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Техника безопасности на производстве

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Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia aeiiaoiaa caaeaiea

Ii eo?no: “Iniiau io?aiu o?oaea”

Ieai

1. ?aaeno?aoeey, o/ao e ?anneaaeiaaiea ian/anoiuo neo/aaa naycaiiuo
i?iecaiaenoaii

2. Ii?ie?iaaiea e ?an/ao i?e?iaeiie inaauaiiinoe

3. Oaaiaia iai?yaeaiea e iai?yaeaiea eanaiey

4. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey iiaea?ia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e n?aaenoaa
iiaea?iie i?ioeeaeoeee

5. Caaea/e

1. ?aaeno?aoeey, o/ao e ?anneaaeiaaiea ian/anoiuo neo/aaa naycaiiuo n
i?iecaiaenoaii

?anneaaeiaaiea ian/anoiuo neo/aa, ia iiaeaeoeo ca niaie oyaeaeuo
iineaaenoaee, i?iaiaeeo ia/aeueiee oeaoa aianoa n i?aaenoaaeoaeai
i?ionithciie i?aaiecaoeee e eiaeaia?ii ii oaoieea aaciianiinoe
i?aaei?eyoey.

?anneaaeiaaieth e o/aoo iiaeeaaeao ian/anoiua neo/ae, i?ienoaaeoea ia
oa??eoi?ee i?aaei?eyoey i?e auiieiaiee iino?aaeaaoei o?oaeiauo
iaycaiiinoae, caaeaiey aaeieieno?aoeee i?aaei?eyoey, ?oeiaiaeeoaey
?aaio, a oaeaea i?e neaaeiaaiee ia i?aaeinoaaeaiiii i?aaei?eyoeai
o?ainii?oa ia ?aaioo eee n ?aaiou.

?anneaaeiaaieth e o/aoo iiaeeaaeao ian/anoiua neo/ae, i?ienoaaeoea eae a
oa/aiee ?aai/aai a?aiaie, oae e a oa/aiee a?aiaie, iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey
i?iaaaeaiey a ii?yaeie i?oaeey i?iecaiaenoaa, iaeaaeaeu e o.i. ia?aae
ia/aeii eee ii ieii/aiee ?aaiou, a oaeaea i?e auiieiaiee ?aaio a
naa?oo?i/iia a?aiy, a auoiaeiua e i?acaeie/iua aeie.

Ino?ua io?aaeaiey, oaieiaua oaea?u, ii?aaeaiey iieieae e iaii?iaeaiey
?anneaaeotho eae ian/anoiua neo/ae.

I eaaeaeii ian/anoiii neo/aa ia i?iecaiaenoaa iino?aaeaaoee eee
i/aaeaeaoe ian/anoiiai neo/ay iaiaaeeaiii ecaauaao ianoa?a eee ae?oaiai
iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai ?oeiaiaeeoaey ?aaio. Ociaa i ian/anoiii neo/aa,
?oeiaiaeeoaeue ?aaio iaycai n?i/ii i?aaieciaaoue ia?aoth iiiiuue
iino?aaeaaoaio e aai aeinoaaeo a iaaenai/anoue eee ae?oaia ea/aaiia
o/?aaeaeaiea, niiaueoue ia/aeueieeo oeaoa eee ae?oaiio ?oeiaiaeeoaeth i
i?ienoaaeoai ian/anoiii neo/aa, nio?aieoue aei ?anneaaeiaaiey ianoaiiaeo
ia ?aai/ai ianoa e ninoiyiea iai?oaeiaaiey oaeei, eaeeie iie auee a
iiiaio i?ienoanoaey.

Ia/aeueiee oeaoa eee ?oeiaiaeeoaeue iiae?acaeaeaiey, aaea i?iecioae
ian/anoiue neo/ae, iaycai iaiaaeeaiii niiaueoue i i?ienoaaeoai
ian/anoiii neo/aa ?oeiaiaeeoaeth e i?ionithciiio eiieoaoo i?aaei?eyoey.

I eaaeaeii ian/anoiii neo/aa, aucaaaoai oo?aoo o?oaeiniiniaiinoe ia
iaiaa /ai ia iaeei ?aai/ee aeaiue, a oa/aiea 24 / ninoaaeyaony aeo
onoaiiaeaiiie oi?iu (oi?ia I-1) a /aou?ao yecaiiey?ao.

