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Радиоактивное загрязнение пищевых продуктов

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

THaeii-O?aeueneee Ainoaea?noaaiiue oieaa?neoao

Eaoaae?a “Oiaa?iaaaeaiea e yenia?oeca iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia”

Eo?niaay ?aaioa

ii aeenoeeieeia “Aaciianiinoue i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiiai nu?uey e ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia”

ia oaio ?AAeEIAEOEAIIA CAA?ssCIAIEA IEUAAUO I?IAeOEOIA

A?oiia: EII-256

Nooaeaio: Aaaeoiaa I. O.

*aeyaeine 2001

IAEAAEAIEA

· Aaaaeaiea

· 1. ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue e eiiece?othuea eceo/aiey

· 2. Enoi/ieee e iooe iinooieaiey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a i?aaieci /aeiaaea

· 2.1 Anoanoaaiiay ?aaeeaoeey

· 2.2 Eneonnoaaiiay ?aaeeaoeey

· 3. Aeaenoaea eiiece?othueo eceo/aiee ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea

· 3.1 Aeicu ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey

· 3.2 Aeieiae/aneia aeaenoaea ?aaeeaoeee ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea

· 4. N?aaenoaa caueou io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo eceo/aiee

· 4.1 I?ioeeaeoe/aneea ia?ii?eyoey

· 4.2 Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aaeeicaueoiiai ieoaiey

· Caeeth/aiea

· Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

· I?eeiaeaiea

AAAAeAIEA

N?aaee aii?inia, i?aaenoaaeythueo iao/iue eioa?an, iaiiiaea i?eeiauaatho
e naaa noieue iinoiyiiia aieiaiea iauanoaaiiinoe e aucuaatho oae iiiai
nii?ia, eae aii?in i aeaenoaee ?aaeeaoeee ia /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuoth
n?aaeo. A i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?aiao ia i?ioiaeeo e iaaeaee aac
eaeie-ieaoaeue aeaiiino?aoeee iauanoaaiiinoe ii yoiio iiaiaeo. Oaeay aea
neooaoeey aeiaieueii nei?i iiaeao aicieeiooue e a ?acaeaathueony
no?aiao, eioi?ua nicaeatho naith aoiiioth yia?aaoeeo; anoue ana
iniiaaiey ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi aeaaaou ii iiaiaeo ?aaeeaoeee e aa
aicaeaenoaey a?yae ee ooeoioo a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai.

E niaeaeaieth, aeinoiaa?iay iao/iay eioi?iaoeey ii yoiio aii?ino i/aiue
/anoi ia aeioiaeeo aei ianaeaiey, eioi?ia iieuecoaony iiyoiio
anaaiciiaeiuie neooaie. Neeoeii /anoi a?aoiaioaoeey i?ioeaieeia aoiiiie
yia?aaoeee iie?aaony eneeth/eoaeueii ia /oanoaa e yiioeee, noieue aea
/anoi aunooieaiey noi?iiieeia aa ?acaeoey naiaeyony e iaei iainiiaaiiui
oniieieoaeueiui caaa?aieyi.

Iao/iue eiieoao III ii aeaenoaeth aoiiiie ?aaeeaoeee niae?aao anth
aeinooiioth eioi?iaoeeth ia enoi/ieeao ?aaeeaoeee e aa aicaeaenoaee ia
/aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo e aiaeece?oao aa. Ii eco/aao oe?ieee
niaeo? anoanoaaiiuo e nicaeaiiuo eneonnoaaiii enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee, e
aai auaiaeu iiaoo oaeeaeoue aeaaea oao, eoi aieiaoaeueii neaaeeo ca
oiaeii ioaee/iuo aunooieaiee ia yoo oaio.

?aaeeaoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii nia?oaeueii iiania. I?e aieueoeo aeicao iia
aucuaaao na?ueaciaeoea ii?aaeaiey oeaiae, a i?e iaeuo iiaeao aucaaoue
?ae e eiaeooee?iaaoue aaiaoe/aneea aeaoaeou, eioi?ua, aiciiaeii,
i?iyayony o aeaoae e aioeia /aeiaaea, iiaeaa?aoaainy iaeo/aieth, eee o
aai aieaa ioaeaeaiiuo iioiieia.

Ii aeey iniiaiie iannu ianaeaiey naiua iianiua enoi/ieee ?aaeeaoeee –
yoi aiana ia oa, i eioi?uo aieueoa anaai aiai?yo. Iaeaieueooth aeico
/aeiaae iieo/aao io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee. ?aaeeaoeey,
naycaiiay n ?acaeoeai aoiiiie yia?aaoeee, ninoaaeyao eeoue iaeoth aeieth
?aaeeaoeee, ii?iaeaeaaiie aeayoaeueiinoueth /aeiaaea; cia/eoaeueii
aieueoea aeicu iu iieo/aai io ae?oaeo, aucuaathueo ai?acaei iaiueoa
ia?aeaiee, oi?i yoie aeayoaeueiinoe, iai?eia?, io i?eiaiaiey
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae a iaaeeoeeia. E?iia oiai, oaeea oi?iu iianaaeiaaiie
aeayoaeueiinoe, eae naeeaaiea oaey e eniieueciaaiea aicaeooiiai
o?ainii?oa, a iniaaiiinoe aea iinoiyiiia i?aauaaiea a oi?ioi
aa?iaoece?iaaiiuo iiiauaieyo, iiaoo i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio
oaaee/aieth o?iaiy iaeo/aiey ca n/ao anoanoaaiiie ?aaeeaoeee.
Iaeaieueoea ?aca?au oiaiueoaiey iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey caeeth/aiu eiaiii a
oaeeo “aannii?iuo” oi?iao aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea.

Aeaiiay eo?niaay ?aaioa ia i?aoaiaeoao ia oi, /oiau aeaoue ioaao ia ana
aii?inu, oioy ia enoi/ieeao ?aaeeaoeee, aa aeaenoaee ia /aeiaaea e
iianiinoe aeey ianaeaiey ecaanoii aieueoa, /ai i?aeoe/anee i ethaii
ae?oaii oaeoi?a, nii?yaeaiiii n a?aaeiuie aicaeaenoaeyie. Ii a iae
naeaeaia iiiuoea iiaeuoiaeeoue ana oi aeinoiaa?iia, /oi ecaanoii i
aeaenoaee ?aaeeaoeee ia /aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.

1. ?AAeEIAEOEAIINOUe E EIIECE?OTHUEA ECEO*AIEss

Ana oeie/aneea yeaiaiou ninoiyo ec aoiiia. Aieueoeinoai aoiiia
noaaeeueii, /oi icia/aao, /oi iie iaeciaiiu. Ii iaeioi?ua ec naiuo
oyaeaeuo aoiiia ?aniaaeathony e i?aa?auathony a ae?oaea. Oaeie ?aniaae
iacuaaaony “?aaeeiaeoeaiinoueth”.

?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue – ioithaeue ia iiaia yaeaiea; iiaecia ninoieo eeoue a
oii, eae ethaee iuoaeenue aa eniieueciaaoue. E ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, e
niioonoaothuea ae eiiece?othuea eceo/aiey nouanoaiaaee caaeieai aei
ca?iaeaeaiey ia iae aeecie e i?enoonoaiaaee a einiina aei aicieeiiaaiey
naiie Caiee.

Eiiece?othuaa eceo/aiea nii?iaiaeaeaei e Aieueoie ac?ua, n eioi?iai, eae
iu nae/an iieaaaai, ia/aeinue nouanoaiaaiea iaoae Anaeaiiie ieiei
aeaaaeoeaoe ieeeea?aeia eao iacaae. N oiai a?aiaie ?aaeeaoeey iinoiyiii
iaiieiyao einie/aneia i?iecaiaenoai. ?aaeeiaeoeaiua iaoa?eaeu aioee a
ninoaa Caiee n naiiai aa ?iaeaeaiey. Aeaaea /aeiaae neaaea
?aaeeiaeoeaai, oae eae ai anyeie aeeaie oeaie i?enoonoaotho a neaaeiauo
eiee/anoaao ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa. Ii n iiiaioa ioe?uoey yoiai
oieaa?naeueiiai ooiaeaiaioaeueiiai yaeaiey ia i?ioei aua e noa eao.

Eaaeaeue ?aaeeiaeoeaiue yeaiaio i?e ?aniaaea enioneaao ii?aaeaeaiiua
eo/e n eaeie-oi /anoioie. Yoo /anoioo iaaiciiaeii ie onei?eoue, ie
caiaaeeeoue ieeaeei niiniaii. Iaeioi?ua yeaiaiou ?aniaaeathony auno?i,
ae?oaea iaaeeaiii, ii a ethaii neo/aa yoi yaeaiea ia iiaeaeanoii
/aeiaaeo.

A yae?a i?enoonoaotho /anoeoeu, iacuaaaiua iaeo?iiaie, iineieueeo iie
yeaeo?e/anee iaeo?aeai. ssae?a aoiiia iaeiiai e oiai aea yeaiaioa
anaaaea niaea?aeao iaeii e oi aea /enei i?ioiiia, ii /enei iaeo?iiia a
ieo iiaeao auoue ?aciui. Aoiiu, eiathuea yae?a n iaeeiaeiaui /eneii
i?ioiiia, ii ?acee/athueany ii /eneo iaeo?iiia, ioiinyony e ?aciui
?aciiaeaeiinoyi iaeiiai e oiai aea oeie/aneiai yeaiaioa, iacuaaaiui
ecioiiaie aeaiiiai yeaiaioa. ssae?a anao ecioiiia oeie/aneeo yeaiaioia
ia?acotho a?oiio ioeeeaeia.

Iaeioi?ua ioeeeaeu noaaeeueiu, o.a. a ionoonoaea aiaoiaai aicaeaenoaey
ieeiaaea ia i?aoa?iaaatho ieeaeeo i?aa?auaiee.

