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Загрязнение литосферы. Последствия. Ее защита

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Caa?yciaiea eeoinoa?u. Iineaaenoaey. Aa caueoa.

1.Aaaaeaiea.

Ia?eiae, ia/eiay n 1950 a. aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie, iacuaatho ia?eiaeii
iao/ii-oaoie/aneie ?aaiethoeee. E eiioeo OO aaea i?iecioee ia?iiiua
eciaiaiey e a oaoiieiaee, iiyaeeenue iiaua n?aaenoaa nayce e
eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee, /oi ?acei eciaieei aiciiaeiinoe iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae e naeeceei naiua ioaeaeaiiua oi/ee ieaiaou. Ie? aoeaaeueii
ia iaoeo aeacao no?aieoaeueii eciaiyaony, e /aeiaa/anoai a naieo
aeaenoaeyo ia anaaaea iiniaaaao ca yoeie eciaiaieyie.

Yeieiae/aneea i?iaeaiu aicieeee ia naie ii naaa. Yoi ?acoeueoao
anoanoaaiiiai ?acaeoey oeeaeeecaoeee, a eioi?ie noi?ioee?iaaiiua ?aiaa
i?aaeea iiaaaeaiey ethaeae a eo acaeiiioiioaieyo n ie?oaeathuae
i?e?iaeie e aioo?e /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa, iiaeaea?aeeaaaoea onoie/eaia
nouanoaiaaiea, i?eoee a i?ioeai?a/ea n iiauie oneiaeyie, nicaeaiiuie
iao/ii-oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii. A iiauo oneiaeyo iaiaoiaeeii oi?ie?iaaiea
e iiauo i?aaee iiaaaeaiey, e iiaie ii?aee n o/aoii anao
anoanoaaiiiiao/iuo ciaiee. Iaeaieueoay o?oaeiinoue, eioi?ay ii?aaeaeyao
iiiaia a ?aoaiee yeieiae/aneeo i?iaeai – ana aea iaaeinoaoi/iay
icaai/aiiinoue /aeiaa/aneiai iauanoaa a oeaeii e iiiaeo aai eeaea?ia
i?iaeaiaie nio?aiaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu.

2.Eeoinoa?a, aa no?iaiea

*aeiaae nouanoaoao a ii?aaeaeaiiii i?ino?ainoaa, e iniiaiie
ninoaaeythuae yoiai i?ino?ainoaa neoaeeo caiiay iiaa?oiinoue –
iiaa?oiinoue eeoinoa?u.

Eeoinoa?ie iacuaatho oaa?aeoth iaiei/eo Caiee, ninoiyuoth ec caiiie ei?u
e neiy aa?oiae iaioee, iiaenoeeathuaai caiioth ei?o. ?annoiyiea ieaeiae
a?aieoeu caiiie ei?u io iiaa?oiinoe Caiee eciaiyaony a i?aaeaeao 5-70
ei, a iaioey Caiee aeinoeaaao aeoaeiu 2900 ei. Iinea iaa ia ?annoiyiee
6371 ei io iiaa?oiinoe iaoiaeeony yae?i.

Nooa caieiaao 29,2%iiaa?oiinoe caiiiai oa?a. Aa?oiea neie eeoinoa?u
iacuaaaony ii/aie. Ii/aaiiue iie?ia yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei i?e?iaeiui
ia?aciaaieai e eiiiiiaioii aeinoa?a Caiee. Eiaiii ii/aaiiay iaiei/ea
ii?aaeaeyao iiiaea i?ioeannu, i?ienoiaeyuea a aeinoa?a.

Ii/aa i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iniiaiie enoi/iee i?iaeiaieuenoaey,
iaania/eaathuee 95-97% i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia aeey ianaeaiey
ieaiaou. Ieiuaaeue caiaeueiuo ?ano?nia ie?a ninoaaeyao 129 iei.ea.ei,
eee 86,5% ieiuaaee nooe. Iaoiy e iiiaieaoiea ianaaeaeaiey a ninoaaa
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo oaiaeee caieiatho ieiei 10% nooe, eoaa e ianoaeua
– 25% nooe. Ieiaei?iaeeai ii/au e eeeiaoe/aneeie oneiaeyie
ii?aaeaeythony aiciiaeiinoue nouanoaiaaiey e ?acaeoey yeieiae/aneeo
nenoai ia Caiea. E niaeaeaieth, ec-ca iai?aaeeueiie yenieoaoaoeee
aaeaaiaeii oa?yaony iaeioi?ay /anoue ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue. Oae, ca
iineaaeiaa noieaoea a ?acoeueoaoa onei?aiey y?icee iioa?yii 2 ie?ae.
aaeoa?ia ieiaei?iaeiuo caiaeue, /oi ninoaaeyao 27% io iauae ieiuaaee
caiaeue, eniieuecoaiuo aeey naeueneiai oicyenoaa.

3.Enoi/ieee caa?yciaiea ii/au.

Eeoinoa?a caa?yciyaony aeeaeeeie e oaa?aeuie caa?yciythueie aauanoaaie e
iooiaeaie. Onoaiiaeaii, /oi aaeaaiaeii ia iaeiiai aeeoaey Caiee
ia?acoaony iaeia oiiia iooiaeia, a oii /enea aieaa 50 ea iieeia?iuo,
o?oaeii?aceaaaaiuo.

Enoi/ieee caa?yciaiea ii/au iiaoo auoue eeanneoeoee?iaaiu neaaeothuei
ia?acii.

