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Пожар и взрыв, их причины и последствия

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I?i

A???a

1. I??u e ???u. E?????ey

1.1 I??

1.1.1 A?u ???a

1.1.2 E?????ey ???a e ??th?o ??n?

1.1.3 O??ey ????ey e ??? ???

1.2 A??u. E???e??y ???a ? ??????th ?????ny y???

1.2.1 O????a ???

1.2.2 ss??? ???

2. I??? ??????y ???a e ???a

2.1 I??? ??????y ???a

2.2 I??? ????a?ey ???a

3. I????ey ???a e ???a

3.1 I???a ???th?a ???u ???

3.2 I???a ???th?a ???u ???

4. I??????a /?????o ????, ?y??? n ???? e ????

4.1 I??????a ???a e ???a a ??

4.1.1 I???y ??????

4.1.2 A????????ue

4.2 I????? ?????? ?e ??????e ????y, ??? e ??????e ????. N??? e ???? ???
n ??i

4.3 N??u ? ????th

A??u

N??e ??????? ???o?u

A???a

I?? ???? ethaeyi n ???a ?i ?y??ey ? C??, e ??ue ? ??i ??th?y ??e ??? ?
??. Ii ????? ??o??ue ???? ?????? ????, ?e a ??? ???a, ?e e a ??iy?a ??y.
Ca ?????ue, ??????ia ????a e ?ith, ??a???i ??e????y ?ny?? ???. N??iy ??i
? ??o ???ue: «Iu ???ee ????e ??? e ??????e ????e ??a, ??? ? ??o!». O??a
??c???y ??i ?? ???? ???? ??????e ? ?????e ??u ??a e ???, ??a e ??. A ? ?
??y ?? ???? ???i ???u ?iy ? ???? e ?i ??o ???ey. A???e ? ?ae ???ey ??ue
???? ???ue ???? ???????, a ??a ?????? ?????y. E ??i ?iy??eyi ???? ??e
??ny?y ???. Iiy?? ?? ??? ??? – y? ?????? eth?e n ????y? e ????e ??????y
???a e ???a, ? ?????e e ???? ?? ??????ey ??o y???.

1. I??u e ???. E?????ey

I??u e ??? y?yth?y ????????e ??????e ??oey? a ??????? ????. I??u e ?????
??? ???iy? ?, ?i a ? ??? ??o ???n ???y. I??? ??? ? ??? ??th??ny a ?i, ?i
?e ???a ???? ???????y ????? ???y ????o 10-100 i/n, ?????a – ?ne??i ?ny/
????, ???? ??a (a ???e ??a) ????? ? ??i ?c.

1.1 I??u

I?? (?n. 1, 2)— ????y??, ?????????a ???a ???a, ????? e ??-?c??? ??? ?a
?????? ??a, ???y?a ?????? ????ue?e ??a, ????a eth?e ? ???? e ????i ??a?,
???a ????ey?ny ? ???? e a????a, ???? e ???a.

I?? ??? ?y ??????i ????a ?e ???????i – ????a a ??e??a ?????y ?iy e ???o
?????, ?e e ???? – a ???? y???o ??? (??? ????? ???ey ?? ?e ???? ??ey ?-?
???e ?????u, ????yth?e ?i ????o).

I?? ??o ??ue ?????? ???? ?i ? ??, ?? ?? ????i ?? ????i (????y??a,
???????a i??? ???a e ?e ??a). O??, ?????? ???i ???i, ???o ???i
???i?????i ???a (??????? ?????i ?? ??o ?iy? ????i ?ny?? ?o), a ??o ?? e
?????i.

1.1.1 A?u ???a

N????o iy? ??a ???a:

1. A??? ???? ???a – e y?e ????e ????y ???, ????, ??? e ?e ??a. E?? ????
???? ????o ??e ??e ????ey, ?i ?????y ? ?i???a y???u, ??ue ? ???o ???y?ny
n ????? e ????iy?ny.

2. A??? ??? ???a – e y?e ????e ??ny?y ??a ??th?a ???? ?e ???, ?ey?,
????, ??a e ?e ??a.

A?th?a ???? ???yo ?e ??? ???? ???y:

– ???a – ???ue ?????u, ?e ???i ???? ??eyao ????? ??a, ?????a ?y ??????y
??th?e ??e. Aeey ??, ??u ??y ??ue ?????, ????? ?????a ????a ????y, ???
???e ???a ?????y.

– ??a ??????y – ???ue ?????u, ?e ???i ???? ??a??i a??y? ?? a ???, ?????i
?y ?????ey ??th?e ??e. A ??? ?????y ????a ????y ????o ??y, ?? ?? ???ue
???? ????y.

– ??a ????ey – ???ue ?????u, ?e ???i ??th?y ??ue ? ??a ae???e e ???a
????ny ?? a ?i ???, ??a ????? ?o ?iy. A ?????? n ?????? “???e” ???eya?y
???????? ???? e ????eth. *? ?? ?????a “???e”, ?i ??????? ??? ???? e
????eth.