Aieueoeinoai aea ioeeeaeia ianoaaeeueiu, iie ana a?aiy i?aa?auathony a
ae?oaea ioeeeaeu. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a aicueiai aoii o?aia-238, a yae?a
eioi?iai i?ioiiu e iaeo?iiu aaeaa oaea?aeeaathony aianoa neeaie
noeaieaiey. A?aiy io a?aiaie ec iaai au?uaaaony eiiiaeoiay a?oiia ec
/aou?ao /anoeoe: aeaoo i?ioiiia e aeaoo iaeo?iiia (aeueoa-/anoeoea).
O?ai-238 i?aa?auaaony a oi?ee-234, a yae?a eioi?iai niaea?aeaony 90
i?ioiiia e 144 iaeo?iia. Ii oi?ee-234 oaeaea ianoaaeeai. Aai i?aa?auaiea
i?ienoiaeeo, iaeiaei, ia oae, eae a i?aaeuaeouai neo/aa: iaeei ec aai
iaeo?iiia i?aa?auaaony a i?ioii, e oi?ee-234 i?aa?auaaony a
i?ioaeoeiee-234, a yae?a eioi?iai niaea?aeaony 91 i?ioii e 143 iaeo?iia.
Yoa iaoaii?oica, i?iecioaaeoay a yae?a, neacuaaaony e ia aeaeaeoueony ii
i?aeoai yeaeo?iiao: iaeei ec ieo noaiiaeony iania?aiiui e aueaoaao ec
aoiia. I?ioaeoeiee i/aiue ianoaaeeai, e aio o?aaoaony nianai iaiiiai
a?aiaie ia i?aa?auaiea… Aeaeaa neaaeotho eiua i?aa?auaiey,
nii?iaiaeaeaaiua eceo/aieyie, e any yoa oeaii/ea a eiioea eiioeia
ieai/eaaaony noaaeeueiui ioeeeaeii naeioea. Nouanoaoao iiiai oaeeo
oeaii/ae naiii?iecaieueiuo i?aa?auaiee (?aniaaeia) ?aciuo ioeeeaeia ii
?aciui noaiai i?aa?auaiee e eo eiiaeiaoeeyi.

I?e eaaeaeii oaeii aeoa ?aniaaea aunaiaiaeaeaaony yia?aey, eioi?ay e
ia?aaeaaony aeaeueoa a aeaea eceo/aiey. Iiaeii neacaoue, /oi enioneaaiua
yae?ii /anoeoeu, ninoiyuae ec aeaoo i?ioiiia e aeaoo iaeo?iiia, – yoi
aeueoa-eceo/aiea; enioneaiea yeaeo?iia, eae a neo/aa ?aniaaea oi?ey-234,
– yoi aaoa-eceo/aiea. *anoi ianoaaeeueiue ioeeeae ieacuaaaony ianoieueei
aicaoaeaeaiiui, /oi enioneaiea /anoeoeu ia i?eaiaeeo e iieiiio niyoeth
aicaoaeaeaiey; oiaaea ii aua?anuaaao ii?oeeth /enoie yia?aee,
iacuaaaioth aaiia-eceo/aieai (aaiia-eaaioii). Eae e a neo/aa
?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae (ai iiiaii iiaeiaiuo aaiia-eceo/aieth), i?e yoii ia
i?ienoiaeeo enioneaiey eaeeo-eeai /anoeoe.

Aanue i?ioeann naiii?iecaieueiiai ?aniaaea ianoaaeeueiiai ioeeeaea
iacuaaaony ?aaeeiaeoeaiui ?aniaaeii, a nai oaeie ioeeeae –
?aaeeiioeeeaeii.

Ii oioy ana ?aaeeiioeeeaeu ianoaaeeueiu, iaeie ec ieo aieaa
ianoaaeeueiu, /ai ae?oaea. Iai?eia?, i?ioaeoeiee-234 ?aniaaeaaony ii/oe
iiiaioaeueii, a o?ai-238 – i/aiue iaaeeaiii. Iieiaeia anao aoiiia
i?ioaeoeiey a eaeii-eeai ?aaeeiaeoeaiii enoi/ieea ?aniaaeaaony ca a?aiy,
/ooue aieueoaa ieioou, a oi aea a?aiy iieiaeia anao aoiiia o?aia-238
i?aa?aoeony a oi?ee-234 oieueei ca /aou?a n iieiaeiie ieeeea?aea eao.

2. ENOI*IEEE E IOOE IINOOIEAIEss ?AAeEIIOEEEAeIA A I?AAIECI *AEIAAEA

Ia?acothueany i?e aeaeaiee ?aaeeiioeeeaeu i?iieeatho a i?aaieci /aeiaaea
aeaoiy iooyie:

aiaoiaa iaeo/aiea – /a?ac aicaeaenoaea ia eiaeo ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa,
iaoiaeyueony a aicaeooa e ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee;

aioo?aiia iaeo/aiea – /a?ac aaeuoaiea caa?yciaiiiai aicaeooa,
oiio?aaeaiea a ieuo caa?yciaiiuo i?iaeoeoia.

?aaeeaoeeiiiue oii Caiee neeaaeuaaaony ec anoanoaaiiuo e eneonnoaaiiuo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia.

2.1 Anoanoaaiiay ?aaeeaoeey

Iniiaioth /anoue iaeo/aiey ianaeaiea caiiiai oa?a iieo/aao io
anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee (?en.1). Aieueoeinoai ec ieo oaeiau,
/oi ecaaaeaoue iaeo/aiey io ieo niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii. Ia i?ioyaeaiee
anae enoi?ee nouanoaiaaiey Caiee ?aciua aeaeu eceo/aiey iaaeatho ia
iiaa?oiinoue Caiee ec einiina e iinooiatho io ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo aauanoa,
iaoiaeyueony a caiiie ei?a, anoanoaaiiay ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue i?enoonoaoao
a ieua e aicaeooa. Eaaeaeue /aeiaae a aieueoae eee iaiueoae noaiaie
iiaeaa?aaaony aicaeaenoaeth anoanoaaiiiai eceo/aiey, e aeey aieueoae
/anoe ianaeaiey yoi eceo/aiea yaeyaony enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey.

Iaeo/aieth io anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee iiaeaa?aaaony ethaie
aeeoaeue Caiee, iaeiaei iaeie ec ieo iieo/atho aieueoea aeicu, /ai
ae?oaea. Yoi caaeneo, a /anoiinoe, io oiai, aaea iie aeeaoo.

Ii?iaeueiui aeey i?iaeeaaiey /aeiaaea n/eoaaony o?iaaiue aaiia-oiia a 20
iee?i?aioaai a /an. Ii yoi aanueia oneiaii, iioiio /oi a i?eioeeia
ii?ie?iaaoue anoanoaaiiia eceo/aiea iaeuecy. Iii caaeneo io eiie?aoiie
ianoiinoe, aa ?aeueaoa: a ai?ao, iai?eia?, auoa, /ai ia ?aaieia. A
iaeioi?uo ianoao caiiiai oa?a, oai , aaea caeaaatho iniaaiii
?aaeeiaeoeaiua ii?iaeu, o?iaaiue ?aaeeaoeee ieacuaaaony cia/eoaeueii
auoa n?aaeiaai. Ii iiiaea ethaee aeeaoo oai, aaea i?eaueee, e ie/aai n
ieie ia neo/aaony. Ai?oeu, e i?eia?o, aeeaoo a oneiaeyo, aaea o?iaaiue
anoanoaaiiie ?aaeeaoeee a aeaa-o?e ?aca auoa n?aaeiaai, a aeieaiaeeoaeae
n?aaee ieo aieueoa.

Aeanyoee ouny/ ethaeae ia E?aeiai Naaa?a ieoathony a iniiaiii iynii
naaa?iiai ieaiy (ea?eao), a eioi?ii i?enoonoaotho a aeiaieueii aunieie
eiioeaio?aoeee ioeeeaeu naeioea-210 e iieiiey-210. Yoe ecioiiu
iiiaaeatho a i?aaieci ieaiae ceiie, eiaaea iie ieoathony eeoaeieeaie, a
eioi?uo iaeaieeaathony iaa ecioiia. Aeicu aioo?aiiaai iaeo/aiey /aeiaaea
io iieiiey-210 a yoii neo/aa iiaoo a 35 ?ac i?aauoaoue n?aaeiee
o?iaaiue. A a ae?oaii iieooa?ee ethaee, aeeaouea a Caiaaeiie Aano?aeee a
ianoao n iiauoaiiie eiioeaio?aoeeae o?aia, iieo/atho aeicu iaeo/aiey, a
75 ?ac i?aainoiaeyuea n?aaeiee o?iaaiue, iineieueeo aaeyo iyni e o?aaooo
iaaoe e eaiao?o.

Auoaoiiiyiooua ioeeeaeu a aieueoie noaiaie eiioeaio?e?othony a ?uaa e
iieethneao, iiyoiio ethaee, iio?aaeythuea iiiai ?uau e ae?oaeo aea?ia
ii?y, iiaoo iieo/eoue ioiineoaeueii aunieea aeicu iaeo/aiey

Aeica iaeo/aiey caaeneo oaeaea io ia?aca aeecie ethaeae. Anoanoaaiiue
?aaeeaoeeiiiue oii iinoiyiii iaiyaony aneaaenoaea iaoaiiiiiie
aeayoaeueiinoe /aeiaaea, ?ani?ino?aiaiey oaoiieiaee ia?a?aaioee
i?e?iaeiuo i?iaeoeoia, niaea?aeaueo ?aaeeiioeeeaeu

Eniieueciaaiea aaca aeey i?eaioiaeaiey ieue, ioe?uouo oaieueiuo
aea?iaaiue – yoi oaaee/eaaao o?iaaiue iaeo/aiey ca n/ao anoanoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee.

Iaeioi?ua no?ieoaeueiua iaoa?eaeu oaeaea eiatho ii?aaeaeaiioth
?aaeeiaeoeaiinoue, iai?eia?, ecaanoiye, ian/aiee – aei 100ieCa/aiae,
aaoii – 100-200, anoanoaaiiue eaiaiue, i?iecaiaenoaaiiue aein – 200-400,
oeaeiaue eaiaiue, a?aieo – 400-2000. Eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia a?aieoa e aaoiia aaconeiaii aeeyao ia aeiciaoth
iaa?oceo /aeiaaea.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy noaiiaeony aeooaeueiie i?iaeaia ?aaeiia. ?aaeii
ia?acoaony i?e anoanoaaiiii ?aaeeiaeoeaiii ?aniaaea ?aaeey i?aeoe/anee
iianthaeo, a oii /enea e a a?oioiauo ii?iaeao iiae caeaieyie, a
iiaecaiiuo ieoueaauo aiaeao. ?aaeii auaeaeyaony e ec no?ieoaeueiuo
iaoa?eaeia, i?eiaiyaiuo a i?iiuoeaiiii e a?aaeaeaineii no?ieoaeuenoaa.
Iineieueeo ?aaeii yaeyaony oyaeaeui aacii, eiioeaio?aoeey aai a auoiauo
iiiauaieyo ia?aiai yoaaea e iiaeaaeueiuo anaaaea auoa.