A aeoa iiieii aeaiiuo i iino?aaeaaoai, aeaaony iienaiea ianoiyoaeuenoa e
i?e/ei, i?eaaaeoeo e ian/anoiiio neo/ath, e i?eaiaeeony ia?a/aiue
ia?ii?eyoee, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue, /oiau aiaeiae/iua neo/ae ia
iiaoi?yeenue. Aeou ooaa?aeaeaao aeaaiue eiaeaia?. Iaeei yecaiiey?
iai?aaeytho ia/aeueieeo oeaoa aeey auiieiaiey oeacaiiuo a aeoa
ia?ii?eyoee a onoaiiaeaiiua aeaaiui eiaeaia?ii n?iee, ae?oaie yecaiiey?
– a eiieoao i?ionithca, o?aoee oaoie/aneiio einiaeoi?o niioaaonoaothuaai
OeE i?ionithca e /aoaa?oue – a neoaeao oaoieee aaciianiinoe i?aaei?eyoey
aeey eiio?iey. Aaeieieno?aoeey iaycaia auaeaoue iino?aaeaaoaio
caaa?aiioth eiieth aeoa i ian/anoiii neo/aa. Iineieueeo iineaaenoaey
ian/anoiiai neo/ay iiaoo iaia?oaeeoueny iicaea, aeou iiaeeaaeaoue
o?aiaieth (aei 45 eao).

Iinea ?anneaaeiaaiey ian/anoiiai neo/ay aaeieieno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoey
ecaeaao oeac eee ?anii?yaeaiea, a eioi?ii ii?aaeaeythony ia?u,
eneeth/athuea iiaoi?aiey aiaeiae/iuo neo/aaa a yoii e ae?oaeo oeaoao e
i?iecaiaenoaao, iaeaaathony acuneaiey ia ia?niiae,
iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay ?aaioa eioi?iai i?eaaea e ian/anoiiio neo/ath.

Ana ian/anoiua neo/ae, ioi?ieaiiua aeoii I-1, ?aaeno?e?othony ia
i?aaei?eyoee a aeo?iaea.

Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaeeueiia e naiaa?aiaiiia ?anneaaeiaaiea e o/ao
ian/anoiuo neo/aaa, ioi?ieaiea aeoia oi?iu I-1, auiieiaiea ia?ii?eyoee,
oeacaiiuo a aeoa, ianao ?oeiaiaeeoaeue i?aaei?eyoey, ?oeiaiaeeoaee
no?oeoo?iuo iiae?acaeaeaiee e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo o/anoeia i?aaei?eyoey.

Ia iniiaaiee aeoia oi?iu I-1 aaeieieno?aoeey i?aaei?eyoey ninoaaeyao
io/ao i iino?aaeaaoeo i?e ian/anoiuo neo/ayo ii onoaiiaeaiiui oi?iai e
i?aaenoaaeyao aai a onoaiiaeaiiii ii?yaeea a niioaaonoaothuea
i?aaiecaoeee.

A?oiiiaua ian/anoiua neo/ae, i?ienoaaeoea iaeiia?aiaiii n aeaoiy e aieaa
?aaioieeaie, ian/anoiua neo/ae n oyaeaeui enoiaeii iiaeeaaeao
niaoeeaeueiiio ?anneaaeiaaieth. Ia yoeo neo/ayo ?oeiaiaeeoaeue
i?aaei?eyoey iaycai iaiaaeeaiii niiaueoue ?oeiaiaeeoaeth auoanoiyuae
i?aaiecaoeee; oaoie/aneiio einiaeoi?o o?oaea i?ionithca; a i?ieo?aoo?o
ii ianoo aaea i?iecioae ian/anoiue neo/ae; ianoiui i?aaiai
Ainai?oaoiaaeci?a, Yia?aiiaaeci?o, anee ian/anoiue neo/ae i?iecioae ia
iauaeoao, iiaeeiio?ieueiuo yoei i?aaiai.

