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Микроклимат и его основные параметры. Нормирование микроклимата

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?aoa?ao ia oaio:

«IEE?IEEEIAO E AAI INIIAIUA IA?AIAO?U.

II?IE?IAAIEA IEE?IEEEIAOA»

Iee?ieeeiao i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee – iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie n?aaeu (oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeiinoue, aeaaeaiea, nei?inoue
aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa, oaieiaia eceo/aiea) iiiauaiee, eioi?ua ieacuaatho
aeeyiea ia oaieiaoth noaaeeueiinoue i?aaiecia /aeiaaea a i?ioeanna
o?oaea.

Enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi /aeiaae iiaeao aeeoue i?e aoiinoa?iii
aeaaeaiee 560-950 ii ?oooiiai noieaa. Aoiinoa?iia aeaaeaiea ia o?iaia
ii?y 760 ii ?oooiiai noieaa. I?e aeaiiii aeaaeaiee /aeiaae eniuouaaao
eiioi?oiinoue. Eae iiauoaiea, oae e iiieaeaiea aoiinoa?iiai aeaaeaiey ia
aieueoeinoai ethaeae ieacuaaao iaaaoeaiia aeeyiea. N iiieaeaieai
aeaaeaiey ieaea 700 ii ?oooiiai noieaa ianooiaao eenei?iaeiia
aieiaeaiea, /oi neacuaaaony ia ?aaioa aieiaiiai iicaa e oeaio?aeueiie
ia?aiie nenoaiu.

?acee/atho aaniethoioth e ioiineoaeueioth aeaaeiinoue.

Aaniethoiay aeaaeiinoue – yoi eiee/anoai aiaeyiuo ia?ia, niaea?aeaueony
a 1 i3. aicaeooa. Iaeneiaeueiay aeaaeiinoue Fmax – eiee/anoai aiaeyiuo
ia?ia (a ea), eioi?ia iieiinoueth ianuuaao 1 i3 aicaeooa i?e aeaiiie
oaiia?aoo?a (oi?oainoue aiaeyiuo ia?ia).

Ioiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue – yoi ioiioaiea aaniethoiie aeaaeiinoe e
iaeneiaeueiie aeaaeiinoe, au?aaeaiiie a i?ioeaioao:

?=A/Fmax*100% (2.2.1.)

Eiaaea aicaeoo iieiinoueth ianuuai aiaeyiuie ia?aie, oi anoue A=Fmax (ai
a?aiy ooiaia), ioiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue aicaeooa oe =100%.

Ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea e oneiaey aai ?aaiou ieacuaaao aeeyiea oaeaea
n?aaeiyy oaiia?aoo?a anao iiaa?oiinoae, ia?aie/eaathueo iiiauaiea, iia
eiaao aaaeiia aeaeaie/aneia cia/aiea.

Ae?oaei aaaeiui ia?aiao?ii yaeyaony nei?inoue aicaeooa. I?e iiauoaiiie
oaiia?aoo?a nei?inoue aicaeooa niinianoaoao ioeaaeaeaieth, a i?e ieceeo
oaiia?aoo?ao ia?aioeaaeaeaieth, iiyoiio iia aeieaeia auoue ia?aie/aiiie,
a caaeneiinoe io oaiia?aoo?iie n?aaeu.

Naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea, iaoai?ieiae/aneea e iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey
ia oieueei aeeytho ia ninoiyiea i?aaiecia, ii e ii?aaeaeytho
i?aaiecaoeeth o?oaea, oi anoue, i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue e ia?eiaee/iinoue
ioaeuoa ?aaioieea e iaia?aaa iiiauaiey.

Oaeei ia?acii, naieoa?ii-aeaeaie/aneea ia?aiao?u aicaeooa ?aai/ae ciiu
iiaoo auoue oece/anee iianiuie e a?aaeiuie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie oaeoi?aie,
ieacuaathueie nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Niaeanii AeNI 3.3.6 042-99 «Naieoa?iua ii?iu iee?ieeeiaoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee», ii noaiaie aeeyiey ia oaieiaia ninoiyiea
i?aaiecia /aeiaaea, iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey iiae?acaeaeythony ia
iioeiaeueiua e aeiionoeiua. Aeey ?aai/ae ciiu i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
iiiauaiee onoaiaaeeaathony iioeiaeueiua e aeiionoeiua iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea
oneiaey n o/aoii oyaeanoe auiieiyaiie ?aaiou e ia?eiaea aiaea (oaae.2.).

