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Наркомания – болезнь века и здоровье будущего поколения

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AIO III «I?ioanneiiaeueiue eeoeae ?2»

?aoa?ao

ia oaio

Ia?eiiaiey – aieaciue aaea e caei?iauea aoaeouaai iieieaiey

Auiieiee o/aueeny

Eyioiia

a. Aaee/, 2007.

Ieai

Aaaaeaiea

1. Aeaenoaea ia?eioeeia ia ?acee/iua nenoaiu i?aaiecia

1.1 Enoi?ey oiio?aaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia?eioeeia

1.2 I?e/eiu e oneiaey aicieeiiaaiey ia?eiiaiee

1.3 Oeceieiae/aneea e aeioece/aneea aniaeou ia?eiiaiee

1.4 Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou ia?eiiaiee

1.5 Nioeeieiae/aneea aniaeou ia?eiiaiee

1.6 Aeioeiey noa?aiey i?e ia?eiiaiee

1.7 Nia?oiinoue, iaoneiaeaiiay ia?eiiaieae

2. Iauea caeiiiia?iinoe aeaenoaey ia?eioeeia. O?e neiae?iia e o?e
noaaeee ?acaeoey ia?eiiaiee

Aaaaeaiea

«Anee ou nia?oue – io/aai aea ou iea/aoue naia,

Anee ou ?aaeinoue – oi ?aaeinoue oaeie ia auaaao».

Aiia Aoiaoiaa

Eiaaea o/eoaey e ?iaeeoaee caia/atho eciaiaiey iiaaaeaiey iiae?inoea,
aucaaiiua oiio?aaeaieai ia?eioeea, iie aeoiatho, /oi yoi – o?oaeiinoe
ia?aoiaeiiai aic?anoa. Eiaaea noaiiaeony ynii, /oi yoi naycaii n i?eaiii
ia?eioeeia, iiae?inoie oaea ia?ao?e ca/anooth ?oaaae ia?aie noaaeee
aieacie, iieo/ee ia?eioe/aneoth caaeneiinoue. E ai?ioueny n oaea
noi?ie?iaaauaeny aieaciueth i/aiue o?oaeii, o.e. 95% ia?eicaaeneiuo
iinea ea/aiey iiyoue ia/eiatho i?eieiaoue ia?eioeee. Aeaoe ia ciatho,
eaeoth no?aoioth «ea?ooeo» iie caioneatho, eaeie «aeueyaieueneee»
iaoaieci i?eaiaeyo a aeaenoaea.

Oeaeue iaienaiey aeaiiiai ?aoa?aoa – ia ycuea, iiiyoiii ethaiio
/aeiaaeo, ?acuynieoue a?aae aeaaea iaeiie?aoiiai oiio?aaeaiey
ia?eioeeia. Aaaeii, /oiau iiae?inoee iiiyee, /oi a ?aaeueiie aeecie
anoue i/aiue iiiai oi?ioaai, oaeaeaoaeueiiai, eioa?aniiai, aeathuaa
ia?iiiia e noaaeeueiia ianeaaeaeaiea. Yoi – caiyoea nii?oii, oaea/aiea
iocueie e i?. Au? iaeia caaea/a – iiii/ue oai, eoi oaea «iia?yc» a yoie
aaaea. I?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi a neooaoeee eo/oa anaai ?acia?aoueny
naiiio. Oieueei Au naie, aieiaoaeueii i?iaiaeece?iaaa ana, iiei?oa, ia
eaeie noaaeee ia?eiiaiee iaoiaeeony aeeceee Aai /aeiaae, e ia eaeii
ea/aiee eo/oa inoaiiaeony.

«Ieoieiaey ia?eioeeia – Drug-ieoieiaey». I?iiaaaiaea «aacaaoaiiinoe»,
«yeno?aiaeueiinoe» – yoi caaoaee?iaaiiay aeey iaiinayu?iiiai acaeyaea
i?iiaaaiaea ia?eioeeia. Aie?oa /aeiaaea ia?acoaony ieoieiae/aneay
iaiei/ea, eioi?ay niinianoaoao iieiie iioa?a aai i?eaioaoeee a aeecie.
Iaiiiyoii /oi oi?ioi, a /oi ieioi. An? yoi iiaeoaeeeaaao iieiaeiai
/aeiaaea e aacioaaonoaaiiiio aoiaeo a ie? ia?eioeeia.

Ieo ia?aue: ia?eioee iiaeii iii?iaiaaoue aei o??o ?ac, ie/aai ieioiai ia
aoaeao. Ia aa?ueoa yoiio, aeaaea i?e iaeiie?aoiii i?e?ia ia?eioeea
inoa?ony neaae iaiyoe, ia/eiaaony iaoieiae/aneee i?ioeann.

Ieo aoi?ie: nouanoaotho neaaua e aaciianiua ia?eioeee. Yoio ieo ioaeai
aeey ?anoe?aiey eo nauoa.