3. A???, ?yc??a n y?????i – eth?e ???, a ???i y?????? ??? ???oth ?e
????th ??ue.

4. A??? ??a – e y?e ????e ??ny?y ?a ??th?a ??: ???ae, ???? e o.ae.
A?th?a ?? a ?????? ??yo ???? ???? e ???.

5. A??? ??? ???? – e y?e ????e ??ny?y ??a ???u ?e i??e, ??e e ?th??e, a
??a ? ?e??.

1.1.2 E?????ey ???a e ??th?o ???a

Ii ??:

– ??????? (??? ? ???o, ???? e ?????.)

– ???a ??? (??? a ?e? ??o e ? ???? ????i-???? ????ey).

–????a ??? (???, ???a, ??y?a e ?????a ???).

E?????ey ???a ? ????e ????e

I???? ??? – y? ???, ????e a ????i ??? ?e ?????. I????ea eth?e e ???e ?
?????e ????? ??o ????? ???? ???? a? ???a ??? ? ????i ????y.

N???e ??? – ??????a ?????a ???a ????ath?? ????? ??? e ????? ? ??? ???a
????e. I????? eth?e e ???e ??c ???e ????i ??? ????? ?c ???a ??? ? ????i
????y.

I??? ??i – y? ??ay ??a ??????yth??ny ????i ???, ?????? ?e???e ????
y?yth?y ???a ???y?? ??? ????a ???ey e ????i ???a, a ??a ??? ???i ???a ?
?? ??? ? ????th ? ??a 50 ?// ? ?????th e ???? ???? ???.

I???e ??? ????ey? ??e ???i??ue ????o e ???? ???a.

E?????ey a ?????e ? ?? ??y?o ???a e ?????

I?? ??? «A» — ???a ???? ???a.

A1 — ???a ???? ???a, ??????? ???i (??ue, ????).

A2 — ???a ???? ???a, ? n??????o ???i (?????).

I?? ??? «B» — A??? ??? ???a.

B1 — ???a ??? ???a ??????o a ?? (???, y??, ??????u). O??, ???a ????o
???? ???a. (???i, ???i).

B2 — A??? ??? ???a ?????o a ?? (??o, ????).

I?? ??na «C» — ???a ?????? ???a.

A??? ???? ??, ???a e ?.

I?? ??? «D» — ???a ??e?a.

D1 — (???a ??? ???ia, ? ??th??? ????). Aeth??e, ??? e ? ???.

D2 — A??? ??????? ???? (???, ??e).

D3 — ???a ????, ????? n????y.

I?? ??? «E» — ???a y???????e.

E?????ey ????? ? ? ??????e

I??th?a ????u — ????u ???a ? ??yo ?ae ?????? ????a ????y (?????? e
??????a ???i???a ????u — ???, ??i, ?????i).

O??i ??th?a ????u — ????u, ???a ??yo ?ae ?????? ????? ????y ? ????? e
???iy???? ???th (??????i, ?????i, ?????y ????????e ????? ????a, ????e??
?e ??????e).

A?th?a ????u — ????, ???a ???? ??? ??a ???ey ????a c???ey.

1.1.3 O??ey ????ey e ??? ???

Aeey ??, ??u ????i ????? i????i ???a ??o ???e:

A?th?a ???aa e ????u

E???e ????y – ???? ??ue, ????ay ???y, y?????? ?e.

I??? ????ey, ???? ????a ???a.

Aeey ??, ??u ????e ??? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???y: ???a ??e ???????y ??? –
??th/? a???, ???a ?????tho ???????th ?iy.

N???ue ???y ??th??ny a ??oth?i – ????? ????? ????y ??th?? ????a ? ??? ?i
????i ????ey. A ???? ????i ????ey ????ny ???e ?c, ?? e ???a ????ai ??a.
A??y?ny ??a ????? ?c e ??, ???y ???o ? ???th?i ??a? ????e. A?iy ? ???
????y ??th?? ????a ? ?i ??????y — ???? ???? ??????y.

I?????a ??y ??????y — ??o ???ey? ????i ?ny?a.

N ???a ??????y ????ny ???.

N??e ??? a ????yo.

I??a 10-20 ??o ??? ?????iy?ny ?i?? ??ue ??th?? ????a. A y? ??y ????a
???y?ny ??i e ?????ue ??y ?????. O????? ?c?? a ????e ????? ?????y ?
250—300 ????. Y? ?????a ??????y ?? ??th?o ?????.

*?? 20 ??o ????ny ??i?a ???????a ???.

N??y ?a 10 ??o ????o ????? ????ey. O?????ny ??? ?a?? ???a, ??i ??????y
???? ???. O????? ????o 900 ????.

O?a ????y.

A ???a 10 ??o ?????ay ???? ???. I?? ??, ?e ???tho ???? ???? ????? ??
?????? ??? (? 20 ??o ? 5 ??a). A?e ??ue ? ??o ?????ny ? ??? ????y ?ae?
??o ? ??o. A y? ??y ????? ????a ????? ?????e.