AEeeua aeiia e eiiioiaeueii-auoiaua i?aaei?eyoey. A ninoaaa
caa?yciythueo aauanoa yoie eaoaai?ee enoi/ieeia i?aiaeaaeatho auoiaie
ioni?, ieuaaua iooiaeu, no?ieoaeueiue ioni?, iooiaeu ioiieoaeueiuo
nenoai, i?eoaaeoea a iaaiaeiinoue i?aaeiaou aeiiaoiaai iaeoiaea e o.i.
Ana yoi niae?aaony e auaiceony ia naaeee. Aeey e?oiiuo ai?iaeia nai? e
oie/oiaeaiea auoiaiai ioni?a ia naaeeao i?aa?aoeee a o?oaeii?ac?aoeioth
i?iaeaio. I?inoia naeeaaiea ioni?a ia ai?iaeneeo naaeeao
nii?iaiaeaeaaony auaeaeaieai yaeiaeouo aauanoa. I?e naeeaaiee oaeeo
i?aaeiaoia, iai?eia?, oei?niaea?aeaueo iieeia?ia, ia?acothony neeueii
oiene/iua aauanoaa – aeeieneaeu. Ianiio?y ia yoi, a iineaaeiea aiaeu
?ac?aaaouaathony niiniau oie/oiaeaiey auoiaiai ioni?a naeeaaiey.
Ia?niaeoeaiui niiniaii n/eoaaony naeeaaiea oaeiai ioni?a iaae ai?y/eie
?anieaaaie iaoaeeia.

I?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey. A oaa?aeuo e aeeaeeeo i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeao
iinoiyiii i?enoonoaotho aauanoaa, niiniaiua ieacuaaoue oiene/aneia
aicaeaenoaea ia aeeaua i?aaieciu e ?anoaiey. Iai?eia?, a iooiaeao
iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iau/ii i?enoonoaotho niee oeaaoiuo
oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia. Iaoeiino?ieoaeueiay i?iiuoeaiiinoue aua?anuaaao a
ie?oaeathuoth i?e?iaeioth n?aaeo oeeaieaeu, niaaeeiaiey iuoueyea,
aa?eeeey; i?e i?iecaiaenoaa ieanoiann e eneonnoaaiiuo aieieii
ia?acothony iooiaeu, niaea?aeauea oaiie, aaicie, noe?ie; i?e
i?iecaiaenoaa neioaoe/aneeo eao/oeia a ii/ao iiiaaeatho iooiaeu
eaoaeecaoi?ia, iaeiiaeeoeeiiiua iieeia?iua naonoee; i?e i?iecaiaenoaa
?aceiiauo ecaeaeee a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo iinooiatho iueaaeaeiua
eia?aaeeaiou, naaea, eioi?ua inaaeatho ia ii/ao e ?anoaiey, iooiaeu
?aceiioaenoeeueiuo e ?aceiiauo aeaoaeae, a i?e yenieoaoaoeee oei –
eciioaiiua e auoaaeoea ec no?iy iie?uoee, aaoieaia?u e iaiaeiua eaiou.
O?aiaiea e ooeeecaoeey eciioaiiuo oei a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeythony aua
ia?aoaiiuie i?iaeaiaie, oae eae i?e yoii /anoi i?ienoiaeeo neeueiua
iiaea?u, eioi?ua i/aiue o?oaeii oooeoue. Noaiaiue ooeeecaoeee eciioaiiuo
oei ia i?aauoaao 30% io iauaai eo iauaia.

O?ainii?o. I?e ?aaioa aeaeaaoaeae aioo?aiiaai nai?aiey eioaineaii
auaeaeythony ieneaeu acioa, naeiaoe, oaeaaiaei?iaeu, ieneae oaea?iaea,
naaea e ae?oaea aauanoaa, inaaeathuea ia iiaa?oiinoue caiee eee
iiaeiuaaiua ?anoaieyie. A iineaaeiai neo/aa yoe aauanoaa oaeaea
iiiaaeatho a ii/ao e aiaeaeathony a e?oaiai?io, naycaiiue n ieuaauie
oeaiyie.

Naeueneia oicyenoai. Caa?yciaiea ii/au a naeueneii oicyenoaa i?ienoiaeeo
aneaaenoaea aianaiey ia?iiiuo eiee/anoa ieia?aeueiuo oaeia?aiee e
yaeioeieeaoia. Ecaanoii, /oi a ninoaaa iaeioi?uo yaeioeieeaoia
niaea?aeeony ?oooue.

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii caa?yciaiea ii/au oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie e
yaeioeieeaoaie.

Caa?yciaiea ii/au oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie. Oyaeaeuie iaoaeeaie iacuaatho
oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, ieioiinoue eioi?uo aieueoa ieioiinoe aeaeaca. E iei
ioiinyony naeiaoe, iaaeue, oeeie, ieeaeue, eaaeiee, eiaaeueo, o?ii,
?oooue.

Iniaaiiinoueth oyaeaeuo iaoaeeia yaeyaony oi, /oi a iaaieueoeo
eiee/anoaao ii/oe ana iie iaiaoiaeeiu aeey ?anoaiee e aeeauo i?aaieciia.
A i?aaiecia /aeiaaea oyaeaeua iaoaeeu o/anoaotho a aeeciaiii aaaeiuo
aeioeie/aneeo i?ioeannao. Iaeiaei i?aauoaiea aeiionoeiiai eo eiee/anoaa
i?eaiaeeo e na?ueaciui caaieaaaieyi.

