioi?ie
oeaio?ino?aieoaeueiua ia?au, aeaaiaea?y ia?aeeth/aieth ia
oeaio?iaaaeiua, i?iecaiaeyo iaeio e oo aea noaiaea?oioth iuoa/ioth
?aaeoeeth. Iaacaeaaea eyaooeo, ii iiiauae a? a ?acee/iua oneiaey.
Ieacuaaeinue, /oi a? ia?aii-iuoa/iua ?aaeoeee eciaiyeenue i?e eciaiaiee
aiaoiae n?aaeu (ia noiea iia iiecaea, a aiaea ieaaaea). Y.Ioethaa?
naeaeae auaiae, /oi i?e/eiie a? i?eniiniaeoaeueiuo aeaenoaee neoaeeo ia
naia ii naaa ia?aii-iuoa/iay naycue, a naini?iay ooieoeey, iicaieythuay
?acee/aoue oneiaey e, a niioaaonoaee n ieie, eciaiyoue iiaaaeaiea.

Iiuou Y.Ioethaa?a ioe?uaaee iniaoth i?e/eiiinoue – ineoe/aneoth.
*oanoaiaaiea (oi, /oi Y.Ioethaa? iacuaae “naini?iie ooieoeeae”) – yoi,
n/eoae ii, ia oeceieiae/aneay, a ineoieiae/aneay nouiinoue; “naini?iay
ooieoeey” caeeth/aaony a ?acee/aiee oneiaee, a eioi?uo iaoiaeeony
i?aaieci, e a ?aaoeyoeee, a niioaaonoaee n ieie, ioaaoiuo aeaenoaee. A
?acee/aiee oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeo ai aiaoiae n?aaea, e ?aaae?iaaiee ia
i?ienoiaeyuaa a iae, e ninoieo ooiaeaiaioaeueiia i?aaeiacia/aiea
ineoeee, a? aeaaiue aeeciaiiue niune. Iiuou enneaaeiaaoaey iiae?uaaee
i?eiyoia iiaiea i oii, /oi ineoeea e niciaiea – iaeii e oi aea (i eaeii
niciaiee iiaeao eaeoe

?a/ue o iaacaeaaeaiiie eyaooee!). Ia?yaeo n niciaieai eiaaony ia?iiiay
iaeanoue iainiciaaaaiie ineoeee (aanniciaoaeueiiai), eioi?ay ia
naiaeeony ie e ia?aiie nenoaia,

ie e nenoaia niciaiey.

?aaiethoeeth a ineoieiae/aneii iuoeaiee i?iecaaei o/aiea *a?eueca
Aea?aeia (1809-1882aa.), ec eioi?iai neaaeiaaei, /oi /aeiaae yaeyaony
auoiaeoeai ec iaacueyiueaai noaea. Aea?aeiianeia o/aiea iciaiaiiaaei
e?ooie iiai?io io iaoaiiaeaoa?ieiecia e aeiaeaoa?ieiecio. I?aaeaea
anaai, *.Aea?aei oeacuaae ia anoanoaaiiue ioai? eae oaeoi? auaeeaaiey
i?aaieciia a iinoiyiii oa?iaeathuae eo nouanoaiaaieth aiaoiae n?aaea.
Ioia/ae, /oi a oiaea yaiethoeee auaeeaatho oa, eoi niia iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaii i?eniiniaeoueny; auaeeaoea a ai?ueaa ca nouanoaiaaiea
ia?aaeatho naie naienoaa iioiinoao. Iineieueeo anoanoaaiiue ioai?
ionaeaao an? iaioaeiia aeey aeecie, oi ii eno?aaeyao e ineoe/aneea
ooieoeee, ia niinianoaothuea i?eniiniaeaieth. Yoi iiaoaeaeaao
?anniao?eaaoue ineoeeo eae yeaiaio aaeaioaoeee i?aaiecia e aiaoiae
n?aaea.

Ineoeea ia iiaea aieaa i?aaenoaaeyoueny eciee?iaaiiui “ino?iaii aeooa”.
A ineoieiaee ooiaeaiaioaeueiui noaiiaeony niioiioaiea “i?aaieci-n?aaea”,
aianoi ioaeaeueiiai i?aaiecia. Yoi ii?iaeaeaao iiaue nenoaiiue noeeue
iuoeaiey, eioi?ue a aeaeueiaeoai i?ea?e e auaiaeo, /oi i?aaeiaoii
ineoieiaee aeieaeii auoue ia niciaiea eiaeeaeaea, a aai iiaaaeaiea ai
aiaoiae n?aaea, eciaiythuae (aeaoa?ieie?othuae) aai ineoe/aneee neeaae.

Iiiyoea ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aa?eaoeeyo yaeyaony ninoaaiie /anoueth
yaiethoeeiiiie oai?ee *.Aea?aeia. Noaei auoue, e iei ioiinyony e
aa?eaoeee a noa?a ineoeee. Yoi i?eaeaei eiioeuen ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
iai?aaeaiey a ineoieiaee, i?aaeiaoii eioi?iai noaei eco/aiea
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo ethaeueie, iaoneiaeaiiuo caeiiaie
ianeaaenoaaiiinoe. Iicaea iii i?aa?aoeeinue a ?acaaoae?iioth aaoaue
aeeooa?aioeeaeueiie ineoieiaee.

E?iia oiai, aea?aeieci noeioee?iaae eco/aiea ineoeee a aeeaioiii ie?a,
e noae iniiaaieai ciiineoieiaee, oe?ieiai eco/aiey (n iiiiuueth
iauaeoeaiuo yenia?eiaioaeueiuo iaoiaeia) iaoaieciia ineoe/aneie
?aaoeyoeee iiaaaeaiey aeeaioiuo.

*.Aea?aei, aiaeece?oy einoeieou eae iiaoaeeoaeueiua neeu iiaaaeaiey,
iiaeaa?a e?eoeea aa?neth ia eo ?acoiiinoe. Aianoa n oai ei auei
iiae/??eiooi, /oi ei?ie einoeieoia ooiaeyo a enoi?eth aeaea, aac ieo
aeeaie i?aaieci ia iiaeao auaeeoue; einoeieou oanii naycaiu n yiioeeyie.
E eo eco/aieth *.Aea?aei iiaeio?e ia n oi/ee c?aiey eo iniciaiey
noauaeoii, a iie?aynue ia iaaethaeaiey ca au?aceoaeueiuie aeaeaeaieyie,
eioi?ua ?aiaa eiaee i?aeoe/aneee niune (iai?eia?, naeaoea eoeaeia e
ineae coaia i?e aooaeoa aiaaa, /oi eiaaea oi yoe aa?anneaiua ?aaeoeee
icia/aee aioiaiinoue e ai?ueaa). Anoanoaieniuoaoaee
aeiaea?aeienoe/aneiai ia?eiaea n/eoaee /oanoaa yeaiaioaie niciaiey. Ii
Aea?aeio, yiioeee, caoaaouaathuea eiaeeaeaea, aunooiatho a ea/anoaa
oaiiiaiia, eioi?ua, oioy e yaeythony ineoe/aneeie, iaeiaei ia?ae/iu ii
ioiioaieth e aai niciaieth. Iaeaieueoee eioa?an aucuaaao eieaa
*.Aea?aeia “I?ienoiaeaeaiea /aeiaaea e iieiaie iiaeai?”, ecaeaiiay a
1872a.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n *.Aea?aeiii eaeae yaiethoeeiiiie ineoieiaee ?acaeaae
aiaeeeneee oeeinio Aa?aa?o Niaina? (1820-1903aa.). A nai?i o?oaea
“Iniiau ineoieiaee” (1855a.) ii ii?aaeaeee aeeciue eae iai?a?uaiia
i?eniiniaeaiea “aioo?aiieo ioiioaiee e aiaoiei”. Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey aai
?aaiou neaaeothuea. I?ienoiaeyuaa aioo?e i?aaiecia (noaei auoue, e
niciaiea) iiaeao auoue iiiyoi oieueei a nenoaia aai ioiioaiee
(aaeaioaoeee) e aiaoiae n?aaea. *oiau auaeeoue, i?aaieci auioaeaeai
onoaiaaeeaaoue naycue iaaeaeo iauaeoaie yoiai ie?a e naieie ?aaeoeeyie
ia ieo. Neo/aeiua, ianouanoaaiiua aeey auaeeaaiey nayce ii eaii?e?oao, a
nayce, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e, i?i/ii oeene?oao,
nio?aiyao “i?i caian”, ia neo/ae iiauo eiio?iioaoeee ni anai, /oi iiaeao
oa?iaeaoue aai nouanoaiaaieth. Aaeaioaoeey a aeaiiii neo/aa icia/aao ia
oieueei i?eniiniaeaiea e iiaui neooaoeeyi i?aaiia /oanoa eae enoi/ieeia
eioi?iaoeee i oii, /oi i?ienoiaeeo aiaia (eae, iai?eia?, eciaiyaony
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue aeaca a oaiiioa). Nouanoaoao iniaue aeae annioeeaoeee
– iaaeaeo aioo?aiieie ineoe/aneeie ia?acaie e ?aaeecothueie aaeaioaoeeth
oeaeinoiiai i?aaiecia iuoa/iuie aeaenoaeyie. Oae naa?oeeny e?ooie
iiai?io a aeaeaeaiee ineoieiae/aneie iunee. Ec “iiey niciaiey” iia
ono?aieeanue a “iiea iiaaaeaiey”.

A ?aca?aie/aiee ineoeee e niciaiey aieueoia cia/aiea eiaee
enneaaeiaaiey aeiiica. Iniiaaoaeai iao/iie aeiiieiaee neaaeoao n/eoaoue
ii?ooaaeueneiai aaaaoa Oa?ea, eioi?ue aia?aua eniieueciaae iaoiaeeeo
neiaaniiai iia?oaeaiey a aeiiic.

Aeiiioe/aneea naainu i?eia?aee a Aa?iia aieueooth iiioey?iinoue
aeaaiaea?y aeayoaeueiinoe aano?eeneiai a?a/a O?aioea Aioiia Iania?a
(1734-1815). Niaeanii aai ienoe/aneie oai?ee, ie? i?iiecai iniaie
aeeaeeinoueth – iaaiaoe/aneei oetheaeii (io eao. fluidus – oaeo/ee),
iaeaaeathuei oeaeaaiie neeie. Iaeaieeaaynue eae a ?aca?aoa?ao o iniaaiii
iaea??iiuo aeey aai aini?eyoey ee/iinoyo, iaaiaoe/aneee oetheae, ii
aicc?aieyi O.A.Iania?a, iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny aieueiui /a?ac
i?eeiniiaaiey e ecea/eaaoue eo. Iicaea aiaeeeneee a?a/ A?yeae i?eaeae
?aoathuoth ?ieue a aeiiica ineoieiae/aneiio oaeoi?o. N eiioea 70-o
aiaeia XIX aaea ia/eiaao eco/aoue yaeaiey aeiiica o?aioeocneee
iaa?iiaoieia AEai Ia?oai Oa?ei (1825-1893), o/eoaeue e ianoaaiee
iieiaeiai aano?eeneiai a?a/a C.O?aeaea.

Aeiiic (io a?a/. hypnos – nii) ia oieueei aeaiiino?e?iaae oaeou
ineoe/anee ?aaoee?oaiiai iiaaaeaiey n aueeth/aiiui niciaieai
(iiaeaea?aeeaay oai naiui i?aaenoaaeaiea i aanniciaoaeueiie ineoeea).
*oiau aucaaoue aeiiioe/aneia ninoiyiea, o?aaiaaeny “?aiii?o” – nicaeaiea
neooaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo a?a/ii e iaoeeaioii. Iaia?oaeaiiay i?e
yoii aanniciaoaeueiay ineoeea, noaei auoue,
nioeeaeueii-aanniciaoaeueiay, iioiio /oi iia eieoeee?oaony e
eiio?iee?oaony /aeiaaeii, eioi?ue i?iaiaeeo aeiiic.

I?eiaiyy iaoiaeu aeiiica a iianaaeiaaiie ?aaioa iaaeaaia nicaea?o
aoiinoa?o aeiaa?ey, iiauoaao noaiaiue aicaeaenoaey ia iao/aaiiai, aai
aini?eei/eainoue, aucuaaao ninoiyiea iiauoaiiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey
iianoe/aneeo ooieoeee (iaiyoue, aieiaiea). Yoi aeinoeaaaony ca n/?o
iiaeno?aeaaiey e ycueo e oiaeo iunee niaanaaeieea. Iiaeiaii oaiaeaiio
iaiaoiaeeii iiae?aaeaoue eioiiaoeee, ?eoio, noaiaie a?iieinoe e nei?inoe
?a/e, eieoe?iaaoue iaia?o aea?aeaoueny, ieieeo, aeanou e iano?iaiea,
ia?aieiaao oa?aeoa?iua iai?iou ?a/e.

E 70-i aiaeai i?ioeiai aaea iiyaeeanue iio?aaiinoue a oii, /oiau
?ac?iciaiiua ciaiey i ineoeea aeey eco/aiey iauaaeeieoue a iniaoth
iao/ioth aeenoeeieeio. I?aa?auaiea ineoieiaee a naiinoiyoaeueioth iaoeo
noaei aiciiaeii iioiio, /oi ineoieiaey iinoaiaiii i?aa?auaeanue ec iaoee
iienaoaeueiie a iaoeo yenia?eiaioaeueioth. Ia/aei a iino?iaiee
ineoieiaee eae naiinoiyoaeueiie iaoee iieiaeeee A.Aoiaeo (1832-1920aa.)
e O.A?aioaii (1838-1917aa.).

A.Aoiaeo i?aaieciaae a Eaeioeeaa ia?aue ineoieiae/aneee einoeooo
(1875a.). A nayce n yoei i/aiue aaaeiui aue auoiae a naao aai o?oaea
“Iniiau oeceieiae/aneie ineoieiaee”. A i?i i?aaeiaoii ineoieiaee aue
i?eciai “iaiin?aaenoaaiiue iiuo” – niaea?aeaiea niciaiey; aeaaiui
iaoiaeii – eio?iniaeoeey (iaaethaeaiea noauaeoa ca i?ioeannaie a nai?i
niciaiee, /oi o?aaiaaei niaoeeaeueiie aeeeoaeueiie o?aie?iaee).

Iaeiia?aiaiii n A.Aoiaeoii oeeinio O.A?aioaii eceiaeee i?ia?aiio
eco/aiey ineoieiaee a ?aaioa “Ineoieiaey n yiie?e/aneie oi/ee c?aiey”
(1874a.). Niaeanii O.A?aioaii, iaeanoue ineoieiaee – yoi ia niaea?aeaiea
niciaiey (iuouaiey, aini?eyoey, iunee, /oanoaa), a aai aeou, ineoe/aneea
aeaenoaey, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui iii iiyaeyaony. Iai?eia?, iaeii yaeaiea
naao, ae?oaia – aeo aeaeaiey naaoa. Ii iuoeaieth oeeinioa, eco/aiea
aeoia e anoue oieeaeueiay noa?a ineoieiaee.

A iao/iuo ?ac?aaioeao o?iaaiue oai?aoe/aneeo i?aaenoaaeaiee i i?aaeiaoa
ineoieiaee ioee/aeny io o?iaiy eiie?aoiie yiie?e/aneie ?aaiou, aaea iiae
aeanoue yenia?eiaioa iiaeiaaeae an? aieaa oe?ieee e?oa yaeaiee.