?anneaaeiaaiea ian/anoiuo neo/aaa n oyaeaeui enoiaeii i?iaiaeeo eiienney
a ninoaaa oaoie/aneiai einiaeoi?a o?oaea i?ionithca, i?aaenaaeaoaey
auoanoiyuae i?aaiecaoeee, ?oeiaiaeeoaey i?aaei?eyoey, i?aaenoaaeoaey
i?ionithciiai eiieoaoa i?aaei?eyoey.

Ianoiyoaeuenoaa ian/anoiiai neo/ay ni nia?oaeueiui enoiaeii, a?oiiiaiai
e oyaeaeiai ian/anoiuo neo/aaa iaycaoaeueii ?acae?athony ia canaaeaiee
i?ioeiia, a oaeaea a auoanoiyueo oicyenoaaiiuo e i?ionithciuo i?aaiao.
Iinea yoiai ecaeaaony niioaaonoaaiiue i?eeac eee ?aoaiea i i?iaaaeaiee
ia?ii?eyoee, eneeth/athueo aiaeiae/iua neo/ae.

2. Ii?ie?iaaiea e ?an/ao i?e?iaeiie inaauaiiinoe

Enoi/iee anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey – nieia/iay ?aaeeaoeey, o.a. iioie
eo/enoie yia?aee nieioea, aeioiaeyuae aei caiiie iiaa?oiinoe a aeaea
i?yiiai e ?annayiiiai naaoa. Anoanoaaiiia inaauaiea yaeyaony iaeaieaa
aeaeaie/iui e i?aaeoniao?eaaaony, eae i?aaeei, aeey iiiauaiee, a eioi?uo
iinoiyiii i?aauaatho ethaee. Anee ii oneiaeyi c?eoaeueiie ?aaiou iii
ieacuaaaony iaaeinoaoi/iui, oi eniieuecotho niaiauaiiia inaauaiea.

Anoanoaaiiia inaauaiea iiiauaiee iiae?acaeaeyaony ia aieiaia , aa?oiaa,
eiiaeie?iaaiiia – ni/aoaiea aa?oiaai e aieiaiai inaauaiey.

Nenoaio anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey auae?atho n o/aoii neaaeothueo oaeoi?ia:

– iacia/aiey e i?eiyoiai a?oeoaeoo?ii-ieaie?iai/iiai,
iauaiii-i?ino?ainoaaiiiai e eiino?oeoeaiiai ?aoaiey caeaiee;

– o?aaiaaiee e anoanoaaiiiio inaauaieth iiiauaiee, auoaeathueo ec
iniaaiiinoae oaoiieiae/aneie e c?eoaeueiie ?aaiou;

– eeeiaoe/aneeo e naaoieeeiaoe/aneeo iniaaiiinoae ianoa no?ieoaeuenoaa
caeaiee;

– yeiiiie/iinoe anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey.

A caaeneiinoe io aaia?aoe/aneie oe?iou, a?aiaie aiaea, /ana aeiy e
ninoiyiey iiaiaeu o?iaaiue anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey iiaeao ?acei
eciaiyoueny ca i/aiue ei?ioeee i?iiaaeooie a?aiaie e a aeiaieueii
oe?ieeo i?aaeaeao. Iiyoiio iniiaiie aaee/eiie aeey ?an/aoa e
ii?ie?iaaiey anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey aioo?e iiiauaiey i?eiyo
eiyooeoeeaio anoanoaaiiie inaauaiiinoe (EAI) – ioiioaiea (a i?ioeaioao
inaauaiiinoe) a aeaiiie oi/ea iiiauaiey Aai e iaaethaeaaiie
iaeiia?aiaiii inaauaiiinoe iiae ioe?uoui iaaii Aia?.
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Ii?iu anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey i?iiuoeaiiuo caeaiee, naaaeaiiua e
ii?ie?iaaieth EAI, i?aaenoaaeaiu a NieI ??-4-79. aeey iaeaa/aiey
ii?ie?iaaiey inaauaiiinoe ?aai/eo iano ana c?eoaeueiua ?aaiou ii noaiaie
oi/iinoe aeaeyony ia ainaiue ?ac?yaeia.