Oyaeaeua iaoaeeu iaeaieeaathony a ii/aa e niinianoaotho iinoaiaiiiio
eciaiaieth aa oeie/aneiai ninoaaa, ia?ooaieth aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe
?anoaiee e aeeauo i?aaieciia. Ec ii/au oyaeaeua iaoaeeu iiaoo iiianoue a
i?aaieci aeeaioiuo e ethaeae e aucuaaoue iaaeaeaoaeueiua iineaaenoaey.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi ?oooue a ii/ao iinooiaao n iaeioi?uie ianoeoeeaeaie,
auoiauie iooiaeaie e auoaaeoeie ec no?iy ecia?eoaeueiuie i?eai?aie.
Iai?eia?, iaeia ethieianoeaioiay eaiia niaea?aeeo 80 ia ?oooe. Noiia?iua
iaeiio?iee?oaiua aua?inu ?oooe ninoaaeytho 4-5 oun. o/aiae. I?aaeaeueii
aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey ?oooe a ii/aa ninoaaeyao 2,1 ia/ea. I?e
iinoiyiiii iinooieaiee ?oooe a i?aaieci a iaeuo eiee/anoaao i?ienoiaeeo
ii?aaeaiea ia?aiie nenoaiu, i?eaiaeyuae e eaaeie aicaoaeeiinoe e
ineaaeaieth iaiyoe.

Aanueia oiene/iui aeey aeeauo i?aaieciia yaeyaony naeiaoe. Ec eaaeaeie
oiiiu aeiauaaaiiai naeioea aei 25 ea aai iinooiaao a ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo. Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai naeioea auaeaeyaony a aoiinoa?o aianoa n
auoeiiiuie aacaie aaoiiiaeeae i?e naeeaaiee yoeee?iaaiiiai aaiceia, oae
eae 1 e aaiceia niaea?aeeo aei 0,5 a oao?ayoeenaeioea. Caa?yciaiea ii/au
e ?anoaiee naeioeii aaeieue aaoiiiaeeueiuo aei?ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia
?annoiyiea aei 200 iao?ia. I?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiay eiioeaio?aoeey
naeioea a ii/aa =32 ia/ea. I?aauoaiea yoiai iieacaoaey oaaee/eaaao
aa?iyoiinoue iiiaaeaiey naeioea a i?aaieci /aeiaaea /a?ac
naeueneioicyenoaaiiua i?iaeoeou, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e ii?aaeaieth
oeaio?aeueiie ia?aiie nenoaiu, ia/aie, ii/ae e iicaa. A i?iiuoeaiiuo
?aeiiao niaea?aeaiea naeioea a ii/aa a 25-27 ?ac aieueoa, /ai a
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo.

Caa?yciaiea ii/au iaaeueth e oeeieii aaeaaiaeii ninoaaeyao 35 e 27 ea/ei
niioaaonoaaiii. Iiauoaiea eiioeaio?aoeee yoeo iaoaeeia a ii/aa i?eaiaeeo
e caiaaeeaieth ?inoa ?anoaiee e nieaeaieth o?iaeaeiinoe
naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo?.

Aieueooth iianiinoue aeey /aeiaaea i?aaenoaaeyao iaeiieaiea a ii/aa
eaaeiey. A i?e?iaea eaaeiee iaoiaeeony a ii/aa e a aiaea, a oaeaea a
oeaiyo ?anoaiee. Anaie?iay i?aaiecaoeey cae?aaiio?aiaiey ?aeiiaiaeiaaea
ia?aie/aiea aeicu eaaeiey, iinooiathuaai n ieuae a i?aaieci /aeiaaea,
aei 70 iea a nooee. Iio?aaeyy ieuo, niaea?aeauoth iiauoaiiua aeicu
eaaeiey, i?eaiaeeo e aeaoi?iaoeee neaeaoa, nieaeaieth ?inoa e neeueiui
aieaaui iuouaieyi a iiynieoea.

Caa?yciaiea ii/au ianoeoeeaeaie. Ii/aa caa?yciyaony oaeaea i?e
eniieueciaaiee a naeueneii oicyenoaa ianoeoeeaeia. Ecaanoii, /oi
ii?iaeueiue ?ino ?anoaiee ii?aaeaeyaony ?acee/iuie oece/aneeie,
oeie/aneeie e aeieiae/aneeie i?ioeannaie, eioi?ua i?ioaeatho a ii/aa.
I?e iiiaaeaiee a ii/ao ianoeoeeaeu iiaoo auoue aeeth/aiu a yoe i?ioeannu
n eo iaeiieaieai a ?anoaieyo. E?iia oiai, iie nio?aiytho onoie/eainoue a
ii/aa aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy, /oi oaeaea iaoneaaeeaaao eo iaeiieaiea a
ieuaauo oeaiyo.