Iaoiaeu yenia?eiaioaeueiie ineoieiaee ia/ae ?ac?aaaouaaoue iaiaoeeee
ineoieia A.Yaaeiaaoc (1850-1909aa.). Ii yenia?eiaioe?iaae iiaiiie/aneea
i?ioeannu, aieaa neiaeiua, /ai naini?iua. A eieaa “I iaiyoe” (1885a.)
o/?iue eceiaeee ?acoeueoaou i?iaaae?iiuo ia naaa iiuoia n oeaeueth
auaanoe caeiiu, ii eioi?ui nio?aiyaony e aini?iecaiaeeony auo/aiiue
iaoa?eae. I?e ?aoaiee i?iaeaiu ii ninoaaee 2300 aanniuneaiiuo neia,
ninoiyuee ec o??o caoeia – niaeaniue + aeaniue + niaeaniue (iai?eia?,
“iii”, “ieo” e o.i.). Auee eni?iaiaaiu e ouaoaeueii i?in/eoaiu ?acee/iua
aa?eaiou, eanathueany a?aiaie e iau?ia eo cao/eaaiey, aeeiaieee eo
caauaaiey (?aiooaoeeth “eeanne/aneie” i?eia?aea “e?eaay caauaaiey”,
iieacuaathuay, /oi i?eia?ii iieiaeia caauoiai iaaeaao ia ia?aua iie/ana
iinea cao/eaaiey), iineaaeothuaai aini?iecaaaeaiey iaoa?eaea ?acee/iiai
iau?ia, ?acee/iuo o?aaiaioia yoiai iaoa?eaea (ia/aea nienea neiaia e aai
eiioea).

Ineoieiae/aneay i?aeoeea o?aaiaaea eioi?iaoeee i aunoeo ineoe/aneeo
ooieoeeyo a oeaeyo aeeaaiinoeee eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?acee/ee iaaeaeo
ethaeueie, eanathueony i?eia?aoaiey ciaiee e auiieiaiey neiaeiuo oi?i
aeayoaeueiinoe. Ia?aue aa?eaio ?aoaiey yoie caaea/e i?aaenoaaee
o?aioeocneee ineoieia Ai?e Aeia (1857-1911aa.). A iieneao
ineoieiae/aneeo n?aaenoa, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo oaeaeinue au ioaeaeeoue
aeaoae, niiniaiuo e o/aieth, ii eaieauo, io oao, eoi no?aaeaao
a?iaeae?iiuie eioaeeaeooaeueiuie aeaoaeoaie, yenia?eiaioaeueiua caaeaiey
ii eco/aieth aieiaiey, iaiyoe, iuoeaiey A.Aeia i?aa?aoee a oanou,
onoaiiaea oeaeo, eaaeaeia aeaeaiea eioi?ie niioaaonoaiaaei caaeaieyi,
auiieieiui ii?iaeueiuie aeaoueie ii?aaeae?iiiai aic?anoa.

Iicaea aa?iaineee o/?iue A.Ooa?i aa?e iiiyoea “eiyooeoeeaio eioaeeaeoa”
(ii-aiaeeenee – Ae-Eueth). Ii iaio niioiineeny “oinoaaiiue” aic?ano
(ii?aaeaeyaiue ii oeaea A.Aeia) n o?iiieiae/aneei (“ianii?oiui”). Eo
ianiaiaaeaiea n/eoaeinue iieacaoaeai eeai oinoaaiiie ionoaeinoe, eeai
iaea??iiinoe.

*ai oniaoiaa oea a ineoieiaee yenia?eiaioaeueiay ?aaioa, oai iaoe?iaa
noaiiaeeinue iiea eco/aaiuo ath yaeaiee. ?ooeeinue iiieiaiea niciaiey
eae caieiooiai a naaa ie?a. Aini?eyoea e iaiyoue, iaauee e iuoeaiea,
onoaiiaee e /oanoaa noaee o?aeoiaaoueny eae naiaai “eino?oiaiou”
i?aaiecia, ?aaioathuea iaae ?aoaieai caaea/, n eioi?uie aai noaeeeaatho
aeeciaiiua neooaoeee.

A ia/aea XX aaea aicieeaao ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee a ineoieiaee,
ioee/athueony ae?oa io ae?oaa iiieiaieai i?aaeiaoa ineoieiaee, iaoiaeaie
enneaaeiaaiey e nenoaiie iniiaiuo iiiyoee. A Aa?iia yoi auee o?aeaeeci e
aaooaeueoineoieiaey, a NOA – ooieoeeiiaeeci, aeoaeaei?eci e oeiea Eo?oa
Eaaeia.

A 1912 aiaeo ai O?aieoo?oa-ia-iaeia iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii I.Aa?oaaeia?a
(1880-1943aa.) aicieeea iiaay ineoieiae/aneay oeiea – aaooaeueineoieiaey
(io iai. “gestalt” – oi?ia, no?oeoo?a). A ia? aoiaeeee ecaanoiua
ineoieiae A.Eaea? (1887-1967aa.) e E.Eiooea (1886-1941aa.). A iiuoao
I.Aa?oaaeia?a ii aini?eyoeth auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi a ninoaaa niciaiey
nouanoaotho oeaeinoiua ia?aciaaiey (aaooaeueou), ia ?aceaaaaiua ia
naini?iua ia?aiyeaiaiou, o.a. ineoe/aneea ia?acu – yoi ia eiiieaenu
iuouaiee.

I?ia?anneaiia cia/aiea aaooaeueoineoieiaee ninoiyei a i?aiaeieaiee ath
“aoiiecia” a ineoieiaee – i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, /oi ia?acu niciaiey
no?iyony ec ee?ie/eeia iuouaiee. Nouanoaoao iaeay ecia/aeueiay
oii?yaei/aiiinoue naini?ii-eioaeeaeooaeueiuo no?oeoo?. I.Aa?oaaeia? noae
i?eaa?aeaioeai aeayoaeueiie nouiinoe niciaiey: niciaiea aeoeaii,
iin?aaenoaii ii?aaeae?iiuo aeaenoaee iii no?ieo naie ia?acu aiaoiaai
ie?a, iie?aynue ia ecia/aeueii eiathueany no?oeoo?u – aaooaeueou.

A enneaaeiaaieyo aaooaeueineoieiaia auei ioe?uoi aieaa noa
caeiiiia?iinoae c?eoaeueiiai aini?eyoey: aiia?oeaioeey (caaeneiinoue
aini?eyoey io i?ioeiai iiuoa, io iauaai niaea?aeaiey ineoe/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea), acaeiiaeaenoaea oeao?u e oiia, oeaeinoiinoue e
no?oeoo?iinoue aini?eyoey, i?aaiaioiinoue (no?aieaiea e i?inoioa e
oii?yaei/aiiinoe aini?eyoey), eiinoaioiinoue aini?eyoey (iinoiyinoai
ia?aca i?aaeiaoa ianiio?y ia eciaiaiea oneiaee aai aini?eyoey), oaiiiai
“aeecinoe” (oaiaeaioeey e iauaaeeiaieth yeaiaioia, niaaeiuo ai a?aiaie e
i?ino?ainoaa), oaiiiai “caiueaiey” (oaiaeaioeee e caiieiaieth i?iaaeia
iaaeaeo yeaiaioaie aini?eieiaaiie oeao?u).

Aaeaioeaiua oi?iu iiaaaeaiey iauyniyeenue oieaa?naeueiui iiiyoeai
“einaeoa” (io aiae. “insight” – ica?aiea) – aiacaiiui noaaouaaieai
ioiioaiee i?e ?aoaiee i?iaeaiiuo caaea/. Ii, e niaeaeaieth,
aaooaeueoenou iuoaeenue iauynieoue niciaiea, enoiaey ec iaai naiiai.

A yoi a?aiy a aia?eeaineie ineoieiaee aicieeaao a? aaaeouaa iai?aaeaiea
– aeoaeaei?eci (io aiae. “behavior” – iiaaaeaiea). Aeoaeaei?eci
i?eciaaae a ea/anoaa aaeeinoaaiiiai iauaeoa ineoieiae/aneiai eco/aiey
iiaaaeaiea, iiaaaeai/aneea ?aaeoeee. Niciaiea, eae yaeaiea ia
iiaeaeathuaany iaaethaeaieth, auei eneeth/aii ec noa?u aeoaeaei?enoneie
ineoieiaee. Eco/aeinue eeoue ?aaeueii i?iyaeythuaany iiaaaeaiea. Yoi
oi?ioi oaycuaaeinue n i?aaiaoe/aneei iai?aaeaieai anae aia?eeaineie
iaoee oiai a?aiaie. Iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeai aeoaeaei?ecia aue Y.Oi?iaeaee
(1874-1949aa.),

eceiaeeaoee iaoe?iue iaoe?iue yenia?eiaioaeueiue iaoa?eae a naiae
aeieoi?neie aeenna?oaoeee “Eioaeeaeo aeeaioiuo. Yenia?eiaioaeueiia
enneaaeiaaiea annioeeaoeaiuo i?ioeannia”.

Ii eco/ae ia aeeaioiuo caeiiu eioaeeaeoa eae iao/aiey. Aeey yoiai
eniieueciaae oae iacuaaaiua “i?iaeaiiua” yueee. Iiiau?iiia a yuee
aeeaioiia iiaei aueoe ec iaai, eee iieo/eoue iiaeei?ieo, eeoue i?eaaaey
a aeaenoaea niaoeeaeueiia ono?ienoai – iaaeaa ia i?oaeeio, iioyioa
iaoeth e o.i. Ia?aiia/aeueii aeeaioiia niaa?oaei iiiaeanoai aeaeaeaiee,
a?inaeinue a ?aciua noi?iiu, oea?aiaei yuee e o.i., iiea iaeii ec
aeaeaeaiee neo/aeii ia ieacuaaeinue aeey iaai oaea/iui. “I?iau, ioeaee e
neo/aeiue oniao” – oaeiai auei caeeth/aiea, i?eiyoia o/?iui aeey anao
oeiia iiaaaeaiey eae aeeaioiuo, oae e /aeiaaea. Ioe?uoey Y.Oi?iaeaeea
auee enoieeiaaiu eae caeiiu ia?aciaaiey iaaueia. I?e yoii iiae
eioaeeaeoii eiaeanue a aeaeo au?aaioea i?aaieciii “oi?ioeu” ?aaeueiuo
aeaenoaee, iicaieythueo oniaoii ni?aaeoueny n i?iaeaiiie neooaoeeae.
Aaiaeeeny a iaeoiae “aa?iyoiinoiue noeeue iuoeaiey”: a i?aaie/aneii ie?a
auaeeaaao eeoue oio, eiio oaea?ony, “i?iaoy e ioeaaynue”, ioia?aoue
iaeaieaa auaiaeiue ec iiiaeo aiciiaeiuo aa?eaio ?aaeoeee ia n?aaeo.

Neiaeiia iiaaaeaiea aeeaioiuo e /aeiaaea aeoaeaei?eci ?anniao?eaae eae
niaieoiiinoue aeaeaaoaeueiuo ?aaeoeee (R) a ioaao ia aiaoiea
aicaeaenoaey – noeioeu (S). S->R – oaeiaa oi?ioea aeoaeaei?ecia.
Aeinoeaeaieai aeoaeaei?ecia noaea ?ac?aaioea yenia?eiaioaeueiuo
iaoiaeee, iniiaaiiuo ia eiio?iea aiaoieo aicaeaenoaee e ?aaeoeee
i?aaiecia ia yoe aicaeaenoaey. Niaeanii aeoaeaei?ecio /aeiaae i?e
?iaeaeaiee eiaao ii?aaeae?iiia eiee/anoai a?iaeae?iiuo noai iiaaaeaiey,
iaae eioi?uie iaaeno?aeaathony aieaa neiaeiua oi?iu – “?aaoeyoi?u
iiaaaeaiey”. Oaea/iua ?aaeoeee cae?aieythony e a aoaeothuai eiatho
oaiaeaioeeth e aini?iecaaaeaieth. Cae?aieaiea ?aaeoeee i?ienoiaeeo ii
“caeiio oi?aaeiaiee” – a ?acoeueoaoa iiiaie?aoiiai iiaoi?aiey iie
aaoiiaoece?othony. Aia?eeaineea aeoaeaei?enou i?iaiaeyo ia?aeeaeue
iaaeaeo ia?eiaeaie ?acaeoey ?aa?iea e i?aaeiieaaaaiuie yiioaie ?acaeoey
ia?aiauoiiai iauanoaa.

A ?aieao aeoaeaei?ecia auee onoaiiaeaiu iiiaea caeiiiia?iinoe au?aaioee
iaaueia. Ii auee eaii?e?iaaiu aaaeiaeoea eiiiiiaiou aeaenoaey –
iioeaaoeey e ineoe/aneee ia?ac aeaenoaey eae i?eaioe?iai/iay iniiaa aai
?aaeecaoeee. Ec ineoieiae iieiinoueth eneeth/aeny nioeeaeueiue oaeoi?.
Iica ?anniao?eaaeny eae “/??iue yuee”.

Oaeia iiieiaiea ioe?uaaei oe?ieea ia?niaeoeau aeey aiaae?aiey a
ineoieiaeth noaoenoe/aneeo iaoiaeia. Iiiaea ec ieo naycaiu n ?ac?aaioeie
O.Aaeueoiia (ieaiyiieea *.Aea?aeia) i?iaeai aaiaoeee iiaaaeaiey,
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?acee/ee. O.Aaeueoii i?eiaiye oanou, eanathueany
?aaiou i?aaiia /oanoa, a?aiaie ?aaeoeee, ia?aciie iaiyoe e ae?oaeo
/oanoaeoaeueii-aeaeaaoaeueiuo ooieoeee. A aai eaai?aoi?ee a Eiiaeiia
eaaeaeue aeaeathuee iia ca iaaieueooth ieaoo ii?aaeaeeoue naie
oece/aneea e ineoe/aneea aiciiaeiinoe. Naie eniuoaiey ii iaicia/ee
neiaii “oano”, eioi?ia oe?iei aioei aiineaaenoaee a ineoieiae/aneee
eaeneeii. A naiae eieaa “Ianeaaenoaaiiue aaiee” (1869a.) enneaaeiaaoaeue
aeieacuaae, nnueaynue ia iiiaeanoai oaeoia, /oi auaeathueany niiniaiinoe
ia?aaeathony ii ianeaaenoao.

Ooieoeeiiaeeci ?anoe?ye i?aaeiaoioth iaeanoue ineoieiaee, ioaaouaae
ineoe/aneea ooieoeee eae aioo?aiiea iia?aoeee, eioi?ua i?iecaiaeyony ia
aanoaeaniui noauaeoii, a i?aaieciii n oeaeueth oaeieaoai?eoue aai
iio?aaiinoue a i?eniiniaeaiee e n?aaea.

A 1895 aiaeo caaaaeothuee eaoaae?ie ia?aiuo aieaciae Aaineiai
oieaa?neoaoa Ceaioiae O?aeae (1856-1939), ?aaioay iaae “I?iaeoii
i?ia?aiiu iao/iie ineoieiaee”, i?eo?e e iaiaoiaeeiinoe oai?aoe/anee
iniuneeoue naie iiuo a?a/a iaa?iiaoieiaa, eioi?ue ia oeeaaeuaaeny a
?aiee o?aaeeoeeiiiie o?aeoiaee niciaiey. Ineoiaiaeec O?aeaea ieacae yaii
eee iayaii aeeyiea ii/oe ia ana nia?aiaiiua ineoieiae/aneea oai?ee.

I?oiaeienaeueiue ineoiaiaeec aue iniiaai Ceaioiaeii O?aeaeii ia ?oaaaea
XIX e XX noieaoee, o.a. eiaiii a ia?eiae eiiee o?aaeeoeeiiiuo aeey oiai
a?aiaie i?aaenoaaeaiee i ineoeea e ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia.
Ainiiaenoaothuee iaoiaeieiae/aneee i?eioeei a ineoieiaee e iaaeeoeeia
io?aaeae eieaeecaoeeiienoneee iiaeoiae oii Ae?oiaa, o.a. iiene
eiie?aoiiai “iieiia”, niioaaonoaothuaai ethaiio aieaciaiiiio yaeaieth.

Aicieeiiaaiea iiauo iai?aaeaiee a ineoieiaee, nioeeieiaee e oeeinioee
iaiaaeaei oceia, i?eieoeaiia oieeiaaiea i?e/eiii-neaaenoaaiiuo naycae
eieaeecaoeeiiinoneiai iiaeoiaea. I?iaeaia iainiciaaaaiuo
(aanniciaoaeueiuo) ineoe/aneeo i?ioeannia noaiiaeony i?aaeiaoii
i?enoaeueiiai aieiaiey enneaaeiaaoaeae ?acee/iuo niaoeeaeueiinoae.