Caiiua enoi/ieee ?aaeeaoeee a noiia ioaaonoaaiiu ca aieueooth /anoue
iaeo/aiey, eioi?iio iiaeaa?aaaony /aeiaae ca n/ao anoanoaaiiie
?aaeeaoeee. A n?aaeiai iie iaania/eaatho aieaa 5/6 aiaeiaie yooaeoeaiie
yeaeaaeaioiie aeicu, iieo/aaiie ianaeaieai, a iniiaiii aneaaenoaea
aioo?aiiaai iaeo/aiey. Inoaeueioth /anoue aiinyo einie/aneea eo/e,
aeaaiui ia?acii iooai aiaoiaai iaeo/aiey.

Iioiee ?acee/iuo /anoeoe i?eoiaeyo e iai ec einie/aneiai i?ino?ainoaa.
Einie/aneia eceo/aiea iiae?acaeaeyaony ia ia?ae/iia e aoi?e/iia.

Ia?ae/iia i?ienoiaeeo a aeaea aniuoae ia Nieioea, iaeaaeaao
ioiineoaeueii ieceie yia?aeae, iiyoiio ia i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiiio
oaaee/aieth aeicu aiaoiaai eceo/aiey ia iiaa?oiinoe caiee. Iii ii/oe
iieiinoueth en/acaao ia aunioa 20 ei.

Ianaeaiea Caiee i?aeoe/anee iiaeaa?aaaony aicaeaenoaeth aoi?e/iiai
einie/aneiai eceo/aiey a ?acoeueoaoa ia?aciaaiey einiiaaiiuo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia. Iie aicieeatho i?e acaeiiaeaenoaee /anoeoe aoi?e/iiai
einie/aneiai eceo/aiey n yae?aie ?acee/iuo aoiiia, i?enoonoaothueo a
aoiinoa?a.

I?aaeaea /ai iiianoue a i?aaieci /aeiaaea, ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa
i?ioiaeyo ii neiaeiui ia?o?ooai a ie?oaeathuae n?aaea, e yoi i?eoiaeeony
o/eouaaoue i?e ioeaiea aeic iaeo/aiey, iieo/aiiuo io eaeiai-eeai
enoi/ieea.

2.2 Eneonnoaaiiay ?aaeeaoeey

Eneonnoaaiiua ?aaeeiioeeeaeu ia?acothony a ?acoeueoaoa /aeiaa/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Eniuoaiea yaea?iiai i?oaeey – iaeei ec naiuo iianiuo enoi/ieeia
?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu

I?e eniuoaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey a aoiinoa?a ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa
iiiaaeatho a aa?oiea neie aoiinoa?u, ec eioi?uo iie iaaeeaiii
ia?aiinyony a ieaeiea neie aoiinoa?u e caoai ia caieth. N iiiaioa
i?eiyoey aeiaiai?a ia ia?aie/aiee eniuoaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey a 1963 a.
a aoiinoa?a auei i?iaaaeaii eeoue ianeieueei eniuoaiee, i?e/ai
iineaaeiaa ninoiyeinue a 1980 a. a ainoaea?noaa, ia iiaeienaaoai yoio
aeiaiai?. Eiioeaio?aoeey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, ia?aciaaaoeony i?e eniuoaiee
yaea?iiai i?oaeey, a aicaeooa, aeiaeaeaaie aiaea e ieua caiaoii
oiaiueoeeanue ii n?aaiaieth n iaeneiaeueiuie cia/aieyie a ia/aea 60-o
aiaeia e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoiaeeony ia naiuo ieceeo o?iaiyo,
ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo a oa/aiea anao ecia?aiee, auiieiyaiuo n 1953 a.

Iiaeiaii ieooiieth-239, ieiei 3 o. eioi?iai auiaei ia caieth a aeaea
inaaeeia a ?acoeueoaoa eniuoaiee yaea?iiai i?oaeey, i?e yaea?iii ac?uaa
ia?acoaony aieueoia eiee/anoai ae?oaeo ?acee/iuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia.
Iaeaieueoee eioa?an i?aaenoaaeytho ?aaeeiioeeeaeu, nicaeathuea aieueooth
aeico iaeo/aiey, oaeea, eae oaea?iae-14, no?iioeee-90 e oeacee-137.

Yoe ?aaeeiioeeeaeu ia?aiinyony ii ieuaaui oeaii/eai a ieuo /aeiaaea e,
oaeei ia?acii, i?eaiaeyo e aeica aioo?aiiaai iaeo/aiey, iaoneiaeaiiie a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeaaiui ia?acii oaea?iaeii-14. Ioeiaeaiey
?aaeeiioeeeaeia, enioneathueo aaiia-eceo/aiea, i?eaiaeyo e aiaoiaio
iaeo/aieth.

Aaa?ey ?aaeoi?a a *a?iiauea. 26 ai?aey 1986 a. ?aceia ia?aiai?yaeaiea
iiuiinoe a ?aaeoi?a ia *a?iiaueueneie aoiiiie yeaeo?inoaioeee (Oe?aeia)
aucaaei ac?ua, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai a oa/aiea aeanyoe aeiae a
aoiinoa?o auei aua?ioaii cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai ?aaeeiioeeeaeia.

Iiiaa a aicaeoo, iie ?ani?ino?aieeenue ii anae Aa?iia aeinoeaee 2 iay
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, aaea neeueiue aeiaeaeue a Naaa?iii Oyeuena, Eyia?ee e
THai-Ainoi/iie Oioeaiaeee i?eaae e iiauoaiiui ioeiaeaieyi
?aaeeiioeeeaeia a yoeo ?aeiiao.

*oi eanaaony aeic, iieo/aiiuo ianaeaieai, oi iaeaieaa cia/eiuie
auiaaoeie ?aaeeiioeeeaeaie auee eiae-131, oeacee-134 e oeacee-137. Ii/oe
any aeica iieo/aia io aiaoiaai iaeo/aiey e io ?aaeeiioeeeaeia,
iinooieaoeo n ieuae.

Aaa?ey 1957 aiaea ia II”Iaye”a *aeyaeineie iaeanoe. Aei ianoiyuaai
a?aiaie oa??eoi?ey ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai neaaea oa?aeoa?ecoaony iiauoaiiui
aaiia-oiiii e niaea?aeaieai ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ii/aa, aiaea, ?anoaieyo.
Oa??eoi?ey neaaea nae/an noceeanue, oae eae i?ioae ia?eiae iieo?aniaaea
aeiieie?othuaai ecioiia no?iioeey-90, e aai oai inoaeinue a 2 ?aca
iaiueoa. Iaeiaei aeeoue ia yoie oa??eoi?ee, aanoe iiaeniaiia oicyenoai.
niae?aoue a?eau e yaiaeu iaeuecy.

E niaeaeaieth, ii?ie ano?a/athony neo/ae, eiaaea aeeoaee i?eeaaathueo e
ia?eiao?o neaaea nae ianoo ia yoie oa??eoi?ee neio, caaioaaeeaatho
ei?ia. Iioii n iieieii e iynii iie iio?aaeytho iiauoaiiua aeicu
?aaeeiioeeeaeia.

Aua?inu ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo i?ienoiaeyo io iiiaeo
enoi/ieeia, aeeth/ay yaea?iue oiieeaiue oeeee, iauaeou iai?iiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea i?aaiecaoeee, aieueieoeu,
iayaea?ioth i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

Ana i?iiuoeaiiua ioa?inu aeieaeiu auoue ii?ie?iaaiu, i?e cia/eoaeueiuo
aua?inao iaiaoiaeei iinoiyiiue eiio?ieue eae naieo aua?inia, oae e
ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu. Yoe i?ia?aiiu iinoiyiiiai eiio?iey inouanoaeythony
iia?aoi?ii aaaeiinoaaiiie aeiceiao?e/aneie neoaeau e i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie
aaaeiinoaaie, eioi?ua aeatho ?ac?aoaiea ia aua?in.

ssaea?iay yia?aaoeea. Eiaiii iia ioaaonoaaiia ca aieueooth /anoue
eneonnoaaiii iieo/aiiuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, eioi?ua aua?anuaathony a
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo. ?acee/iua aeaeu ?aaeeiioeeeaeia aua?anuaathony a
aeeaeeie oi?ia eee a aeaea oaa?aeuo /anoeoe, a oaeaea a aaciia?aciie
oi?ia ia eaaeaeie noaaeee oiieeaiiai oeeeea, i?e/ai i?e?iaea aua?ina
caaeneo io niaoeeoe/aneeo iia?aoeee a eaaeaeii i?ioeanna.

Caaiaeu ii i?iecaiaenoao oiieeaa e iaiaauaieth auaeaeytho aeaaiui
ia?acii ecioiiu o?aia e oi?ey, /oi i?eaiaeeo e iieo/aieth aiaeiaie
eieeaeoeaiie aeicu iaiaa /ai 0,1 /ae-Ca io anao aicaeaenoaee yoeo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia. A yaea?iie yia?aaoeea aua?inu a aoiinoa?o i?eaiaeyo e
iieo/aieth aiaeiaie eieeaeoeaiie aeicu 5 /ae-Ca i?aeiouanoaaiii io
ia?aoiaea o?eoey, oaea?iaea-14 e na?u-35 a ieuaaua i?iaeoeou. Aiaeiaay
eieeaeoeaiay aeica io aeeaeeeo iooiaeia io AYN ai?acaei iaiueoa;
i?aaeiieaaatho, /oi iia iaiueoa, /ai 0,3 /ae-Ca. Yoa aeica nicaeaaony
aeaaiui ia?acii i?e oiio?aaeaiee a ieuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, niaea?aeaueony
a ?uaa, e?aaao eee iieethneao.

I?e ia?a?aaioea io?aaioaaoaai yaea?iiai oiieeaa ia?acothony aua?inu,
iaeaieaa cia/eiua a ?aaeeaoeeiiiii ioiioaiee, iauay aiaeiaay
eieeaeoeaiay aeica ninoaaeyao ia aieaa 20 /ae-Ca. A i?ioeanna aoi?e/iie
ia?a?aaioee ia?acothony aeeaeeea iooiaeu.

Aua?inu a aicaeoo io ae?oaeo onoaiiaie yaea?iie yia?aaoeee aeiaaaeytho a
aiaeiaoth eieeaeoeaioth aeico aua 5 /ae-Ca. I?e yoii iauay aeica aeey
ianaeaiey io aicaeaenoaee aua?inia e aeeaeeeo iooiaeia a yaea?iie
yia?aaoeea ninoaaeyao 30 /ae-Ca (oaae.1).