Ianoeoeeaeu, eee yaeioeieeaou, ii iacia/aieth iiae?acaeaeythony ia
neaaeothuea a?oiiu:

-einaeoeoeeaeu, i?aaenoaaeythuea niaie oeieeaou aeey ai?ueau n
a?aaeeoaeyie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo eoeueoo? (oeioin, iaoaoin, ea?aioin,
oei?ioin, ea?aaiaou);

– aa?aeoeeaeu, i?aaeiacia/aiiua aeey ai?ueau n ni?iuie o?aaaie (aieiu,
ea?aaiaou, o?eaceiu);

– ooiaeoeeaeu, eee oeieeaou aeey ai?ueau n a?eaeiauie aieaciyie ?anoaiee
(aaiceieaeacieu, ii?oieeiu, aeeoeiea?aaiaou,
oao?aiaoeeoeo?aiaeenoeueoeae);

– ?aaoeyoi?u ?inoa ?anoaiee;

– aeaoieeaiou, aucuaathuea i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiia noa?aiea eenoueaa ?anoaiee.
Iie oe?iei i?eiaiythony i?e iaoaiece?iaaiiie nai?ea oeiiea aeey
onei?aiey iiaaeaiey eenoueaa o oeii/aoieea.

Aeaoieeaiou i?eiaiyeenue ai a?aiy aieiu ai Aueaoiaia aeey iaieaiey
aeaeoiaeae. Yoi iicaieyei aia?eeaineie aaeaoeee iaia?oaeeoue aiaiiua
aacu aueaoiaineeo ia?oecai.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo ianoeoeeaeia aue ia/aeueii ecaanoiue AeAeO –
aeeoaieeaeeoei?o?eoei?yoai. Aia?aua ii aue neioace?iaai iaiaoeeei
oeieeii I.Itheea?ii. Yoio i?aia?ao iaeaaeae aunieiyooaeoeaiuie
einaeoeoeeaeiuie naienoaaie e iiyoiio aeieaia a?aiy oniaoii i?eiaiyeny
i?ioea iaey?eeiuo eiia?ia, eeauae, aoae. A 1944-1946 aiaeao n iiiiuueth
AeAeO oniaoii iiaeaaeyee i/aae nuiiiai oeoa a Iaaiiea e iaey?ee a
iaeioi?uo i?iaeioeeyo Eoaeee. A NNN? n iiiiuueth AeAeO aue oie/oiaeai
eeau, ia?aiinyuee oaaaeiue yioeaoaeeo. Ana yoi a naia a?aiy iineoaeeei
i?e/eiie i?enoaeaeaiey I. Itheea?o Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee. Iaeiaei iiiai
iicaea iaia?oaeeeinue, /oi AeAeO iaeaaeay aunieie onoie/eainoueth a
i?e?iaeiie n?aaea, niiniaai iaeaieeaaoueny a ieuaauo oeaiyo e iaiineoue
nouanoaaiiue a?aae aeeaioiiio ie?o. Iiiaaeay a i?aaieci /aeiaaea, AeAeO
aeeoioee?oaony a iicaa e aeaenoaoao eae ia?aiue yae. I?e yoii
ii?iaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iicaa iiaeao auoue ia?ooaii.

I?eiaiaiea AeAeO a ianoiyuaa a?aiy cai?auaii, ii i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi a
aeioeie/aneii e?oaiai?ioa eiee/anoai AeAeO a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ninoaaeyao
ieiei 1 iei.o.

Iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?eiaiaiey ianoeoeeaeia a naeueneii oicyenoaa
iaoneiaeaia oai, /oi aac ieo o?iaeaeiinoue naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo? ?acei iaaeaao e ninoaaeyao eeoue 20-40% io aiciiaeiie i?e eo
i?eiaiaiee. O?oaeii naaa i?aaenoaaeoue oie/oiaeaiea eiei?aaeneiai aeoea
ia ea?oioaeueiuo ieaioaoeeyo aac i?eiaiaiey ianoeoeeaeia.

Caa?yciaiea eeoinoa?u i?e caoi?iiaiee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia.

A i?ioeanna yaea?iie ?aaeoeee ia aoiiiuo yeaeo?inoaioeeyo eeoue 0,5-1,5%
yaea?iiai oiieeaa i?aa?auaaony a oaieiaoth yia?aeth, a inoaeueiay
/anoue(98,5-99,5%) aua?oaeaaony ec aoiiiuo ?aaeoi?ia a aeaea iooiaeia.
Yoe iooiaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie ?aaeeiaeoeaiua i?iaeoeou ?anuaieaiey
o?aia – ieooiiee, oeacee, no?iioeee e ae?oaea. Anee o/eouaaoue, /oi
caa?ocea yaea?iiai oiieeaa a ?aaeoi?a ninoaaeyao 180 o, oi ooeeecaoeey e
caoi?iiaiea io?aaioaiiiai yaea?iiai i?aaenoaaeytho niaie o?oaeii?aoeioth
i?iaeaio.

Aaeaaiaeii a ie?a i?e i?iecaiaenoaa yeaeo?iyia?aee ia aoiiiuo
yeaeo?inoaioeeyo ia?acoaony ieiei 200000 eoa.i. ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia
n ieceie e i?iiaaeooi/iie aeoeaiinoueth e 10000 eoa.i. aunieiaeoeaiuo
iooiaeia e io?aaioaiiiai yaea?iiai oiieeaa.

?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu auaatho aeeaeeeie e oaa?aeuie. A caaeneiinoe io
aa?aaaoiiai ninoiyiey eciaiythony oneiaey eo caoi?iiaiey.

Aunieiaeoeaiua aeeaeeea ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu, niiniaiua e ac?uao, a
aeaea acioiieeneuo aiaeiuo ?anoai?ia o?aiyo a aiia?aoao iauaiii aei
ianeieueeeo eoaiiao?ia n aeaieiuie noaieaie ec ia?aeaaathuae noaee e n
iaoaeeie.