1.2 A??u. E?????ey ???a ? ?????ieth ?????ny y???

A?? (?n.3,4) — ????? ?e ????? a????o?ath?e ???n n ????? ?a????e y??? a
????i ??? (? n???eth n ?????i ??eyth??y y???), ???y?e e ???i, ?????? e
???? ?????yi ? ???th?th ??o e ??e?????? ????eth ??a.

E?????ey ??a? ? ??????th ?????ny y???:

— ?????;

— ?????;

— ??? ????e ?ae ????i (???u, ???a ??u);

— ??a ???yth??y ??a ???th?e ???? (BLEVE);

— ??? ?e ??? ???ey a ????? ???oyo;

— ??? ?e ??e??e ?? ????e, ?????a ??e ? ???o ???i ????o ?????o ???y ???;

— ?????? (???a ?????);

— y??ua (?n.4);

— y??????a (????, ?e ??a).

1.2.1 O????a ???

A??? ??ey i ?i, ??a ??? ????? ???? ???o ???ue ???i, ? ?????. Y? ?y?? n
?i, ?i ???????? ???? ??o ????ue a ?? ????e ?e ?????e (???y). Ae???ey
????ny ? ???y ?i, ?i ????? ???e e ???n ????y y??? ?oo n ?????? ???e ??u,
e ????? ??o ??? ???a?? ???? a ????oth ???th ????? ? ??? ???e ??u, a ?
??i ???????? e ????, ?e ?e ???e. E? ???i, ???? ????e ?? ???? ???y, ?i?i
y? ? y?y?ny ??eth?? ????. ????a ????? ???? y??? e ???? ?eytho ? ????
????ey ?i??? e ? ????? ? ???ey ? ???th?th ??o, ??? ? ???? ??thaeath?y
??a ????a ????y y?o ????a e ???? ????e a ???a e ???i. A ?y? n y?i ??? e
????? ???i ??nyo ????a ??????ath?a ???? ?c ????y ? ???a?.

N????o ??a ???e ??? e ?????eth ?????i ??? ?e ??th???? ???????. Ec y??
o??ey n ??????ueth ???o, ?i ?e ????? ???, ??????? ??????-????????e ????
(????i), ??ath?a ???? e ????? ??? ?? ?????, ??a ???? ???e ??o ?????
????th ???? ???? ?en??ey, a y?o ?i??, ?e ???i, ??o ?????? ????. I????,
???i? ?c ???? ??o a ???? ???? ???? ??, ????o ???? ???? ???? a ???ue ???y
??i ????. I??i, ?? ????? ?c n ????, ? ????y ? ????e ??u — ???? ??a.

E??????a ????? ????, ?e i???, ???? ???? a ???a ??o ?????o ???e, ???, ?
????, ? ??, ??????? ?????y. I? ????e ??e ???? ?????e y??? (y??? ????e)
?a ???????i ?????ao ? ???eyth?a ??u, ? ???o ???th?y ???? ???, n ?????
y???, ???ath?e y??eth ????e. I???? ??n??e ???tho ???? ???????, ????o???
e ?. I??? ?eeth?? (????e ??o), ??? ??o, ???e ???o ? ?????? ??e ??th??
???? (????e ??ue) e ????ey (????a ???u), a ???o ??aeyo ? ???u e ????e, ?
? ? ???? ??nyo e ????? ????i.

1.2.2 ss??? ???

ss??? ??a — y? ????y?? ???n ??????y ???? ????? ???? e ???? y??? a ?????
??? y??? ???e ?????y ??a ?e ???e ??iy???i ???a. E?????? y??? ??? a ????
????th?y a e???a ????? ??ey, ???????? ?y ?????y ???o ???? e ???i? (???
?????? ???a ????? yae??? ??ey ?? ??? ???i ????y (O???a e I???e)) ??e
?????.

2. I??? ??????y ???a e ???a

I??? ???a e ???a – y? ?????? ???e, ?????th?o ??????th ???y:

– ?????a ??th?e ??u (???a ????????? ??th?? ???? e ????ey);

– ?????a ???????e ??u (???a ?????? ??th?? a???a e ?e???y ?e ?????i
????);

– ?????a a ??th?e ?e ??????e ??a ?e ???? a y? ??u ???oth?? ????a ????y.

2.1 I??? ??????y ???a

I???? ??????y ???a ?? ??i y?yth?y: ?????? ??u?? n ??i, ???th??a ???
y?????e ????????i ?????ey e y?????? ????a, ??????? ???a e ?????, ??y?
?????? y??????, ???? ??y?, ???e.

2.2 I??? ??????y ???a

A??u ????yo ? ?? ??????y ????? y??? (???i ???i ????? ???a), ???y???
y???e (y??? ??a), ?????? y??? (?e ???e ????? ? ?????ue C?? e ?.), y???
??? ??a (?e ????? ???ey ???a i???? ??? – ???a, ?????? e ?.).

3. I????ey ???a e ???a

I????ey ???a e ???a ?????u ????i ? ???th?o ????.

3.1 I???a ???th?a ???u ???

I???? ???th?? ????e ??? y?yth?y:

– ?i??????a ???? ?iy ? ??y?e ???o;

– ??????a ?????a ? ???? e ???u ???o ????? ? ?? ????y.