Oaaeeoea 1. Aiaeiaua aeicu io ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, aua?anuaaaiuo a
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo.

Enoi/ieeAiaeiaay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay aeica, /ae-Ca.ssaea?iay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue30Naeeaaiea oaey10

Naeeaaiea oaey. Aua?inu ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo
i?ienoiaeyo e i?e iaeioi?uo i?ioeannao a iayaea?iie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. A
?acoeueoaoa a aieueoae /anoe yoeo aua?inia iaaethaeathony
iacia/eoaeueiua eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua aeicu, eioi?ua aiinyo iaaieueoie
aeeaae a eieeaeoeaioth aeico. Iaeiaei iaeia io?aneue i?iiuoeaiiinoe
caneoaeeaaao aieiaiey a yoii ioiioaiee – yoi iieo/aiea yeaeo?e/anoaa ia
yeaeo?inoaioeeyo, ?aaioathueo ia eaiaiiii oaea. Iaeo/aiea i?ienoiaeeo
eae i?e aaeuoaiee a aicaeoo, oae e i?e ia?aiina yoeo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia ii
ieuaaui oeaii/eai. Iaeneiaeueiay eiaeeaeaeoaeueiay aeica i/aiue iaea
(iaiueoa, /ai 1 ieCa). Aiaeiaay eieeaeoeaiay aeica aeey ianaeaiey
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, iieo/aaiay io yeaeo?inoaioeee, ?aaioathueo ia eaiaiiii
oaea, ninoaaeyao ieiei 5 /ae-Ca, a i?e naeeaaiee eaiaiiiai oaey aeey
aeiiaoieo oeaeae aeiiieieoaeueii 5 /ae-Ca.

Oaieue, iiaeiaii aieueoeinoao ae?oaeo i?e?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeia, niaea?aeeo
ie/oiaeiua eiee/anoaa ia?ae/iuo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia. Iineaaeiea, ecaea/aiiua
aianoa n oaeai ec iaae? caiee, iinea naeeaaiey oaey iiiaaeatho a
ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo, aaea iiaoo neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii iaeo/aiey ethaeae.

Ia i?eaioiaeaiea ieue, e ioiieaiea aeiiia ?anoiaeoaony ia i/aiue iiiai
oaey, ii caoi iiiai cieueiie iuee eaoeo a aicaeoo a ia?an/aoa ia
aaeeieoeo oiieeaa. Oaeei ia?acii, ec ia/ae e eaieiia anaai ie?a aueaoaao
a aoiinoa?o cieueiie iuee, aiciiaeii, ia iaiueoa, /ai ec o?oa
yeaeo?inoaioeee. E?iia oiai, a ioee/ea io aieueoeinoaa yeaeo?inoaioeee
aeeeua aeiia eiatho ioiineoaeueii iaaunieea o?oau e ?aniieiaeaiu iau/ii
a oeaio?a ianaeaiiuo ioieoia, iiyoiio ai?acaei aieueoay /anoue
caa?yciaiee iiiaaeaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia ethaeae. Aei iineaaeiaai
a?aiaie ia yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai ii/oe ia ia?auaee aieiaiey, ii ii aanueia
i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie ioeaiea ec-ca naeeaaiey oaey a aeiiaoieo oneiaeyo aeey
i?eaioiaeaiey ieue e iaia?aaaiey aeeeeu ai anai ie?a a 1979 a.
iaeeaeaaiay aeica iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey Caiee aic?inea ia 100.000 /ae-Ca.

Aeiau/a oinoaoia aaaeaony ai iiiaeo ianoao Caiiiai oa?a, iie
eniieuecothony aeaaiui ia?acii aeey i?iecaiaenoaa oaeia?aiee, eioi?uo a
1977 a. ai anai ie?a auei iieo/aii ieiei 30 iei. oiii. Aieueoeinoai
?ac?aaaouaaaiuo oinoaoiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee niaea?aeeo o?ai,
i?enoonoaothuee oai a aeiaieueii aunieie eiioeaio?aoeee. A i?ioeanna
aeiau/e e ia?a?aaioee ?oaeu auaeaeyaony ?aaeii, aea e naie oaeia?aiey
?aaeeiaeoeaiu, e niaea?aeaueany a ieo ?aaeeiecioiiu i?iieeatho ec ii/au
a ieuaaua eoeueoo?u. ?aaeeaoeeiiiia caa?yciaiea a yoii neo/aa auaaao
iaueiiaaiii iacia/eoaeueiui, ii iiauoaaony, anee oaeia?aiey aiinyo a
caieth a aeeaeeii aeaea eee anee niaea?aeauea oinoaou aauanoaa
nea?ieeaatho neioo. Oaeea aauanoaa oe?iei eniieuecothony a ea/anoaa
ei?iiauo aeiaaaie, /oi iiaeao i?eaanoe e cia/eoaeueiiio oaaee/aieth
niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiaeoeaiinoe a iieiea. Ana yoe aniaeou i?eiaiaiey
oinoaoia aeatho ca aiae iaeeaeaaioth eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth
yeaeaaeaioioth aeico, ?aaioth i?eia?ii 6000 /ae-Ca.

Iaaeeoeeineea i?eai?u. ?aaeeiioeeeaeu iinooiatho a i?aaieci /aeiaaea i?e
oethi?ia?aoee, ?aioaaiia?aoee coaa, ?aioaaiineiiee eaaeeo,
?aaeei-ecioiiiuo ianeaaeiaaieyo, eo/aaie oa?aiee.

Ae?oaea enoi/ieee ?aaeeaoeee – iieaou a naiieaoa, oaeaaeci?,
eiiiuethoa?, a?aieoiua nii?oaeaiey.

3. AeAENOAEA EIIECE?OTHUEO ECEO*AIEE IA I?AAIECI *AEIAAEA

3.1 Aeicu ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey

?aciua aeaeu eceo/aiee nii?iaiaeaeathony aunaiaiaeaeaieai ?aciiai
eiee/anoaa yia?aee e iaeaaeatho ?aciie i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoueth,
iiyoiio iie ieacuaatho iaiaeeiaeiaia aicaeaenoaea ia oeaie aeeaiai
i?aaiecia.

Aeueoa-eceo/aiea, eioi?ia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iioie oyaeaeuo /anoeoe,
ninoiyueo ec i?ioiiia e iaeo?iiia, caaea?aeeaaaony, iai?eia?, eenoii
aoiaae e i?aeoe/anee ia niiniaii i?iieeiooue /a?ac ia?oaeiue neie eiaee,
ia?aciaaiiue ioia?oeie eeaoeaie. Iiyoiio iii ia i?aaenoaaeyao iianiinoe
aei oao ii?, iiea ?aaeeiaeoeaiua aauanoaa, enioneathuea aeueoa-/anoeoeu,
ia iiiaaeoo aioo?ue i?aaiecia /a?ac ioe?uooth ?aio, n ieuae eee n
aaeuoaaiui aicaeooii; oiaaea iie noaiiayony /?acau/aeii iianiuie.

Aaoa-eceo/aiea iaeaaeaao aieueoae i?iieeathuae niiniaiinoueth: iii
i?ioiaeeo a oeaie i?aaiecia ia aeoaeio iaeei-aeaa naioeiao?a.
I?iieeathuay niiniaiinoue aaiia-eceo/aiey, eioi?ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ni
nei?inoueth naaoa, i/aiue aaeeea: aai iiaeao caaea?aeaoue eeoue oienoay
naeioeiaay eee aaoiiiay ieeoa.

Iia?aaeaeaiee, aucaaiiuo a aeeaii i?aaiecia eceo/aieai, aoaeao oai
aieueoa, /ai aieueoa yia?aee iii ia?aaeano oeaiyi; eiee/anoai oaeie
ia?aaeaiiie i?aaiecio yia?aee iacuaaaony aeicie (yoio oa?iei
ia?aiia/aeueii ioiineeny e aeica eaea?noaaiiiai i?aia?aoa, oi anoue
aeica, eaeouae ia iieueco, a ia ai a?aae i?aaiecio). Aeico eceo/aiey
i?aaieci iiaeao iieo/eoue io ethaiai ?aaeeiioeeeaea eee eo niane
iacaaeneii io oiai, iaoiaeyony ee iie aia i?aaiecia eee aioo?e iaai (a
?acoeueoaoa iiiaaeaiey n ieuae, aiaeie eee aicaeooii).

Aeicu iiaeii ?ann/eouaaoue ii-?aciiio. n o/aoii oiai, eaeia ?acia?
iaeo/aiiiai o/anoea e aaea ii ?aniieiaeai, iaeei ee /aeiaae iiaeaa?any
iaeo/aieth eee a?oiia ethaeae e a oa/aiea eaeiai a?aiaie yoi
i?ienoiaeeei.

?en.2 Aeicu ?aaeeaoeeiiiiai iaeo/aiey

Iiaeiuaiiay aeica – yia?aey eiiece?othuaai eceo/aiey, iiaeiuaiiay
iaeo/aaiui oaeii (oeaiyie i?aaiecia), a ia?an/aoa ia aaeeieoeo iannu.

Ecia?yaony a nenoaia NE a a?ayo, 1A? = 1Aeae/eaYeaeaaeaioiay aeica –
iiaeiuaiiay aeica, oiiiaeaiiay ia eiyooeoeeaio, io?aaeathuee
niiniaiinoue aeaiiiai aeaea eceo/aiey iia?aaeaeaoue oeaie i?aaiecia
Yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica – yeaeaaeaioiay aeica, oiiiaeaiiay ia
eiyooeoeeaio, o/eouaathuee ?acioth /oanoaeoaeueiinoue ?acee/iuo oeaiae e
iaeo/aieth.Eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica – yooaeoeaiay
yeaeaaeaioiay aeica, iieo/aiiay a?oiiie ethaeae io eaeiai-eeai enoi/ieea
?aaeeaoeee.Iieiay eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica –
eieeaeoeaiay yooaeoeaiay yeaeaaeaioiay aeica, eioi?oth iieo/ao iieieaiey
ethaeae io eaeiai-eeai enoi/ieea ca ana a?aiy aai aeaeueiaeoaai
nouanoaiaaiey.