Iioeiaeueiua iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey – yoi oaeea oneiaey
iee?ieeeiaoa, eioi?ua i?e aeeeoaeueiii e nenoaiaoe/aneii aeeyiee ia
/aeiaaea iaania/eaatho nio?aiaiea oaieiaiai ninoiyiey i?aaiecia aac
aeoeaiie ?aaiou oa?ii?aaoeyoeee. Iie nio?aiytho iaania/aiea naii/oanoaea
oaieiaiai eiioi?oa e nicaeaiea aunieiai o?iaiy i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea (oaae. 2.1.1.).

Aeiionoeiua iee?ieeeiaoe/aneea oneiaey, eioi?ua i?e aeeeoaeueiii e
nenoaiaoe/aneii aeeyiee ia /aeiaaea iiaoo aucaaoue eciaiaiey oaieiaiai
ninoiyiey i?aaiecia, ii ii?iaeecothony e nii?iaiaeaeathony iai?yaeaiiie
?aaioie iaoaieciia oa?ii?aaoeyoeee a a?aieoeao oeceieiae/aneie
aaeaioaoeee (oaae. 2.1.2.). I?e yoii ia aicieeaao ia?ooaiee eee
oooaeoaiey ninoiyiey caei?iauey, ii iaaethaeaaony aeeneiioi?oiia
oaieiaini?eyoea, oooaeoaiea naii/oanoaey e nieaeaiea ?aaioiniiniaiinoe.

Oneiaey iee?ieeeiaoa, auoiaeyuea ca aeiionoeiua a?aieoeu iacuaathony
e?eoe/aneeie e aaaeoo, eae i?aaeei, e na?ueaciui ia?ooaieyi a ninoiyiee
i?aaiecia /aeiaaea.

Iioeiaeueiua oneiaey iee?ieeeiaoa nicaeathony aeey iinoiyiiuo ?aai/eo
iano.

Oaaeeoea 2.2.1.

Iioeiaeueiua aaee/eiu oaiia?aoo?u, ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe e nei?inoe
aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa a ?aai/ae ciia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee.

Ia?eiae aiaea

Eaoaai?ey ?aaioOaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa, 0 NIoiineoaeueiay aeaaeiinoue,
%Nei?inoue aeaeaeaiey, i/nOieiaeiue ia?eiae aiaeaEaaeay
I-a22-2460-400,1Eaaeay I-a21-2360-400,1N?aaeiae oyaeanoe
II-a19-2160-400,2N?aaeiae oyaeanoe II-a17-1960-410,2Oyaeaeay
III16-1860-420,3Oaieue ia?eiae aiaeaEaaeay I-a23-2560-430,1Eaaeay
I-a22-2460-440,2N?aaeiae oyaeanoe II-a21-2360-450,3N?aaeiae oyaeanoe
II-a20-2260-460,3Oyaeaeay III18-2060-470,4

Iinoiyiiia ?aai/aa ianoi – ianoi, ia eioi?ii ?aai/ee i?iaiaeeo aieaa 50%
?aai/aai a?aiaie eee aieaa 2-o /ania aani?a?uaii. Anee i?e yoii, ?aaioa
auiieiyaony a ?aciuo ioieoao ?aai/ae ciiu, oi any ciia n/eoaaony
iinoiyiiui ?aai/ei ianoii.

Iaiinoiyiiia ?aai/aa ianoi – ianoi, ia eioi?ii ?aai/ee i?iaiaeeo iaiaa
50% ?aai/aai a?aiaie eee iaiueoa 2-o /ania iai?a?uaii.

?acee/atho oaieue e oieiaeiue ia?eiaeu aiaea.