AEeaeeea aunieiaeoeaiua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu, ia niiniaiua e ac?uao
o?aiyony a iiaeeueieeao, eioi?ua ninoiyo ec oaoo e iiiauaiee aeey
o?aiaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeiei ec aaciianiuo niiniaia ono?aiaiey iianiinoe
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai eceo/aiey oaa?aeuo yaea?iuo iooiaeia yaeyaony eo
caoi?iiaiea. Oaa?aeua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu oi?iiyo a niaoeeaeueiuo
eiioaeia?ao a iiaecaiiuo ooieueiyo, oiiiaeyo. E iei i?aaeuyaeythony
iniaua o?aaiaaiey i?e o?ainii?oe?iaea e ianoo caoi?iiaiey.

I?iaeaia o?ainii?oe?iaee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia iniaaiii aeooaeueia
aeey ?innee. Aeaei a oii, /oi iino?iaiiua aua i?e NNN? iaoeie
niaoeeaeenoaie e ii iaoae oaoiieiaee aoiiiua yeaeo?inoaioeee a ae?oaeo
no?aiao ia iaoai yaea?iii oiieeaa, e iu aeieaeiu oaiceoue io?aaioaiiua
iooiaeu. Iieo/aaony aanueia oae?o/athuay aeey ?innee ea?oeia:
yeaeo?iyia?aey inoaaony aeey ioaeae no?aiu-iio?aaeoaey, a ?aaeeiaeoeaiua
iooiaeu aica?auathony e iai. Oaeia nio?oaeie/anoai n ae?oaeie no?aiaie
aaaeao a ia?niaeoeaa e aanueia iai?eyoiui iineaaenoaeyi. Aaaeue
caoi?iiaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia – yoi, i?aaeaea anaai a?aiaiiia eo
oaeaeaiea, a /oi n ieie i?iecieaeao /a?ac 50,100 eao?

Oaeei ia?acii, iu inoaaeyai aoaeouaio iieieaieth oyaeaeia ianeaaeea.

4.Eiio?ieue caa?yciaiey ii/au.

Onoaiiaeaiea i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiuo eiioeaio?aoeee a?aaeiuo aauanoa a
ii/aa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoiaeeony aua a naiii ia/aea ?ac?aaioea. IAeE
onoaiiaeaiu i?eia?ii aeey 50 a?aaeiuo aauanoa, i?aeiouanoaaiii
yaeioeieeaoia, i?eiaiyaiuo aeey caueou ?anoaiee io a?aaeeoaeae e
aieaciae. Iaeiaei ii/aa ia i?eiaaeeaaeeo e oai n?aaeai, eioi?ua
iaiin?aaenoaaiii aicaeaenoaotho ia caei?iauea /aeiaaea, oiaaea eae
aicaeoo e aiaea aianoa n caa?ycieoaeyie iio?aaeythony aeeauie
i?aaieciaie.

Iaaeaaii?eyoiia aeeyiea caa?ycieoaeae ii/au i?iyaeyaony /a?ac
o?ioe/aneoth oeaiue. Iiyoiio ia i?aeoeea aeey ioeaiee noaiaie
caa?yciaiey ii/au eniieuecothony aeaa iieacaoaey:

– i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeioth eiioeaio?aoeeth a ii/aa (IAeE), ia/ea;

– aeiionoeiua inoaoi/iua eiee/anoaa (AeIE), ia/ea iannu ?anoeoaeueiinoe.
Oae, aeey oei?ioina IAeE ?aaia 1,0 ia/ea, AeIE=2,0 ia/ea. Aeey naeioea
IAeE=32 ia/ea, AeIE a iynii?iaeoeoao ninoaaeyao 0,5 ia/ea.

Naieoa?iue eiio?ieue caa?yciaiey ii/au a oneiaeyo ai?iaeia
inouanoaeyaony naiyiaaeeineoaeaie. Iiae aa eiio?ieai iaoiaeyony oaeaea
o?ainii?oe?iaea iooiaeia, niaeaniaaiea iano neeaaee?iaaiey, caoi?iiaiey
e ia?a?aaioee.

Naieoa?ii-oeie/aneea iieacaoaee caa?yciaiey ii/au.

Caa?yciythuaa aauanoai*enei i?ia ii/au n i?aauoaieai IAeE, %  ia
anae ianeaaeiaaiiie oa??eoi?eea naeeoaaiie (caeaiie)
ciia Ianoeoeeaeu1,23 / 2,10,76 / 0,7?oooue2,01 / 10,92,7 /
2,78Naeiaoe8,02 / 7,38,4 / 9,07Eaaeiee3,14 / 14,133,6 / 5,55

5.?ac?aaioea ianoeoeeaeia aaciianiuo aeey ieuaaie oeaie.

Iniiaiay iianiinoue ianoeoeeaeia eae caa?ycieoaeae ii/au iaoneiaeaia eo
aunieie noaaeeueiinoueth a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, /oi niinianoaoao eo
iaeiieaieth a ieuaauo oeaiyo.

Aeey ono?aiaiey yoiai iaaeinoaoea a iineaaeiea aiaeu ?ac?aaaouaathony
iiaua, yeieiae/anee aaciianiua ianoeoeeaeu.

Iai?eia?, aa?aeoeeae aeeoinao a ii/aa iieiinoueth ?aceaaaaony n
ia?aciaaieai oinoi?iie eeneiou, oaeaeeneiai aaca e aiaeu. Iaeioi?ua
ianoeoeeaeu auioneathony a aeaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo iioe/aneeo eciia?ia,
/oi iicaieyao iiauneoue eo yooaeoeaiinoue a aeaa ?aca.