E.Eaio aiai?ee i aanniciaoaeueiii a ineoeea /aeiaaea, iienuaay
“niooiua” i?aaenoaaeaiey, eioi?uie ?annoaeie iuoaaony iaeaaeaoue, o.e.
ii ia niiniaai “ecaaaeoueny io oao iaeaiinoae, e eioi?ui aai i?eaiaeeo
aeeyiea yoeo i?aaenoaaeaiee…”. Aaaaeue ?anniao?eaaao aanniciaoaeueiue
oaeiee, a eioi?ii “nio?aiyaony ie? aaneiia/ii iiiaeo ia?acia e
i?aaenoaaeaiee aac iaee/ey eo a niciaiee”. A.Oiiaiaaoy? i?iaeaeaaaony
ianeieueei aeaeueoa, oi?ioee?oy auaiae i i?eiaoa aanniciaoaeueiiai iaae
niciaieai a naiai i?iecaaaeaiee “Ie? eae aiey e i?aaenoaaeaiea”.
O.Ieoeoa oaea iuoaaony iaiieieoue aanniciaoaeueiia ii?aaeaeaiiuie
nthaeaoiuie iaoaieciaie, oaeeie eae “aanniciaoaeueiay aiey e aeanoe”. E
eiioeo XIX aaea i?iaeaiie aanniciaoaeueiiai caieiathony ia oieueei
oeeiniou, ii e i?aaenoaaeoaee yenia?eiaioaeueiiai iai?aaeaiey a iaoea. A
1868 aiaeo aiaeeeneee oeceieia Ea?iaioa? aunooiaao n niiauaieai,
iinayuaiiui aanniciaoaeueiie iicaiaie aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Aeieeaae,
i?ineooaiiue a Eiiaeiineii ei?ieaaneii einoeoooa aucaae iaeeaeaiioth
aeeneonneth. A 1886 aiaeo Iaea?n auneacuaaao iuneue i nouanoaiaaiee
“iiaeei?eiaiai niciaiey”, ooieoeeiie?othuaai ai iiiaeo aeoao
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea. Yoe oaeou e iineoaeeee iauaeoeaiui oiiii
aeey nicaeaiey 3.O?aeaeii ciaiaieoie ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie oai?ee.

Ceaioiae O?aeae ?iaeeeny 6 iay 1856 a. a a.O?aeao?aa (auaoay Ii?aaey),
aoiaeeaoei a ninoaa Aano?i-Aaia?ee (iuia – *aoineiaaeey). ?in a
ao?aeoaciie naiuea n?aaeiaai aeinoaoea. A aaoiaeia?aoee (1925) ii ienae:
“Iie ?iaeeoaee auee aa?ayie, e y inoaeny aa?aai”. A 1873 aiaeo
iinooiaao ia iaaeeoeeineee oaeoeueoao Aaineiai oieaa?neoaoa, aaea
i?iyaeyao eioa?an e oaeei iaoeai, eae n?aaieoaeueiay aiaoiiey,
aenoieiaey, oeceieiaey. Aoaeo/e nooaeaioii, iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii A?theea,
auiieiyao ?yae aiieia naiinoiyoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee ii ia?a/eneaiiui
aeenoeeieeiai. N 1882 aiaea ?aaioaao a?a/ii a ioaeaeaiee aioo?aiieo
aieaciae Aaineie iauae eeeieee, aeaeaa – a ineoeao?e/aneie eeeieea iiae
?oeiaiaenoaii Iaeia?oa.

1885 aiaeo oacaeaao ia aiaee/ioth noaaee?iaeo e Oa?ei a eeeieeo
“Naeueiao?ea?” (Ia?eae). Oai aea iaeaaeaaaao iaoiaeii aeiiioa?aiee. Ii
aica?auaiee i?ineooae eo?n eaeoeee ii ineoieiaee oeeinioa O?aioea
A?aioaii, iinea /aai ioia/aao aicieeiiaaiea eioa?ana e ineoe/aneie
aeecie /aeiaaea e aa caeiiai. Aei yoiai niaianoii n Ea?eii Eiea?ii
ioe?uaaao ianoiiaianoace?othuaa aeaenoaea eieaeia. Ia/eiaao caieiaoueny
aii?inaie iaoiaaiaca enoa?ee, ioaeeeoao ia?aua eeeie/aneea noaouee,
?aaioaao aianoa n A?aea?ii, a iniiaiii eniieuecoy aeiiioa?aieth.
Ia?aeeaeueii i?iaeieaeaao enneaaeiaaiey /enoi iaa?ieiae/aneiai oa?aeoa?a
(i?iaeaiu aeaoneiai ia?aee/a, aoacee, eieaeecaoeee iicaiauo ooieoeee).

E 1895 a., niaianoii n A?aea?ii, ?ac?aaioae iaoiae aeiiieaoa?nena.
Iinea ?yaea eeeie/aneeo ioaeeeaoeee a 1895 aiaeo ieoao iiiia?aoeth
“I?iaeo”, a eioi?ie niaa?oaaony ia?aay iiiuoea oiic?eoaeueii
?ac?aaioaoue caeiiiia?iinoe aeayoaeueiinoe iicaa /aeiaaea.

A 1886 aiaeo aeaieony ia Ia?oa Aa?iye. E 1901 aiaeo (aiae ioaeeeaoeee
iiiia?aoee “Oieeiaaiea niiaeaeaiee”) iieiinoueth ioeacuaaaony io iaoiaea
aeiiica e ?ac?aaaouaaao i?eaeiaeueioth iaoiaeeeo naiaiaeiuo
annioeeaoeee. A 1904-1905 aiaeao ioaeeeoao “Ineoiiaoieiaeth iauaeaiiie
aeecie”, “Ino?ioiea e aai ioiioaiea e aanniciaoaeueiiio”, “O?e i/a?ea a
oai?ee naenoaeueiinoe” e ae?oaea ecaanoiua iiiia?aoee. E iiiaioo I
Ie?iaie aieiu 3.O?aeae nin?aaeioa/eaaaony ia ?ac?aaioea oeeinioneeo e
enoi?eei-nioeeieiae/aneeo aniaeoia aeecie iauanoaa, o.a. ia/eiaao
nicaeaaaoue “iaoaineoieiae/aneoth” oai?eth. A 1908 a. i?ioiaeeo I
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee eiia?ann a a.Caeueoeao?aa. A 1909 a.
auoiaeeo a naao ia?aue 1 iaaeaeoia?iaeiue ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee aeo?iae. A
1909 a. niaianoii n E.THiaii iinauaao NOA, /eoaao eo?n ec 5 eaeoeee a
Ianna/onaoneii oieaa?neoaoa, ii ieii/aiee eo?na iieo/aao noaiaiue
ii/aoiiai aeieoi?a i?aaa. A 1910 aiaeo nicaeaaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiay

ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay annioeeaoeey. A 1920 aiaeo ioe?uaaaony ia?aue
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee einoeooo a Aa?eeia. A 1930 aiaeo 3.O?aeae iieo/aao
iaaeaeoia?iaeioth i?aieth ei.Aaoa. A 1936 aiaeo noaiiaeony ii/aoiui
eiino?aiiui /eaiii Ei?ieaaneiai iao/iiai iauanoaa Aiaeee. A 1939 aiaeo
ioaeeeoao iineaaeiee e?oiiue o?oae “Iienae e aaeeiiaiaeea”, a eioi?ii
i?iaeieaeaao ?acaeoea naieo eoeueoo?ii-enoi?e/aneeo eiioeaioeee.

Iinea ieeoiaoeee iaoeenoaie Aano?ee iiaeaa?aaaony i?aaeneaaeiaaieyi,
aeiiaoiaio a?anoo. Ii oiaeaoaenoao ?yaea ei?iiiaaiiuo inia e e?oiiiio
aueoio, caiea/aiiiio iaoeenoai Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui nithcii
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo iauanoa, niia auaoaoue a Eiiaeii, aaea e neii/aeny 23
naioya?y 1939 aiaea. Ia noiae aucaieeoue ec Aano?ee nanoa?, eioi?ua
iiaeaee a aaciauo eaia?ao. A iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie no?aaeae ec-ca
io/eoaeueiuo aieae (?ae ieaeiae /aethnoe). Nia?oue iniiaiiieiaeieea
ineoiaiaeeca ie a eiae ia?a ia iiaeaeea ca niaie caaaaiea nicaeaiiiai ei
iai?aaeaiey.

No?oeoo?a ee/iinoe ii 3.O?aeaeo

Aei nicaeaiey o?aeaeianeie oai?ee ineoieiaey a ea/anoaa iauaeoa
enneaaeiaaiey eiaea eeoue oaiiiai niciaiey, /oi ia aeaaaei aiciiaeiinoe
iinoe/ue ne?uoua iioeau iiaaaeaiey e iniaaiiinoae /aeiaaea, a
neaaeiaaoaeueii e aieaa aeoaeiiia eco/aiea no?oeoo?u ee/iinoe, O?aeae
anoae ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth enneaaeiaaiey i?e?iaeu ineoe/aneiai, a
oii /enea e oao ieanoia ineoeee, eioi?ua ia aienuaaeenue a
i?aaenoaaeaiea i “niciaoaeueiii”. Enoiaey ec yoeo caaea/ e i?aaeiinueie
enneaaeiaaiey, O?aeae e i?eoae e caeeth/aieth i oii, /oi /aeiaa/aneay
ineoeea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaeee neiaeiue eiiaeiia?ao, ninoiyuee ec
?acee/iuo o?iaiae e eiiiiiaioia, io?aaeathueo eae niciaoaeueiua, oae e
aanniciaoaeueiua i?ioeannu.

O?aeae, noaay ia?aae niaie caaea/o auyaeaiey niaea?aeaoaeueiie noi?iiu
aanniciaoaeueiiai, iiaeaa?aaao yoo noa?o aiaeeoe/aneiio ?an/eaiaieth.
Caeanue O?aeae auneacuaaao aaaeioth iuneue i nouanoaiaaiee aeaoo oi?i
aanniciaoaeueiiai. Yoi – ai-ia?auo, ne?uoia, “eaoaioiia”
aanniciaoaeueiia, o.a. oi, /oi ooei ec niciaiey, ii iiaeao a
aeaeueiaeoai “anieuoue” a niciaiee; ai-aoi?uo, yoi auoaniaiiia
aanniciaoaeueiia, o.a. oa ineoe/aneea ia?aciaaiey, eioi?ua ia iiaoo
noaoue niciaoaeueiuie iioiio, /oi ei i?ioeaiaeaenoaoao eaeay-oi iiuiay
iac?eiay neea.

Ia?aue aeae aanniciaoaeueiiai a aeaeueiaeoeo ?aaioao O?aeae iacuaaao
i?aaeniciaoaeueiui (INC), a aoi?ie – nianoaaiii aanniciaoaeueiui (ANC,
eee “Iii”, eee “Id”). Au?aaaouaay ineoiaiaeeoe/aneea i?aaenoaaeaiey i
aanniciaoaeueiii, O?aeae iiaeiaii iuneeoaeyi i?ioeiai noaaeo aii?in i
oii, eaeei ia?acii /aeiaae iiaeao noaeeoue i oii, /oi ne?uoi io aai
niciaiey. E anee oeeiniou aiai?eee i oii, /oi iaaiciiaeii ii?aaeaeyoue
oi, /oi iu ia iniciaai, oi O?aeae aeinoaoi/ii ?aoeoaeueii eeaaeao o/aiea
i aanniciaoaeueiii a iniiao naieo oai?aoe/aneeo iinooeaoia i ineoe/aneie
aeecie /aeiaaea. A ioee/ea io oiic?eoaeueiuo ?annoaeaeaiee oeeinioia ii
iieuecoaony eiie?aoiui iaoa?eaeii, iieo/aiiui ec aieiaoaeueiuo
eeeie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee iaae iaoeeaioaie, no?aaeathueie iaa?icii. E?iia
eiinoaoaoeee naiiai oaeoa nouanoaiaaiey a ineoeea /aeiaaea
aanniciaoaeueiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee, O?aeae noa?aaony ane?uoue iniaaiiinoe
iaoaiecia ia?aeeth/aiey ineoe/aneeo aeoia ec noa?u aanniciaoaeueiiai a
niciaiea. E caeanue ii iuoaaony eaeoe io ia?aoiiai iooai
ia?aoi?ioee?iaaiey caaea/e enneaaeiaaiey:”Eaeei ia?acii niciaoaeueiua
i?ioeannu noaiiayony aanniciaoaeueiuie?”. Aiciiaeiinoue iniciaiey
aanniciaoaeueiuo iaoaieciia inouanoaeyaony oiaaea, eiaaea eiathuaany
i?aaeiaoiia i?aaenoaaeaiea iaeaeaaony a neiaanioth oi?io. Ionthaea e oi
aaaeiia cia/aiea, eioi?ia O?aeae i?eaeaaae ?iee ycuea e caeiiia
eeiaaenoeee a ?ane?uoee aieaciaiiie neiioiiaoeee iaoeeaioa.

Auaeaeaiiua O?aeaeii ineoe/aneea o?iaie nianoaaiii aanniciaoaeueiiai e
i?aaeniciaoaeueiiai iauaaeeiythony aaoi?ii a iaeio nenoaio a oao
neo/ayo, eiaaea aiaeece?othony acaeiiioiioaiey aanniciaoaeueiiai e
niciaiey a no?oeoo?a ineoeee /aeiaaea. I?e/ai, ia/eiay n ?aiieo naieo
?aaio, O?aeae iiae/a?eeaaao, /oi aanniciaoaeueiia ii n/eoaao
oeaio?aeueiui eiiiiiaioii, ninoaaeythuei nooue ineoeee /aeiaaea, a
niciaoaeueiia – eeoue ii?aaeaeaiiie iaaeno?ieeie, aace?othuaeny e
i?iec?anoathuae ec noa?u aanniciaoaeueiiai.

No?oeoo?a ee/iinoe a caeii/aiiii aeaea i?aaenoaaeaia O?aeaeii a ?aaioao
“Ii oo

noi?iio i?eioeeia oaeiaieuenoaey” (1920); “Ianniaay ineoieiaey aiaeec
/aeiaa/aneiai “ss” (1921); “ss” e “Iii” (1923). I?aaeeaaaaiay iiaeaeue
ee/iinoe i?aaenoaaeyao niaie acaeiiaeaenoaey o?ao o?iaiae, iaoiaeyueony
iaaeaeo niaie a ii?aaeaeaiiuo niioiioaieyo. Yoi – “Iii” (Id), o.a.
aeoaeiiue o?iaaiue aanniciaoaeueiuo aea/aiee, naiaia?aciue ?aca?aoa?
aanniciaoaeueiuo e??aoeeiiaeueiuo ineoe/aneeo ?aaeoeee e eiioeuenia,
aeieiae/aneeo ii naiae i?e?iaea. Yoi iniiaa aeayoaeueiinoe ee/iinoe,
oaineoe/aneay einoaioeey, eioi?ay ?oeiaiaenoaoaony naieie nianoaaiiuie
caeiiaie. “Iii” yaeyaony aaeeinoaaiiui enoi/ieeii ineoe/aneie yia?aee e
?oeiaiaenoaoaony oieueei i?eioeeiii oaeiaieuenoaey.

Ii, iiiyoii, /oi aaciaeyaeiay oyaa e ianeaaeaeaieth, oaeiaeaoai?aieth
yaienoe/aneeo iio?aaiinoae, ia o/eouaathuay ?aaeueiuo aeeciaiiuo
oneiaee, i?eaaea au /aeiaaea e aeaaee. Iiyoiio a i?ioeanna yaiethoeee o
/aeiaaea iiyaeyaony “ss” (Ego) eae niciaoaeueiia ia/aei, aeaenoaothuaa n
o/aoii i?eioeeia ?aaeueiinoe e auiieiythuaa ooieoeee iin?aaeieea iaaeaeo
e??aoeeiiaeueiuie no?aieaieyie e aeaeaieyie “Iii” e o?aaiaaieyie
/aeiaa/aneiai niiauanoaa. “ss”, eae noa?a niciaoaeueiiai, niecia?yao
o?aaiaaiey aanniciaoaeueiiai “Iii” n eiie?aoiie ?aaeueiinoueth,
oeaeaniia?aciinoueth e iaiaoiaeeiinoueth. Iaeiiaoe, “Naa?o-ss
(Super-Ego)” – yoi aioo?eee/iinoiay niaanoue, o.a. einoaioeey,
ieeoeaoai?ythuay niaie oeaiiinoe e onoaiiaee iauanoaa.