A ????? ????? ???? ????, ? ?????a, ?????, ??ae ? ??y. O???ath?y ?a y???u
??? e ?????e, ?????o e ????o ?????, ???? ???o ????? ???? ???a, ????eth e
????a ??????o ??, ??e ????? e ?. ??????? ???e ????ey. E???? ??u e ???
????oth?y. A ??? ? ??ea??i ???a ?e ????? ????? ? 500-6000 N ??th??ny ?i
????? ????e e ????? ????a.

I? ???o ????th ?e ???? ????th?y ?e ??aeyo ? ??y ???????a ?????? e ??????
????. A??o ???? e n/o ????. A??o ?e ???tho ??e eth?.

A????e ?????y? ???a ??o ?? ???, ??? y???o ?e ??y?yth?o ???a. A??? ??a
?????? ???i ????yi e ??y??y a ?o ????i ??o ???e ??, ???y?ay ?y ??iey
???.

3.2 I???a ???th?a ???u ???

I???? ???th?? ????e ???a y?yth?y:

– ????y ???y ??a (AOA), ???ath?y ?e y??? ???o, ???o ????th?o e ????th?o
???a, ?e ???? ?????yo ???a ????-????o ???, ???a ?????a n ????? ????th e
?????a ?ae ????i;

– ????? ?ey, ?????a ?oy?? ????e ???i ?? ????.

I???? ?????e ???th?o ???? y?yth?y:

– ????e ???e ??u – ????? ???? a ? ???;

– ?????i ?ey – ????? ????, ? ?????ay y??ey e ??? ???a.

A ????? ???ey ???th?o ???? ??? ????? ????? ?e ?????a ???, ?????,
?????ey, y???? ??????, e ??eue eth?e e ????.

A????e ?????y? ???a y?yth?y ????a ??aey??y ??? ????, ????e ????? ?????e
??ey, ? ????ea ?ae ????e. A ????? ???a ??o ????? ???, ??? ???o ???a ?
??????i ?????ey.

I? ???o e ???o eth? ???tho ?????a e ?????? ???. O????u ??e ???o ?????o
??e, ??, ???i-???? ???, ??????a ???? e ??u, ???????a ????y.

4. I??????a ?????? ????, ?y??? n ???? e ????

Aeey ??????ey ???a e ???a ????? ??th?? ?????ue ?????ey ??th?e e ??????e
??u, a ??a ??????ue ?y??? a y?o ??? ????? c????.

C??e ???? ?????? ??i ????ue ? ?e ???o, ? ??i ?y??? ????a ???ey?e:

1) ????, a o./. ?????i?? ??? i ???????? ????e (i ??????e ????e ????
?????a c?????? e ???ey ????e e ??? a ???, ?????o ae?yi);

2) ???? ???, ??????ath?e ????? ???????o ?? ???? ?????? e ?????? ??, a
??a ???? ? ????ey;

3) ?????a ??????i e ?????a ????? (????a ????? ??????e e ?????? ????e
?????i ?????y).

C??y ???ey?y e ??? ???a ????oth?y e ??y?y n ??ii ????? ?????o ?????
(AINOu «I???y ??????» e «A????????ue. I?? ????ey»). N?????a ?????e ???
???? ??????ueth, o.a. ?????ueth ???y? ?? ???a ???e ?e ???? ? i? ???o
?????. Aeey ??????ey ?n?????ey ?iy ? ??e ??e ??ey a ??? ????th?y
???????a ???? (??u, ?????e, ????ey e ?.), ei??a ??? ???y? ?ith ??????ue
? ??a 2,5??a. A ??? ??? ??????ath?y ?? y???? eth?e ? ??? ??????y *N.
Y?????? ???a ? ??ey n ???? ?????i eth?e ??? ?? ? ??a ??. E?? ??, ??ey
??iu ?? ???? ?????? ?y ???ey ?? ?e ??? (n????? ???a eth? e ?). ??o ??ey?
e ???ey? ? ????? ????? ??????ath?y ???????a ???u ? 9 ? 18i. Y? ??????o
????? ?iy n ??? ??ey ? ?oa?. A ??eyo n ???? ?????i eth?e ??th??ny ?????
??????? ?????ey e ????a.

A ?????? n ?????i C??a O??? «I ???? ??????» a ??eyo n ???? ?????i eth?e
y?y?ny ?yc???? ???a:

– ??? ??????? ???? ??a???e;

– ??????y?? ????ey i *N;

– ?aey?? ??????y;

– ?????? ????? ????????o ??????e, ???????? ????y.

C????ny ????a ??? (? ???ath??y) ??????o ???e ? ???o ???o ????e n ????
?a???? eth?e.

A??? ???? ??o ???? ???????-?????o ???ey?e ? ??????eth *N, ????o ???? e
????

4.1 I??????a ???a e ???a a ??

A ?y? n ?i, ?i ?e??o? ????? ????e e ???a ????ny ? ??e ???, ??i ???o
????? ??ue e ???y? ????a ?a?? e ?? ??????ey ??o *N a ???o ???yo.