A NieI ??-4-79 onoaiaaeeaatho o?aaoaioth aaee/eio EAI a caaeneiinoe io
oi/iinoe ?aaio, aeaea inaauaiey e aaia?aoe/aneiai ?aniieiaeaiey
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Cia/aiey EAI aeey naaoiauo iiynia ii?aaeaeythony ii oi?ioea:

ai?,??,?V,V=ai???mn,

picscalex100010009000003510000000000120000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffffe0000000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000

picscalex100010009000003510000000000120000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffffe0000000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000aaea – m e n –
eiyooeoeeaiou naaoiaiai e nieia/iiai eeeiaoa niioaaonoaaiii.

picscalex100010009000003510000000000120000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffffe0000000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000

Aeey
picscalex100010009000003510000000000120000000000050000000902000000000500
0000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b020000
0000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ffffff
a6ffffffe0000000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d61746854797065000050000a00
000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000ii?aaeaeaiey
niioaaonoaey anoanoaaiiie inaauaiiinoe a i?iecaiaenoaaiiii iiiauaiee
o?aaoaiui ii?iai inaauaiiinoue ecia?ytho i?e aa?oiai e eiiaeie?iaaiiii
inaauaiee – a ?acee/iuo oi/eao iiiauaiey n iineaaeothuei on?aaeiaieai;
i?e aieiaii – ia iaeiaiaa inaauaiiuo ?aai/eo ianoao. Iaeiia?aiaiii
ecia?ytho ia?oaeioth inaauaiiinoue e ii?aaeaeaiiue ?an/aoiui iooai EAI
n?aaieaatho n ii?iaoeaiui.

?an/ao anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey caeeth/aaony a ii?aaeaeaiee ieiuaaee
naaoiauo i?iaiia aeey iiiauaiey. ?an/ao aaaeoo ii neaaeothuei oi?ioeai:

i?e aieiaii inaauaiee:
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,

i?e aa?oiai inaauaiee:
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,

aaea Si, So- ieiuaaeue ieii e oiia?ae , i2; SI – ieiuaaeue iiea, i2; ai
– ii?ie?iaaiiia cia/aiea EAI; Ec – eiyooeoeeaio caiana (Ec=1,2-2,0);

i, o – naaoiaua oa?aeoa?enoeee ieia, oiia?y; – iauee eiyooeoeeaio
naaoii?iioneaiey; r1, r2 – eiyooeoeeaiou, o/eouaathuea io?aaeaiea naaoa
i?e aieiaii e i?ioeainoiyueie caeaieyie; ko – eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee
oei oiia?y.

Cia/aiey eiyooeoeeaioia aeey ?an/aoa anoanoaaiiiai inaauaiey i?eieiatho
ii oaaeeoeai NieI ??-4-79.

3. Oaaiaia iai?yaeaiea e iai?yaeaiea eanaiey

Anee /aeiaae eanaaony iaeiia?aiaiii aeaoo oi/ae, iaaeaeo eioi?uie
nouanoaoao caieiooay oeaiue, /a?ac oaei /aeiaaea i?ioiaeeo oie. Cia/aiea
yoiai oiea caaeneo io noaiu i?eeiniiaaiey, eaeeo /anoae yeaeo?ionoaiiaee
eanaaony /aeiaae, a oaeaea io ia?aiao?ia yeaeo?e/aneie naoe.

?acee/atho iai?yaeaiey i?eeiniiaaiey e oaaa.

Iai?yaeaiea i?eeiniiaaiey – yoi iai?yaeaiea iaaeaeo aeaoiy oi/eaie oeaie
oiea, eioi?uo iaeiia?aiaiii eanaaony /aeiaae. Ai anao neo/ayo eiioaeoa n
/anoyie, ii?iaeueii eee neo/aeii iaoiaeyueieny iiae iai?yaeaieai, yoi
iai?yaeaiea i?eeeaaeuaaaony ei anae oeaie /aeiaaea, eoaea aoiaeyo
nii?ioeaeaiey oaea /aeiaaea, iaoae, eee a?oioa, ia eioi?ii noieo
/aeiaae. Iai?yaeaiea i?eeiniiaaiey i?eeiaeaii oieueei e oaeo /aeiaaea, a
iiyoiio aai iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae iaaeaiea iai?yaeaiey a oaea
/aeiaaea:

Ui?=IhRh

I?e aeaoooaciii i?eeiniiaaiee e oieiaaaeouei /anoyi iai?yaeaiey
i?eeiniiaaiey ?aaii ?aai/aio iai?yaeaieth yeaeo?ionoaiiaee, a a
o?aooaciie naoe – eeiaeiiio iai?yaeaieth. I?e iaeiioaciii i?eeiniiaaiee
e oieiaaaeouei /anoyi iai?yaeaiea i?eeiniiaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony oaciui
iai?yaeaieai ioiineoaeueii caiee.