Ieo o?aoee: auaoee ia?eiiai, /oi aiaeiae/ii i?aaenoaaeaieth, /oi
ia?eiiaiey – ecea/eia. Niaoeeaeenou aiai?yo, /oi iiiyoey «auaoee
ia?eiiai» ia nouanoaoao. Ec-ca neaaea a iaiyoe /aeiaaeo anth aeeciue
i?eoiaeeoueny ai?ioueny n eneooaieai iii?iaiaaoue ia?eioee au? ?ac.

Ieo /aoa??oue i oii, /oi io ia?eioeea eaaei ioeacaoueny, eiaaea
caoi/aoue.

Ieo iyoue i oii, /oi oai?/aneee /aeiaae «aeieaeai» i?eieiaoue ia?eioeee
aeey oiai, /oiau aai oai?/anoai noaei iaiau/iui, aino?aaiaaiiui. II
ieacuaaaony, i?aaieci /aeiaaea iiaeao au?aaaouaaoue nianoaaiiua
yiaeiii?oeiu, eioi?ua ioaaonoaaiiu ca oai?/anoai.

Ieo oanoie: oiio?aaeaiea noeioeyoi?ia e aaeethoeeiiaaiia ia i?eaiaeyo e
?acaeoeth ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe.

Ieo naaeueiie: ai anao oeeaeeeciaaiiuo no?aiao ie?a ia?eioeeia i/aiue
iiiai, ai?thony n ieie neaai, a eia-aaea iie aeaaea ?ac?aoaiu.

Auaiae: ana ieou ninoaaeytho /anoue ia?eaoeiaa ia?eioeeia, e i?eaeoiaiu
naiie ia?eiiaoeae.

1. Aeaenoaea ia?eioeeia ia ?acee/iua nenoaiu i?aaiecia

1.1 Enoi?ey oiio?aaeaiey e ?ani?ino?aiaiey ia?eioeeia

N iacaiaiyoiuo a?aiai ia?eioe/aneea aauanoaa eniieueciaaeenue ethaeueie
iiiaeo iaoeeiiaeueiinoae e aa?ieniiaaaeaiee a ?aciuo oeaeyo. Neoaeeoaee
eoeueoia i?eiaiyee eo aeey ineoe/aneiai iiaeu?ia e ia?ooaiey niciaiey ai
a?aiy ?aeeaeiciuo eoeueoao. A?a/aaaoaee eniieueciaaee aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey nee, aeey aianoacee e niyoey aiee.

Eiaeeeneay eiiiiey – ec iaai iieo/atho ia?eioee aiaoo eee ia?eooaio.
Iiee eae eaea?noaaiiia e ia?eioe/aneia aauanoai ecaanoii, n aeoaieie
ae?aaiinoe. Naiaia auee iaia?oaeaiu a a?oaieiae/aneeo ?aneiieao a
Naaa?iie Aa?iia. Ecia?aaeaiea ?anoaiey anoue a ooia?neeo oaaeeoeao,
aeaoe?oaiuo 5 a. aei i.y. Aa?iaeio niiauee i i?e?ia iieoia neeoneeie
ieaiaiaie. A 17a. aieeaiaeoeu aaiaeyo iau/ae aeiaaaeyoue iiee a oaaae.
Eeoaeoeu aea iiiyee aai eae niinia iiueyiaiey, e a no?aia ?acaeeinue
iieieo?aiea. Iiiuoea caueoeoue no?aio io aaica iieoia i?eaiaeeo e oae
iacuaaaiui «iieeiui aieiai» Eeoay n Aiaeeae, iicaea – n O?aioeeae
(1839—1860). Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ?anoeaaoo iieiiaiee n?aaee nieaeao. A 1906
a. aaic iiey i?ae?auaaony, ii yoi aucuaaao ?anoeaao iacaeiiiiai
au?aueaaiey eoeueoo?u ii anaio Eeoath. Iiyaeythony ia?aua iao/iua
iienaiey ia?eiiaiee. A 1701 a. Aeaeii Aeaeiin iienae neiae?ii ioiaiu.
Neiyi (1792) auyaee aeai?anneaiia aeaenoaea iieoia, Aaiaee (1791) – aai
noeioee?othuaa aeaenoaea. Oaeaai iienae ?acaeoea oiea?aioiinoe e
oece/aneie caaeneiinoe. O E?aiia aia?aua ano?a/aaony oa?iei
«ia?eiiaiey». Aiaeea? (1821-1867) iienae oacu «aaeiai iiueyiaiey»
iieoiii e aaoeoai.