4.1.1 I???y ??????

I???y ?????? – y? ??iy?a ???a, ?e ???i ??th??ny ?????ue ???, a a ??? ?i
??????y ????th?y ?????a ?? ? ????eth ?????i ?ey?y ???o ???? ??? ? eth?e,
????ey e ?????? ??i??

I???y ?????? ??o ?? ????? ??? ???? ?????? e ?o??e ???? ???. I???y ??????
?eth?? ???? ???ey?e, ?????? ? ??????? ??? ?e ????? ?i i?????. A???y
???ay ??? – ??, ?a???ath?a ???oth ??? n ???? ?e ???ii??e ????e.

N?????ue ?e e ???a, a ??a ?? ????i, ????????, y??????i, ?????i e
???-?????? ????a ??cotho ???o ?????y ???? ??????.

I???y ?????? a ???:

I??? ?? ??? ??e ????ei ???? ???y ???, ??y i ?i, a ??oth ??? ?y ???y
????y ????? ??e ??e

??, ? ??oth – ?e ??a, a a ??ueth – ? ??? e ??u.

E??a ?? ?y ??? n ??i ??????, ??n ??, ???e, ???, a ai ??a ???? ?? ?e ?
??? ???a – ?a e ??e, ???, ??? e ??.

I???, ?i ?????? e ????? ??????a ??, y??????, ??????? ???? e ???i ????
?????ey – ?????a ?? ?y ??????ey ???a.

Ie a ?? ??? ? ?????a ??th?a ???? e ???a ???u a ????, ???a ?e ???a.

Ia ???a n ????e ????e a ????a, ?a ??y?y ??th?a ???? ?e ???a ???u.

Ootha, y?????oth ???, ??e e ??? ??????? ???u ??????? ? ?????a ????u ?
???y?e ? ??a 60ni ? ??? e ????e. Ia ???y?a ? ?c ??? ????a.

A ?? y??????o ? ?eth??a ??a ?? y???????, ??u ???? ????a y??????? a ?????
???o?e. I?eth?y eth?e y??????, ? ?????? ?e? ? ???e ? ??. Ia ???y?a a?
????a ???th?a y??????u ?e ??? ? ??.

I???, ?i ????a ?? a y???/??a ???u e ?? ??o ??ue ???? ????i ????y, ???a
???? e ??????th ???.

Ia ?????a «??? ??? ???o ???????e a y?????.

Ia ????? ?????a y?????? ?? ???e ?e ????? ?ae ?? ??o-?? ?????o ???? ?e
?????o ????.

Ia ???y?a ??? ca ???th?? y??????????e ????e i????i ?oyi.

Y?????? ???????a ??, ?????, ??? ??cy ?????? ?y ??e ??y, ??? ????? ???e
??y??? ??????y ???.

I? y?????e ????? (?? ??i, ?? ??e, ?? ???) i????i ??th?? ??oth?a ???a
???? ??????:

? ????ue y??????y ?????a io ?? n ????? ??y???, ??a ?eth?? ????? ??c
?????? ??y??y;

???y? ??? ?????a ???????, ????a a ?????a ? y????oe?;

???a ??? ????ny a ????i ??a ?y ???? ??th??y ?i ? n?e;

? ???y? ?eth??? ????? ?c ????a, ? ????ue ?eth?? ????? ????? ?oyi ?c
????;

?e ?????? ?????y, ???e ?e ??? ??? ??th?? ????? ? ??, ???ue ???a, ? ???yy
??? ????i ethaeyi.

I?? ?????i ???a ?o?? ??e (????a, ?????e, y?? ? ???????yth??y ?????eyo,
??a, ???, ???????, ???a ?y ???, ????e e ????ey ???, ???a ??? n ????
????? e ?.) ????? ???ue ????eth ? ???? ?????y. I???a ???? ? ????????a
???e «A??ue ? ?iy» ?e «I?????

Aeey ???, ??? ??? e ???e ? ??????o ????? ? ?????a ??? e ???
???????yth??y ??a???e, ????o y? ??o ???? e ??? a ????? ??y? ??????
y??????a.

Ia ??? ??. I?????y ???? ???? ???ue ????a ????a ????i ???a, ?e ???e ???o
??ey?ny ???a ????? ????o ???a.

I??? ??e ?????o ????th n ??i, a ?? ? ? ???u ? ?i ????a, ??th?? ?????ue
????y n??e a ? ??.

E?eth?oa «?????? ???: ? ?????ue ?????? y?????y??e ? ??, a ????, ?????a
??e e ????e ????a ??? ??e ? ??; ?????a ??th? ??a ????ue ?????? ???? –
??? ??? e ???? ??e ??o ??oi?ue ? eth?e ??u.

Ia ???ey?a ???e, ???u, ?? y????, ???u e ???; ? ???a ? ???? ??th?a ???? –
???? ?????? ??? ? ??e ???? n ?i??i ? ????i y??e.