Iai?yaeaiea oaaa – iai?yaeaiea oaaa iaaeaeo aeaoiy oi/eaie oeaie oiea,
iaoiaeyueieny ia ?annoiyiee oaaa, ia eioi?uo iaeiia?aiaiii noieo
/aeiaae. Anee /aeiaae iaoiaeeony ia a?oioa aaeece cacaieeoaey, n
eioi?iai noaeaao oie, oi /anoue yoiai oiea iiaeao ioaaoaeyoueny e
i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac iiae /aeiaaea ii ieaeiae iaoea. Oie, i?ioiaeyuee /a?ac
/aeiaaea, caaeneo io oiea caiueaiey ia caieth: Ih=?(Ic). ai anao
neo/ayo, e?iia aeaoooaciiai i?eeiniiaaiey, a oeaie oiea /a?ac /aeiaae
o/anoaoao a?oio, iaeia ec oi/ae eanaiey iaoiaeeony ia iiaa?oiinoe
a?oioa, i?e yoii oie /a?ac /aeiaaea caaeneo io oiea caiueaiey ia caieth.
*oiau auyaeoue yoo caaeneiinoue e ii?aaeaeeoue oie /a?ac /aeiaaea, iaaei
i?iaanoe aiaeec yaeaiee i?ioiaeaeaiey oiea a a?oioa.

4. Iniiaiua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey iiaea?ia ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e n?aaenoaa
iiaea?iie i?ioeeaeoeee

Iaeaieaa /anoua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey iiaea?ia ia i?iiuoeaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoeyo – iainoi?iaeiia ia?auaiea n iaiai, iaeni?aaiinoue
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ia?ooaiey oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna,
ia?ooaiey i?aaee yenieoaoaoeee yeaeo?iiai?oaeiaaiey, ianiaethaeaiea ia?
iiaea?iie aaciianiinoe i?e i?iaaaeaiee yeaeo?iaacinaa?i/iuo ?aaio e
iaeioi?uo ae?oaea.

Iiaea? ia i?iecaiaenoaa iiaeao aicieeiooue aneaaenoaea i?e/ei
iayeaeo?e/aneiai e yeaeo?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a.

I?e/eiu iayeaeo?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a:

– iai?aaeeueiia ono?ienoai e iaeni?aaiinoue eioaeueiuo ia/ae,
aaioeeyoeeiiiuo e ioiieoaeueiuo nenoai, ioiieoaeueiuo i?eai?ia e
oaoiieiae/aneiai iai?oaeiaaiey;

– iaeni?aaiinoue nenoai ieoaiey e niacee a ?aaioathueo aeaeaaoaeyo
iaoaieciia;

– ia?ooaiea oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna;

– ia?ooaiea o?aaiaaiee iiaea?iie aaciianiinoe i?e aacinaa?i/iuo ?aaioao,
?acea iaoaeeia, iieueciaaiee iayeueiuie eaiiaie;

– oaeaoiia e iainoi?iaeiia ia?auaiea n iaiai – eo?aiea, inoaaeaiea aac
i?eniio?a iaa?aaaoaeueiuo i?eai?ia, ?acia?aa aeaoaeae e nooea;

– naiiaicai?aiea eee naiiainieaiaiaiea aauanoa.