Eiee/anoai yia?aee eceo/aiey, iiaeiuaiiia aaeeieoeae iannu iaeo/aaiiai
oaea (oeaiyie i?aaiecia), iacuaaaony iiaeiuaiiie aeicie (?en.3) e
ecia?yaony a nenoaia NE a a?ayo (A?). 1A? = 1Aeae/ea. Ii yoa aaee/eia ia
o/eouaaao oiai, /oi i?e iaeeiaeiaie iiaeiuaiiie aeica aeueoa-eceo/aiea
ai?acaei iianiaa aaoa – eee aaiia-eceo/aiee (a 20 ?ac !).

Ia?an/eoaiiay n o/aoii eiyooeoeeaioa, o/eouaathuaai iaiaeeiaeiaoth
?aaeeaoeeiiioth iianiinoue aeey i?aaiecia ?aciuo aeaeia eiiece?othuaai
eceo/aiey, iacuaaaony yeaeaaeaioiie aeicie. Ecia?yaony a nenoaia NE a
ceaa?oao. 1Ca niioaaonoaoao iiaeiuaiiie aeica a 1 Aeae/ea aeey
?aioaaiianeiai, aaiia- e aaoa-eceo/aiee.

Neaaeoao o/eouaaoue oaeaea, /oi iaeie /anoe oaea (i?aaiu, oeaie) aieaa
/oanoaeoaeueiu, /ai ae?oaea: iai?eia?, i?e iaeeiaeiaie yeaeaaeaioiie
aeica iaeo/aiey aicieeiiaaiea ?aea a eaaeeo aieaa aa?iyoii, /ai a
ueoiaeaeiie aeaeaca, a iaeo/aiea iieiauo aeaeac iniaaiii iianii ec-ca
?enea aaiaoe/aneeo iia?aaeaeaiee.

Iiyoiio aeicu iaeo/aiey i?aaiia e oeaiae oaeaea neaaeoao o/eouaaoue n
?aciuie eiyooeoeeaioaie. Oiiiaeea yeaeaaeaioiua aeicu ia
niioaaonoaothuea eiyooeoeeaiou e i?inoiie?iaaa ii anai i?aaiai e oeaiyi,
iieo/ei yooaeoeaioth yeaeaaeaioioth aeico, io?aaeathuoth noiia?iue
yooaeo iaeo/aiey aeey i?aaiecia; iia oaeaea ecia?yaony a ceaa?oao.

Ia?a/eneaiiua auoa o?e aeaiiuo iiiyoey iienuaatho oieueei
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii iieo/aaiua aeicu. I?inoiie?iaaa eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua
yooaeoeaiua yeaeaaeaioiua aeicu, iieo/aiiua a?oiiie ethaeae, iu i?eaeai
e eieeaeoeaiie yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeica, eioi?ay ecia?yaony a
/aeiaaei-ceaa?oao (/ae.-Ca).

Iineieueeo iiiaea ?aaeeiioeeeaeu ?aniaaeathony i/aiue iaaeeaiii e
inoaioony ?aaeeiaeoeaiuie e a ioaeaeaiiii aoaeouai, neaaeoao aaanoe aua
iaeii ii?aaeaeaiea. Eieeaeoeaioth yooaeoeaioth yeaeaaeaioioth aeico,
eioi?oth iieo/ao iiiaea iieieaiey ethaeae io eaeiai-eeai ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai
enoi/ieea ca ana a?aiy aai aeaeueiaeoaai nouanoaiaaiey, iacuaatho
iaeeaeaaiie (iieiie) eieeaeoeaiie yooaeoeaiie yeaeaaeaioiie aeicie.

3.2 Aeieiae/aneia aeaenoaea ?aaeeaoeee ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea

Ca anth naith aeeciue /aeiaae iieo/aao aeico iaeo/aiey io anoanoaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia, e i?e ii?iaeueiii ninoiyiee n?aaeu iaeoaiey oaeia iaeo/aiea
ia aucuaaao eaeeo-eeai eciaiaiee a i?aaiao e oeaiyo /aeiaaea.

Ii ii naiie naiae i?e?iaea ?aaeeaoeey a?aaeia aeey aeecie. Iaeua aeicu
iiaoo “caionoeoue” ia aei eiioea aua onoaiiaeaiioth oeaiue niauoee,
i?eaiaeyuoth e ?aeo eee e aaiaoe/aneei iia?aaeaeaieyi. I?e aieueoeo
aeicao ?aaeeaoeey iiaeao ?ac?ooaoue eeaoee, iia?aaeaeaoue oeaie i?aaiia
e yaeoueny i?e/eiie nei?ie aeaaee i?aaiecia.

Iia?aaeaeaiey, aucuaaaiua aieueoeie aeicaie iaeo/aiey, iaueiiaaiii
i?iyaeythony a oa/aiea ianeieueeeo /ania eee aeiae. ?aeiaua caaieaaaiey,
iaeiaei, i?iyaeythony nionoy iiiai eao iinea iaeo/aiey – eae i?aaeei, ia
?aiaa /ai /a?ac iaeii-aeaa aeanyoeeaoey. A a?iaeaeaiiua ii?iee ?acaeoey
e ae?oaea ianeaaenoaaiiua aieacie, aucuaaaiua iia?aaeaeaieai
aaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa, ii ii?aaeaeaieth i?iyaeythony eeoue a
neaaeothuai eee iineaaeothueo iieieaieyo: yoi aeaoe, aioee e aieaa
ioaeaeaiiua iioiiee eiaeeaeaeooia, iiaeaa?aoaainy iaeo/aieth.

A oi a?aiy eae eaeaioeoeeaoeey auno?i i?iyaeythueony (“ino?uo”)
iineaaenoaee io aeaenoaey aieueoeo aeic iaeo/aiey ia ninoaaeyao o?oaea,
iaia?oaeeoue ioaeaeaiiua iineaaenoaey io iaeuo aeic iaeo/aiey ii/oe
anaaaea ieacuaaaony i/aiue o?oaeii. *anoe/ii yoi iauyniyaony oai, /oi
aeey eo i?iyaeaiey aeieaeii i?ieoe i/aiue iiiai a?aiaie. Ii aeaaea e
iaia?oaeea eaeea-oi yooaeou. o?aaoaony aua aeieacaoue, /oi iie
iauyniythony aeaenoaeai ?aaeeaoeee, iineieueeo e ?ae, e iia?aaeaeaiey
aaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa iiaoo auoue aucaaiu ia oieueei ?aaeeaoeeae, ii e
iiiaeanoaii ae?oaeo i?e/ei.

*oiau aucaaoue ino?ia ii?aaeaiea i?aaiecia, aeicu iaeo/aiey aeieaeiu
i?aauoaoue ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue, ii iao ieeaeeo iniiaaiee n/eoaoue,
/oi yoi i?aaeei aeaenoaoao a neo/aa oaeeo iineaaenoaee, eae ?ae eee
iia?aaeaeaiea aaiaoe/aneiai aiia?aoa. Ii e?aeiae ia?a, oai?aoe/anee aeey
yoiai aeinoaoi/ii naiie iaeie aeicu. Iaeiaei a oi aea naiia a?aiy
ieeaeay aeica iaeo/aiey ia i?eaiaeeo e yoei iineaaenoaeyi ai anao
neo/ayo. Aeaaea i?e ioiineoaeueii aieueoeo aeicao iaeo/aiey aeaeaei ia
ana ethaee ia?a/aiu ia yoe aieacie: aeaenoaothuea a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea
?aia?aoeeiiiua iaoaieciu iau/ii eeeaeaee?otho ana iia?aaeaeaiey. Oi/ii
oae aea ethaie /aeiaae, iiaeaa?aoeeny aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee, nianai ia
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai caaieaoue ?aeii eee noaoue iineoaeai
ianeaaenoaaiiuo aieaciae; iaeiaei aa?iyoiinoue, eee ?ene, ianooieaiey
oaeeo iineaaenoaee o iaai aieueoa, /ai o /aeiaaea, eioi?ue ia aue
iaeo/ai. E ?ene yoio oai aieueoa, /ai aieueoa aeica iaeo/aiey.

IEAeA? III iuoaaony onoaiiaeoue ni anae aiciiaeiie aeinoiaa?iinoueth,
eaeiio aeiiieieoaeueiiio ?eneo iiaeaa?aathony ethaee i?e ?acee/iuo
aeicao iaeo/aiey. Aa?iyoii, a iaeanoe eco/aiey aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee ia
/aeiaaea e ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo auei i?iaaaeaii aieueoa enneaaeiaaiee,
/ai i?e eco/aiee ethaiai ae?oaiai enoi/ieea iiauoaiiie iianiinoe.
Iaeiaei /ai ioaeaeaiiaa yooaeo e iaiueoa aeica, oai iaiueoa iieaciuo
naaaeaiee, eioi?uie iu ?aniieaaaai ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue.

Ino?ia ii?aaeaiea i?aaiecia i?ienoiaeeo i?e aieueoeo aeicao iaeo/aiey.
?aaeeaoeey ieacuaaao iiaeiaiia aeaenoaea, eeoue ia/eiay n iaeioi?ie
ieieiaeueiie, eee “ii?iaiaie”, aeicu iaeo/aiey.

Aieueoia eiee/anoai naaaeaiee auei iieo/aii i?e aiaeeca ?acoeueoaoia
i?eiaiaiey eo/aaie oa?aiee aeey ea/aiey ?aea. Iiiaieaoiee iiuo iicaieee
iaaeeeai iieo/eoue iaoe?ioth eioi?iaoeeth i ?aaeoeee oeaiae /aeiaaea ia
iaeo/aiea. Yoa ?aaeoeey aeey ?aciuo i?aaiia e oeaiae ieacaeanue
iaiaeeiaeiaie, i?e/ai ?acee/ey i/aiue aaeeee. Aaee/eia aea aeicu,
ii?aaeaeythuay oyaeanoue ii?aaeaiey i?aaiecia, caaeneo io oiai, iieo/aao
ee aa i?aaieci n?aco eee a ianeieueei i?eaiia. aieueoeinoai i?aaiia
oniaaaao a oie eee eiie noaiaie caea/eoue ?aaeeaoeeiiiua iia?aaeaeaiey e
iiyoiio eo/oa ia?aiineo na?eth iaeeeo aeic, iaaeaee oo aea noiia?ioth
aeico iaeo/aiey, iieo/aiioth ca iaeei i?eai.

?acoiaaony, anee iaeia aeica iaeo/aiey aeinoaoi/ii aaeeea, iaeo/aiiue
/aeiaae iiaeaiao. Ai anyeii neo/aa, i/aiue aieueoea aeicu iaeo/aiey
ii?yaeea 100 A? aucuaatho ianoieueei na?ueaciia ii?aaeaiea oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaiu, /oi nia?oue, eae i?aaeei, ianooiaao a oa/aiea
ianeieueeeo /ania eee aeiae.