“Naa?o-ss” aiieiuaao a naaa eioa?iaeeciaaiiua eiaeeaeaeii
“?iaeeoaeueneea ia?acu”, ii?aeueiua cai?aou e ii?iu, aiooaiiua a
aeaonoaa, ia?acu ia?auo o/eoaeae e cia/eiuo aeey ?aaaiea ac?ineuo. A
ii?aaeaeaiiii niunea – yoi ?acoeueoao “ae?anne?iaee” eiaeeaeaea
iauanoaii. “Naa?o-ss” iienuaaaony eae naiaai ?iaea ii?aeueiay oeaico?a,
eioi?ay i?ecaaia iaocaeaoue yaioeaio?e/aneea aanniciaoaeueiua ii?uau,
no?aieaiey e aeaeaiey /aeiaaea e iiae/eieoue eo o?aaiaaieyi eoeueoo?iie
e nioeeaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe eiie?aoiiai iauanoaa. A i?ioeanna yaiethoeee
“Naa?o-ss” noaea iaiouaieaiie /anoueth, aioo?aiiei yeaiaioii ee/iinoe.

Aeey ia?aciiai iienaiey acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo “ss” e “Iii” O?aeae
i?eaaaaao e aiaeiaee ioiioaiee iaaeaeo anaaeieeii e eioaaeueth, iiaeiaii
oiio eae ?aiaa A.Oiiaiaaoy? eniieueciaae yoo aea aiaeiaeth aeey
?ane?uoey acaeiiioiioaiee iaaeaeo eioaeeaeoii e aieae. Aeaeaeaony
anaaeiee oieueei aeaaiaea?y yia?aee eioaaee, ii oi?iaeueii oi?aaeyao ath
eiaiii ii. Anaaeiee aeieaeai naea?aeeaaoue e iai?aaeyoue eioaaeue, eia/a
anoue aa?iyoiinoue iiaeaiooue. E ana aea anoue ioaeaeueiua iiiaiou,
eiaaea eioaaeue ia oieueei aeaao yia?aeth ia?aaeaeaeaiey, ii e naia
ii?aaeaeyao iooue e iai?aaeaiea (anaaeiee canioe eee oyaeaei aieai).
Iieiaeaiea “ss” nouanoaaiii neiaeiaa, /ai iieiaeaiea eioaaee (“Iii”).
Ai-ia?auo, “ss” aeieaeii o/eouaaoue o?aaiaaiey e oneiaey ?aaeueiiai
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a, o.a. neaaeiaaoue i?eioeeio ?aaeueiinoe. Ai-aoi?uo,
“ss” eniuouaaao iinoiyiiia aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu iiuiiai “Iii”, e yoio
eiioeeeo iaaeaeo o?aaiaaieyie aiaoiaai ie?a (“Naa?o-ss”) e iio?aaiinoyie
aeoaeiiuo o?iaiae ee/iinoe (“Iii”) ii?iaeaeaao o “ss” iinoiyiioth
aioo?aiithth o?aaiao e aaniieienoai. A-o?aoueeo, “ss” iiaeaa?aaaony
ioaeaeueiiio iaaeeio “Naa?o-ss”, eae ii?aeueiiio i?anno, niaanoe. E yoi,
a naith i/a?aaeue, aucuaaao o /aeiaaea aeoaeiiia /oanoai aeiu. Yoe
eiioeeeoiua acaeiiioiioaiey o?iaiae ee/iinoe, ii iiaieth O?aeaea,
yaeythony ii nooe ia?ac?aoeiuie, e eiaiii a ieo eaaeeo eeth/ ei anai
ineoieiae/aneei e iaoieiae/aneei i?iaeaiai eae ee/iinoe, oae e iauanoaa.
Ii naiaio iieiaeaieth e ooieoeeyi a ineoeea /aeiaaea “Naa?o-ss” i?ecaaii
inouanoaeyoue noaeeiaoeeth aanniciaoaeueiuo aea/aiee, o.a. ia?aeeth/aiea
aioeeoeueoo?iuo ii?uaia “Iii” a nioeeaeueii i?eaieaiua aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe “ss”. Niaeanii O?aeaeo, “Naa?o-ss” yaeyaony “ianeaaeieeii
Yaeeiiaa eiiieaena e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, au?aaeaieai naiuo iiuiuo
aeaeaeaiee “Iii” e naiuo aaaeiuo noaeaa aai”.

AEanoeay ii?aeueiay oeaico?a “Naa?o-ss” iaoaao iniciaieth nianoaaiiuo
aeoaeiiuo iioeaia e ono?aieaiee, inouanoaeaiea eioi?uo ianiaianoeii n
o?aaiaaieyie iauanoaa e ii?aee. Yoi i?iyaeyaony aeaeaei ia oieueei a
noa?a naenoaeueiiai, ii e a iauaeaiiuo iiaaaeai/aneeo aeoao. Ii/aio,
neaaeai, caaenoiee aeaeaei ia anaaaea iniciaao enoeiiua i?e/eiu naiae
iaiaaenoe e iauaeoo caaenoe? Iioiio, /oi ei n ?aiiaai aeaonoaa onaiaii,
/oi caaenoue – /oanoai iaaeinoieiia, iai?eee/iia, ieciaiiia. Anee yoi
iniciaoue, oi ?acei iiieceony naiy naiiioeaiea,

naiioaaaeaiea. Nouanoaaiii eaa/a iauynieoue naaa e ie?oaeathuei
nianoaaiiua /oanoaa aeaenoaeoaeueiuie eee iieiuie ii?ieaie e
iaaeinoaoeaie iauaeoa caaenoe. Oaeei ia?acii e io?eoeaoaeueiua /oanoaa
nio?aiaiu e iauyniaiu, e naiioaaaeaiea ia no?aaeaao. Yoio eoia eiioeeeoa
iaania/eaaaony aeaenoaeai ioe?uouo O?aeaeii, oae iacuaaaiuo, “caueoiuo
iaoaieciia”.

Caueoiua ineoe/aneea iaoaieciu

*oi oaeia “caueoiua iaoaieciu”? A nayce n oai, /oi eae oaea
iienuaaeinue, niaeanii 3.O?aeaeo, a /aeiaa/aneie ineoeea i?ienoiaeeo
iinoiyiiue eiioeeeo iaaeaeo o?iaiyie ee/iinoe, aeey niya/aiey aucuaaaiie
yoei eiioeeeoii /oanoaa iai?yaeaiiinoe e aeiu /aeiaa/aneay ineoeea
au?aaioaea ?yae caueoiuo iaoaieciia, i?ecaaiiuo aanniciaoaeueii
iiaeaaeyoue eee ia aeiioneaoue a niciaiea oo eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?ay
i?ioeai?a/eo o?aaiaaieyi oeaico?u “Naa?o-ss” e iiaeao o?aaie?iaoue
ee/iinoue.

I?aaeaea anaai – yoi auoaniaiea. Iiae yoei iiiyoeai i?aaeiieaaaaony
iaoaieci iiaeaaeaiey e iineaaeothuaai eneeth/aiey, ecaiaiey ec niciaiey
eiioeuena, noeioee?othuaai o eiaeeaeaea /oanoai iai?yaeaiey,
aaniieienoaa e o?aaiae. Yoio iaoaieci ioee/aaony io niciaoaeueiiai
iiaeaaeaiey eaeiai-oi aeaea iniciaiiiai aeaeaiey (“iaoiaeynue a
iauanoaa, y iniciath aeaeaiea ii/anaoueny, ii oiuoeaiii e iniciaiii aai
iiaeaaeyth”). Iaoaieci auoaniaiey eiaao aeaei n iainiciaiiuie
eiioeuenaie. Iai?eia?, /aeiaaeo iaiaoiaeeii i?eiyoue eaeia-oi o?oaeiia,
io/eoaeueiia aeey iaai ?aoaiea. Ii aeieai niae?aaony, aioiaeony e yoiio
?aoaieth, ouaoaeueii ana iaaeoiuaaao, ia iiaeao ?aoeoueny ia eiie?aoiia
aeaenoaea. Ana yoi iaiieiyao aai iai?yaeaieai, aaniieienoaii, o?aaiaie.
E aio “aae?oa” ii “caauaaao” ia yoii aeaea. Eiaao ianoi a?aiaiiia
“o?aouea” ?aoaiea, i?e/ai ?a/ue eaeao ia i niciaoaeueiii oeeiiaiee io
i?eiyoey ?aoaiey. Yoi – ia eeoeaia?ea. Ca n/ao iaoaiecia auoaniaiey
iaaeaeaoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey, o?aaiaeauay e iai?yaathuay /aeiaaea, ia
a?aiy en/acaao, inaiaiaeaeay aai ineoeeo.

Neaaeothuee caueoiue iaoaieci – yoi ia?aciaaiea i?ioeaiiieiaeiie
?aaeoeee. Caeanue eiaaony a aeaeo eciaiaiea iai?eaieaiie, iaia?aiineiie
aeey niciaiey oaiaeaioeee ia i?ioeaiiieiaeioth. I?eia?ia iiaeii i?eaanoe
aieaa /ai aeinoaoi/ii. Neaaeai, iiae?inoie /oanoaoao aea/aiea e
aeaai/ea, /oi a aai n?aaea, iiaiea eioi?ie aeey iaai a yoio aic?anoiie
ia?eiae neeoeii cia/eii, aucuaaao ianiaoee e aini?eieiaaony e?aeia
io?eoeaoaeueii. Oiaaea i?ienoiaeeo eae au ia?aiaia ciaea “iethn” ia
“ieion”. Iiae?inoie noaiiaeony aa?anneaiui eiaiii ii ioiioaieth e
iauaeoo i?eaycaiiinoe. Noaiiaeony “i?aneaaeiaaoaeai, aiieoaeai,
io/eoaeai” eiaiii yoie aeaai/ee. Eae?ac /?acia?iay iiae/a?eiooinoue
/oanoaa eee iiaaaeaiey (ia i?inoi eaii?e?oao, a i?aneaaeoao) neoaeeo
iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai iaoaiecia ia?aciaaiey i?ioeaiiieiaeiie ?aaeoeee.
Aiciiaeii, yoio iaoaieci eaaeeo a iniiaa iiyaeaiey iai?eyciaiiuo /oanoa
ii ioiioaieth e oiio, eoi naeaeae iiiai aeia?iai e aaaeiiai, ii aue
naeaeaoaeai ia naiuo i?eyoiuo naienoa /aeiaaea e ia eo/oeo ia?eiaeia aai
aeecie.

I?iaeoeey – yoi aanniciaoaeueiay iiiuoea inaiaiaeeoueny io eaeeo-oi
iaayc/eauo oaiaeaioeee, ioeaieaaaiuo ee/iinoueth eae io?eoeaoaeueiua,
iooai i?eienuaaiey eo ae?oaiio eee ae?oaei. O?aaeeoeeiiiue i?eia?
iaoaiecia i?iaeoeee – yoi i?aaenoaaeaiea ia aii?aeueiinoe e naenoaeueiie
?aniouaiiinoe ie?oaeathueo noa?ie aeaaie n aa iiaeaaeaiiuie, ii
ioithaeue ia oie/oiaeaiiuie naenoaeueiuie ono?aieaieyie e aea/aieyie.
Eiaiii yoei iaoaieciii iauyniyaony oaeia oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiia yaeaiea
eae oaiaeanoai, eiaaea oaiaea i?iaioee?oao ia ae?oaeo nianoaaiiua
no?aieaiey aeoaeiiiai o?iaiy, i?ioeai?a/auea aai ii?aeueiiio
naiiniciaieth, aai “Naa?o-ss”. Iaoaieci i?iaeoeee oieaa?naeai a noa?a
iaoeeiiaeueiuo e ?aniauo i?aaeoaaaeaeaiee (enaiioiaey), eiaaea
iaiaaeaeeiie yoie/aneie a?oiia i?eienuaathony nianoaaiiua, ii ia
iniciaaaaiua io?eoeaoaeueiua /a?ou e naienoaa. Oaeei iooai yoe
oaiaeaioeee iieo/atho ii?aaeaeaiiue auoiae, iai?yaeaiea ?ac?yaeaaony i?e
oii, /oi ioeaii/iua, ii?aeueiua onoaiiaee naiiniciaiey ia no?aaeatho,
inoathony enoiaeiuie. E.N.Eii a noaouea “Ineoieiaey i?aae?annoaeea”
(“Iiaue ie?”, 1966, ? 9) niiinoaaeyao noaiaea?oiua iaaeiaiey
aia?eeaineeie aaeuie ?anenoaie iaa?ia a “ecianeeiaaiee aaeie aeaiueiu” e
yaii naaeenoe/aneee oa?aeoa? aieueoeinoaa eei/aaaiee.

Iaeiie ec oi?i i?iaeoeee yaeyaony iaoaieci auiauaiey, eiiaaea
iienuaaaiue ioaeaeueii. Caeanue eiaaony a aeaeo aanniciaoaeueiay
i?eaioaoeey eiioeuena eee /oanoaa n iaeiiai iauaeoa ia ae?oaie, /aua
aieaa aeinooiiue. Yoio iaoaieci aanueia ?ani?ino?aiai a iauaeaiiie
aeecie – yiioeee auieaneeaathony eeai ia aieaa aeeceiai /aeiaaea, eeai –
ia aieaa neaaiai (iai?eia?, iai?eyoiinoe ia ?aaioa e oieaeaiey ni
noi?iiu ia/aeueieea i?eaiaeyo e auiauaieth iaeiieaoeony yiioeee ia
aeaia, aeaoyo). A ?aieao yoiai iaoaiecia aicieeea ?anoiaeay eaeeiia
“eicae ioiouaiey”. Yoi eiaiii oa oeao?a, ia eioi?oth i?eaioe?iaai
iaoaieci auiauaiey ii?aaeaeaiiiai eeoea, eeai a?oiiu eeoe.

Caueoiue iaoaieci, iieo/eaoee iacaaiea “?aoeeiiaeecaoeey”,
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?iaea naiiiaiai (eiaaea eiaao ianoi
aanniciaoaeueiay iiiuoea ?aoeeiiaeueii iainiiaaoue iaeaiue, aano?aeiue
eiioeuen eee eaeath. *aeiaaeo naienoaaiii eiaieoeaiia ioiioaiea e naiaio
iiaaaeaieth, o.a. ?aoeeiiaeueii aai iauyniyoue naaa e ie?oaeathuei,
aeaaea anee iii e??aoeeiiaeueii. ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey iianaianoii
ano?a/aaony a iauaeaiiie aeecie /aeiaaea. Iai?eia?, /aeiaae, ia
anooieaoeeny ca iani?aaaaeeeai iaeaeaiiiai, nianay naia naiioaaaeaiea,
cayaeyao, /oi ii “ia ciae”, “ia oniae” e o.i. I/aiue /anoi ano?a/aaony
nnueea ia iaeea “eioa?anu aeaea” (niaa?oae iaaeaaiaeaeiua iinooiee, ii
ia ec-ca nianoaaiiuo ecuyiia, a ai eiy eaeeo-oi iaueo eioa?ania).
Aiciiaeii, a ?aieao yoiai iaoaiecia noaiao aieaa yniui niune iineiaeoeu
“n aieeaie aeeoue, ii-aie/uee auoue”. Eioa?anii, /oi ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey
y?ei naay i?iyaeyao a oaiiiaia, oae iacuaaaiiai, iinoaiiiioe/aneiai
aiooaiey, eiaaea aeiiieia aiooaao eniuooaiiio a ninoiyiee aeiiioe/aneiai
o?aina eaeia-oi iaeaiia aeaenoaea, eioi?ia oio aeieaeai niaa?oeoue iinea
oiai, eae aoaeao auaaaeai ec yoiai ninoiyiey. Iai?eia?, eniuooaiue
aeieaeai i?aaeeiaeeoue aeiiieiao iioaioeaaaoue. Eiaaea iinoaiiiioi/aneia
yaeaiea inouanoaeaii, e eniuooaiiai ni?aoeaatho, ii/aio ii i?aaeeiaeee
noieue iaaaeaeaaoiia ianoaiiaea aeaenoaea, ioaao anaaaea cao/eo a
ieineinoe iaoaiecia ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee (“A iia iieacaeinue, /oiiauyaeee
oaioeu” e o.i.). Eia/a e aeey naiiai /aeiaaea nianoaaiiia iiaaaeaiea
iaeaii e i?aae?annoaeeoaeueii. ?aoeeiiaeecaoeey i?ecaaia niyoue yoi
i?ioeai?a/ea.