I?e/eiu yeaeo?e/aneiai oa?aeoa?a:

– ei?ioeea caiueaiey, ia?aa?ocee, ene?aiey io ia?ooaiey ecieyoeee, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iaa?aaaieth i?iaiaeieeia aei oaiia?aoo?u ainieaiaiaiey
ecieyoeee;

– yeaeo?e/aneay aeoaa, aicieeathuay iaaeaeo eiioaeoaie eiiiooaoeeiiiuo
aiia?aoia, ia i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey ioeeth/aiey aieueoeo oieia iaa?ocee,
a oaeaea i?eaeoaiaie yeaeo?inaa?ea;

– iaoaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiua eiioaeou a ianoao niaaeeiaiey i?iaiaeia e eo
neeueiue iaa?aa aneaaenoaea aieueoiai ia?aoiaeiiai nii?ioeaeaiey i?e
i?ioaeaiee yeaeo?e/aneiai oiea;

– aaa?ee n ianeiiaiieiaiiuie aiia?aoaie, eiaaea i?ienoiaeeo na?in a
aoiinoa?o e ainieaiaiaiea i?iaeoeoia ?aceiaeaiey ieia?aeueiiai ianea e
niane eo n aicaeooii;

– ene?aiea a yeaeo?e/aneeo aiia?aoao e iaoeiao, a oaeaea ene?aiea a
?acoeueoaoa yeaeo?inoaoe/aneeo ?ac?yaeia e oaea?ia iieiee;

– iaeni?aaiinoue a iaiioeao yeaeo?e/aneeo iaoei i?e ionoonoaee
iaaeeaaeauae caueou.

?ino aaeeie/iie iiuiinoe aa?aaaoia, eioaineoeeaoeey oaoiieiae/aneeo
i?ioeannia, o.a. oaaee/aiea iauaiia e nei?inoae aeaeaeaiey iiae/an
iiaea?i- e ac?uaiiianiuo iaoa?eaeia, i?eiaiaiea aunieeo oaiia?aoo? e
aeaaeaiee, iaeneiaeueiay iaoaiecaoeey e aaoiiaoecaoeey auaeaeaatho
iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey e iaaeaaeiinoe e yooaeoeaiinoe iiaea?i- e
ac?uaicaueou. Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea, aaa?ey aeaaea iaeiiai e?oiiiai
aa?aaaoa, nii?iaiaeaeaaony iiaea?ii e ac?uaii, a a oeie/aneie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe iie /anoi niioonoaotho iaeei ae?oaiio, iiaeao i?eaanoe e
aanueia oyaeeei iineaaenoaeyi ia oieueei aeey naiiai i?iecaiaenoaa e
ethaeae aai ianeoaeeaathueo, ii e aeey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. A yoie nayce
/?acau/aeii aaaeia i?aaeeueiay ioeaiea oaea ia noaaeee i?iaeoe?iaaiey
iiaea?i- e ac?uaii?aaeoi?aaeaeaiey e caueou. Eiaiii yoie oeaee neoaeao
AINO NNAO, NieI, ii?iu oaoiieiae/aneiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey, nicaeaiiua ia
iniiaa eco/aiey e iaiauaiey iaoee e i?aeoeee a iaeanoe ai?ueau n
iiaea?aie e ac?uaaie ia i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaeec aaa?ee a oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iieacuaaao, /oi, ianiio?y ia
iiiaiia?acea oaoiieiae/aneeo noai, iai?oaeiaaiey e naieo i?ioeannia,
oa?aeoa? eo iianiinoe ai iiiaii noiae. Aeey i?aaeaaa?eeiiai ninoiyiey
oa?aeoa?ii ia?aciaaiea ac?uaiiianiuo aaciia?iauo nianae, iaeiieaiea e
ia?aciaaiea ac?uaiiianiuo iueaaicaeooiuo nianae, aeeaeeeo e oaa?aeuo
ac?uaiiianiuo i?iaeoeoia a aiia?aoao e eiiioieeaoeeyo e eieoeee?iaaiea
ainieaiaiaiey e ac?uaa enoi/ieeaie ainieaiaiaiey; ia?aciaaiea
ac?uaiiianiiai iaeaea a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caeaieyo, a oaeaea ia
oa??eoi?ee i?aaei?eyoey e o.ae.