Ia?aay aniuoea ceioiio?aaeaiea iieai a Aa?iia i?iecioea a ia/aea 19a.
iinea ioaeeeaoeee iaioa?ia Oiiana aea Eoine «Eniiaaaeue
aiaee/aieia-iieiiaia». A 1805 a. Na?oth?ia? ioe?ue ii?oee. Oie/eii e
?acaeoeth ii?oeiecia enoi?eee n/eoatho E?uineoth e O?aiei-I?onneoth
aieiu (1870—1871). I?iaiaeeeinue iiiai iia?aoeee iiae aeaenoaeai
ii?oeia. Aiaae?aiea i?aia?aoia oei?aeaeae?aoa (1869) e aa?ieia (1898). A
1859-1860 a. Aeueaa?o Ieiai auaeaeee ec eenoa eiee aeeaeieae eieaei. A
20—30 aa. 20 a. noi?ie?iaaeanue iauanoaaiiay ioeaiea ia?eiiaiee eae
aieacie. ENAe aue neioace?iaai a 1938a. a Oaaeoea?ee aeieoi?ii Noieii e
Oioiaiii. A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoea iiaui o?aae/aneei iiai?ioii a
enoi?ee ia?eiiaiee noaei iianaianoiia oiio?aaeaiea ia?eioeeia
iieiae?aeueth.

1.2 I?e/eiu e oneiaey ia?eiiaiee

A 20 aaea oiio?aaeaiea ia?eioeeia ai an?i ie?a i?ioei /a?ac
yieaeaie/aneoth oi?io e ia?a?inei a eoeueoo?aeueioth, i?e eioi?ie a
oiio?aaeaiea ia?eioeeia aoyiooi i?aeoe/anee an? ianaeaiea no?aiu. Yoi
noeioee?oaony e?eieiaeueiuie i?aaiecaoeeyie, eioi?ua aeaeyo a yoii
enoiee iieo/aiey naa?oi?eauee. Ii/aio ethaee oiio?aaeytho ia?eioeee?

1. Iioiio /oi ia?eioee noae aeinooiiui, e aai no?aiyony ?aaeeciaaoue eae
oiaa? iaeaaaeueiiai ?uiea.

2. Iioiio /oi o iieiae?aee iiiai i?iaeai. Iia iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee
iinoiyiiiai no?anna e iaaeaaony niyoue aai oiio?aaeaieai ia?eioeeia. Ii
i?e?i ia?eioeeia – yoi oieneeaoeeiiiue no?ann.

3. Iioiio /oi a aeeaeaeoai ie?oaeaiee /aeiaaea iiiaea oiio?aaeytho
ia?eioeee, a o iaai iao ?ano?nia aeey nii?ioeaeaiey.

4. Iioiio /oi iaoieiae/aneia aeaenoaea ia?eioeeia ia/eiaaony ia
iieaeoey?iii o?iaia.

Nia?aiaiiua aeiaaeueiua ia?eii?iaaoee?othuea oaeoi?u.

1. Oaeoi? iioa?e iauanoaii oeaiiinoiuo i?eaioe?ia

2. Oaeoi? iainaaaeiie?iiinoe iioaioeeaeueiuo ia?eiiaiia-iiae?inoeia ia
yooaeoao e iaoaieciao aeaenoaey ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa.

3. Ineoieiae/aneee oaeoi? aeey aic?anoiie a?oiiu n 11 aei 20 eao.

4. Nioeeieiae/aneee oaeoi?. Eo/oa anaai iiae?inoee aini?eieiatho
eioi?iaoeeth ec ono ae?ocae, eioi?ua oieueei ia/aee i?iaiaaoue
ia?eioeee, au? ia ii/oanoaiaaee oyaio ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe

5. Aeioeceieiae/aneee oaeoi?: ioia/aaony aunieay iaa?ioecaoeey
iieiaeaaee, 50% iaoiaeeony a ninoiyiee yiioeeiiaeueiiai no?anna.