Iineaaeiei ec iniiaiuo caueoiuo iaoaieciia, iienaiiuo O?aeaeii,
yaeyaony noaeeiaoeey. Caeanue i?aaeiieaaaaony i?aa?auaiea nioeeaeueii e
ii?aeueii iai?eaieaiiai eiioeuena a i?eaieaiue, aeiionoeiue. Iiaeii
aiai?eoue i ia?aaae?aniaea iioiea yia?aee ec iaeiiai eaiaea a ae?oaie.
Niaeanii aaoi?o, iniiaiie yia?aeae, iiaeeaaeauae ia?ai?eaioe?iaea,
yaeyaony libido. Oae, iai?eia?, /aeiaae, ia eiathuee aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/aoue aaeaeaaoioth naenoaeueioth ?ac?yaeeo, ia?aeeth/aaony ia
ae?oaie aeae aeayoaeueiinoe (iaoea, nii?o, iieeoeea, eneonnoai e o.ae.).

A oeaeii caueoiua iaoaieciu i?ecaaiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ecaanoioth
oeaeinoiinoue, onoie/eainoue e eaeaioe/iinoue eiaeeaeaeoaeueiiai
naiiniciaiey a oneiaeyo, eiaaea eiioeeeo ?acee/iuo onoaiiaie noaaeo aai
iiae oa?ico. Aaaeiinoue oeacaiiiai oi?ioi ynia ineoeao?ai, o.e.
iaonoie/eainoue naiiioeaiie, ?aci?aaiiia naiiniciaiea, e ionoonoaea
iineaaeiaaoaeueiuo e aaeaeaaoiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i naiii naaa
iaoneaaeeaatho neiioiiaoeeo iiiaeo ineoe/aneeo caaieaaaiee.

A enoi?ee ineoiaiaeeca ii?aaeaao ia oieueei ?aciiia?acea aai oieeiaaiee
e ioeaiie, ii e eaeia-oi iaayc/eaia no?aieaiea e aai iai?eyoeth e
e?eoeea. Aeanyoeeaoeyie a ioa/anoaaiiie e?eoeea oei iaaeaniia
ni?aaiiaaiea ii iaeaieaa eciu?aiiie ?oaaie 3.O?aeaea. Naie aea ?aaiou
O?aeaea ia ecaeaaaeenue e oe?ieiio e?oao /eoaoaeae auee iaecaanoiu.
Ii/aio ia i?iecioei oi, /oi i?ienoiaeeo n eiaeiuie oai?eyie? Ii/aio
ineoiaiaeec ia caauo? I?e/eio nii?ioeaeaiey ineoiaiaeeco O?aeae aeaeae
eiaiii a nouanoaiaaiee caueoiuo iaoaieciia o eaaeaeiai ec ian: “A aeaea
i?eciaiey ineoiaiaeeca ianoiyoaeuenoaa /?acau/aeii iaaeaaii?eyoiu…
anyeee noaeyuee i ineoiaiaeeca – nai ii naaa /aeiaae, o eioi?iai oaeaea
nouanoaotho auoaniaiey e eioi?ue, iiaeao auoue, n o?oaeii aeinoea oaeiai
auoaniaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ineoiaiaeec aeieaeai aucuaaoue o yoeo eeoe
oi aea naiia nii?ioeaeaiea, eioi?ia aicieeaao e o aieueiiai. Yoi
nii?ioeaeaiea i/aiue eaaei ianee?oaony eae ioeeiiaiea ?acoiii…
Iioiio-oi oae o?oaeii i?eaanoe ethaeae e oaaaeaeaieth a ?aaeueiinoe
aanniciaoaeueiiai e iao/eoue eo oiio iiaiio, /oi i?ioeai?a/eo eo

niciaoaeueiiio ciaieth”.

Yaeeiia eiiieaen

?ac?aaaouaay o/aiea i iaa?icao, O?aeae i?eoae e auaiaeo i
naenoaeueiinoe eo yoeiieiaee. Ia?auaynue ca iiaeoaa?aeaeaieai naiae
aeiioacu e ieoieiae/aneei nthaeaoai, ooaeiaeanoaaiiui e eeoa?aoo?iui
iaiyoieeai enoi?ee, O?aeae iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyao ae?aaiaa?a/aneiio
ieoo i oea?a Yaeeia.

Yaeeiia eiiieaen – niaeanii 3. O?aeaeo, yoi eiiieaen aeaoneeo
ia?aaeeaaiee, ninoiyuee ec aea/aiey iaeue/eea e iaoa?e n ?aaiinoueth e
iaaeia?iaeaeaoaeuenoaii ii ioiioaieth e iooeo. A aeaeueiaeoai yoio
eiiieaen auoaniyaony a noa?o aanniciaoaeueiiai, yaeyaony oieaa?naeueiui
aeey ioae/ei e ii?aaeaeyao iiiaea aniaeou eo naenoaeueiinoe e iaa?ioecia
(iiaeiaiia yaeaiea o aeaai/ae iaicia/aaony eiiieaenii Yeaeo?u).

Iacaaiea eiiieaena iniiaaii ia ae?aaiaa?a/aneie ieoieiaee. Yaeei – nui
oea?y Oea Eaey e oea?eoeu Eieanou, eioi?ui auei i?aaeneacaii, /oi eo nui
oauao iooea e noaiao ioaeai nianoaaiiie iaoa?e. Eiaaea ?iaeeeny Yaeei,
oea?ue i?eeacae i?ieieioue aio nooiie (Yaeei – cia/eo iooeiiiaie, n
?anioooeie iiaaie) e a?ineoue ia nuaaeaiea caa?yi. ?aa iiaeaeae
iaeue/eea e ioaeae aai ianoooo ei?eioneiai oea?y Iieeaa. Yaeei au?in a
oaa?aiiinoe, /oi oea?ue Iieea aio ioaoe. Aiiaue Aeaeueoeeneee i?aeoe
i?aaeneacuaaao oaea naiiio Yaeeio, /oi oio oaueao naiaai iooea e
aeaieony ia iaoa?e. Ono?aoaiiue yoei i?aaeneacaieai, Yaeei ?aoaao
iieeiooue aeii, eioi?ue ii n/eoae ?iaeiui. A iooe Yaeei ano?a/aao Eaey
e, anooiea n iei a nii?, oaeaaao aai. Oae eniieieeanue ia?aay /anoue
i?i?i/anoaa: Yaeei noaiiaeony oaeeoeae naiaai iooea. Ia iooe a Oeau
Yaeei ano?a/aao Noeiena, eioi?ue noa?aaeao ai?iae e iiaee?aao anao
iooieeia, ia ?acaaaeaaoeo aai caaaaeeo. Yaeei ?aoaao caaaaeeo, Noeien
a?inaaony a i?iianoue, e aei?iaa a Oeau noaiiaeony naiaiaeiie. Yaeei
aoiaeeo a ai?iae, e aeaaiaea?iua oeaaioeu ecae?atho aai oea?ai e aeatho
a aeaiu aaeiao i?aaeiaai oea?y Eieanoo. Io yoiai a?aea ?iaeeeenue
nuiiauey Yoaiee e Iieeiee e aei/a?e Eaiaia e Aioeaiia. Oae nauaaaony
aoi?ay /anoue i?i?i/anoaa – Yaeei noaiiaeony ioaeai naiae iaoa?e. *a?ac
ianeieueei eao a Oeaao ia/aeny nae?aiue aieiae, e aniuoioea yieaeaiey
/oiu. Aeaeueoeeneee i?aeoe i?aaeneacuaaao, /oi aaaenoaey i?ae?aoyony
iinea oiai, eae aoaeao iaia?oaeai oaeeoea Eaey. A ?acoeueoaoa
?anneaaeiaaiey Yaeei n oaeanii ociaao i?aaaeo, ineaieyao naay e
iieeaeaao Oeau, Eieanoa eii/aao aeeciue naiioaeenoaii.

Oaeia ieo i Yaeeia. Eioa?anii, /oi iiaeiaiua eaaaiaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiu o
iiiaeo ia?iaeia. Ea?a, iinoeaoay Yaeeia, io?aaeaao ainoiaeyuaa e
aeoaieie ae?aaiinoe cai?auaiea a?a/iuo ioiioaiee iaaeaeo i?yiuie
?iaenoaaiieeaie (eioeano). Ia/oi iiaeiaiia, i?ienoaaeoaa n aeaiueiie,
iienaii a ieoa ia Yeaeo?a.

A yoii ieoieiae/aneii nthaeaoa O?aeae oniao?eaaao ia oieueei
aeieacaoaeuenoaa oiai, /oi naenoaeueiua aea/aiey yaeythony iniiaie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ii e iiaeoaa?aeaeaiea eaeae i nouanoaiaaiee oao
naenoaeueiuo eiiieaenia, eioi?ua yeiau n aeaonoaa caeiaeaiu a /aeiaaea.
Yaeeiia eiiieaen, yaeyynue iaeiei ec aaciauo ia?aciaaiee, ii?aaeaeyao
aeaeaa niaoeeoeeo naenoaeueiie aeecie /aeiaaea, iniaaiiinoe aai
neeiiiinoae, no?aiiinoae, aeonia e i?eau/ae. I?aoi?iaoeee yoiai
eiiieaena eaaeao e a iniiaa iaa?icia e iaa?ioe/aneeo ?aaeoeee /aeiaaea.

Neaaeoao neacaoue, /oi ia aaeaaaynue a e?eoe/aneee aiaeec yoiai
eceiaeaiey, iiaeii oeene?iaaoue iiuo eeeie/aneeo iaaethaeaiee, eiaaea
aeaenoaeoaeueii ioia/aeanue aanniciaoaeueiay oaiaeaioeey iaoeeaioa
inouanoaeyoue auai? naenoaeueiiai ia?oia?a ia iniiaa iainiciaaaaiiai
“nee/aiey” aai n eaeei-eeai neiaiee/aneei i?eciaeii (oece/aneei eee
ineoieiae/aneei) ?iaeeoaey i?ioeaiiieiaeiiai iiea.

Y?in e Oaiaoin

Caaeieai aei O?aeaea iiiaea oeeiniou caaeoiuaaoanue iaae oai, /oi
eiaiii ii?aaeaeyao aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea e eaeoth ?ieue a iae
ea?atho aea/aiey. O?aeae oaeaea iinoaaee caaea/ae ii?aaeaeeoueny a
ioiioaiee oiai, /oi ii iacaae “ia?ae/iuie aea/aieyie”. A ia?auo
ioaeeeaoeeyo a ea/anoaa “ia?ae/iuo” ii ?anniao?eaae eeoue naenoaeueiua
aea/aiey. Aeaeaa ii i?eoiaeeo e auaiaeo, /oi “ia?ae/iua aea/aiey”
ninoaaeytho iiey?ioth ia?o niceaeaoaeueiie ethaae e aea/aiey e
aeano?oeoeee. Yoe ?aciuoeaiey i?eaiaeyo e nicaeaieth eiioeaioeee i oii,
/oi aeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea

iaoneiaeaia ia?aieaoaieai nee “einoeieoa aeecie” (Y?in) e “einoeieoa
nia?oe” (Oaiaoin). Yoe iiey?iua neeu yaeythony iniiaiuie
aanniciaoaeueiuie aea/aieyie, i?aaeii?aaeaeythueie anth
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoue /aeiaaea. E, anee “einoeieo aeecie” (Y?in) aieaa
ynai /eoaoaeth a ea/anoaa aeeaioai?yuae neeu, oi a ioiioaiee “einoeieoa
nia?oe” (Oaiaoin) o?aaothony aeiiieieoaeueiua ?acuyniaiey.

I?aaeiieiaeaiea i nouanoaiaaiee a /aeiaaea yoiai einoeieoa O?aeae
auaiaeeo ec yaiethoeee anaai aeeaiai, eioi?ia, aeinoeaioa iaeneioia
i?aaie/aneiai auoey, ni a?aiaiai ia/eiaao ia?aoiue iooue e a ?acoeueoaoa
nia?oe aica?auaaony e iai?aaie/aneiio ninoiyieth. A ?aieao yoie aeiioacu
aea/aiea e nio?aiaieth aeecie eeoue iaania/eaaao aeeaiio i?aaiecio
nianoaaiiue iooue e nia?oe, /oi auei noi?ioee?iaaii O?aeaeii a aeaea
iieiaeaiey “oeaeueth anyeie aeecie yaeyaony nia?oue”, i?e/ai aeeciaiiue
iooue yaeyaony a?aiie ai?ueau iaaeaeo Y?inii e Oaiaoinii. Iiieiay
ioiineoaeueiinoue a?aoiaioaoeee a iieueco yoiai iieiaeaiey, nai O?aeae
iiae/a?eeaae, /oi yoe iunee yaeythony oieueei eeoue aeiioacie.
Aaaenoaey, i?eianaiiua /aeiaa/anoao ia?aie ie?iaie aieiie, iaoieeioee
O?aeaea ia ?aciuoeaiey i neeiiiinoe eiaeeaeaea e aa?annee e
aeano?oeoeaiinoe. Nioeeaeueiua einoeooou, iuoaynue ?aaoee?iaaoue
ioiioaiey a iauanoaa a oeaeyo naiiai iauanoaa, i?ioeainoiyo eiaeeaeaeo
eae /oaeaeay e naea?aeeaathuay neea. ?acaeoea eoeueoo?u ?anniao?eaaaony
n yoiai ia?eiaea O?aeaeii eae ai?ueaa iauanoaa n ?ac?ooeoaeueiuie
oaiaeaioeeyie eiaeeaeaea e iai?a?uaii i?ioaeathuaa i?ioeaiai?noai
“einoeieoa aeecie” (Y?in) e “einoeieoa nia?oe” (Oaiaoin).

Ieo i ia?aiauoiie i?aea

Ineoiaiaeeoe/aneee acaeyae ia enoi?eth ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoaa, ia/eiay n
aai ia?aiauoiiai ninoiyiey, aia?aua aue aeai 3.O?aeaeii a ?aaioa “Oioai
e oaao” (1913), aaea ii aeaoaeueii aiaeece?oao i?ioeann noaiiaeaiey e
yaiethoeee ineoe/aneie aeecie i?eieoeaiiai /aeiaaea. Aai iineaaeiyy
?aaioa “Iienae e aaeeiiaiaeea” (1939) oaeaea aica?auaaony e yoei
iieiaeaieyi. Iauyniaiey oeie/iuo yaeaiee, oa?aeoa?iuo aeey ia?aiauoiiai
iauanoaa, oaeeo eae ii?aaeaeaiiuo iaoaieciia ooieoeeiie?iaaiey ineoeee
i?eieoeaiiai /aeiaaea, i?ioeannia ia?aciaaiey ia?aiauoiuo cai?aoia –
oaao e ae?., auaiaeeeenue aaoi?ii ia iniiaa iaoa?eaea, iieo/aiiiai i?e
aiaeeca aeaoneeo iaa?icia. Aicieeathuea o aeaoae iaa?icu /aua
au?aaeathony a aeaea ii?aaeaeaiiuo no?aoia – oiaee, ia?aaeei
i?iyaeythueony a ecia/aeueiii no?aoa eaeiai-eeai aeeaioiiai. I?e yoii,
eae ioiaoee O?aeae, a yoii no?aoa iaee/enoaoao ia oieueei nai no?ao e
iiiuoea ecaaaeaoue eiioaeoa n ioaathuei iauaeoii, ii e ii?aaeaeaiiue
eioa?an e aeaaea aea/aiea e iaio. Yoe aiaeaaeaioiua /oanoaa e aeeaioiiio
yaeythony ie /ai eiui, eae aanniciaoaeue-iui caiauaieai a ineoeea
?aaaiea oao ne?uouo aiaeaaeaioiuo /oanoa, eioi?ua ?aaaiie iienuaaao e
?iaeeoaeyi a ?aieao iienaiiiai Yaeeiiaa eiiieaena. Yoi aanniciaoaeueiia
caiauaiea i?ecaaii ne?uoue enoeiiua i?e/eiu aeaoneiai no?aoa io
iniciaiey. A ?annoaeaeaieyo O?aeaea i ia?aiauoiie i?aea i?enoonoaoao
aiaeiaey iaaeaeo ia?aiauoiui /aeiaaeii e ?aaaieii, eioi?ue eae au
iiaoi?yao a i?aaeaeueii oauno?aiiii e caianee?iaaiiii aeaea iniiaiua
yoaiu ?acaeoey /aeiaaea a oeeiaaiaca.