Oaieue ia?eiae aiaea – ia?eiae aiaea, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony
n?aaeianooi/iie oaiia?aoo?ie aiaoiae n?aaeu auoa
+100picscalex10001000900000351000000000012000000000005000000090200000000
05000000020101000000050000000102ffffff00050000002e0118000000050000000b02
00000000050000000c02200220011200000026060f001a00ffffffff000010000000c0ff
ffffa6ffffffe0000000c60100000b00000026060f000c004d6174685479706500005000
0a00000026060f000a00ffffffff010000000000030000000000N. Oieiaeiue ia?eiae
aiaea – ia?eiae aiaea, eioi?ue oa?aeoa?ecoaony n?aaeianooi/iie
oaiia?aoo?ie ia?oaeiiai aicaeooa, eioi?ay ?aaiythony +100N e ieaea.
N?aaeianooi/iay oaiia?aoo?a ia?oaeiiai aicaeooa – n?aaeiyy aaee/eia
ia?oaeiiai aicaeooa, ecia?aiiay a ii?aaeaeaiiua /anu nooie /a?ac
iaeeiaeiaua eioa?aaeu a?aiaie. Iia i?eieiaaony niaeanii aeaiiuo
iaoai?ieiae/aneie neoaeau.

Eaoaai?ey ?aaio – ?aca?aie/aiea ?aaio ii oyaeanoe ia iniiaaiee iaueo
yia?aicao?ao i?aaiecia:

Eaaeea oece/aneea ?aaiou (eaoaai?ey I) ioaaouaatho aeaeu aeayoaeueiinoe,
i?e eioi?uo ?anoiae yia?aee ?aaai 105-140 Ao (90-120Eeae//an) –
eaoaai?ey I-a e 141-175 Ao (121-150Eeae//an) – eaoaai?ey I-a. E
eaoaai?ee I-a e eaoaai?ee I-a i?eiaaeeaaeao ?aaiou, eioi?ua auiieiythony
neaey, noiy eee naycaiiua n oiaeaeaieai, e nii?iaiaeaeathony iaeioi?ui
oece/aneei iai?yaeaieai.

Oaaeeoea 2.2.2

Aeiionoeiua aaee/eiu oaiia?aoo?u, ioiineoaeueiie aeaaeiinoe e nei?inoe
aeaeaeaiey aicaeooa a ?aai/ae ciia i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo iiiauaiee.

Ia?eiae aiaeaEaoaai?ey ?aaioOaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa,0NIoiineoaeueiay
aeaaeiinoue(%) ia ?aai/eo ianoao iinoiyiiuo e ia iinoiyiiuoNei?inoue
aeaeaeaiey(i/n) ia anao ?aai/eo ianoaoAa?oiyy a?aieoeaIeaeiyy a?aieoeaIa
iinoiyiiuo ?aai/eo ianoaoIa iaiinoiyiiuo ?aai/eo ianoaoIa iinoiyiiuo
?aai/eo ianoaoIa iaiinoiyiiuo ?aai/eo ianoaoOieiaeiue ia?eiae
aiaeaEaaeay Ia2526211875ia aieaa 0.1Eaaeay Ia2425201775ia aieaa
0.2N?aaeiae oyaeanoe IIa2324171575ia aieaa 0.3N?aaeiae oyaeanoe
IIa2123151375ia aieaa 0.4Oyaeaeay III1920131275ia aieaa 0.5Oaieue
ia?eiae aiaeaEaaeay Ia2830222055 i?e 280 N0.2-01Eaaeay Ia2830211960 i?e
270 N0.3-0.4N?aaeiae oyaeanoe IIa2829181765 i?e 260 N0.4-0.2N?aaeiae
oyaeanoe IIa2729151570 i?e 250 N0.5-0.2Oyaeaeay III2628151375 i?e 240
N0.6-0.5

Oece/aneea ?aaiou n?aaeiae oyaeanoe (eaoaai?ey II) ioaaouaatho aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?e eioi?uo cao?aou yia?aee ninoaaeytho 176-132
Ao(151-200Eeae//an) – eaoaai?ey II-a e 233-290Ao (201-250Eeae//an) –
eaoaai?ey II-a. E eaoaai?ee II-a i?eiaaeeaaeao ?aaiou, naycaiiua n
oiaeaeaieai, ia?aiauaieai iaeeeo (aei 1 ea) ecaeaeee eee i?aaeiaoia a
iieiaeaiee noiy eee neaey, e o?aaothuea ii?aaeaeaiiiai oece/aneiai
iai?yaeaiey. E eaoaai?ee II-a i?eiaaeeaaeao ?aaiou, eioi?ua auiieiythony
noiy, naycaiiua n oiaeaeaieai, ia?aiauaieai (aei 10ea) a?ocia e
nii?iaiaeaeathony oia?aiiui oece/aneei iai?yaeaieai.