1.3 Oeceieiae/aneea aniaeou ia?eiiaiee

Aieueoay /anoue ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa yaeythony aiaeueaaoeeaie, oi
anoue, i?ecaaiu iaeaa/aoue eee nieiaoue aieaaua iuouaiey. I?e?i
ia?eioeeia caei?iaui iieiaeui /aeiaaeii i?eaiaeeo e aeiee?iaaieth oaii-
e aa?i?aoeaioi?ia, e ia?aciaaieth eiiieaenia iieaeoe aaeea ?aoeaioi?a n
iieaeoeaie ia?eioeeia, e ia?ooaieth ?aaiou iaia?ai ?aoeaioi?ia. Yoi
aaae?o e ia?ooaieth aeeciaiii aaaeiuo ooieoeee, e, aiciiaeii, e nia?oe.
I?iaeoeou iae?ica eeaoie aucuaatho aooieiioiiua caaieaaaiey, i?e eioi?uo
i?aaieci «iauyaeyao aieio» nianoaaiiui nenoaiai e no?oeoo?ai. A neo/aa
ia?eiiaiee ia?anoatho aeeno?ioe/aneea eciaiaiey a iae?iiao. Ec-ca
iae?ica ia?aiuo eeaoie oiaiueoaaony eo /enei. Nieaeaaony
ooieoeeiiaeueiay aeoeaiinoue OeIN. Aeey ia?eiiaiee oa?aeoa?ai
ea/anoaaiii iiaue aiiainoac, i?e eioi?ii neieueei-ieaoaeue
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiay ineoe/aneay e oece/aneay aeayoaeueiinoe aiciiaeiu
oieueei i?e oneiaee iinoiyiiiai i?e?ia ia?eioeeia. I?e ia?eiiaiee a
iaia?aiao eeaoie i?ienoiaeyo iaia?aoeiua eciaiaiey, iaoathuea
?aaeecaoeee ?acee/iuo ooieoeee ia eeaoi/iii o?iaia e i?eaiaeyo e aeaaee
eeaoee. Aieue – noiia?iay ooieoeey i?aaiecia, iiaeeecothuay
ooieoeeiiaeueiua nenoaiu aeey caueou i?aaiecia io a?aaeyuaai oaeoi?a.
Aucuaay iaacaieeaaiea, iieaeoeu ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa anooiatho a
ia?ac?ooeiua acaeiiaeaenoaey n aieaauie ?aoeaioi?aie, aeiee?oy
i?iaaaeaiea aicaoaeaeaiee ii ia?aiui aieieiai. Aieaaia iuouaiea
oi?ie?oaony a OeIN. I?e aeiee?iaea aieaauo ?aoeaioi?ia, aucuaathueo
io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee, ia?ooaaony aaeain io?eoeaoaeueiuo e
iieiaeeoaeueiuo yiioeee. Iieo/aaony anieane iieiaeeoaeueiuo yiioeee,
«aniuoeaaao» yeoi?ey. Ii ii o?aaiaaieth nio?aiaiey aiiainoaca
au?aaaouaaaony au? aieueoaa eiee/anoai aieaauo ?aoeaioi?ia. E iiyoue
aicieeaao anieane io?eoeaoaeueiuo yiioeee. O ia?eiiaia aicieeaao
ninoiyiea aeai?annee, ii /oanoaoao aieue ai an?i oaea. I?e iinoiyiiii
i?e?ia ia?eioeeia iiyaeythony ?aoeaioi?u ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe e a
iicao – oeaio? ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe. I?aaieci auioaeaeai
«niaeaneony» n iiaui aiiainoacii (iinoiyiiui i?enoonoaeai ia?eioeeia).
Iaoieiae/aneia aeaenoaea ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa ia/eiaaony ia
iieaeoey?iii o?iaia. Noaiiaeaiea ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe i?ienoiaeeo
ia o?iaia ?aaiou ooieoeeiiaeueiuo nenoai i?aaiecia.

1.4 Ineoieiae/aneea aniaeou ia?eiiaiee

Iiae aeaenoaeai ia?eioeea no?aaeaao any ineoeea a oeaeii. Aicieeiiaaiea
aea neiae?iia ineoe/aneie caaeneiinoe oaea aiai?eo i oii, /oi
ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea /aeiaaea ii?aaeaeyaony iaee/eai, eee ionoonoaeai a
aai i?aaiecia ia?eioe/aneiai aauanoaa. Aeiee?iaea ?aoeaioi?ia i?eaiaeeo
e aeiee?iaaieth oao ioaeaeia iicaa, a eioi?ua io ieo iinooiaao
eioi?iaoeey. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth niciaiey. Oi anoue, yeoi?ey
nii?iaiaeaeaaony noaeaieai, a eiiaaea e aieaa oyae?euie ?anno?ienoaaie
niciaiey. I?eciaee iii?a/iaiey niciaiey.