N??? ? ??????th ? ??? ??e ????u, ? e ??, ??a: ???? e ???u ??? ?? ???u ?
????o eth?e; eth?a ?cy????a ??? a ??i ?? (????ay a ???a ?e ? ???a, ????a
???) ????eytho ????ue– ?e ????yo ????? e ????o ????? ???iai ???a.

A ???: – ? ???a ????? n ???th?i ????? a ???? ???, ??u ??th?? ?????ue ???
?e ??uey ????? ???;

a ??? ??? ???a ?e ??a ???? ?e ???, ????? ????a e ?????? i ?i, ??u y? ?
?????ue;

? ???a a ??? ??????, ??, ?c, ??i ??a 5?, ??? ??a 20e, a ??a ??? ??th?a
???? e ??????a ????;

??? a ????? ?????? e ??e;

??????e ?????y ?????ue a a??a ???o ????ey, ????a ??? n ?????i ?iy e
y??????;

?????y ????ue ??? ????i, a???i …

? ??y ???y?e ???ey?? ??cy ?????ny ???? ??i

A ?????? ????yo:

??? ??? a ????? ???;

? ???o?a ???e ????a a??u;

??y a ?????, ????a e o.i., ????, ?a ??aey?y ?????? e ???? ???.

4.1.2 A????????ue

N ?????? ???a ???yth?y ???? n ????? ??????? ??.

N?? y?o ??a n ???? a????yth?y e ???th?y ? ??? ? i???? ?iy (???, ??e,
????), ? e ? ??, ????? ???e e ???i ???o ?e ?e ???th??y ?e ????i?
y?????th??ey?.

A?th?a ?? a 1,5-2 ?? oy??a ???a, ?y?? ?e ??? ????th?y a ??? ??yo ????e,
????, ???????o ????, ???a, ??? ??y ? ?a???y?.

I? y?i ?y ?????y ??????e ??e n ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? (? 1,6 ? 3,0% ?
???) e ????? ????i??y ????y. A?e i???? ??? ??????y, ??a ????i ?????e
??ae ? ?? ??y???? (??????i) e ?????a ???i ???a, ?????a ??????e ??e
??th??ny.

O??e ?? ????yo ? ??e ??a???e ?e a ?c???a ???? ?c????a, ????? e ???o ????
(??, ??????), a ??a ?e ??????e ???o ????.

Aeey ??????ey ??? ??????e n?? a ???? ????? ???y? ???a:

E?eth?? ?????e (?c ????ey ?no?e ?????e ???? ?cy??a) ??? e ????o ???o
????.

Any ???y ????, ???y ???y ????? e ???u ??? ?? ????? ? ?? e ??????.

Y?????y ???o ???? ?????ny ??a ?????? ?????a e a ???i ?????? n ????ey?
y??????i? ?????.

I??y ???y? ?c ????a ????a ???a ???u, ?????? ? ?y ???? e ?i ??a ?y ????y
????e (? ??th??? ?????o).

I?? ?eth??? ???? ???a e ai ??y ?i ??? ????a ??? ??????ny ?????.

Aeey ?????ey ??? ?e ?y?y ????e ???? ???? ?????y ?????? ??y?th ??? ?e
??o.

I? ????i ?????e ??? ?? – ????? ??th?? ?a ???th?a ?c?? ???u. ?????? ??a?
???y? ??? ? ?????. I??y ???? ??y ???e – ? y?? ??y ??o ????ue, a ?c ??o
????ue, ?i ????i ???o a ????e ??????th ?????eth ?? a ??e n ????.

4.2 I????? ?????? ?e ??????e ????y, ??? e ??????e ????. Ni??u e ???? ???
n ??i

I????? ?????? ???ny e ???th ??oth?o ???? ??/:

??????ue ??a;

??? ???? ????a ????a;

? ????ue ???????? ?iy a ???a ????y;

y?????ue ? ???e ?? ??e e ????;

?? ? ???ue ????? ???a, ya?????ny ???;

???? a ???oth ???;

???ny n ??i ? ???ey ????.

Ae???y ?e ?????e ??????e ???ee.

I???a ?????? e ????? ??ay? ??????y ??????e ???? ? ???ey?yo ????????? ??u
e a ?? y?yth?y:

?????a ??????e ??e ??a ?i?? n ???? (a ? ????th ?????o ???? ????o e ???,
????o, a ??a a ????yo ???ey y?? ???a);

?????a ??????e ??e ????, ????? ?e ????? (?????) ?? n ???? (a ??yo, ????
e o.i.).

I???? ??????e ???? y?y?ny ??o ??a ???a ?e ??a?i a?a.

I???? ??????th ???eth ????? ??????ue ????e ??a:

??th?? ???? ? ??????th ??o ????a ????y – ? ???? ??ai-?? ?iy (???,
????e), ? ???, ia ???ue y?????th??? (? ?eth?? e ia ??th??) e y??????
???e, ? ??th?? ???th?a y??????u, ? ?eth?? y??????y??;

???ue ? ????y eth?e (n ??th ??????ey ????ey);

???ue ?? e ??e ?y ?????? ??????y;

??th?? ?a ???a ???u e ????ue ?????;

???ue ????th ??? ???? ?cy?o? ?y ?y??ey ??? ??? ??; ?y ?????ey ??a ??? ??
?????ny ??? ???i ????i.