Oyaeaeua oece/aneea ?aaiou (eaoaai?ey III) ioaaouaatho aeaeu
aeayoaeueiinoe, i?e eioi?uo cao?aou yia?aee ninoaaeytho 291-349
Ao(251-300Eeae//an). E eaoaai?ee III i?eiaaeeaaeao ?aaiou, naycaiiua n
iinoiyiiui ia?aiauaieai cia/eoaeueiuo (nauoa 10 ea) oyaeanoae, eioi?ua
o?aaotho aieueoeo oece/aneeo oneeee.

Aeey ?aaioieeia 1-e e II-e eaoaai?ee ?aaio ai a?aiy oaieiaiai ia?eiaea
aiaea (iioeiaeueiay oaiia?aoo?a 250N) ioaiaeeony 12,5% niaiiiai a?aiaie
ia ia?a?uau: ia ioaeuo – 8,5% e ee/iua iaaeiaiinoe 4%. Aeey ?aai/eo ii
O-e eaoaai?ee ?aaio a?aiy ia ioaeuo e ee/iua iaaeiaiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony
ii oi?ioea:

Oi.e.i.=8,5+(Yo/292,89-1)o100 (2.2.2.)

aaea, O i.e.i. – a?aiy ia ioaeuo e ee/iua iaaeiaiinoe; 8,5 – a?aiy ia
ioaeuo aeey ?aai/eo II-e eaoaai?ee ?aaio; Yo – oaeoe/aneea yia?aicao?aou
?aai/aai ii aeaiiui oeceieiae/aneeo enneaaeiaaiee, Aeae/n; 292,89 –
iaeneiaeueii aeiionoeiue ?anoiae yia?aee i?e auiieiaiee ?aaio II-e
eaoaai?ee, Aeae/n.

A oaaeeoea 2.2.2 i?eaaaeaiu aeiionoeiua oneiaey iee?ieeeiaoa.

Aeiionoeiua cia/aiey iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee onoaiaaeeaathony a
neo/aa, eiaaea ia ?aai/ai ianoa ia oaeaaony iaania/eoue iioeiaeueiua
oneiaey iee?ieeeiaoa niaeanii oaoiieiae/aneei o?aaiaaieyi i?iecaiaenoaa
eee yeiiiie/aneie oeaeaniia?aciinoe.

Ia?aiaae oaiia?aoo?u aicaeooa ii aunioa ?aai/ae ciiu i?e iaania/aiee
aeiionoeiuo oneiaee iee?ieeeiaoa ia aeieaeia auoue aieaa 3-o a?aaeonia
aeey anao eaoaai?ee ?aaio, a ii ai?eciioaee ia aeieaeai auoiaeeoue ca
i?aaeaeu aeiionoeiuo oaiia?aoo? eaoaai?ee ?aaio.

OA?II?AAOEssOeEss I?AAIECIA *AEIAAEA E AEEssIEA IA IAA IAOAI?IEIAE*ANEEO
IA?AIAO?IA

Oaiia?aoo?a, aeaaeiinoue, nei?inoue aicaeooiiai iioiea, eio?ae?aniua
eceo/aiey a iiiauaiee iiaoo nouanoaaiii aeeyoue e ia i?aaieci /aeiaaea.
Iaaeaaeiie caueoie io iaaaoeaiiai aeeyiey iee?ieeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaee
yaeyaony eiaeiue iie?ia /aeiaaea. Ii, eae caueoiue ye?ai, oaeaea
caueuaao /aeiaaea io i?iieeiiaaiey iaoiaaiiuo iee?ii?aaieciia. Ianna
eiaeiiai iie?iaa ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai ieiei 20% io iannu oaea. I?e
iioeiaeueiuo oneiaeyo n?aaeu, eiaeiue iie?ia auaeaeyao ca nooee aei 650a
aeaae e 10a CO2. I?e e?eoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo ca /an i?aaieci oieueei
/a?ac eiaeiue iie?ia iiaeao auaeaeeoue io 1 aei 3,5e aiaeu e
cia/eoaeueiia eiee/anoai nieae.