1. Io?ao?iiinoue – cao?oaei?iiinoue eee iaaiciiaeiinoue aini?eyoey
ie?oaeathuaai ie?a.

2. Iaieua eeethcee, a?aaea, aaeethoeeiaoeee.

3. Aeaci?eaioe?iaea a ianoa, a?aiaie, ie?oaeathueo i?aaeiaoao e
nianoaaiiie ee/iinoe.

4. Aannayciinoue iuoeaiey, nii?iaiaeaeathuayny neaainoueth e
iaaiciiaeiinoueth noaeaeaiee, ?a/aauo ?anno?ienoa.

5. Iieiay eee /anoe/iay aiiacey ia?eiaea iii?a/aiiiai niciaiey.

Iinoiyiiia i?enoonoaea a i?aaiecia ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa noaiiaeony
ia?aaeoae aioo?aiiae iio?aaiinoueth yoiai /aeiaaea, eae aieiae e
aeaaeaea. Neaiaeu ia yoie iio?aaiinoe, oi?ie?oy iioeaaoeeth eaaeaeiai
iinooiea, i?eaiaeyo e i?eiyoeth ?aoaiee, o.a. i?ioiaeyo /a?ac iica
/aeiaaea e ii?aaeaeytho ana aai iiaaaeai/aneea aeou. Yoie
iio?aaiinoueth, ai /oi au oi ie noaei i?eiyoue ia?eioee, ii?aaeaeaii
ioiuia an? iiaaaeaiea ia?eicaaeneiiai /aeiaaea. Ia?eiiai eae au naeeaaao
caian naiae yiioeeiiaeueiinoe a /anouo yeoi?eyo. Eioaeeaeooaeueiay
aeaa?aaeaoeey ia?eiiaia iniaaiii oi?ioi i?ineaaeeaaaony a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea aei caaieaaaiey o?iaaiue oinoaaiiiai ?acaeoey aue aeinoaoi/ai.
Oo?a/eaaaony eioa?an e oinoaaiiui caaea/ai, ioeaiea, aiaeeco neooaoeee,
neaaaao niiniaiinoue e aeoeaiie eiioeaio?aoeee aieiaiey, /oi au? aieueoa
cao?oaeiyao iuneeoaeueiua iia?aoeee, oooaeoaaony iaiyoue. I?ienoiaeeo
enoiuaiea ineoeee. Yoi au?aaeaaony a aeiaaeueiii nieaeaiee eioaeeaeoa, a
ia?anoathuai iaaeaiee aeoeaiinoe, aea/aiee, iio?aaiinoae, yiioeee,
i?aanoaaiiuo /oanoa. I?ienoiaeeo oo?aoa ee/iinoiuo e iauanoaaiiuo
eioa?ania, o?oaeiniiniaiinoe e i?ioanneiiaeueiuo iaaueia. Ia?ooathony
caei?iaua iee?inioeeaeueiua nayce, naiaeiua ioiioaiey. O aeaoae
ia?eiiaiia caia/ai ieceee o?iaaiue ineoe/aneiai e oece/aneiai ?acaeoey,
aunieay /anoioa iaa?ioe/aneee e ineoiiaoe/aneeo ?anno?ienoa. Aeey ieo
i?enoua cao?oaei?iiinoue nioeeaeueiie aaeaioaoeee. Anee ia?eiiaiey
?acaeaaaony a iieiaeii aic?anoa, oi iiaoaeeoaeueiuo iioeaia e nicaeaieth
naiuee ia aicieeaao. Iaeeii/anoai, ionoonoaea ?aaiou – iau/iia
nioeeaeueiia iieiaeaiea ia?eiiaia.

1.5 Nioeeieiae/aneea aniaeou ia?eiiaiee

A 20 aaea ia?eiiaiey ia?aoiaeeo a ?ac?yae nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai.

Eiathony noaoenoe/aneea aeaiiua, /oi ia?eioecaoeey ia/eiaaony n 10-11
eao. Oi?iu?iiay noaia ?acaeoey yieaeaiee ia?eiiaiee.

Eeaea? iaeie a?oiiu

I?eiauaiea ieaaeoaai e ia?eioeeai

Aiaea/aiea aeeaeaeoaai ae?oaa.

A 10-11eao aeaoe iieo/atho ia/aeueiia ia?aciaaiea, ia/eiaaony neiaeiue
ia?eiae nioeeaeecaoeee e aaeaioaoeee e iiaui oneiaeyi o/?au (noaia
aaa?oo). A 12-14 eao ia/eiaaony ia?eiae iieiaie c?aeinoe. Ii i?ienoiaeeo
eiaeeaeaeoaeueii, iaeua i?aaeiea a?oiiu ?aniaaeathony, e oi?ie?othony
iiaua. A eeanna oaea 4 iiae?inoeia oiio?aaeytho ia?eioeee. A 15-16 eao
aeaoe caeai/eaatho 9 eeann. Iiaua ae?ocuey, iiyoue i?ienoiaeeo
oaeaiaiea. Oaia?ue oaea 8 /aeiaae ia?eiiaiia. A 17-18 eao aieueoeinoai
iinooiaao a oieaa?neoaou, iiaay niaia iaeuo a?oii e i/a?aaeiia oaeaiaiea
ia?eiiaiia. Ineoieiae/aneea oaeoi?u, naienoaaiiua ia?eiaeo noaiiaeaiey
ee/iinoe, onoaoaeythony ianoaiiaeie nioeeaeueiie iaii?aaeae?iiinoe,
?aciuoinoueth iauanoaaiiuo oeaiiinoae. ?ene ia?aoiaea aaeaeeoeaiiai
iiaaaeaiey (aannenoaiiia oiio?aaeaiea a aieueoeo aeicao ?acee/iuo
ineoiaeoeaiuo n?aaenoa) a aieaciue caaeneo io nioeeaeueiuo,
ineoieiae/aneeo e aeieiae/aneeo oaeoi?ia. Ia/eiay n aeaeaiey
nioeeaeece?iaaoueny, iiae?inoie a ?acoeueoaoa ?acaeoey ia?eiiaiee
i?eoiaeeo e iieiaeoae aeanioeeaeecaoeee.