I?e aeicao iaeo/aiey io 10 aei 50 A? i?e iaeo/aiee anaai oaea ii?aaeaiea
OeIN iiaeao ieacaoueny ia ianoieueei na?ueaciui, /oiau i?eaanoe e
eaoaeueiiio enoiaeo, iaeiaei iaeo/aiiue /aeiaae, nei?aa anaai, ana ?aaii
oi?ao /a?ac iaeio-aeaa iaaeaee io e?iaieceeyiee a aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iii
o?aeoa.

I?e aua iaiueoeo aeicao iiaeao ia i?iecieoe na?ueaciuo iia?aaeaeaiee
aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iiai o?aeoa eee i?aaieci n ieie ni?aaeony, e oai ia
iaiaa nia?oue iiaeao ianooieoue /a?ac iaeei-aeaa ianyoea n iiiaioa
iaeo/aiey aeaaiui ia?acii ec-ca ?ac?ooaiey eeaoie e?aniiai einoiiai
iicaa – aeaaiiai eiiiiiaioa e?iaaoai?iie nenoaiu i?aaiecia: io aeicu a
3-5 A? i?e iaeo/aiee anaai oaea oie?aao i?eia?ii iieiaeia anao
iaeo/aiiuo.

Oaeei ia?acii, a yoii aeeaiaciia aeic iaeo/aiey aieueoea aeicu
ioee/athony io iaiueoeo eeoue oai, /oi nia?oue a ia?aii neo/aa ianooiaao
?aiueoa, a ai aoi?ii – iicaea.

?acoiaaony, /aua anaai /aeiaae oie?aao a ?acoeueoaoa iaeiia?aiaiiiai
aeaenoaey anao oeacaiiuo iineaaenoaee iaeo/aiey. Enneaaeiaaiey a yoie
iaeanoe iaiaoiaeeiu, iineieueeo iieo/aiiua aeaiiua ioaeiu aeey ioeaiee
iineaaenoaee yaea?iie aieiu e aeaenoaey aieueoeo aeic iaeo/aiey i?e
aaa?eyo yaea?iuo onoaiiaie e ono?ienoa.

E?aniue einoiue iica e ae?oaea yeaiaiou e?iaaoai?iie nenoaiu iaeaieaa
oycaeiu i?e iaeo/aiee e oa?ytho niiniaiinoue ii?iaeueii
ooieoeeiie?iaaoue oaea i?e aeicao iaeo/aiey 0,5-1 A?. E n/anoueth, iie
iaeaaeatho oaeaea caia/aoaeueiie niiniaiinoueth e ?aaaia?aoeee, e anee
aeica iaeo/aiey ia ianoieueei aaeeea, /oiau aucaaoue iia?aaeaeaiey anao
eeaoie, e?iaaoai?iay nenoaia iiaeao iieiinoueth ainnoaiiaeoue naie
ooieoeee. Anee aea iaeo/aieth iiaeaa?aeinue ia ana oaei, a eaeay-oi aai
/anoue. oi ooeaeaaoeo eeaoie iicaa auaaao aeinoaoi/ii aeey iieiiai
aiciauaiey iia?aaeaeaiiuo eeaoie.

?ai?iaeoeoeaiua i?aaiu e aeaca oaeaea ioee/athony iiauoaiiie
/oanoaeoaeueiinoueth e iaeo/aieth. Iaeiie?aoiia iaeo/aiea naiaiieeia i?e
aeica anaai eeoue a 0,1 A? i?eaiaeeo e a?aiaiiie noa?eeueiinoe ioae/ei,
a aeicu nauoa aeaoo a?yaa iiaoo i?eaanoe e iinoiyiiie noa?eeueiinoe:
eeoue /a?ac iiiai eao naiaiieee niiaoo aiiaue i?iaeooee?iaaoue
iieiioeaiioth nia?io. Ii-aeaeeiiio, naiaiieee yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiui
eneeth/aieai ec iauaai i?aaeea: noiia?iay aeica iaeo/aiey, iieo/aiiay a
ianeieueei i?eaiia, aeey ieo aieaa, a ia iaiaa iiania, /ai oa aea aeica,
iieo/aiiay ca iaeei i?eai. sse/ieee ai?acaei iaiaa /oanoaeoaeueiu e
aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, o ac?ineuo aeaiuei. Ii
iaeiie?aoiay aeica aieaa o?ao a?yaa ana aea i?eaiaeeo e eo
noa?eeueiinoe, oioy aua aieueoea aeicu i?e ae?iaiii iaeo/aiee ieeae ia
neacuaathony ia niiniaiinoe e aeaoi?iaeaeaieth.

Iaeaieaa oycaeiie aeey ?aaeeaoeee /anoueth aeaca yaeyaony o?onoaeee.
Iiaeaoea eeaoee noaiiayony iai?ic?a/iuie, a ?ac?anoaiea iiiooiaaoeo
o/anoeia i?eaiaeeo nia/aea e eaoa?aeoa, a caoai e e iieiie neaiioa. *ai
aieueoa aeica, oai aieueoa iioa?y c?aiey. Iiiooiaaoea o/anoee iiaoo
ia?aciaaoueny i?e aeicao iaeo/aiey 2 A? e iaiaa. Aieaa oyaeaeay oi?ia
ii?aaeaiey aeaca – i?ia?anne?othuay eaoa?aeoa – iaaethaeaaony i?e aeicao
ieiei 5 A?. Iieacaii, /oi aeaaea naycaiiia n ?yaeii ?aaio
i?ioanneiiaeueiia iaeo/aiea a?aaeii aeey aeac: aeicu io 0,5 aei 2 A?,
iieo/aiiua a oa/aiea aeanyoe-aeaaaeoeaoe eao, i?eaiaeyo e oaaee/aieth
ieioiinoe e iiiooiaieth o?onoaeeea.

Aeaoe oaeaea e?aeia /oanoaeoaeueiu e aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee.
Ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea aeicu i?e iaeo/aiee o?yuaaie oeaie iiaoo
caiaaeeeoue eee aiana inoaiiaeoue o ieo ?ino einoae, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
aiiiaeeyi ?acaeoey neaeaoa. *ai iaiueoa aic?ano ?aaaiea, oai neeueiaa
iiaeaaeyaony ?ino einoae. Noiia?iie aeicu ii?yaeea 10 A?, iieo/aiiie a
oa/aiea ianeieueeeo iaaeaeue i?e aaeaaeiaaiii iaeo/aiee, auaaao
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau aucaaoue iaeioi?ua aiiiaeee a ?acaeoee neaeaoa.
Ii-aeaeeiiio, aeey oaeiai aeaenoaey ?aaeeaoeee ia nouanoaoao ieeaeiai
ii?iaiaiai yooaeoa. Ieacaeinue oaeaea, /oi iaeo/aiea iicaa ?aaaiea i?e
eo/aaie oa?aiee iiaeao aucaaoue eciaiaiey a aai oa?aeoa?a, i?eaanoe e
iioa?a iaiyoe, a o i/aiue iaeaiueeeo aeaoae aeaaea e neaaioieth e
eaeeioee. Einoe e iica ac?ineiai /aeiaaea niiniaiu auaea?aeeaaoue
ai?acaei aieueoea aeicu.

E?aeia /oanoaeoaeai e aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee e iica ieiaea, iniaaiii anee
iaoue iiaeaa?aaaony iaeo/aieth iaaeaeo ainueiie e iyoiaaeoeaoie
iaaeaeyie aa?aiaiiinoe. A yoio ia?eiae o ieiaea oi?ie?oaony ei?a
aieiaiiai iicaa, e nouanoaoao aieueoie ?ene oiai, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa
iaeo/aiey iaoa?e (iai?eia?, ?aioaaiianeeie eo/aie) ?iaeeony oinoaaiii
ionoaeue ?aaaiie. Eiaiii oaeei ia?acii iino?aaeaee 30 aeaoae, iaeo/aiiuo
a ia?eiae aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey ai a?aiy aoiiiuo aiiaa?aee?iaie
Oe?ineiu e Iaaanaee. Oioy eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue ?ene i?e yoii aieueoie, a
iineaaenoaey aeinoaaeytho iniaaiii iiiai no?aaeaiee. /enei aeaiuei,
iaoiaeyueony ia yoie noaaeee aa?aiaiiinoe, a ethaie iiiaio a?aiaie
ninoaaeyao eeoue iaaieueooth /anoue anaai ianaeaiey. Yoi, iaeiaei,
iaeaieaa na?ueaciue ii naiei iineaaenoaeyi yooaeo ec anao ecaanoiuo
yooaeoia iaeo/aiey ieiaea /aeiaaea, oioy iinea iaeo/aiey ieiaeia e
yia?eiiia aeeaioiuo a ia?eiae eo aioo?eoo?iaiiai ?acaeoey auei
iaia?oaeaii iaiaei ae?oaeo na?ueaciuo iineaaenoaee, aeeth/ay ii?iee
?acaeoey, iaaei?acaeoinoue e eaoaeueiue enoiae.

Aieueoeinoai oeaiae ac?ineiai /aeiaaea ioiineoaeueii iaei /oanoaeoaeueiu
e aeaenoaeth ?aaeeaoeee. Ii/ee auaea?aeeaatho noiia?ioth aeico ieiei 23
A?, iieo/aiioth a oa/aiea iyoe iaaeaeue, aac iniaiai aeey naay a?aaea,
ia/aiue – ii iaiueoae ia?a 40 A? ca ianyoe, ii/aaie iocu?ue – ii
iaiueoae ia?a 55 A? ca /aou?a iaaeaee, a c?aeay o?yuaaay oeaiue – aei 70
A?. Eaaeea – /?acau/aeii neiaeiue i?aai – ai?acaei aieaa oycaeiu, a a
e?iaaiiniuo ninoaeao iacia/eoaeueiua, ii, aiciiaeii, nouanoaaiiua
eciaiaiey iiaoo i?ienoiaeeoue oaea i?e ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoeo aeicao.