N??? e ???? ??? n ??i

N??? ??? n ??i ???th?y ? ????e ??, ?i ???a (???) ???? ??ei ?e ?????
??oth?o ???e:

???a ??th?o ???a e ? ???o n ?????i (????? ???a e o.i.);

?????a ?y ???y ????? ?????a ??th?? e ????ey (????a ???a ???? i? ?????
????a a ???a ? ?? 15%, a ??? – ? ?? 6% ???);

????? ????y ???a ?e ????i ??? y?y?ny ???? ??y n ?????? ?? ?????u ???y;

?????(???? ???a) ????o a ????a a ?????i ?????.

N??? ?????y ???y ?e ???:

????? ??a ???y e ??th?o ????? ? ?????u ????y;

?????a ??u o ??a ???y n ??th ???ey ?????? ????ey ? ????o ????;

??y?y ??th?o ???a e ???e?? ? ????ey (????, ????a ???a) n ??th ????ey
????y ?-? ????? ????ey;

????? ????? ???y ???y ? ? ???i ?????y;

?????? ?? ???e (??? ?? ?e ??, ???e ??? ??? e o.i.);

?c??a ???e ???????ey, ?e ???o ??y ? ?????iy?ny.

Aeey ??????y ???? ?????y ???y ???y?ny ?????oth?a ?????a ???? e ???? ?
??? a ?? ???y.

I???th?a ??????.

A?a – ???? ? ???ny?o ???a, ????y ?????e e ???????e. I? ??o ???th ??????
e ?y?io y????i ????o ??y?a ????u. E?? ??, ?e ????e a ?? ???y ?? ?????ny
a ?? (? 1 e ?? ????ny 1700e ??), ???e ???o ei????eth ????a e ???? ????i?
???y (??? ?????y). I???i ??n??? ?? y?y?ny ???y y????????ue, ?i ? ???y?
???y? ? ?y ???y ??y?? y????????ey.

O??ay ?????a (a ?? ??????o ??o??a, ???a) ??? ???? ??i ? ???? ??th?o ???a
e ?????a. I? ??o ?????e ?a ??y?a a???a, ?eth?y y????????? ?ae ??y?i?i.
O??ay ?????a ????ny a ???o?a ????ey (?e ??? ? ?????ey ?iia IO-2, IO-5 e
?.) ??? ?????u e ??o ??oth ?????o (? – 78,5?C). I???y?, ?????ny a ?c
NI2, ???e ????o ?e ???eyth?a ????.

E???th?a ?????? – e ?i ?i?y?y, ??? ??i, ?????a ??, a o?? ??a ????a ????u
?e eth?a ???a ???i (??a ???th?a ?e n???? ??e), ??e ?e ??y. I????? ??
??tho ????? e ????-??????.

O????y ?? ????ny a ????? ???e ??o ????e e ???? ??y? ??y?, ???a?, ??????e
?? IOI-10. I????e – ???y y????????? e ????ay ????? ? ????th e ????.
Iiy?? ??e ??e ??cy ??? y????????? e ??? ???u. I?????e IOI-10 ??a?o ??? ?
??a ?????a e ??e??????.

A???i-?????ay ?? ?????ny ??e???e ????-???e ?????? ???e ?i???????e, a ??a
?????e ?????ey? ?? IAI-5, IAI-8, IAI-10. O?? ??e ?ae? ??? eth?a ???,
?eth?y ??? y????????ey ???? ??y??y, ?e ?e ????-?????ay ?? ? y???????.

I????? ????? ???u ???tho n?????th ?????ue ?? ???y ? ??o?? ??u, a ??a
????ey? ????? ????? ???e ???y. N????e ??? ?????o ???? a ?? ???y y?yth?y
?????? ?? II-2, II-5 e o.i.

Ae???y ?e ?????e ????y ?e ???

E?? (??a ????? e ??????) eth?? ??? ???o ? ??? ? ?ai, ????i ??? ?? ???? a
???oth ??io, a ??a ? ???????? y???? eth?e ? ????? ????y (??ey) e ? ??y?o
?? ? ???th.

Ae???y ?e ?????e ???:

???a ????a ?e ???, ?e ?oy ? ???? ???? ???y (?i, ??o ??), ??o ???ue ????
e ????? ?? (???a, ?????a) i ???. A ????e i ??? (? ???? 01) ???ue ??n,
??i ??? a ???, ???a ???? ??? (?? ??, ?? ? ???? ??y), ????y ? a ????i
????e e c??e ? y??????a eth?, ?e ???a ????ue e ??o ???, ?ith ???th e ???
????, ????? ???o ???? ???.