1.6 Aeioeiey noa?aiey i?e ia?eiiaiee

AEeciue iiiaieeaoi/iiai i?aaiecia eiaao o?e iniiaiuo ia?eiaea: ?inoa,
?ai?iaeoeoeaiue ia?eiae, ia?eiae noa?aiey. Noa?aiea – ?ac?ooeoaeueiue
aeieiae/aneee i?ioeann, iaecaaaeii ?acaeaathueeny n aic?anoii. A
?acoeueoaoa yoiai i?ioeanna nieaeathony aaeaioaoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe
i?aaiecia, onei?yaony ?acaeoea aic?anoiie iaoieiaee e oaaee/eaaaony
aa?iyoiinoue nia?oe. Oiaiueoaiea iauae aeoeaiinoe onei?yaony n aic?anoii
aeaaiaea?y yooaeoai iaeiieaiey ia?ooaiee ooieoeee ?acee/iuo i?aaiia eee
eeaoie a ?aiiea ia?eiaeu. N yoiai ia?eiaea, eae iiyaeythony yoe
ia?ooaiey, i?ioeann noa?aiey onei?yaony. Nia?oue ianooiaao ia iioiio,
/oi ana ooieoeee oiaiueoeeenue aei ioeaaiai o?iaiy, a iioiio, /oi iaeii,
eee ianeieueei caaieaaaiee eee no?annia aeaenoaotho ia oio eee eiie
i?aai ianoieueei aeoaiei, /oi aai ainnoaiiaeaiea noaiiaeony
iaaiciiaeiui. A i?aaiecia /aeiaaea nouanoaotho «noeoeeaeiua» aaiu. Anee
/enei iia?aaeaeaiee eeaoee aeinoeaaaony eaeiai-oi i?aaeaea, oi iia
oie/oiaeaaony n iiiiuueth yoeo aaiia. Aiciiaeii, iiaeiaiue iaoaieci
aeaenoaoao e aeey anaai i?aaiecia. I?e anoanoaaiiii noa?aiee iaeiieaiea
ia?ooaiee ?acee/iuo ooieoeee i?ienoiaeeo e 45-55 aiaeai. I?e
iiae?inoeiaie ia?eiiaiee yoe ia?ooaiey ?acaeaathony a oa/aiee ia?auo
ianyoeaa oiio?aaeaiey ia?eioeeia, e eo iaeiieaiea iaaethaeaaony /a?ac
2-3 aiaea. Ia anaaaea nia?oue iiae?inoea ianooiaao io ia?aaeice?iaee
ia?eioeea. Iiaeao auoue, ii oia? io eciaiaiee, i?iecioaaeoeo a i?aaiecia
iiae aeaenoaeai ia?eioeea e iaiiieiathueo ia?ooaiey ooieoeee i?aaiecia
aeoaieiai noa?oea.

Ia?a/eneei eciaiaiey ooieoeee i?aaiia, eioi?ua ioaaonoaaiiu ca noa?aiea
i?aaiecia, a oaeaea iaaethaeathony i?e ?acaeoee ia?eiiaiee.

1. Aa?iioieia Auea?enoai au? a 1962 aiaeo i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi a neo/aa,
eiaaea iieaeoeu—aaaiou (iieaeoeu ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa) naycuaathony n
aeiiieaeoeaie, iie oaea ia iiaoo auoue oaeaeaiu. ?aaioa aeiiieaeoe
aeiaaeueii ia?ooaaony, iie ia iiaoo auiieiyoue naie ooieoeee.

2. N aic?anoii oaiia?aoo?a ieaaeaiey o?iiaoeia aic?anoaao. Yoi i?eaiaeeo
e oiio, /oi aioo?aiiea /anoe aeieiae/aneeo iaia?ai e?enoaeeecothony, e
aeoeaiinoue o?iiaoeia oiaiueoaaony. I?e ia?eiiaiee yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
iiae?inoeiaii aic?anoa.

3. Noa?aiea naycaii oaeaea n oiaiueoaieai eiioeaio?aoeee aiaeu a eeaoea,
n ia?aoiaeai aeeaeeie?enoaeee/aneie no?oeoo?u a e?enoaeee/aneoth.
Ia?eioeee oi?ioi ?anoai?eiu a aiaea, iie caae?atho aiaeo ec eeaoi/iuo
iaia?ai, aucuaay eo e?enoaeeecaoeeth.

4. A noa?inoe oiaiueoaaony iaiai aauanoa e yia?aee, a oaeaea
iio?aaeaiea eenei?iaea. Naycuaaiea oaii?aoeaioi?ia n iieaeoeaie
ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa i?eaiaeeo e oaeiio aea oaiaoaieth aeuoaoaeueiiai
oeaio?a, eae i?e noa?aiee i?aaiecia.

5. I?ienoiaeeo noa?aiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo eeaoie. I?e ia?eiiaiee eaeoo
eciaiaiey aioo?eeeaoi/iuo no?oeoo?. Iioii ec-ca ianniaiai iae?ica eeaoie
iaaethaeaaony ?acaeoea aooieiioiiuo caaieaaaiee.

6. Ia?ooaiea aiiainoaca yaeyaony i?e/eiie ?acaeoey ia?eicaaeneiinoe, e,
niaeanii oai?ee noa?aiey, ioneiaui iaoaieciii i?e ia?eiiaiee.

7. Eioa?ania oai?ey, a eioi?ie noa?aiea ?anniao?eaaaony eae niiioaiiay
iioa?y e eciaiaiea eioi?iaoeee. Oi aea naiia i?ienoiaeeo i?e ia?eiiaiee.