O?aeaeianeay ea?oeia ia?aiauoiii y?aeu auaeyaeeo neaaeothuei ia?acii:
ia ca?a naiae enoi?ee i?eieoeaiue /aeiaae aeee a i?aea, aaea
aac?acaeaeueii aeaaainoaiaae aiaeae. Yoio neeueiue naiaoe, iaeaaeay
ethaie ec i?eaeyioaoeony aio naiie aue ii nooe iooeii anao iieiaeuo
/eaiia i?aeu. Aai neea e aiea aani?aeineiaii iiae/eiyeenue ana nuiiauey.
Anee iiae?inoea nuiiauey iuoaeenue i?aaeuyaeoue i?aaa ia iaeaaeaiea
eaeie-eeai naieie, iie aeanoiei ea?aeenue iooeii, eeai ecaiiyeenue ec
i?aeu. Ioaoe ionoaeaae iiiiiieueiia i?aai ia naiie, iieuecoynue naiei
aaoi?eoaoii e oece/aneie neeii. Anoanoaaiii, oaeia i?ioeainoiyiea ia
iiaei i?iaeieaeaoueny aeieai. Iaeiaaeaeu iaeaeaiiua nuiiauey
iauaaeeieeenue a iaeiii ii?uaa e oaeee iooea. A nayce n oai, /oi
iienuaaaiue yieciae i?ienoiaeee a ia?eiae eaiieaaeecia, iie aea nuaee
oaeoiai iooea. Ia yoii ia?aue yoai ia?aiauoiie i?aeu caeii/eeny. Ii,
niaa?oea iienaiiia, iaoiaeeeenue ii ioiioaieth e iooeo iiae aeanoueth
aiaeaaeaioiuo /oanoa: iaiaaenoue – ainoeuaiea. Yoa aiaeaaeaioiinoue
ioia/aaony iianaianoii o aeaoae e iaa?ioeeia.

Oaeiaeaoai?ea /oanoai iaiaaenoe oaeenoaii iooea, iie inoaeenue iaaaeeia
ni aoi?ui eiiiiiaioii – ethaiaueth e ainoeuaieai e iaio aea. Yoi aucaaei
aicieeiiaaiea io/eoaeueiuo /oanoa aeiu e ?aneayiey. Aeey nieaeaiey
ianuuaiiinoe yoeo /oanoa ia?ac iooea aue caia/aoeai a aeaea oioaia,
nayuaiiiai neiaiea. Oaeenoai iooea (?iaeeoaeae) noaei iaaeiionoeii e
i?aaeaeueii aii?aeueii. Yoi aea /oanoai aeiu ca niaeayiiia i?eaaei e
ioeaco io aeaeaiiuo naiie, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo auee aaeeiie?iaiuie
nano?aie yoeo naioeia, /oi aeaeaa iiaoaeeei nicaeaoue cai?ao ia eioeano
(e?iainianeoaeueiua eiioaeou). Oae aicieeee iniiaiua oaao (cai?aou)
yoiai ia?eiaea enoi?ee /aeiaa/anoaa. Eiaiii n yoiai iiiaioa ii O?aeaeo,
ia/eiaaony nianoaaiii eoeueoo?a iauanoaa. “Iauanoai iieieony oaia?ue ia
nio/anoee a niaianoii niaa?oaiiii i?anooieaiee, ?aeeaey – ia niciaiee
aeiu e ?aneaeaaiey, i?aanoaaiiinoue – io/anoe ia iio?aaiinoyo yoiai
iauanoaa, io/anoe ia ?aneayiee, o?aaoaiii niciaieai aeiu”.

Oaeoe/anee any nia?aiaiiay eoeueoo?a, niaeanii acaeyaeai ineoiaiaee
oeeia, ceaeaeaony ia /oanoaa aeiu ca eiaaea-oi niaeayiiia. Yoi aea
/oanoai aoiaeeo ninoaaiie /anoueth e a Yaeeiia eiiieaen. A neeo aa/iiai
eiioeeeoa aioo?eineoe/aneeo ia?aciaaiee ee/iinoe eoeueoo?a e
oeeaeeecaoeey iinoiyiii iaoiaeyony ii oa?icie ?ac?ooaiey e oie/oiaeaiey.

Aa/iie i?iaeaiie /aeiaa/anoaa O?aeae i?aaenoaaeye onoaiiaeaiea
oeaeaniia?aciiai niioiioaiey, ii?aaeaeaiiiai ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo
aeoaeiiuie aanniciaoaeueiuie aea/aieyie eiaeeaeaea e ii?aeueiuie
o?aaiaaieyie eoeueoo?u, oeeaeeeciaaiiiai iauanoaa.

Ineoiaeae?aaee/aneay iiaeaeue iauanoaa

A ?aieao ineoiaiaeeca ethaia iauanoai eiaao aeaa aa?eaioa ?acaeoey, a
caaeneiinoe io ?ai?anneaiiai (iiaeaaeythuaai) ioiioaiey iauanoaaiiie
ii?aee e naenoaeueiinoe eiaeeaeaea, eee ia?ienneaiiai (?ac?aoathuaai)
ioiioaiey.

A ia?aii neo/aa iauanoai n iiiiuueth anao nioeeaeueiuo iaoaieciia
ainieouaaao /aeiaaea a oaiaeanee-ia?aie/eaathuae aoiinoa?a ii ioiioaieth
e i?iyaeaieyi naenoaeueiinoe. *aeiaae a oaeii iauanoaa aeoaeiii
ian/anoiae, iaa?ioe/ai, o.e. iinoiyiii aeiee?oao ianno naieo
iio?aaiinoae, aioo?aiieo eiioeuenia. Iauanoai aea eiaao iiiai oainia ia
i?ia?anneaiia ?acaeoea, o.e. ianna iaio?aaioaiiie nanoaeueiie yia?aee
eiaeeaeaea iinoiyiii ia?aeeth/aaony (noaeeie?oaony) ia iauanoaaiii
iieaciua aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe: iaoea, i?iecaiaenoai, eneonnoai, aecian e
o.i.

Aoi?ie aa?eaio ca?eaeueii io?aaeaao iienaiiia. Aeaaiaea?y
?ac?aoeoaeueiui ii ioiioaieth e /aeiaa/aneie naenoaeueiinoe onoaiiaeai
iauanoaa, eiaeeaeae a yoii neo/aa n/anoeea, ?aneiaai, eeoai
iaa?ioe/aneiai iai?yaeaiey. Naii aea iauanoai ia?a/aii ia canoie, o.e.
iaoaieci noaeeiaoeee ia au?aaeai, yia?aee ia ?acaeoea iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey
?acaeoey iauanoaaiii-ia-iaoiaeeiuo noa? aeayoaeueiinoe oaeoe/anee iao.

Ineoiaiaeec ieeiaaea ia auaeaeaae ie aaeeiiai iinooeaoa a caueoo
?ane?aiiuaiey iauanoaaiii a?aaeiuo oaiaeaioeee ee/iinoe; iai?ioea, ii
anaaaea i?ecuaae e iniciaieth aeoaeiiuo iaoaieciia aanniciaoaeueiiai, e
niciaoaeueiiio iaeaaeaieth aea/aieyie /aeiaaea, ?aciaea/ay anaaiciiaeiua
ieou e eeethcee, aoaeue oi iieeoe/aneea, ?aeeaeiciua eee
ineoieiae/aneea.

Eeeie/aneea aniaeou ineoiaiaeeca

Ineoiaiaeec iiaeii iiieiaoue e a oe?ieii (eae aiaeeoe/aneia
enneaaeiaaiea ineoeee) e a oceii (eae iaoiae ineoioa?aiee, ?ac?aaioaiiue
3.O?aeaeii e aai o/aieeaie) niunea. Eiia/ii, aiaeec ineoe/aneeo
iaoaieciia, a oii /enea e aanniciaoaeueiuo, i?iaiaeeeny e aei 3.O?aeaea.
Aieaa oiai, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a ae?oaeo iiiyoeyo, ae?oaeo oa?ieiao
auee iienaiu aanniciaoaeueiua iioeaaoeeiiiua i?ioeannu, neiaieeea
ineoe/aneie i?iaeoeoeee, ?ieue naenoaeueiie o?aaiu e o.ae. Ii oieueei
3.O?aeae a ioiineoaeueii ei?ioeee n?ie (1895-1905 a.a.) nicaeae ec yoeo
?ac?iciaiiuo

aeaiiuo oeaeinoioth ea?oeio. Ii nicaeae e i?aeoe/aneea i?eaiu
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneie ?aaiou n aieueiuie (enneaaeiaaiea naiaiaeiuo
annioeeaoeee, enoieeiaaiea niiaeaeaiee e oaioacee, eco/aiea ioeaie ?a/e
e ioeai/iuo aeaenoaee, aiaeec ia?aiina e nii?ioeaeaiey). Iicaea /enei
oaeeo i?eaiia oaaee/eeinue a ianeieueei ?ac, e naia

oaoieea ineoiaiaeeca neeueii eciaieeanue. Ai?i/ai, 3.O?aeae iniaaiii ia
ianoaeaae ia ne?oioeaciii neaaeiaaiee aeanoeei i?aaeeai. Ii aiai?ee i
oii, /oi ineoioa?aiaao, eioi?ue i?eciaao ia?aiin e nii?ioeaeaiea e
eniieuecoao eioa?i?aoaoeeth yoeo oaiiiaiia a naiae ?aaioa, oaea yaeyaony
ineoiaiaeeoeeii.

Iaaa?ii oaeaea n/eoaoue 3.O?aeaea eneeth/eoaeueii i?eaa?aeaiiui oai?ee
iainaenoaeecia. Aai iicaeiea ?aaiou (iinea 1-e ie?iaie aieiu) oaea
i?eciatho ?ieue ia oieueei iieiaiai aea/aiey, ii e aea/aiey e nia?oe,
?ieue aa?annee e o.ae. E?iia oiai, eeaeaei e ?aiueoa ia iiieiaeinue eae
eneeth/eoaeueii iieiaia aea/aiea a oceii niunea neiaa. Niaeanii E.THiao,
iii nei?aa yaeyeinue oieaa?naeueiie einie/aneie yia?aeae, iioiee eioi?ie
i?eieiatho ?acee/iua iai?aaeaiey (noaeeiaoeey). Yoi – ia/oi a?iaea
“ie?iaie naenoaeueiinoe”, iiiyoea, eioi?ia iauyniyao yia?aaoe/aneea e
aeeiaie/aneea i?ioeannu a i?e?iaea e iauanoaa. E 3.O?aeaeo, eae e ei
anyeiio ae?oaiio o/aiiio, neaaeoao i?eiaiyoue i?eioeei enoi?ecia, o.a.
?anniao?eaaoue aai acaeyaeu a eiie?aoiie ianoaiiaea, eiaaoae ianoi a
iaoea a oi a?aiy. Oae, iai?eia?, o/aiea i iaa?icao a eiioea 80-o a.a.
XIX a. (o.a. aei eeeie/aneie eiioeaioeee 3.O?aeaea) i?aeoe/anee
ionoonoaiaaei, enoa?ey ?anniao?eaaeanue a aeooa AE.Oa?ei eae
ianeaaenoaaiii-aeaaaia?aoeaiia caaieaaaiea, ineoinoaiey I.AEaiy aua ia
auea iienaia, iaayc/eaue neiae?ii iiieiaeny iaa?iiaoieiaaie eae /anoue
i?aaie/aneeo caaieaaaiee iicaa.

I?eiaiyy i?eioeei enoi?ecia e a aeaeueiaeoai, iu aeaeei, /oi
ineoiaiaeec oaea i?e aeecie 3.O?aeaea ?aniaeny ia ianeieueei iniiaiuo
iai?aaeaiee: a?oiiiaie ineoiaiaeec, aicieeoee a NOE (O.Ay??io),
ineoiniiaoe/aneia iai?aaeaiea (O.Aeaiay?, O.Aeaenaiae?),
eiaeeaeaeoaeueioth ineoieiaeth A.Aaeea?a, aiaeeoe/aneoth ineoioa?aieth
E.THiaa. Iiae/a?eeaaeanue iuneue i iacuaeaiinoe iniiaiuo i?eciaeia
ineoiaiaeeca (aaaeouae ?iee aanniciaoaeueiiai, eioaioeeueiuo ineoe/aneeo
o?aai, neiaiee/aneiai neiioiiiia?aciaaiey), ii iaeiia?aiaiii a o/aiea i
iaa?icao i?iieeaee e yaiethoeeiiii-aeieiae/aneea acaeyaeu Y.E?a/ia?a e
nioeeaeueii-eoeueoo?iua iiaeoiaeu iaio?aeaeenoia. Iaiyeanue e oaoieea
ineoiaiaeeca. N iaeiie noi?iiu, iia iaiaauaeanue iiauie i?eaiaie
(eniieueciaaiea i?iaeaeoeaiuo oanoia, aeiiica, a?oiiiauo i?ioeannia,
?ieaaie oaoieee), n ae?oaie – oi?iuaeenue nayce n oaaee/aieai /enea
aieueiuo, iaaeinoaoeii a?aiaie, aunieie noieiinouetheo?na eeanne/aneiai
i?oiaeienaeueiiai ineoiaiaeeca (ai?i/ai, oaeiaie eiaaony e a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy, ii ?ani?ino?aiai ia?aie/aiii, aeaaiui ia?acii a NOA).

Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi /enoioa e ei??aeoiinoue ?acee/iuo iaoiaeee
ineoiaiaeeca, ca eioi?uie ouaoaeueii neaaeeee iniiaiiieiaeieee yoeo
iaoiaeee, niaieeanue a 50-a e iineaaeothuea aiaeu ?acee/iuie eo
eiiaeiaoeeyie e ni/aoaieyie, /oi iicaieyao iineaaeiea 30-40 eao n/eoaoue
ia?eiaeii yeeaeoe/aneiai ineoiaiaeeca. Anee a ia/aea XX a. 3.O?aeae
cayaee, /oi ii niaiee “iaaeue” aeiiica ia “cieioi” ineoiaiaeeca, oi a
50-60-a a.a. aeiiic niiaa oe?iei auoiaeeo ia ie?iaoth noeaio a aeaea
?acee/iuo iiauo iaoiaeee, a eioi?uo cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue ea?aao
aiaeeoe/aneee iiaeoiae. Yoi e “aeoeaiue aeiiic” Y.E?a/ia?a, e
“nooiai/aoue aeiiic” Ae.Eaeaaia, e aeiiic ii A.Noieaeno, e aeiiiaiaeec,
e aeiiiae?aia, e aeiiineioac, eiiaeiaoeee aeiiica n ineoio?iiiuie
i?aia?aoaie, aooio?aieiaii, a?oiiiauie iaoiaeeeaie. Ana yoi noaiiaeony
ineoiaiaeecii oiaaea, eiaaea ia/eiaaony i?ioeann eioa?i?aoaoeee,
enoieeiaaiey ineoieiae/aneiai iaoa?eaea, iieo/aiiiai a ?acoeueoaoa
i?eiaiaiey yoeo iaoiaeee (niiaeaeaiee, oaioacee, nii?ioeaeaiey i
ia?aiina, iioeaaoeee, i?iaeoeee, eiiaa?neiiiuo neiioiiia, neiaiee/aneiai
iiaaaeaiey e o.ae.).