Eiia/ii, iaeo/aiea a oa?aiaaoe/aneeo aeicao, eae e anyeia ae?oaia
iaeo/aiea, iiaeao aucaaoue caaieaaaiea ?aeii a aoaeouai eee i?eaanoe e
iaaeaaii?eyoiui aaiaoe/aneei iineaaenoaeyi. Iaeo/aiea a oa?aiaaoe/aneeo
aeicao, iaeiaei, i?eiaiytho iaueiiaaiii aeey ea/aiey ?aea, eiaaea
/aeiaae nia?oaeueii aieai, a iineieueeo iaoeeaiou a n?aaeiai aeiaieueii
iiaeeeua ethaee, aa?iyoiinoue oiai, /oi iie aoaeoo eiaoue aeaoae, oaeaea
ioiineoaeueii iaea. Iaeiaei aeaeaei ia oae i?inoi ioeaieoue, ianeieueei
aaeee yoio ?ene i?e ai?acaei iaiueoeo aeicao iaeo/aiey, eioi?ua ethaee
iieo/atho a naiae iianaaeiaaiie aeecie e ia ?aaioa, e ia yoio n/ao
nouanoaotho naiua ?aciua iiaiey n?aaee iauanoaaiiinoe.

?ae – iaeaieaa na?ueaciia ec anao iineaaenoaee iaeo/aiey /aeiaaea i?e
iaeuo aeicao. ii e?aeiae ia?a iaiin?aaenoaaiii aeey oao ethaeae. eioi?ua
iiaeaa?aeenue iaeo/aieth. A naiii aeaea. iaoe?iua ianeaaeiaaiey,
ioaaoeaoea ieiei 100 000 /aeiaae, ia?aaeeaoeo aoiiiua aiiaa?aee?iaee
Oe?ineiu e Iaaanaee a 1945 aiaeo. iieacaee, /oi iiea ?ae yaeyaony
aaeeinoaaiiie i?e/eiie iiauoaiiie nia?oiinoe a yoie a?oiia ianaeaiey.

Niaeanii eiathueiny aeaiiui. ia?auie a a?oiia ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee,
ii?aaeathueo ianaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa iaeo/aiey, noiyo eaeeicu. Iie
aucuaatho aeaaeue ethaeae a n?aaeiai /a?ac aeanyoue eao n iiiaioa
iaeo/aiey – ai?acaei ?aiueoa, /ai ae?oaea aeaeu ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee.

Naiuie ?ani?ino?aiaiiuie aeaeaie ?aea, aucaaiiuie aeaenoaeai ?aaeeaoeee,
ieacaeenue ?ae iiei/iie aeaeacu e ?ae ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu. Ii ioeaieai
IEAeA?, i?eia?ii o aeanyoe /aeiaae ec ouny/e iaeo/aiiuo ioia/aaony ?ae
ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu, a o aeanyoe aeaiuei ec ouny/e – ?ae iiei/iie
aeaeacu (a ?an/aoa ia eaaeaeue a?ye eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie iiaeiuaiiie
aeicu).

Iaeiaei iaa ?aciiaeaeiinoe ?aea a i?eioeeia ecea/eiu, a nia?oiinoue io
?aea ueoiaeaeiie aeaeacu iniaaiii iecea.

?ae eaaeeo, iai?ioea, – aaniiuaaeiue oaeeoea. Ii oiaea i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
?ani?ino?aiaiiui ?aciiaeaeiinoyi ?aeiauo caaieaaaiee n?aaee iaeo/aiiuo
a?oii ianaeaiey.

?ae ae?oaeo i?aaiia e oeaiae, eae, ieacaeinue, ano?a/aaony n?aaee
iaeo/aiiuo a?oii ianaeaiey ?aaea. Niaeanii ioeaieai IEAeA?, aa?iyoiinoue
oia?aoue io ?aea aeaeoaeea eee oienoie eeoee ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii anaai
eeoue 1/1000 ia eaaeaeue a?ye n?aaeiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeicu
iaeo/aiey, a ?ene aicieeiiaaiey ?aea einoiuo oeaiae, ieuaaiaea. oiieie
eeoee, ii/aaiai iocu?y, iiaeaeaeoaei/iie aeaeacu, i?yiie eeoee e
eeioaoe/aneeo oeaiae aua iaiueoa e ninoaaeyao i?eia?ii io 0.2 aei 0,5 ia
eaaeaeoth ouny/o e ia eaaeaeue a?ye n?aaeiae eiaeeaeaeoaeueiie aeicu
iaeo/aiey.

Aeaoe aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiu e iaeo/aieth. /ai ac?ineua, a i?e iaeo/aiee
ieiaea ?ene caaieaaaiey ?aeii, ii-aeaeeiiio, aua aieueoa. A iaeioi?uo
?aaioao aeaenoaeoaeueii niiauaeinue, /oi aeaoneay nia?oiinoue io ?aea
aieueoa n?aaee oao aeaoae, iaoa?e eioi?uo a ia?eiae aa?aiaiiinoe
iiaeaa?aeenue aicaeaenoaeth ?aioaaiianeeo eo/ae, iaeiaei IEAeA? iiea ia
oaaaeaeai, /oi i?e/eia onoaiiaeaia aa?ii.

Aaiaoe/aneea iineaaenoaey iaeo/aiey Eco/aiea eo naycaii n aua aieueoeie
o?oaeiinoyie, /ai a neo/aa ?aea. Ai-ia?auo, i/aiue iaei ecaanoii i oii,
eaeea iia?aaeaeaiey aicieeatho a aaiaoe/aneii aiia?aoa /aeiaaea i?e
iaeo/aiee; ai-aoi?uo, iieiia auyaeaiea anao ianeaaenoaaiiuo aeaoaeoia
i?ienoiaeeo eeoue ia i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo iieieaiee; e, a-o?aoueeo. eae e
a neo/aa ?aea, yoe aeaoaeou iaaiciiaeii ioee/eoue io oao, eioi?ua
aicieeee nianai ii ae?oaei i?e/eiai.

Ieiei 10% anao aeeauo iiai?iaeaeaiiuo eiatho oa eee eiua aaiaoe/aneea
aeaoaeou, ia/eiay io iaia?aiaieoaeueiuo oece/aneeo iaaeinoaoeia oeia
aeaeueoiiecia e eii/ay oaeeie oyaeaeuie ninoiyieyie, eae neiae?ii
Aeaoia, oi?ay Aaioeiaoiia e ?acee/iua ii?iee ?acaeoey. Iiiaea ec
yia?eiiia e ieiaeia n oyaeaeuie ianeaaenoaaiiuie ia?ooaieyie ia
aeiaeeaatho aei ?iaeaeaiey; niaeanii eiathueiny aeaiiui, ieiei iieiaeiu
anao neo/aaa niiioaiiiai aai?oa naycaiu n aiiiaeeyie a aaiaoe/aneii
iaoa?eaea. Ii aeaaea anee aeaoe n ianeaaenoaaiiuie aeaoaeoaie
?iaeaeathony aeeauie, aa?iyoiinoue aeey ieo aeiaeeoue aei naiaai ia?aiai
aeiy ?iaeaeaiey a iyoue ?ac iaiueoa, /ai aeey ii?iaeueiuo aeaoae.

Aaiaoe/aneea ia?ooaiey iiaeii ioianoe e aeaoi iniiaiui oeiai:
o?iiiniiiua aaa??aoeee, aeeth/athuea eciaiaiey /enea eee no?oeoo?u
o?iiinii, e iooaoeee a naieo aaiao.

Aaiiua iooaoeee iiae?acaeaeythony aeaeaa ia aeiieiaioiua (eioi?ua
i?iyaeythony n?aco a ia?aii iieieaiee) e ?aoeanneaiua (eioi?ua iiaoo
i?iyaeoueny eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee o iaieo ?iaeeoaeae iooaioiui
yaeyaony iaeei e oio aea aai; oaeea iooaoeee iiaoo ia i?iyaeoueny ia
i?ioyaeaiee iiiaeo iieieaiee eee ia iaia?oaeeoueny aiiaua).

Iaa oeia aiiiaeee iiaoo i?eaanoe e ianeaaenoaaiiui caaieaaaieyi a
iineaaeothueo iieieaieyo, a iiaoo e ia i?iyaeoueny aiiaua.

4. N?AAeNOAA CAUEOU IO ?AAeEIAEOEAIUO ECEO*AIEE

4.1 I?ioeeaeoe/aneea ia?ii?eyoey

?anniao?eaay ia?u i?ioeeaeoeee ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai caa?yciaiey ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu, a oii /enea ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue
neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey ?aaiou:

io?aia aoiinoa?iiai neiy Caiee eae i?e?iaeiiai ye?aia, i?aaeio?aiythuaai
io aoaeoaeueiiai einie/aneiai aicaeaenoaey ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo /anoeoe;

eiio?ieue ca niaea?aeaieai ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo yeaiaioia a aicaeooa,
no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeao , aiaea e ae?oaeo iauaeoao ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu;

niaethaeaiea aeiaaeueiie oaoieee aaciianiinoe i?e aeiau/a,
eniieueciaaiee e o?aiaiee ?aaeeiaeoeaiuo yeaiaioia, i?eiaiyaiuo
/aeiaaeii a i?ioeanna aai aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe;

eneeth/aiea ec oiio?aaeaiey ieue e aiaeu n aunieei niaea?aeaieai
?aaeeiaeoeaiuo yeaiaioia;

cai?auaiea eniieueciaaiey no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeia, eiathueo iiauoaiiia
niaea?aeaiea ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, i?e aicaaaeaiee aeeeuey.

N 1976 aiaea a NNN? auei aaaaeaii ii?ie?iaaiea niaea?aeaiey anoanoaaiiuo
?aaeeiioeeeaeia a no?ieoaeueiuo iaoa?eaeao.

A *aeyaeineie iaeanoe anoue ?yae oaeeo aiiiaeueiuo ea?uea?ia a
Niniianeii e A?aayoneii ?aeiiao. Iniaaiii aunieei niaea?aeaieai
?aaeeiioeeeaeia ioee/aaony uaaaiue ec E?aiaieoeueneiai ea?uea?a. Aai
iiaeii eniieueciaaoue oieueei a ea/anoaa ieaeiaai neiy aei?ia aia
ianaeaiiuo ioieoia.

Aeey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia e ieoaaie aiaeu ii?aaeaeythony aeiionoeiua
o?iaie niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia. A nayce n aaa?eae ia *a?iiaueueneie
AYN auee onoaiiaeaiu A?aiaiiua aeiionoeiua o?iaie (AAeO-91) niaea?aeaiey
?aaeeiioeeeaeiaoeacey e no?iioeey-90 a ieuaauo i?iaeoeoao e ieoueaaie
aiaea. Enoiaey ec ?aaeueiie ?aaeeaoeeiiiie ianoaiiaee e yeiiiie/aneeo
aiciiaeiinoae ioaeaeueiua ?anioaeeee eiatho i?aai onoaiaaeeaaoue aeey
naieo oa??eoi?ee eiio?ieueiua o?iaie niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia, ii ia
i?aauoathuea /eneaiiuo cia/aiee AAeO-91.

Ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?iecaiaenoai aeaoneiai ieoaiey ec i?iaeoeoia,
iieo/aaiuo ia caa?yciaiiuo oa??eoi?eyo.

4.2 Iniiaiua i?eioeeiu ?aaeeicaueoiiai ieoaiey

Aaaeiue oaeoi? i?aaeioa?auaiey iaeiieaiey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia a i?aaiecia
ethaeae, ?aaioathueo eee i?iaeeaathueo ia oa??eoi?eyo, caa?yciaiiuo
aaa?eeiuie aua?inaie, – yoi oiio?aaeaiea ii?aaeaeaiiuo ieuaauo
i?iaeoeoia e eo ioaeaeueiuo eiiiiiaioia. Iniaaiii yoi eanaaony caueou
i?aaiecia io aeieaiaeeaoueo ?aaeeiioeeeaeia (iai?eia? no?iioeee-90),
eioi?ua niiniaiu iea?e?iaaoue ii ieuaaui oeaiyi, iaeaieeaaoueny a
i?aaiao e oeaiyo, iiaeaa?aaoue o?iie/aneiio iaeo/aieth einoiue iica e
einoioth oeaiue, iiauoay ?ene ?acaeoey ceiea/anoaaiiuo iiaiia?aciaaiee.

Onoaiiaeaii, /oi iaiaauaiea ?aoeeiia ?uaiie iannie, eaeueoeeai, einoiie
ioeie, ooi?ii, eaieia?eae niinianoaoao oiaiueoaieth ?enea aicieeiiaaiey
iieieiae/aneeo caaieaaaiee.

Aieueoee eioa?an a ?anniao?eaaaiii aii?ina i?aaenoaaeytho iaonaiyaiua
oaeaaiaeu, eioi?ua i?eiaiytho aeey iaiaauaiey ieuaauo i?iaeoeoia
ea/aaii-i?ioeeaeoe/aneiai iacia/aiey.

Iaiaeiaaaeiia cia/aiea a i?ioeeaeoeea ?aaeeiaeoeaiiai aicaeaenoaey eiaao
aaoa-ea?ioei e ieuaaua i?iaeoeou n aunieei niaea?aeaieai yoiai
i?iaeoaieia.

Nieaeaiea iaeo/aiey ianaeaiey iiaeii aeiaeoueny ca n/ao oeaeaaie
iioeiecaoeee no?oeoo?u naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa., eniieuecoy
oio oaeoi?, /oi a i?iaeoeoao aeeaioiiaiaenoaa ?aaeeiioeeeaeia
niaea?aeeony ia 2-4 ii?yaeea iaiueoa, /ai a i?iaeoeoao ?anoaieaaiaenoaa.
Iniiaiie aeeaae a noiia?iia iinooieaiea ?aaeeiioeeeaeia n ?aoeeiiii
inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao iaiuiie i?iaeoeoeee (eaionou i ea?oioaey).

Niaeanii ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi aeieoi?a Aaeea “I ia?ao i?aaeinoi?iaeiinoe a
oneiaeyo iiauoaiiie ?aaeeaoeee aeey aeeoaeae Aaei?onnee e
Oe?aeiu”(1989a)

Iaiaoiaeeii:

– oi?ioaa ieoaiea;

– aaeaaeiaaiue nooe;

– ioaa?u eueia, e?aieau, neaaeoaeueiuo o?aa;

– iaeeueiia ieouea, /aua iioaoue;

– aeoaieiu P, C, B, nie naaeeu, ii?eiae, e?aniia aeii (3 no. eiaeee
aaeaaeiaaii);

– ?aaeueea oa?oay (oo?ii iaoa?aoue – aa/a?ii nuanoue e iaiai?io);

– a?aoeeea i?aoe, 4-5 oo. aaeaaeiaaii;

– o?ai, /aniie;

– e?oia a?a/iaaay, ianyiay;

– oeaaiue eaan;

– anei?aeiiaay eeneioa n aetheicie (2 ?aca a aeaiue);

– aeoeae?iaaiiue oaieue (1-2 oo. ia?aae aaeie);

– aeoaiei A (ia aieaa 2 iaaeaeue);

– ec iiei/iuo i?iaeoeoia eo/oa oai?ia, neeaee, niaoaia, ianei;

– iaiue e o?oeou i/euaoue aei 0,5 ni, eaionoo nieiaoue ia iaiaa 3-o
eenoia;

– iyni – eo/oa anoue naeieio e ioeoeo, aioiaeoue: 1-e ioaa? neeoue,
caeeoue aiaeie e aa?eoue aei aioiaiinoe (iyniua aoeueiiu eneeth/eoue).

I?iaeoeou n aioe?aaeeiaeoeaiui aeaenoaeai:

– ii?eiaue,

– ?anoeoaeueiia ianei,

– oai?ia,

– oaaeaoee eaeueoeey.

Iaeuecy:

– eioa,

– oieiaeaoe, einoe, einoiue aee?,

– aeoiy, aa?eeinu, neeaa;

– aieueoa anaai ca?aaeaia aiayaeeia;

– ia ?aeiiaiaeoaony anoue ioaa?iua yeoea, o. e. a nei?eoia niaea?aeeony
no?iioeee, eioi?ue ia?aoiaeeo a aaeie i?e aa?ea.

CAEETH*AIEA

Ec i?eaaaeaiiuo a ?aaioa iaoa?eaeia aeaeii, /oi i?aaieci /aeiaaea
iinoiyiii iiaeaa?aaaony ?aaeeiaeoeaiiio aicaeaenoaeth eae io
anoanoaaiiuo enoi/ieeia ?aaeeaoeee, oae e io eneonnoaaiiuo,
iaoneiaeaiiuo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth.

A iai?aauoathueo ii?aaeaeaiiue o?iaaiue aeicao yoi ia i?aaenoaaeyao
iianiinoe, ii n eo oaaee/aieai iiaoo aicieeiooue na?ueaciua caaieaaaiey
i?aaiecia e iaia?aoeiua aaiaoe/aneea eciaiaiey.

I?ioeainoiyoue yoiio iiaeii, niaethaeay ii?aaeaeaiiua i?ioeeaeoe/aneea e
caueoiua ia?u, neaaey ca ?aoeeiiii ieoaiey.

EEOA?AOO?A

1. Iiciyeianeee A. I. Aeaeaie/aneea iniiau ieoaiey, aaciianiinoue e
yenia?oeca i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia: O/aaiee. – Iiaineae?ne:
Ecaeaoaeuenoai Iiaineae?neiai oieaa?neoaoa, 1999

2. AEeciue e ?aaeeaoeey./ Iaoeeiiaeueiue Niaao ii ?aaeeieiae/aneie
caueoa [Beeeeia?eoaiey]; Ia?aaiae n aiae. A. A. A?oaiaaeueneie, A. E.
Iiie?aoaaie; Iiae ?aae. I. A. ?aicaaaa. – I.: Yia?aiaoiiecaeao, 1993

3. ?aaeeaoeey. Aeicu, yooaeou, ?ene./ Ia?aaiae n aiae. TH. A. Aaiieeiaa.
– I.: Ie?, 1988

4. Ee?oei A. Ea?oa ?aaeeaoeee. // *aeyaeineee ?aai/ee – 1989. – 23-24
aeaeaa?y. (Eiiiaioa?ee caaaaeothuae ioaeaeaieai ?aaeeaoeeiiiie aeaeaiu
Y. I. E?aaoeiaie)

5. ?aaeeaoeey e aeeciue.// Atheeaoaiue OeIE. 2/2000. – n.18-20.

6. Eaeaeia A. E. E aii?ino i ?aaeeiyeieiae/aneie ianoaiiaea a a.Iineaa.
// Ecaanoey Aeaaeaiee I?iiuoeaiiie Yeieiaee. – 1998. – ?3 – n.37

I?EEIAEAIEA

I?eeiaeaiea 1

A?aiaiiua aeiionoeiua o?iaie niaea?aeaiey ?aaeeiioeeeaeia oeacey-137 e
no?iioeey-90 a ieuaauo i?iaeoeoao e ieoueaaie aiaea, onoaiiaeaiiua a
nayce n aaa?eae ia *a?iiaueueneie AYN (AAeO-91)

I?iaeoeoOaeaeueiay aeoeaiinoue, Ee/ea, Ee/eOeacee-137Aiaea
ieoueaaay5,0*10-10Iieiei, eenei-iiei/iua i?iaeoeou, niaoaia, oai?ia,
nu?, ianei neeai/iia1,0*10-8Iieiei naouaiiia e
eiioeaio?e?iaaiiia3,0*10-8Iieiei nooia5.0*10-8Iyni (aiayaeeia, naeieia,
aa?aieia), ioeoea, ?uaa, yeoea (iaeaiae), iyniua e ?uaiua
i?iaeoeou2,0*10-8AEe?u ?anoeoaeueiua e aeeaioiua,
ia?aa?ei5,0*10-9Ea?oioaeue, ei?iaieiaeu, iaiue, noieiaay caeaiue,
naaeiaua o?oeou e yaiaeu (ioiuoua io ii/aaiiuo /anoeoe),
eiina?ae?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou ec iaiuae, naaeiauo o?oeoia e yaiae,
iaae1,6*10-8Oeaa e oeaaii?iaeoeou, e?oiu, ioea, naoa?1,0*10-8Naaaeea
aeeei?anoouea yaiaeu e a?eau (ioiuoua io ii/aaiiuo
/anoeoe)4,0*10-8Nooio?oeou8,0*10-8Nooaiua a?eau e aeeei?anoouea yaiaeu,
/ae2,0*10-7Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou aeaoneiai ieoaiey (anao aeaeia,
aioiaua e oiio?aaeaieth)5,0*10-9Eaea?noaaiiua
?anoaiey2,0*10-7No?iioeee-90Aiaea ieoueaaay1,0*10-10Iieiei iaoo?aeueiia
e iieieii?iaeoeou1.0*10-9Iieiei nooia5,0*10-9Iieiei
naouaiiia3,0*10-9Ea?oioaeue1,0*10-9Oeaa e oeaaii?iaeoeou, e?oiu, ioea,
naoa?1,0*10-9Niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?iaeoeou aeaoneiai ieoaiey (aioiaua e
oiio?aaeaieth)1,0*10-10

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