?ac?aaioea iaeiiai aunieiyooaeoeaiiai e yeieiae/anee aaciianiiai
ianoeoeeaea iaoiaeeony a 150 iei. aeieea?ia. Oae eae aeey yoiai
neioace?otho nioie ouny/ i?aia?aoia, a n?aaee ieo auae?atho eeoue iaeei
iaeaieaa i?eaieaiue. A oi aea a?aiy oaeea cao?aou ia ?ac?aaioeo iiauo
ianoeoeeaeia ieoiaaony aunieeie o?iaeayie naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo
eoeueoo?, oiaiueoaieai caa?yciaiey ii/au, nio?aiaieai caei?iauey
ianaeaiey no?aiu e oaaee/aieai n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe aeecie
ethaeae.

Iniiaiuie iio?aaeoaey yeieiae/anee aaciianiuo ianoeoeeaeia yaeythony
ssiiiey, NOA, O?aioeey, Aa?iaiey. Ianiio?y ia oe?ieia i?eiaiaiea
ianoeoeeaeia, a ssiiiee eiaao ianoi naiay aunieay i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue
aeecie ianaeaiey ia caiiii oa?a – 75 eao aeey ioae/ei e 80 eao aeey
aeaiuei. Yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi i?eiaiaiea a ssiiiee ianoeoeeaeu ia
iaeaieeaathony a ii/aa, a iinea yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey ii
ooieoeeiiaeueiiio iacia/aieth ?aceaaathony ia aaca?aaeiua aauanoaa.

A NOA iinaaiua ieiuaaee a 1,5 ?aca iaiueoa, /ai a no?aiao NIA, a
i?eiaiaiea ianoeoeeaeia ninoaaeyao 23% io ie?iaiai iio?aaeaiey. I?e yoii
aieaa 80% i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey ia niaea?aeeo ianoeoeeaeia, oiaaea eae 98%
iinaaia ?ena, 97% iinaaia eoeo?ocu e 93% iinaaia ca?iiauo
ia?aaaouaathony aa?aeoeeaeaie

A ioee/ea io auniei?acaeouo no?ai ie?a. A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
i?eiaiaiea ianoeoeeaeia ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii 4% io ie?iaiai iio?aaeaiey.
Ianiio?y ia neaaia i?eiaiaiea ianoeoeeaeia, n?aaeiyy
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue aeecie iinoaiaiii nie?auaaony, e ii iineaaeiei
aeaiiui yoio iieacaoaeue aeey ioae/ei ninoaaeyao anaai 58 eao.

6.Niiniau iaaca?aaeeaaiey aeeaeeeo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo iooiaeia.

AEeaeeea aunieiaeoeaiua ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iooiaeu o?aiyo a aiia?aoao
iauaiii aei ianeieueeeo eoaiiao?ia n aeaieiuie noaieaie ec ia?aeaaathuae
noaee e n iaoaeeie. Oaeea aiia?aou onoaiaaeeaatho a aaoiiiuo eaia?ao.
Aeey oiai /oiau ia i?iecioei ac?uaa auaeaeythuaainy i?e o?aiaiee
aiaei?iaea, aiia?ao iai?a?uaii i?iaeoaatho aicaeooii, eioi?ue, a naith
i/a?aaeue, i/euatho io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo ay?icieae a niaoeeaeueiuo
oeeueo?ao. Niaea?aeeiia aiia?aoia iinoiyiii ia?aiaoeaatho aeey
i?aaeioa?auaiey ia?aciaaiey ac?uaiiianiuo inaaeeia. E?iia oiai,
inaaeaeaiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo nieae iiaeao ?acei iiauneoue oaiia?aoo?o a
aiia?aoa e aucaaoue oaieiaie ac?ua n aua?inii ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai ?anoai?a.
Ai ecaaaeaiea yoeo yaeaiee aiia?aou niaaaeaiu oieiaeeeueieeaie. N?ie
yenieoaoaoeee oaeeo aiia?aoia ninoaaeyao 20-30 eao. Caoai aeeaeeea
iooiaeu ia?aeeaatho a iiaua aiia?aou. Oaeie i?ioeann iiaeao
i?iaeieaeaoueny ianeieueei nio eao.

7.Niiniau iaaca?aaeeaaiey, ooeeecaoeey e eeeaeaeaoeee oaa?aeuo auoiauo
iooiaeia.

Iaeiei ec ianniauo caa?yciaiee ii/au yaeythony oaa?aeua auoiaua iooiaeu
(OAI). Ia eaaeaeiai ai?iaeneiai aeeoaey a oa/aiea aiaea ia?acoaony ieiei
500 ea oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia, ec ieo 52 ea – iieeia?iua.

I?iaeaia iaaca?aaeeaaiey, ooeeecaoeee eee eeeaeaeaoeee OAI yaeyaony
aeooaeueiie aei ianoiyuaai a?aiaie. Iiiai/eneaiiua ai?iaeneea naaeee,
caieiathuea aeanyoee e nioie aaeoa?ia caiee, yaeythony enoi/ieeaie
aaeeiai aeuia ai a?aiy naeeaaiey auoiaiai ioni?a e caa?yciaiey
iiaecaiiuo aiae ec-ca i?ina/eaaiey a?aaeiuo aauanoa a a?oioiaua aiaeu.
Iiyoiio a iineaaeiea aiaeu oaeaeyaony aieueoia aieiaiea ?ac?aaioea
niiniaia ooeeecaoeee eee oie/oiaeaiey oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia.