Iaaeinoaoeii nia?aiaiiie ineoioa?aiee yaeyaony oi, /oi aeaaiia aieiaiea
oaeaeyaony aaneiia/iiio ae?iaeaieth oaoie/aneie noi?iiu aeaea,
nicaeaieth ana iiauo e iiauo oaoie/aneeo i?eaiia, a oi a?aiy eae aii?in
i niaea?aeaiee ineoioa?aiee, eiaeeaeaeoaeecaoeee yoiai niaea?aeaiey e
aii?in ia aai onaiaiee, i?eiyoee iaoeeaioii ana a?aiy inoaaony a oaie.
Ii-i?aaeiaio, /anoi ano?a/aaony iiaeiaia i?iaeai aieueiiai i?iaeaiaie
a?a/a, ia?aiin “iaa?ica a?a/a” ia aieueiiai, i?ioea /aai anaaaea
i?aaeinoa?aaaee 3.O?aeae, E.?iaeaea?n e ae?. Aiiaua, i?iaeaia iiceoeaiie
ineoioa?aiee, o.a. ia?aainieoaiey aieueiiai, aai i?eaioaoeee ia iiaua
aeeciaiiua oeaiiinoe nouanoaiaaee anaaaea, e iiaeii ioiaoeoue a yoii
niunea eae eeanne/aneea ?aaiou A.E.ss?ioeeiai e E.Ia?oeeiianeiai, oae e
nia?aiaiiua aicc?aiey A.O?aieey i

eiaioa?aiee. 3.O?aeae ioaa?aae ia?aainieoaiea, ii n/eoae, /oi iieiia
iniciaiea iaa?ioe/aneiai eiioeeeoa caaa?oaao aiaeec, aaaeao e
aucaei?iaeaieth aieueiiai. A.I.Iyneuaa aiai?ee ia eciaiaiee “ioiioaiee”
iaoeeaioa, iaanoeaieaathuai ineoe/aneoth o?aaio; n aieueoie
inoi?iaeiinoueth iiaeoiaeeo e eciaiaieth iiceoeee aieueiiai oeiea
E.?iaeaea?na. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, noi?iiieee iiaaaeai/aneie ineoioa?aiee,
e?aoein?i/iie eioaineaiie oa?aiee e o.ae. ai?acaei aieaa aeoeaiu.
Aa?iyoii, aiaeeoe/aneay ineoioa?aiey ia eneeth/aao iiceoeaiie ?aaiou ii
?aeiino?oeoeee, iaiiaeaieth, iaiaauaieth ee/iinoe iaoeeaioa, iaeiaei, n
aai aeoeaiui o/anoeai a yoii i?ioeanna.

Aeaaiia aea – yoi iaee/ea iinoiyiiiai aeoaieiai ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai
eiioaeoa, eioi?ue, a eiia/iii eoiaa, iaania/eaaao oniao anaai ea/aiey.

Ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneee eiioaeo – iaoaieci aanniciaoaeueiue. A ?aciuo
oeieao ii iacuaaaony ii-?aciiio: yecenoaioeeaeueiay eiiioieeaoeey,
ia?aiin (o?ainoa?o) e i?ioeaiia?aiin (eiio?o?ainoa?o), eaeaioeoeeaoeey
iaooa?iia e o.ae. A aicieeiiaaiee eiioaeoa aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho
onoaiiaea (Ae.I.Ociaaeca), oi?ie?oaiue ia?ac ia?oia?a (eieaeae), aiiaua,
aeoeaiinoue aanniciaoaeueiiai oie ee/iinoe, n eioi?ie onoaiaaeeaaaony
eiioaeo (niiniaiinoue e yiiaoee – niia?aaeeaaieth). Iiaeii iacaaoue yoi
niiniaiinoueth e ?aciiaino, ia?aoaieth niioaaonoaothueo ae?oaiio
/aeiaaeo ?eoiia ineoieiae/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe. Cia/eoaeueioth ?ieue
ea?aao a yoii eiooeoeey – aanniciaoaeueiua iaoaieciu iiieiaiey ae?oa
ae?oaii.

I?aeoe/anee, yoi naiaeeony e oiaieth aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy auneooeaaoue
aieueiiai, aieeay a aai yiioeeiiaeueiia ninoiyiea. I?e yoii a?a/
iieo/aao iaeneioi eioi?iaoeee io iaoeeaioa, aeaaay (ia ia?aiia/aeueiii
yoaia) ieieioi naiae eioi?iaoeee, o.e. iineaaeiyy, auaeaeiooay n?aco
aea, iiaeaaeyao aeoeaiinoue aieueiiai, oneeeaaao aai nii?ioeaeaiea,
niinianoaoao ianneaiiio neaaeiaaieth a ?onea ineoioa?aiaaoa. I?e
i?aaeeueiie oaeoeea ineoioa?aiaao inoaaony ia naycaiiui i?aaeacyoui
ioiioaieai, ii naiaiaeai e ieanoe/ai i?e aini?eyoee aieueiiai. Eeoue
eiiaaea ei?ioeeie ?aieeeaie ii i?aaeainoeuaao auneacuaaiey aieueiiai (ia
iniiaaiee naiaai iiuoa), /oi aaaeao iineaaeiaai e aia/aoeaieth i oii,
/oi a?a/ aeoaiei aai iiieiaao (i?eai i?aaeiaia?aiiiai oaaaeuaaiey
i?iaeai iaoeeaioa). A?a/ eniieuecoao a yoi a?aiy iaaa?aaeueiua
aicaeaenoaey (au?aaeaiea eeoea, naea?aeaiiua aeanou, iica e o.ae.).
Iaaa?aaeueiua eiiiiiaiou eiioaeoa, eaeouea io a?a/a, iiaoo eae
nii?iaiaeaeaoue neiaa aieueiiai, oae e iia?aaeaoue eo, /oi aeaao
iineaaeiaio aiciiaeiinoue eia/a ioeaieoue oi, /oi ii aiai?eo, nieceoue
yiioeeiiaeueioth noi?iio ?anneacuaaaiiai. Iai?eia?, ?anneacuaay a?a/o i
oii, /oi iieiaeaiea, a eioi?ia ii iiiae, yeiau “aacauoiaeiia”, ii iiaeao
ia ianeieueei naeoiae ?aiueoa oaeaeaoue eae ineoioa?aiaao io?eoeaoaeueii
ea/aao aieiaie eee aeaeaao e?iie/aneee aeano ?oeith. Oiaaea aieueiie
oaea eia/a ioiineony e neiaai “iieiaeaiea aacauoiaeiia”, eioi?ia ii
i?eaue aini?eieiaoue aac e?eoeee.

A ?anneaca aieueiiai ineoioa?aiaao iniaaiii auaeaeyao oi, /oi ioiineony
e aai aeaonoao e, iniaaiii, e ioeeaa?iie a?oiia (o.a. ioaoe, iaoue,
a?aouey e nano?u, ia?auaao aieiaiea ia iaiieiioo yoie a?oiiu, e ia
iniaaiiinoe acaeiiioiioaiee a iae. Aua aaaeiaa – acaeiiioiioaiey n
iaoa?ueth (a ?aiiai, aeaonoaa) e iiae?iaiia iciaeiieaiea n aa
ee/iinoueth, iniaaiii aa yiioeeiiaeueiie noa?ie. Nooay, oieiaeiay,
caieiooay (aooenoe/aneay) iaoue neoaeeo enoi/ieeii iiauoaiiiai ?enea
aeey ?aaaiea a ioiioaiee ?acaeoey o iaai a aoaeouai oecio?aiee
(oecio?aiiaaiiay iaoue), ineoiiaoee, iaa?icia, ineoiniiaoe/aneeo
caaieaaaiee (iai?eia?, a?iioeaeueiie anoiu). Ia yoii iniiaai ?yae
ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo iaoiaeee ea/aiey (a?oiiiaay ineoioa?aiey iaoa?ae,
naiaeiay ineoioa?aiey e ae?.).

*anoue oaeiai ?anneaca aieueiiai iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny a aeiiica
(aeiiieaoa?nen), i?e ?anoi?iaaeeaaiee e aaaaeaiee yeoi?ece?othueo e
niioai?iuo n?aaenoa (ia?eiineoioa?aiey, ia?eiaiaeec), a i?ioeanna ea?u e
aeaeaaoaeueiuo oi?aaeiaiee (?ieaaay oa?aiey, eeiaceioa?aiey). Oaeaea
ii?aaeaeaiiay /anoue ?anneaca iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny iaaa?aaeueiuie
i?eaiaie (iaioiieia, ?enoiie e i?.). A i?ioeanna auneooeaaiey ?aoathony
neaaeothuea ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneea caaea/e: 1) ia?ae/iia io?aaae?iaaiea,
iaeaa/aiea o aieueiiai, oiaiueoaiea o?aaiaeiinoe, iai?yaeaiey; 2) nai? o
aieueiiai oae iacuaaaiiai aeeiaie/aneiai aiaeeoe/aneiai

iaoa?eaea (oaeou aeecie, ioeaiee, niiaeaeaiey, oaioacee, aioo?aiiyy
noauaeoeaiay “eiioeaioeey aieacie”, acaeiiioioaiey n ethaeueie,
eiioeeeou e o.ae.); 3) eco/aiea ia?aiina, eiio?ia?aiina e nii?ioeaeaiey;
4) eco/aiea iaoaieciia ineoieiae/aneie caueou o aieueiiai, aai
“eieaeaea”, ?ieae, acyouo ei ia naay; 5) nicaeaiea a?a/ii naiaai
nianoaaiiiai ia?aca e i?eaioe?iaaiiue auai? ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai noeey
(“ioaoe”, “ae?oa”, “niaanaaeiee”, “iaa”, “niia?iee” e o.ae.). A eiia/iii
eoiaa, ?a/ue eaeao i i?iaoaeaeaiee acaeiiie neiiaoee,
ineoioa?aiaaoe/aneiai eiioaeoa. Nai ii naaa eiioaeo eae ia?aiin e
nii?ioeaeaiea, oiaea yaeyaony iauaeoii aeaeueiaeoaai aiaeeca.

Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia ineoiaiaeeca yaeyaony iiieiaiea anae
ineoieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?oth aeaao aieueiie, ia n auoiaie,
iauaeaiiie, i?yiieeiaeiie oi/ee c?aiey, a n oi/ee c?aiey oao aeoaeiiuo,
aanniciaoaeueiuo i?ioeannia, eioi?ua yoe iiaa?oiinoiua oaeou e yaeaiey
au?aaeatho. Iaaei iao/eoueny iaoiaeeoue nayce iaaeaeo neiioiiaie (eae
niiaoe/aneeie, oae e ineoe/aneeie), eioi?ua iu iaoiaeei i?e eeeie/aneii
ianeaaeiaaiee aieueiiai e aanniciaoaeueiuie eiioeeeoaie (/aua anaai
iaaeaeo iio?aaiinoyie e aiciiaeiinoyie eo oaeiaeaoai?aiey), eiay a
aeaeo, /oi yoe neiioiiu i?iyaeythony a caoeo?iaaiiie, neiaiee/aneie
oi?ia. Yoo caeiiiia?iinoue 3.O?aeae iauyniee iaee/eai oeaico?u,
iaeiinoi?iiiaai aeey i?ioiaeaeaiey eioi?iaoeee iaoaiecia ia a?aieoea
niciaoaeueiie e aanniciaoaeueiie noa? ineoeee /aeiaaea. I?ioiae
ineoio?aaie?othuae eioi?iaoeee ec niciaiey a aanniciaoaeueiia aue iacaai
“auoaniaieai” (ineoiaaiiay aiiacey). Ia?aoiue i?ioeann a iau/iii aeaea
iaaiciiaeai. Eeoue a niiaeaeaieyo, aanniciaoaeueiuo aeanoao, iinooieao
eee ioeaeao, a oaioaceyo eee a oaeoao ia?aiina e eiio?ia?aiina, a
i?iaeoeeyo yoa eioi?iaoeey niiaa iiaeao aueoe ia iiaa?oiinoue, ii oaea a
cae?uoii, neiaiee/aneii aeaea. Neaaeoao oaeaea eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi
eaaeaeay ineoiaiaeeoe/aneay, a oaeaea e ae?oaea (yecenoaioeeaeueiay,
o?ainaeoiay) oeieu eiatho naia oieeiaaiea yoie i?iaeoeoeee, naith
nenoaio neiaieeee.

Neiaieeea i?oiaeienaeueiie oeieu 3.O?aeaea ii/oe iieiinoueth
en/a?iuaaaony naenoaeueiuie neiaieaie, ii a ae?oaeo oeieao aeaei ianoieo
eia/a. O E.A.THiaa nieioea e aaoa? ieeoeaoai?ytho ioaeneia ia/aei, caiey
e aiaea – aeaineia; a neiaieeeo aai oeieu aoiaeeo iiiyoea ia
a?oaoeiao-yeaiaioao ia?aaeathuaai ii ianeaaenoao “eieeaeoeaiiai
aanniciaoaeueiiai”.

Yecenoaioeeaeueiay neiaieeea ioaaouaaao iniiaiua aeeciaiiua iiiyoey –
“iooue”, “nia?oue”, “/aeiaae”, “iaoaea/a”, “i?aa?aaea” e o.i. Iai?eia?,
aei?iaa – neiaie aeeciaiiiai iooe, eieueoeaaay aei?iaa –
aacauoiaeiinoue, iiaoi?yaiinoue; caai?u, noaiu – i?aa?aaeu ia iooe e
oeaee; eanoieoea – ea?uea?a, iooue iaaa?o e o.ae.

A i?oiaeienaeueiii ineoiaiaeeca oaeee/aneee neiaie (ioaeneiai iieiaiai
/eaia) – ana aeeeiiua oceea i?aaeiaou – iaeee, ciioeee, aea?aauey,
o?inoe, a oaeaea aaoie, iaaine?aau, ia/ou e i?; neiaie aeaineeo iieiauo
i?aaiia – i?aaeiaou, eiathuea aioo?aiithth iieinoue (i?ino?ainoai) e
aoiae (iaua?u, eiiiaou, oeyiu, ooiiaee, oeaooeee, a oaeaea o?eoioaeueiua
a?ee, iiaeuacaeu, ai?ioa e o.ae.). Iioa?y eaeeo-ieaoaeue /anoae oaea,
iniaaiii n e?iaioa/aieai (iai?eia?, oaeaeaiea coaia, aiiooaoeey iiae eee
?oee), ioiineony e neiaieeea, naycaiiie n eiiieaenii eano?aoeee. Iiiai
neiaiee/aneeo eiino?oeoeee ioiineony e iieiaiio aeoo, iniaaiii a ?aieao
oae iacuaaaiie “eioaioeeueiie naenoaeueiinoe”. 3.O?aeae n/eoae
oa?aeoa?iui aeey iieiaiai aeoa o?e iieacaoaey – iaee/ea aea/aiey
(aeaeaiea), naycaiiiai n ?inoii iai?yaeaiey (ooianoeaioeey), iaee/ea
ianeaaeaeaiey, eioi?ia aeinoeaay aunoae oi/ee, ia?aaeeaaaony eae i?aaci,
e iaee/ea ?ac?yaeee, niaae iai?yaeaiey iinea i?aacia (aeaooianoeaioeey),
oaeiaeaoai?aiea, eioi?ia ia?aaeeaa-

aony eae iaeaa/aiea, niyoea oyaeanoe, iaaaniiinoue (iuouaiea iieaoa).