1.7 Nia?oiinoue, iaoneiaeaiiay ia?eiiaieae

A iniiaa nia?aiaiiiai ?inoa nia?oiinoe eaaeao oaeoi?u aieueoie
eia?oeeaeueiinoe: ieceay eoeueoo?a aeecianio?aieoaeueiiai iiaaaeaiey,
iacaei?iaue ia?ac aeecie, iaia?aoeiay iaoieiaey e oooaeoaiea aaiioiiaea
ianaeaiey, iaaeaaii?eyoiay iieiaic?anoiay no?oeoo?a ianaeaiey. ?ac?ua
iaaeaeo n?aaeiae i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoueth aeecie ioae/ei e aeaiuei 13
eao. Nia?oiinoue n?aaee ioae/ei a /aou?a ?aca auoa, /ai o aeaiuei.
Aic?anoaao aeeiaieecaoeey e ia?eioecaoeey ioaeneiai ianaeaiey ?innee,
i?aaeaeaa?aiaiiia noa?aiea ianaeaiey, nieaeaiea ?iaeaeaaiinoe.

Oaeea i?e/eiu nia?oiinoe, eae ia?eiiaiey e ca?aaeaiea AE*/NIEAeii, aei
neo ii? ia iieo/atho aeieaeiiai aieiaiey ni noi?iiu aeanoae ?innee.
I?aaeiieaaaaiia /enei iieiaeuo ethaeae, oiio?aaeythueo ia?eioeee,
eieaaeaony io 39% aei 70%, e yoe oeeo?u ?anooo. I?ia?aiiu ii ai?ueaa n
ia?eioeeaie iaeuecy iacaaoue yooaeoeaiuie e anaioaaouaathueie. Ninoiyiea
caei?iauey ianaeaiey, ieceay ?iaeaeaaiinoue e ?aiiyy nia?oiinoue eiaao e
yeiiiie/aneee aniaeo, oae eae aeaaiiieo/ea no?aiu caaeneo io a?
/aeiaa/aneeo ?ano?nia: anee iie aeaa?aaee?otho, yeiiiie/aneee iioaioeeae
nieaeaaony.

2. Iauea caeiiiia?iinoe aeaenoaey ia?eioe/aneeo aauanoa

Ana aauanoaa, eioi?uie ceioiio?aaeytho a iaaeaaeaea aucaaoue ninoiyiea
iiueyiaiey, aucuaatho e?aoeia?aiaiiia noauaeoeaii iieiaeeoaeueiia
ineoe/aneia ninoiyiea. Aeey iienaiey aucaaiiuo yoei aieaciae
eniieuecotho iauee oa?iei «oieneeiiaiey». Yoio oa?iei aeeth/atho a naay
ana nouanoaothuea oi?iu ceioiio?aaeaiey i?aia?aoaie naaeaoeaiiai, a oii
/enea e ia?eioe/aneiai aeaenoaey, noeioee?othuaai, niaoaiiiai aeaenoaey,
aaeethoeeiiaaiaie, aeeiaieai e oaaaeii. Iiueyiaiea nii?iaiaeaeaaony
yeoi?eae e eciaiaieai niciaiey, eioi?uo iau/ii i?iyaeythony i?e
i?aauoaiee oa?aiaaoe/aneie aeicu eee i?e ia?ooaiee niiniaa aaaaeaiey.
Ia?aaeice?iaea eaea?noaaiiuo i?aia?aoia i?e ia?eiiaiee yaeyaony
iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aicieeiiaaiey yeoi?ee, e nia?oue io yoiai iiaeao
ianooieoue e i?e ia?aii i?e?ia ia?eioeeia. N oa/aieai iiueyiaiey yeoi?ey
oiaiueoaaony, a iii?a/iaiea niciaiey oaeoaeyaony. Aeey aicieeiiaaiey
yeoi?ee aaaeii aeiee?iaaiea iieaeoeaie ia?eioeea aieaauo ?aoeaioi?ia.
I?e yoii a aieiaiii iicao aeiee?othony nenoaiu, ioaaonoaaiiua ca
io?eoeaoaeueiua yiioeee, oae iacuaaaiay nenoaia iaeacaiey. Oae eae
aeiee?iaaiiua aaeeiaua iieaeoeu i?aaiecia iiaoo ieacaoueny ?aoeaioi?aie
ethaie ooieoeeiiaeueiie nenoaiu, oi ?aaioa yoeo nenoai a?oai ia?ooaaony.
Aeaenoaea ia?eioeea iiaeao auoue auno?ui eee iaaeeaiiui. I?e aeiee?iaea
aieueoiai eiee/anoaa aieaauo ?aoeaioi?ia i?aaieci noa?aaony
eiiiaine?iaaoue yoi neioacii au? aieaa /oanoaeoaeueiuo aieaauo
?aoeaioi?ia. Ninoiyiea yeoi?ee auno?i oaanaao. *aeiaae aiaaeaao a
ninoiyiee aeai?annee. Iiyaeythony yooaeou o?aaiae, no?aoa, ceiau. I?e
iinoiyiiii i?e?ia ia?eioeeia i?aaieci, ca?aiaa au?aaaouaaao iiiai
aieaauo ?aoeaioi?ia, e aeeeoaeueiinoue yeoi?ee oiaiueoaaony. Iaeiiaoe,
ninoiyiea yeoi?ee aieueoa ia aicieeaao, oioy ia?eiiai, aeaeay aai
ainnoaiiaeoue, oaaee/eaaao aeico aei nia?oaeueii iianiie. ?acaeaaaony
iauee aaeaioaoeeiiiue neiae?ii, yaeythueeny eeeie/aneei i?iyaeaieai
no?ann-?aaeoeee. Iineaaenoaey ia?aaeice?iaee: aieiaie?oaeaiey, oioiioa,
?aioa, iuoa/iay ae?iaeue, aeaaeiinoue, naycaiiay n noaeaieai
iiaa?oiinoiuo ninoaeia, n iineaaeothuei neeoeii aeoaieei e aeeeoaeueiui
niii, n aeaeoaei/ii-eeoa/iuie aieyie. Anee i?e?i ia?eioeeia
i?iaeieaeaaony, i?aaieci noa?aaony ainnoaiiaeoue ia?ooaiiia
aiiainoaoe/aneia ?aaiiaanea, Noaaeey o?aaiae i?iaeieaeaaony, e /aeiaae
ia/eiaao oa?youe a aana.