I?eaioe?iai/iue ninoaa OAI ai?iaeia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeeth/atho
neaaeothuea eiiiiiaiou (% ian.): ieuaaua iooiaeu – 33-43; aoiaaa e
ea?oii – 20-30; noaeei -5-7; oaenoeeue 3-5; ieanoianna – 2-5; eiaea e
?aceia – 2-4; /a?iue iaoaee – 2-3,5; aea?aai – 1,5-3; eaiie – 1-3; einoe
– 0,5-2; oeaaoiua iaoaeeu – 0,5-0,8; i?i/ea – 1-2.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ecaanoiu neaaeothuea niiniau iaaca?aaeeaaiey,
ooeeecaoeee e eeeaeaeaoeee OAI:

– neeaaee?iaaiea ia iieeaiia;

– ay?iaiia aeioa?ie/aneia eiiiinoe?iaaiea;

– naeeaaiea ia niaoeeaeueiuo ioni?inaeeaaoaeueiuo caaiaeao.

Auai? niiniaa ii?aaeaeyaony n o/aoii yeieiae/aneeo, yeiiiie/aneeo,
eaiaeoaooiuo, caiaeueiuo e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia.

7.1 Neeaaee?iaaiea oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia.

Iniiaiui niiniaii iaaca?aaeeaaiey OAI eae ca ?oaaaeii, oae e a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee yaeyaony neeaaee?iaaiea ia iieeaiiao. Aeey
nicaeaiey iieeaiia auaeaeytho caiaeueiue o/anoie ieiuaaeueth 20-40
aaeoa?ia n aeeienoie eee oyaeaeie noaeeienoie ii/aie. Auai? oaeie ii/au
iaoneiaeai neaaeothuei. Aeiaeaeaaua e oaeua aiaeu i?ioiaeyo /a?ac neie
oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia oieueiie a ianeieueei aeanyoeia iao?ia,
ecaeaeatho ec iaai ?anoai?eiua a?aaeiua eiiiiiaiou e ia?acotho noi/iua
aiaeu iieeaiia. Aeeienoua e noaeeienoua ii/au i?aiyonoaotho
i?iieeiiaaieth oaeeo noi/iuo aiae a ieanou iiaecaiiuo aiae.

N?ie yenieoaoaoeee iieeaiia ninoaaeyao 15-20 eao. Iieeaii aeieaeai
?aniieaaaoueny ia aeeaea 500 i io aeeeie iino?ieee e ia aeaeueoa 500 i
io aei?iae n oaa?aeui iie?uoeai.

A Eacaiue i?iiuoeaiiua e auoiaua iooiaeu neeaaee?othony ia iieeaiia,
?aniieiaeaiiii ieiei ianaeaiiiai ioieoa Naiinu?iai. Ieiuaaeue iieeaiia
ninoaaeyao 21,2 aaeoa?a, ia iai aaeaaiaeii neeaaee?oaony io 1,5 aei 2,0
iei.o. iooiaeia. Ec-ca aieueoiai iioiea oaa?aeuo iooiaeia naaeea ?anoao
aaa?o, /oi cao?oaeiyao ?aaioo ii ianeoaeeaaieth iieeaiia e niaethaeaieth
naieoa?iuo ii?i neeaaee?iaaiey OAI.

7.2Ay?iaiia aeioa?ie/aneia eiiiinoe?iaaiea oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia.

Iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiie yaeyaony ooeeecaoeey OAI ia caaiaeao, ?aaioathueo
ii oaoiieiaee ay?iaiiai aeioa?ie/aneiai eiiiinoe?iaaiey. I?e yoii OAI
iaaca?aaeeaathony e i?aa?auathony a eiiiino, eioi?ue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
i?aaie/aneia oaeia?aiea, niaea?aeauaa acio, oinoi?, eaeee e
iee?iyeaiaiou. A ?acoeueoaoa i?aa?auaiey a eiiiino ninoaaiua yeaiaiou
OAI aiaeaeathony a anoanoaaiiue e?oaiai?io aauanoa a aeinoa?a.

A ?innee ii aeioa?ie/aneiio eiiiinoe?iaaieth OAI aeaenoaotho a Ieaeiai
Iiaai?iaea e Naieo – Iaoa?ao?aa. I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue oaeiai caaiaea
aeinoeaaao 1 iei. eoa.i. OAI a aiae.

I?eioeeieaeueiay noaia aeioa?ie/aneiai eiiiinoe?iaaiey OAI:

2

1-aoiea? aeey i?eaia iooiaeia; 2-o?ainii?oa?; 3-aa?aaai aeioa?ie/aneiai
?aceiaeaiey; 4-a?ioio; 5-ae?iaeeea; 6-naia?aoi?; 7- neoa; 8-ieiuaaeue
aeic?aaaiey.

A i?ioeanna ay?iaiie aeioa?ie/aneie ia?a?aaioee OAI auoiae eiiiinoa
ninoaaeyao 60-68% io enoiaeiie iannu a i?eaiiii aoiea?a. Aioiaue eiiiino
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?uoeoth ianno n caiaoii ii/au. A iai niaea?aeeony
aei 1% acioa, 0,6% oinoi?a, 0,3% eaeey, 2,5% eaeueoeey e 60%
i?aaie/aneiai aauanoaa. Oaeie eiiiino ii yooaeoeaiinoe ?aaiioeaiai
iaaico aeeaioiiaiae/aneeo oa?i.