Oeaio?aeueiay ia?aiay nenoaia /aeiaaea aeey iaania/aiey
aeeciaaeayoaeueiinoe eiaao iaoaieciu, eioi?ua aei ii?aaeaeaiiiai
i?aaeaea nieaeatho aeeyiea a?aaeiuo e iianiuo oaeoi?ia ie?oaeathuae
n?aaeu. Iaeiei ec oaeeo oaeoi?ia yaeyaony oaiia?aoo?a aicaeooa.

I?e eciaiaiee oaiia?aoo?u ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, oaiia?aoo?a oaea
nio?aiyaony iinoiyiiie ca n/ao ?aaiiaaney iaaeaeo oaieii?iaiaeiinoueth e
oaieiioaea/ae (aeey caei?iaiai /aeiaaea oaiia?aoo?a oaea ninoaaeyao 36,5
– 36,70N).

A ?acoeueoaoa ieeneeoaeueii-ainnoaiiaeoaeueiuo i?ioeannia i?e onaiaiee
ieue, a i?aaiecia /aeiaaea ia?acoaony oaiei. Ia ?aaioo iuooe
cao?a/eaaaony eeoue 1/8 anaai au?aaaouaaaiiai oaiea, inoaeueiay /anoue
auaeaeyaony a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo aeey iiaeaea?aeaiey oaieiaiai aaeaina
i?aaiecia. Aeaaea a oneiaeyo iieiiai iieiy a i?aaiecia ac?ineiai
/aeiaaea au?aaaouaaaony ieiei 7,5*106 Aeae/noo oaieiaie yia?aee. I?e
oece/aneie ?aaioa oaieiauaeaeaiea oaaee/eaaaony aei 2,1*107-..2.5*107
Aeae/noo.

*aeiaa/aneee i?aaieci ioaeaao eee aini?eieiaao oaieiaoth yia?aeth iooai
eiiaaeoeee, eceo/aiey, oaieii?iaiaeiinoueth (eiiaeoeoeey) e enia?aiey. A
iianaaeiaaiie aeecie oaieiiaiai /aeiaaea /aua i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa
eiiaaeoeee e eceo/aiey. Iaeiaei, eiaao ianoi e eiiaeoeoeey, eiaaea
/aeiaae iaiin?aaenoaaiii eiioaeoe?oao iiaa?oiinoueth oaea n i?aaeiaoaie
(iai?oaeiaaiea e o.i.). Auoaeceiaeaiiua niiniau ia?aiina oaieiaie
yia?aee iaania/eaatho oaieiiaiai iaaeaeo oaeii e ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie.
I?e yoii ecauoi/iia oaiei ioaeaaony a ie?oaeathuoth n?aaeo:

/a?ac i?aaiu aeuoaiey – ieiei 5%, eceo/aieai – 40%, eiiaaeoeeae – 30%,
enia?aieai – 20%, i?e iaa?aaaiee ieue e aiaeu a ieuaaa?eoaeueiii o?aeoa
– aei 5%.

Iaaeaaii?eyoiua oneiaey iiaoo aucuaaoue ia?aiai?yaeaiea iaoaiecia
oa?ii?aaoeyoeee, /oi aaaeao e ia?aa?aao eee ia?aioeaaeaeaieth i?aaiecia.

Eiiaaeoeeth, eceo/aiea, oaieii?iaeoeoeeth aua iacuaatho a iauai, yaiie
oaieiioaea/ae. Niioiioaiey ninoaaeythueo oaieiioaea/e, eo eiee/anoaaiiua
oa?aeoa?enoeee aeinoaoi/ii oi?ioi eco/aiu.

Auoaia?a/eneaiiua aeaeu oaieiiaiaia iiaeii iienaoue o?aaiaieai oaieiaiai
aaeaina i?aaiecia /aeiaaea n ie?oaeathuae n?aaeie:
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(2.2.3)

aaea I – iaoaaiee/aneia oaiei, Ao;

W – oaieiaie yeaeaaeaio iaoaie/aneie ?aaiou, Ao;

Qn – oaieiioaea/a iooai enia?aiey, Ao;

Qe – eiiaaeoeaiay oaieiioaea/a, Ao;

Q? – ?aaeeaoeeiiiay oaieiioaea/a, Ao;

Qo – oaieiioaea/a ca n/ao oaieii?iaiaeiinoe (eiiaeoeoeey), Ao.

A oieiaeiue ia?eiae aiaea, eiaaea ta

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