Aeey anao ia?eioeeia iaaethaeaaony /aou?a neiae?iia:

1. Neiae?ii eciai?iiie ?aaeoeaiinoe ninoieo a oii, /oi
/oanoaeoaeueiinoue e ia?eioeeo iinoaiaiii nieaeaaony.

2. Neiae?ii ineoe/aneie caaeneiinoe – yoi iaiaeieeiia aea/aiea e i?e?io
ia?eioeeia e aeinoeaeaiea ineoe/aneiai eiioi?oa iinea i?e?ia aauanoaa.

3. Neiae?ii oece/aneie caaeneiinoe – yoi iaoaea?aeeiia oece/aneia
aea/aiea e i?e?io ia?eioeea.

4. Aanoeiaioiue neiae?ii aicieeaao a ?acoeueoaoa ?aceiai i?ae?auaiey
aaaaeaiey aauanoaa.

Nouanoaoao ?acaeaeaiea ia o?e noaaeee ?acaeoey ia?eiiaiee.

1. Ia?aay noaaeey. ?anoouaa i?eaueaiea e ia?eioeeo, ineaaeaiea caueoiuo
ooieoeee i?aaiecia, au?aaioea niiniaiinoe e iinoiyiiiio i?e?io
ia?eioeeia. Anee i?e?i ia?eioeeia i?iaeieaeaaony, oi /a?ac aieiaiie iica
i?aaiecia aeeth/athony aeieaia?aiaiiua i?eniiniaeoaeueiua ?aaeoeee.

2. Aoi?ay noaaeey aieacie. Oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia ineoe/aneia e oece/aneia
ninoiyiea ia?eicaaeneiiai /aeiaaea aiciiaeii oieueei i?e nenoaiaoe/aneii
i?e?ia ia?eioeea. I?ioeann aioo?aiiaai noa?aiey oaaee/eaaaony a aeanyoee
?ac. Ionoonoaoao ?anneaaeythuay oaca yeoi?e/aneiai yooaeoa. Iauee eoia
anao eciaiaiee ia aoi?ie noaaeee aieacie caeeth/aaony a aicieeiiaaiee
ia?eioe/aneie caaeneiinoe e ineaaeaiee eiiiainaoi?iuo i?ioeannia.

3. O?aouey noaaeey ia?eiiaiee – noaaeey iieiiai enoiuaiey
aaeaioaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia. I?ioeannu noaiiayony iaia?aoeiuie. *aeiaae
noaiiaeony eiaaeeaeii e i?aeoe/anee iaecea/eiui. A iaeioi?uo neo/ayo io
ia/aea i?e?ia ia?eioeea caei?iaui iieiaeui /aeiaaeii aei aai
no?aieoaeueiiai noa?aiey e nia?oe i?ioiaeeo anaai ianeieueei eao.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

1. Ai?aaoaiei E.N. e ae?. ?iaeeoaeyi e iaaeaaiaai: an? i ia?eiiaiee.
?inoia-ia-Aeiio, Oaieen, 2003

2. Aeaieeei A. e Aeaieeeia E. Eae nianoe aeaoae io ia?eioeeia. I.;
Oeaio?iieea?ao, 2001.

3. Enioeia I.I. Aac ia?eioeeia. I.; A?aiae, 2001.

4. Eiienna?ia A.A. Iiae?inoie e ia?eioeee. ?inoia-ia-Aeiio, Oaieen,
2001.

5. Eaioaa A.I., Ai?iaoiia A.A. Eiaa?iua ?ac?ooeoaee caei?iauey. I.;
Niaaoneee nii?o, 1990.

6. ssaiaeeineee A.I. Oaa?a/ue io aeo?iaia. I.; I?inaauaiea 1989.

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