A ?anioaeeea Oaoa?noai ia?aue ioni?iia?a?aaaouaathuee caaiae
iiuiinoueth 40 oun. o aoaeao iino?iai a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu ia naaa?iie
ie?aeia ai?iaea Caeaiiaeieuenea.

7.3Naeeaaiea oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia ia ioni?inaeeaaoaeueiuo caaiaeao.

N?aaee niiniaia iaaca?aaeeaaiey oaa?aeuo auoiauo iooiaeia aieueoia
aieiaiea oaeaeyaony eo eeeaeaeaoeee iooai naeeaaiey a niaoeeaeueiuo
ia/ao. A oi aea a?aiy iau/iua i?ioeannu naeeaaiey oaa?aeuo auoiauo
iooiaeia nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?aciaaieai neeueii oiene/iuo aaciia?aciaaiuo
aauanoa, a oii /enea e aeeieneiia.

Aanueia ia?niaeoeaiui n/eoaaony naeeaaiea OAI a ?anieaaao iaoaeeia eee
a ?anieaaeaiiii oeaea. I?aeiouanoai yoiai niiniaa caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi ec-ca aunieie oaiia?aoo?u oaeeo ?anieaaia ?aceiaeaiea oaa?aeuo
auoiauo iooiaeia i?ienoiaeeo i/aiue auno?i e iieiinoueth, a ieia?aeueiua
ninoaaeythuea ?anieaaeythony e ia?aoiaeyo a oeae.

Noaia iaaca?aaeeaaiey oaa?aeuo auoiauo (OAI) e i?iiuoeaiiuo (II)
iooiaeia a ?anieaaa oeaea.

aicaeoo

4

aiaea ia? aeui. aacu

3

1 oeae

II

5

6

i?e?iae. aac

2

oeae

I?eioeeieaeueiay noaia naeeaaiey OAI e II: 1-aoiea? aeey OAI, 2-ia/ue n
aa?aioe?oaiie oeaeiaie aaiiie, 3- aicaeooiaeoaea, 4-?aeoia?aoeeiiiue
oaieiiaiaiiee, 5-eioae – ooeeecaoi?, 6-onoaiiaea aeey i/enoee aeuiiauo
aacia.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue oaeiai caaiaea ninoaaeyao 50 oun. o/aiae oaa?aeuo
auoiauo e i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia.

9. Naiii/euaiea ii/au.

Ii/aa ioiineony e o?aooaciui nenoaiai, iaeiaei oeceei-oeie/aneea
i?ioeannu, i?ioaeathuea a ii/aa, /?acau/aeii caiaaeeaiu, e ?anoai?aiiua
a ii/aa aicaeoo e aiaea ia ieacuaatho nouanoaaiiiai onei?ythuaai
aicaeaenoaey ia i?ioaeaiea yoeo i?ioeannia. Iiyoiio naiii/euaiea ii/au,
ii n?aaiaieth n naiii/euaieai aoiinoa?u e aeae?inoa?u, i?ienoiaeeo
i/aiue iaaeeaiii. Ii eioaineaiinoe naiii/euaiey yoe eiiiiiaiou aeinoa?u
?aniieaaathony a neaaeothuae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe:

Aoiinoa?a – aeae?inoa?a – eeoinoa?a.

A ?acoeueoaoa a?aaeiua aauanoaa a ii/aa iinoaiaiii iaeaieeaathony, ni
a?aiaiai noaiiayony oa?icie aeey /aeiaaea.

Naiii/euaiea ii/au a iniiaiii iiaeao i?iecieoe oieueei i?e caa?yciaiee
i?aaie/aneeie iooiaeaie, eioi?ua iiaeaa?aathony aeioeie/aneiio
ieeneaieth iee?ii?aaieciaie. A oi aea a?aiy oyaeaeua iaoaeeu e eo niee
iinoaiaiii iaeaieeaathony a ii/aa e iiaoo eeoue iionoeoue a aieaa
aeoaieea neie. Iaeiaei i?e aeoaieie aniaoea ii/au iie niiaa iiaoo
ieacaoueny ia iiaa?oiinoe e iiianoue a o?ioe/aneoth oeaiue.

Oaeei ia?acii, eioaineaiia ?acaeoea i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo i?iiuoeaiiuo iooiaeia, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe n
auoiauie iooiaeaie nouanoaaiii aeeytho ia oeie/aneee ninoaa ii/au,
aucuaay oooaeoaiea aa ea/anoaa.

Aa?aaeiia e a?aiioiia ia?auaiea n caieae ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue noaei
naiie aeooaeueiie i?iaeaiie.

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u:

1. «Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe» o/aaiee iiae ?aae. Y.A.
A?onoaiia Ecae-ai «Aeaoeia e E» 2001a.

2. A.N A?eoeaiei «Aaciianiinoue aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe» o/aaiia iiniaea
2005a.

3. «Aeiaaeueiua i?iaeaiu nia?aiaiiinoe» na. o?oaeia AIEINE -? 5 , 1998a.

4. Oaaea?aeueiue yeieiae/aneee oiiae ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, Einaa E.N.,

Ai?oeia A.A., Eiiae?aoueaa E.ss., e ae?. I?iaeaiu yeieiaee ?innee,
1997a.

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