Yoi aiai?eo i oii, /oi, i?iaiaey aiaeec iiaea?i- e ac?uaiiianiinoe
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ioeanna a oeaeii, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue iiaea?i- e
ac?uaiiianiua naienoaa aauanoa, iinooiathueo e ia?acothueony a
i?iecaiaenoaa, ciaoue eo eiee/anoai, noaiaiue iiaea?i- e ac?uaiiianiinoe
n?aaeu aioo?e aiia?aoia e iai?oaeiaaiey, a oaeaea aiciiaeiua i?e/eiu
auoiaea ai?th/eo aauanoa a i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iiiauaiea, i?e/eiu e iooe
?ani?ino?aiaiey iiaea?a ii eiiioieeaoeeyi e i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio caeaieth.
Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ii?aaeaeeoue aiciiaeiinoue iiyaeaiey aioo?aiieo e
aiaoieo enoi/ieeia ainieaiaiaiey e eieoeee?iaaiey ac?uaa eae a aiia?aoa,
oae e a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo caeaieyo e ia oa??eoi?ee i?aaei?eyoey e o.ae.

O?aaiaaiey e iiaea?o- e ac?uaiiianiinoe i?iiuoeaiiuo iauaeoia
noi?ioee?iaaiu a AINO 12.1.004-85 “Iiaea?iay aaciianiinoue. Iauea
o?aaiaaiey”, AINO 12.1.033-81 “Iiaea?iay aaciianiinoue. Oa?ieiu e
ii?aaeaeaiey”, AINO 12.1.010-76 “Ac?uaiiianiinoue. Iauea o?aaiaaiey”.

?aeiiaiaeaoeee AINO ii?aaeaeytho aeaa iniiaiuo i?eioeeia iaania/aiey
iiaea?i- e ac?uaiaaciianiinoe:

-i?aaeioa?auaiea ia?aciaaiey ai?th/ae e ac?uaiiianiie n?aaeu;

-iiaea?i- e ac?uaicaueoa oaoiieiae/aneeo i?ioeannia, iiiauaiee e caeaiee
e o?aeootho iiaea?ioth aaciianiinoue eae “ninoiyiea iauaeoa, i?e eioi?ii
n onoaiiaeaiiie aa?iyoiinoueth eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue aicieeiiaaiey
e ?acaeoey iiaea?a, a oaeaea iaania/eaaaony caueoa iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae”, a ac?uaiaaciianiinoue eae “ninoiyiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
i?ioeanna, i?e eioi?ii eneeth/aaony aiciiaeiinoue ac?uaa, eee a neo/aa
aai aicieeiiaaiey i?aaeioa?auaaony aicaeaenoaea ia ethaeae aucuaaaiuo ei
iianiuo e a?aaeiuo oaeoi?ia e iaania/eaaaony nio?aiaiea iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae”.

E iianiui e a?aaeiui oaeoi?ai, eioi?ua iiaoo aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia ethaeae
a ?acoeueoaoa iiaea?a e ac?uaa, ioiinyony: ieaiy, oaea?iay aieia,
ia?ooaiey iai?oaeiaaiey, eiiioieeaoeee caeaiee e nii?oaeaiee e eo
ineieeia, ia?aciaaiea i?e ac?uaa e iiaea?a e auoiae ec iia?aaeaeaiiuo
aiia?aoia niaea?aeaueony a ieo a?aaeiuo aauanoa e o.ae.

I?iecaiaenoaaiiua i?ioeannu, ca eneeth/aieai i?ioeannia, naycaiiuo n
ac?ua/aouie aauanoaaie, aeieaeiu ?ac?aaaouaaoueny oae, /oiau
aa?iyoiinoue aicieeiiaaiey iiaea?a eee ac?uaa ia ethaii o/anoea a
oa/aiee aiaea ia i?aauoaea 0,000001, a nenoaia iiaea?i- e ac?uaicaueou,
?ac?aaaouaaaiay aeey eaaeaeiai eiie?aoiiai iauaeoa ec ?an/aoa, /oi
ii?iaoeaiay aaee/eia aicaeaenoaey iianiuo oaeoi?ia iiaea?a eee ac?uaa ia
ethaeae i?eieiaaony ?aaiie ia aieaa 0,000001 a aiae a ?an/aoa ia
ioaeaeueiiai /aeiaaea. I?e yoii iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi aaciianiinoue
ethaeae aeieaeia auoue iaania/aia i?e aicieeiiaaiee iiaea?a a ethaii
ianoa iauaeoa, a iiaea?iay aaciianiinoue iauaeoa eae a aai ?aai/ai
ninoiyiee, oae e a neo/ayo aaa?eeiie ianoaiiaee.