I??? ??? ethaeyi a ? ????. A ??oth ???ue ????? ??? ??e, ?e ?e, ?????ue,
?e ??ath?y ??y?o?y (?ae ???, ?ae ???ueth, a ii??e, a ??? ??, ???? e
o.i.) e ? ??? ???th?y ? ??e. I??? ??? ?????i ?e ???i. A???o, a ?i ??a e
???y?? ????, ???o ??? o ??, ???, a ????o, – ? ?oyo ??? ? ????y. Aeey ???
???a ?o?ey ????ue ???th ?ay?o ? ????? ??a ??e ?e ????a, ????th ??e.
I????ue ??y?a ????y ??i ??th??y ???? ????a ?e ?????ey ???? ???????e ia
y?????.

I????ue e ???th ?iy ?ath??ny ???i?e ????? ??????y (??e, ???, ??????i).
E? ???i, ??? ????ny n ???????i ??a ???y, n ???i ????ny n ???????i ???y,
n ???i ??o ????ny ?????e etha? ???? ?e ?? ????e. Ia ???o ????ue ?? a
????i ????e, ? ???y? ????e ??e a ???? e ??? ????y, a ?i ??a ???a ??e. Y?
??????o ?????a e ??o ???y ???i ???a.

A?e ??? ????i ???, ??a ? ??? ?????? ???? e ???n?, a ?ath??y ???a y?i
?????? ?e ????? ? ????ue, ????? ??ae??ue ??ue: ???a ???ue ?? e ??e (?y
?????y ???a ???a)

I? ???iy???i ???e:

???a ???? ?? ???? ???y, ??i – ???thu? ????, ???y ?? ?????;

??u ????ue, ???y ?? ???;

???ue ???, ? ??ay n ???e, ???y ??e ? ??a, ??y?a ??u, i??o – ???ue e ???
? ??;

??a ????ey ?iy ?a ???? ???e ? ??o, ???? ??e aei ???i ???y e ?????y ??ey;

?e ??? a ???? ????e – ? ????ue ??ue ??? ? ???ey ????; y??????u ??? ??a
??th??y ? ?? (???, ??i – ??);

????? ???, ???a ? ?? ??? ?ay?i (?????a i??e ???a e ??????? ???a ????);

? ??? ??e ??y?a ???? (??i, ???i) – ??? ??? ???? ??y?e ? ???a (???ue ?i-?
???th?i);

? ????ue ??ue e ???i ????.

I?? y???? – ????? ???ue ???ae??i ??oth ?????th ???;

Ii ???? ???? – ???y?ny ? ????.

4.3 N??u ? ????th

I????ue ??y?a ????y ??i ??th??y ???? ????a ?e ??o???y ???? ???????e ?
y?????.

Ia ?????y ???, ?????ue ???? ???? ?? e ???eth; ?e ?a????? ???? – ?? ? ?e,
?a ??? ?? e ??? ????a (a ??o); ???a, ?i ????a ?? e ?i ???a y??a ???e;
?????, ?i ? o??a ?? ?iy?? ?????a a 6 ?c ??

Ia ???ue ?c ???e ??????e: ??? ??? ??? n ????? y?? ??????y ?????

A??y ??c ??ue – ????ue ? ????, ?? ? ???, ???? ?? ??, ??u ?a ??i ?
??????, e ??ue ? ???ny ??? n ????.

I?????y ??? ?????ny

I? ???o ??? ?????y:

?????? ?? ???i, ??i, ??????, ????e

?????ue ???e, ???? ? ??e

???ue ????a e ??o ???, ???ny ?? ???

A ???? ???? – ????y ?????? ??? e ??o.

A??u

Ec ?????i ????a ???o, ?i ??? e ??? ?????th?y ?????? i?????o ????e,
??atho ??? ??e e ???ueth eth?e, ???th?e ??a. *? ?n?? ?????y ????, ??a e
???a, ?i ????? ????ny ???? ?ae?? e ?????a ?????????. O??? y?y?ny ???e n
???i ???i ???i? e ?????e ????e. O??i a ??i? ??e a O??? ????? 110-120
???a, ia ???o ???tho 7-6 ???e. Iiy?? ?????a?a *N, ?y??? n ???? e ????,
??i ???ue ??????, ?? ??? ???e ??o ??ue ???u e ?????y ???a e ???a, e ??ue
??????ue ?.

N??? ??th?? ???a ?ae??e ??????, ??ue ????ny n ??i, ??ue ?? ???????? e
??? ? ???a e ???a.

A???a ?ay, ?????ay ae?? – ??y ???y ???? ? C??!

N??e ??????? ?????

1) ?????? N.E. A?????ue ae???y????e. O??? ???a – N?????. ?EAYNO, 2003.-
268n., n. 236-259.

2) O?i O.A., O?i I.A. A?????ue ???ay????e.- ???a i/Ae: «O??n», 2000.-
352n., n. 272-275.

3) A??ay ????y y?????y.- I.: N???ay y?????y, 1978.

4) A??a N.A., E???ay A.A., E?uey?a A.O. A?????ue ???ayo????.- I.: A??y
??a, 2001.- n. 411-419.

5) http://asi.com.ua/ru/fire_protection/ I???y ??????, ???????y ???.
E???y “A???? C??u E????e”

6) http://revolution.allbest.ru/life/00011107_0.html I??u e ???.

7) http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/A??

8) http://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/I??#cite_note-2

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