Eiaiii, a nayce n yoei niiaeaeaiey, naycaiiua n iieaoaie,
iaaaniiinoueth, iaiaueiiaaiiie eaaeinoueth, ?anniao?eaathony
ineoiaiaeeoeeaie eae neiaieeea iieiaiai aeoa. E yoei aea i?eciaeai
iieiaiai aeoa (a ineoiniiaoe/aneii aniaeoa) ioiineony eiaeiue coae e
iineaaeothuaa aai iaeaa/aiea, naycaiiia n /anaieai, yeoi?ey iinea niyoey
aieaaiai neiae?iia e ae?. A ?aieao eioaioeeueiie naenoaeueiinoe ii yoei
aea i?eciaeai e iieiaiio aeoo ioiineony ninaiea ?aaaieii iaoa?eineie
a?oaee, eanee iaoa?e (ana oaei iaeaiueeiai ?aaaiea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aaeeioth y?iaaiioth ciio),

ii/aenioneaiea e aeaoaeaoeey e i?. Anee aiai?eoue oe?a, oi e ai ac?ineie
naenoaeueiinoe iiiaea aeaenoaey eiatho neiaiee/aneee oa?aeoa?. Eanee
ieaeiae /anoe oaea – oeaeiaaiea iia, eoiieeeiaaon, iica ia eieaiyo e i?.
neiaieece?otho iiei?iinoue, iiae/eiaiiinoue iaeiiai ia?oia?a ii
ioiioaieth e ae?oaiio. E yoiio aea ioiinyony ii?aaeaeaiiua neiaa e
o?acu, iai?eia?: “y – oaie ?aa”, “ou – iie oicyei”, “aeaeae ni iiie, /oi
oi/aoue” e o.ae. A ?ieaaii iiaaaeaiee naenoaeueiuo ia?oia?ia neiaieeea
?acaeoa i/aiue oe?iei, iia iaoiaeeo io?aaeaiea a o?aaeeoeeyo e ia?yaeao,
naycaiiuo ni acaeiioiioaieyie iieia.

Ineoioa?aiey – yoi ia iaoea eee eneonnoai aiai?eoue, aiooaoue eee
oaaaeaeaoue. I?aaeeueiaa neacaoue – yoa caaea/a oiaea aoiaeeo a nenoaio
ineoioa?aiee, ii iia ia yaeyaony ia?aii/a?aaeiie. Aeaaiua caaea/e –
oiaiea iaaethaeaoue e oiaiea neooaoue e iiieiaoue iaoeeaioa.

Aanniciaoaeueiia iiaeii eco/aoue ia oieueei i?e iiiiue i?iaeaeoeaiuo
oanoia, a aeiiica, i?e aiaeeca niiaeaeaiee e oaioacee. Oeaeaiai?aaeaiiia
iaaethaeaiea aieueiiai aeaao iaiau/aeii iiiai aeey iiieiaiey aai
aanniciaoaeueiuo iioeaaoeee.

Niciaiea, eiia/ii, eiio?iee?oao aanniciaoaeueiia, ii ia iieiinoueth,
eia/a aiai?y, a ?acee/iie noaiaie, a oaeaea ii-?aciiio a ?acee/iuo
neooaoeeyo. Aanniciaoaeueiua iioeau eo/oa anaai caueuaiu a iauanoaaiiuo
iinooieao, a neooaoeeyo, ioiinyueony e i?anoeaeo, naiiooaa?aeaeaieth.
Iaeiaei nai oa?aeoa? yoiai eiio?iey, yoiai i?ee?uoey iicaieyao iieo/eoue
iaoa?eae i aieaa aeoaieeo i?ioeannao. I/aiue aaaeii aeaeaoue ia?ooaiea
/oanoaa ia?u a yoii eiio?iea, iniaaiii a noi?iio aai oaaee/aiey,
oneeaiey. Oa?aeoa?iue i?eia? i?eaiaeeo A.N.Iooeei: “Neiai yoi (prude)
icia/aao aeaiueio, /?acia?ii uaeioeeaoth a naieo iiiyoeyo i /anoe
(aeaineie) – iaaeio?iao. Oaeiaia naienoai i?aaeiieaaaao ia/enoioo
aiia?aaeaiey, ioa?aoeoaeueioth a aeaiueia, iniaaiii iieiaeie…
iaaeiiinoue anoue eo/oaa oe?aoaiea iieiaeinoe. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
i?thaenoai eee niaoii, eee ianiinii”. Oaeei ia?acii, iu aeaeei, /oi
/?acia?iue, ia?i/eoue eiio?ieue i?eaiaeeo e ia?aoiui ?acoeueoaoai,
i?iecaiaey iaaeaaii?eyoiia aia/aoeaiea. Oi aea naiia eiaao ianoi i?e
oiio?aaeaiee yaoaieciia – neia-caiaieoaeae, “niya/athueo” neeoeii oi/iia
eee ioe?iaaiiia iaicia/aiea iiiyoee, /aua anaai ioiinyueony e iieiaie
aeecie – naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i i?aoaioeeiciinoe, niiauaao ee/iinoe
ioia/aoie i?iaeioeeaeueiinoe.

Aeecei e yoiio oiio?aaeaiea noaiaea?oiuo au?aaeaiee, iinyueo
oo?e?iaaiii nioeeaeueii-iieiaeeoaeueiue oa?aeoa? (“o ian i?ae?aniay
naiuey”, “iu n ioaeai ieeiaaea ia nni?einy”, “iia ie/aai ia iaaei, eeoue
au aeaoyi auei oi?ioi” e ae?.). Iau/ii yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaeioi?ie
oinoaaiiie ia?aie/aiiinoe /aeiaaea, ia niiniaiiai iiiyoue, /oi ana yoi
eeoue aeiaieueii a?oai naeaeaiiay ineoieiae/aneay caueoa. A aieueoeinoaa
neo/aaa n oa/aieai a?aiaie aic?anoaao aeiaa?ea e ioe?uoinoue aieueiiai
(eeeaioa), ii o?aaoaony oa?iaiea ineoioa?aiaaoa. Iiiiaaao i?eai
i?aaeiaia?aiiiai “oaaaeuaaiey” iaeioi?uo oaeoia aiaiiaca eee neooaoeee,
neiaeeaoaeny o eeeaioa. A iniiaa yoiai yooaeoeaiiai i?eaia eaaeeo iiuo
aiaeeoeea e ciaiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai iaai?a oeie/iuo ee/iinoiuo i?iaeai,
oeie/iuo neooaoeee e o.ae., ii ia iaoeeaioa yoi iiaeao i?iecaanoe
iaiau/aeii neeueiia aia/aoeaiea io niiniaiinoe a?a/a “aeaeaoue ana
ianeaicue”, iaee/ey o iaai aeoaieie eiooeoeee e o.ae.).

Eiio?ieue iiaeao ineaaaoue io niiaoe/aneeo e, aiiaua, aeieiae/aneeo
i?e/ei: aic?anoiiai oaeoi?a (eeeiaeoa?e/aneee ia?eiae e ae?.), anoaiee
iinea ?acee/iuo caaieaaaiee, o?aaiu /a?aia, aeeyiey aeeiaiey e
ia?eioe/aneeo n?aaenoa, ia?aooiieaiey e o.ae. Ineaaeaiea eiio?iey
(a?aiaiiia eee iinoiyiiia) iiaeao auoue neaaenoaeai ineoiaaiiuo
aicaeaenoaee (ineoe/aneay o?aaia, no?ann, neooaoeaiua oaeoi?u, a
/anoiinoe, naiaeiua).

Oneeaiea eiio?iey iiaeao auoue aucaaii ainieoaieai, iniaaiiinoyie
oa?aeoa?a, ioaaonoaaiiie ianoaiiaeie eee oeaeueth. Iaeiaei, neaaeoao
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi oi?aaeaiea eiio?ieai iaae aanniciaoaeueiui, ii
e?aeiae ia?a /anoe/ii, caaeneo io naiiai aanniciaoaeueiiai.

E?iia oneeaiey e oiaiueoaiey eiio?iey, neaaeoao ?anniio?aoue aai
?ani?aaeaeaiea ai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa. Eiio?ieue ia?aaiiia?ai.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, ii caaeneo io aei?eoiia i?aaiecia, io nooi/iuo eieaaaiee
iano?iaiey, aeaaea io a?aiaie aiaea e eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee. *oi
eanaaony aai ?ani?aaeaeaiey a i?ino?ainoaa, oi ?a/ue eaeao,

aeaaiui ia?acii, i iaaa?aaeueiuo ?aaeoeeyo – aeanoao, ieieea, iicao,
iioiaeea, inaiea, noaiaie iai?yaeaiey e ?anneaaeaiey ?acee/iuo iuooe
oaea e o.ae. Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa aaaeiuo iauaeoia iaaethaeaiey yaeyaony
eeoei, /oi aeaei a naia a?aiy eiioeuen oaeie iaoea eae oeceiaiiieea,
iaeiei ec iniiaaoaeae eioi?ie aue Eaoaoa?, a a ?innee i iae ienae
E.A.Neei?neee.

Ia oaeoaeyynue a aeaoaee, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi ia eeoea auaeaeythony
aeaa iiey iaaethaeaiey – aa?oiaa (eia, aeaca, iin) e ieaeiaa (?io,
ieaeiyy /aethnoue). Aa?oiaa iiea iau/ii eiio?iee?oaony eo/oa.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, yoi naycaii n oai, /oi i?e iauaiee aieueooth ?ieue ea?aao
acaeiiia iniao?eaaiea ae?oa ae?oaa. Ieaeiyy /anoue eeoea noaiiaeony
iniaaiii oa?aeoa?iie eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiua iiiaiou – eiaaea /aeiaae ano,
eiaaea ii a aiaaa (“ineae”), au?aaeaao iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou oaeiaieuenoaey
(iaeecuaaaony, i?e/iieeaaao aoaaie e o.ae.).

Aaaeiia cia/aiea eiaao iaaethaeaiea ?oe iaoeeaioa, iniaaiii aai
iaeueoeaa (o?aaiaa, aiaa,), noeaieaiea ?oe (aa?oiyy caueoa). Iiiaia
icia/aao ianiioaaonoaea niunea ?a/e e aeanoa, eioi?ue eiiaaea eaeao
aeaaea a?ac?ac n oai, /oi aiai?eo /aeiaae. Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao eeai i
aeooaaiie aeenaa?iiiee, eeai i i?eieoeaiinoe, iaaeeooa?aioee?iaaieinoe
ee/iinoe. Eiia/ii, o/eouaathony e ninoaeenoua ?aaeoeee (ie?anea eiaeiuo
iie?iaia, aeia?aeae?ic e o.ae.). ?ani?aaeaeaiea e?aniuo e ?iciauo iyoai
ia eeoea, oaa, a?oaee eiaao na?ueaciia cia/aiea.

Aeenaa?iiie/iinoue ?acee/iuo /anoae oaea iiaeao auoue ne?uoie, o.a.
i?iyaeyoueny eeoue a ii?aaeae?iiuo ?ieaauo neooaoeeyo, i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo (ooiieaiea, no?ann, aiacaiii aicieeathuaa i?aiyonoaea i?e
aaaeiie aeey iaoeeaioa aeayoaeueiinoe – iai?eia?, i?e iieiaii aeoa e
o.ae.). Iia i?iyaeyaony a oaioeao, ?eoieea, iaioiieia, ?acua?uaaiee
yothaeia e o.ae. A yoio ia?eiae auyaeythony aanniciaoaeueiua iioeau,
eiioeeeou, ia?aaeeaaiey, eioi?ua eae au i?i?uaathony /a?ac i?eau/iua,
nioeeaeece?iaaiiua iioi?iua e ?a/aaua ?aaeoeee.

Ianiio?y ia ia?iiiue oniao oaoie/aneie iniauaiiinoe ineoiaiaeeca
(yenia?eiaioaeueiua iaoiaeeee), iniiaiuie e aeey i?aeoe/aneie ?aaiou
aeinoaoi/iuie inoathony iaaethaeaiea, aanaaea, eeeie/aneee iiuo e
eiooeoeey a?a/a, eioi?ue caieiathony ineoiaiaeecii. Nae/an oeaeueth
ineoiaiaeeca n/eoaaony oeo/oaiea naiieaeaioeoeeaoeee, oi anoue ioiioaiee
/aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

Iinea nia?oe C.O?aeaea i?ioei iieaaea, ii ia nieaeaaony iaeae iieaieee,
ino?ie ai?ueau iiaiee aie?oa ioeaiee ee/iinoe o/?iiai e aai o/aiey i
aanniciaoaeueiii. I?iaeaiu oai?/aneiai ianeaaeey O?aeaea aeoeaii
ianoaeaeathony ia no?aieoeao nioai aeo?iaeia, niaoeeaeueiuo atheeaoaiae,
canaaeaieyo ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo iauanoa (oieueei ai O?aioeee, iai?eia?,
ooieoeeiie?oao ieiei 30 ineoiaiaeeoe/aneeo iauanoa e annioeeaoeee),
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo nuacaeao e eiioa?aioeeyo. Aiiaue e aiiaue iiaeieiaaony
aii?in: yaeyaony ee o/aiea C.O?aeaea iaoeie eee aea eaeei-oi iiaui
oaiiiaiii ciaiey?

Naaiaeiy, eae e ai a?aiaia ia?auo ioaeeeaoeee C.O?aeaea, aeeaiacii aai
ioeaiie oa?aeoa?ecoaony oaeeaeoaeueiui ?aciiia?aceai: io iaiaaenoe e
iieiiai io?eoeaiey aei i?aeeiiaiey e neaiiai neaaeiaaiey eaaeaeiio neiao
O/eoaey, aiyciueth niaa?oeoue ioeaeo e ionooieoue io aoeau
“ia?aio/aiey”. Ii/aio aea ineoiaiaeec ii/oe oeaeia noieaoea ieacuaaaony
e i?aaeiaoii ainoeuaiey, e ieoaiueth aeey iaiaaeie? Ioaao ia yoio
aii?in, ii-aeaeeiiio, neaaeoao eneaoue ia oieueei ai acaeyaeao e
ie?iaicc?aiee naiiai C.O?aeaea, ii e a iiaeoiaea e ineoiaiaeeco o/?iuo
?acee/iiai oeia.

E e?eoeeai C.O?aeaea ioiinyony o/?iua-?aoeeiiaeenou, aeey eioi?uo
i?aauoa anaai eiaeea, aeey eioi?uo eaaeaeia oiicaeeth/aiea aeieaeii
auoue iniiaaii ia aini?iecaiaeeiinoe ?acoeueoaoia e yenia?eiaioa. Aeey
ieo iiciaoue yoi cia/eo ecia?eoue, iie no?iyo naie iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey
ia eiuo iaoiaeieiae/aneeo i?eioeeiao, i?eaea?aeeaathony eiie ia?aaeeaiu
iaoee. I?aaeiao enneaaeiaaiee yoeo o/?iuo – noa?a ii?iaeueiiai e
ia?ooaiiiai niciaiey, a ia aanniciaoaeueiia.

E aae?oa iiyaeyaony Ceaioiae O?aeae – /aeiaae, eioi?ue aea?cioe
eco/eoue ia/oi oaeia, /oi eco/aieth ia iiaeaeaaaeinue. Ii cayaeyao, /oi
aanniciaoaeueiay noa?a ia iiae/eiyaony caeiiai a?aiaie e i?ino?ainoaa,
/oi i?e/eio iiiaeo oi?i ineoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa iaaei eneaoue a naiuo
?aiieo ia?eiaeao aeecie ieaaeaioea, ia/eiay n aeoa

?iaeaeaiey, /oi aeaeeiay i?e/eia ineoe/aneiai caaieaaaiey ia anoue
enoeiiay i?e/eia, a oieueei aa?oeia aenaa?aa, /ue? iniiaaiea ooiaeeo a
iaaaaeiioth aeoaeio. Io eae iinea yoiai eaiiiece?iaaiiui o/?iui n eo
“aeaeaciie” eiaeeie, /?oeeie i?yiieeiaeiuie oiicaeeth/aieyie ia iacaaoue
O?aeaea “aunei/eie” e ia ia/aoue iaaeiyoue aai a ienoeea. O?aeae
aunooiee a iaoea eae ?aaiethoeeiia?, e iiiiceoeey, eioi?oth ano?aoee
ineoiaiaeec a e?oaao ineoeao?e/aneie ioeoeeaeueiie iaoee,
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi auee ia?ooaiu aaeiaua iao/iua e ii?aeueiua
o?aaeeoeee, aue naeaeai oaa ca i?aaeaeu aeicaieaiiiai. Nai O?aeae
caia/aoaeueii iaienae ia yoii a noaouea “O?oaeiinoe ia iooe
ineoiaiaeeca”.

E.A.THia, A.Aaeea?, I.?aie ?aii ioioee io O?aeaea, ii ?acaeee aai
iuneue a iiauo iai?aaeaieyo, iooieeioaoenue io niaeuo aeiaaaeie naiaai
aaeeeiai o/eoaey.

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