Iniiaiua ia?u iaania/aiey iiaea?i- e ac?uaiaaciianiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo i?ioeannia iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu neaaeothuae
noaiie, ni. ?en.1.

Caaea/e

Caaea/a1.

?ann/eoaoue yooaeoeaiinoue i?e?iaeiie aaioeeyoeee iiiauaiey
yeiiiie/aneiai ioaeaea.

Iniiaiue auoiaeiua aeaiiua:

Aaaa?eou iiiauaiey:

– aeeeia – 7, i;

– oe?eia – 4,4, i;

– aunioa – 4, i;

eiee/anoai ?aaioathueo – 5

?acia?u oi?oi/ee – 0,21 , i2.

?aoaiea

A niioaaonoaee n NieI 2.09.04-87 iauai ?aai/aai iiiauaiey, eioi?ia
i?eoiaeeony ia iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai ia iaiaa 40 i3. A i?ioeaiiieiaeiii
neo/aa aeey ii?iaeueiie ?aaiou a iiiauaiee iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eaaoue
iinoiyiiue aicaeooiiaiai n iiiiuueth aaioeeyoeee ?acia?ii ia iaiaa L’=
30 i3//an ia iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaiaoiaeeiue aicaeooiiaiai Li au/eneyaony ii oi?ioea

Li = L’n, i3//an,

aaea n – eiee/anoai ?aaioathueo.

Li = 305 = 150 i3//an.

Oaeoe/aneee aicaeooiiaiai a ioaeaea i?iecaiaeeony n iiiiuueth i?e?iaeiie
aaioeeyoeee eae iai?aaieciaaiii – /a?ac ?acee/iua uaee aeaa?iuo e
ieiiiuo i?iaiia oae e i?aaieciaaiii – /a?ac oi?oi/eo.

Oaeoe/aneee aicaeooiiaiai Lo, i3//an, au/eneyaony ii oi?ioea:

Lo = iFV3600,

aaea i – eiyooeoeeaio ?anoiaea aicaeooa i=0,55;

F – ieiuaaeue oi?oi/ee, /a?ac eioi?oth aoaeao auoiaeeoue aicaeoo, i2;

V – nei?inoue auoiaea aicaeooa, i/n. Aa iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue ii oi?ioea:
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aaea g – onei?aiea naiaiaeiiai iaaeaiey;

H2 – oaieiaie iaii?, iiae aeaenoaeai eioi?iai aoaeao auoiaeeoue aicaeoo,
ea/i2:

H2 = h2(yi – oai),

aaea h2 – aunioa io ieiuaaee ?aaiuo aeaaeaiee aei oeaio?a oi?oi/ee.

h2 = 2-0,75 = 1,25 i

yi, oai – niioaaonoaaiii iauaiiua iannu aicaeooa nia?oaee e aioo?e
iiiauaiey, ean/ i3.

Iauaiiua iannu aicaeooa ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea:

O = 0,465?a/O

aaea ?a – aa?iiao?e/aneia aeaaeaiea, ii. ?o. no.;

O – oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa, E.

Aeey ioaeaea aaea auiieiythony eaaeea ?aaiou niioaaonoaaiii n AINO
12.1.005-88 aeey oaieiai ia?eiaea aiaea oaiia?aoo?a aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue
ia aieueoa 301 E, aeey oieiaeiiai 290 E.

Aeey aiaoiaai aicaeooa oaiia?aoo?o aa?ai niioaaonoaaiii NieI
2.04.05.-91:

– aeey eaoa O=297 E;

– aeey ceiu O=262 E.

Aeey eaoa

Oi = 0,465750/297=1,17 ean/ i3

Oai = 0,465750/301=1,16 ean/ i3

Aeey ceiu

Oi = 0,465750/262=1,33 ean/ i3

Oai = 0,465750/290=1,2 ean/ i3

Niioaaonoaaiii

Aeey eaoa

H2e = 1,25(1,17-1,16)=0,0125 ea/i2

Aeey ceiu

H2c = 1,25(1,33-1,2)=0,163 ea/i2
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 i/n
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 i/n

Aeey eaoa

Lo = 0,550,210,463600=191,3 i3//an

Aeey ceiu

Lo = 0,550,211,653600=686 i3//an

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?e?iaeiie aaioeeyoeee a ioaeaea yooaeoeaia Li

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