.

Чрезвычайная ситуация и методы её предупрежденния

Язык: русский
Формат: контрольна
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1529
Скачать документ

O????? ????i ? ?????th

O???e ???? y???? e ?????e

E????ay ???

? ???e ?????

A?????ue ???ay????e

Ia ?? : E?????ey ?????? ????.

E??ay ??????? ??i??a e ??i???

?????? ????y

A???e:

N??? ?. E?.A?02 I???I.TH. I???? : Ae????a O. TH.

O?a 2005

N????a

1. A???a

2. E?????ey ?????? ????

2.1 E??e??oeey ? ????i

2.2 E??e???y ? ???a ??????y:

*N ??????i ?????iey

*N ??????? ??????y

3. I????? ?????

4. A?? ?e ???? ???a

5. I???e AO e ???ey ?e ?i ?i????

1. A???a

*?????y ???ey (*N) – y? ????a ????? ???e ?c??y????e eth?e ?
?????? ?????, ????a ???e, ?????e, ????i ?e y?????? ???e?, a ??a
???? ?????? ??????, ???a ??o ????ue e eth??i ?e ?????? ???yi.

Ii ?????i ??????yi, ?????? AIC, ?????? ???y n ???th ?e ??????i
????? 10 ?n???o? e ??a, ??oth?o ????? ?????e ???, ??y? ????
??????. Y? ? ??th?? ???? ????ey ??? ?????e, ????th?o ??????
???y ?????i ????.

????a ??e ??? ??? ??i? e ????, a ????e ??ey A.E. A????? i
????, ??????e i ??y??? e ??? ? ?? ?? ???? ????, ???o ???i
?????y e ??????e ?????? ????.

E??y *N ??o ???? ??? ? ???u, ?????e e ???? ???ey.

A ??? ?????a *N ??o ????n ??o ?y????ueth ???? e ???thu? ???,
??????ey ?????o ?????th?o ??? , ????a ?????? ????e.

E? ?a ?? ???i ??, ??ii-?????e ????, ????? ? ?? ???????i ???ey
??????, ???o ??? ??o ????? ??a e ??a??ueth eth?e e ?????th
?????? . I??????a ?????a ???? ? ???????? ???? a ???a ??o ??i??
e ????? ?????i.

2. E?????ey *N i??? ???e

2.1 E?????ey ? ??i?? ??????y

*?????a ???? ??o ????????ny ? ??oth?i ????i :

— ???ue ?????e : ????a (????????) e i???? (???????) .

E?? ??????? ????oth, ?????oth, y?????oth ???? ; ???a—????a ???ey ;
??????a ???????a *N e ?a???a ???ey ??ieytho ???? ?????? ??? e
a ????o ??ayo ??????ue *N ;

— ???? ???????y : *N ??o ??? ????, ?????i?, a????????yth??y ?e
????e, ???e o????. E ??????i ?? ??i ?i?y?y ?????i ???o ?????,
?????o ???, ????o ????. I?????i ??? ???ath?y ???? y??????i
????a ;

— ???a ???????y ; ? ??o?o *N ??i ????ue ? ????a, ?u???a, i???,
??????, ?????? e ?????.

E ????i, ????? e ???i ??ny?y ???? ? ??aey?a ? ???u ??? ???????i
??????y, ??????, ?????i ???. ??????a, ??????, ????? *N ???aatho ??a
???u, ?????a ?e ?n??? ?????;

– ????????ue ?e??y: ? ????????e ???ey *N ??o ??? ???????e ???? ?e ??ue
?oy?? ???a. A? *N, a ????? ???o ????? ??y??? ???th?e ??u, ??ny?y e
?oy??;

– ? ????o *N: ??o ?? ???????e (?????e) e ??????i?? ( ??????e) ; e
??????? ???o ???e ?????i ??????, ????? e ???o ?????, ???????? ??a e ?.;
????a ?ae??y ? ????o ??? ??????y y?yth?y ????????e; e y?e ??? ????y ??a
?????i ?????o ??? e ????o.

N????o ????i ??????e *N ? ???a ??????y, ????i ?a ??o ?????, o.e.
?????a a ?o? ????? ???i ?????y.

2.2 E?????ey ? ???a ??????y

*?????a ???? ??????i (?????) ??????y.

I???????? ???a y??ey:

– ay?????????a: ??, ???u (12-15 ??ia), ??? (9-11 ???), ???, ???, ???i,
???u;

– ??????????a: ???e ??, ???, ????, ???e ??i, ?e?? ???, ?????y ??, ???;

– ????a ???: ???/??y ????y ????ue, ??? ???, ??? ???o ????, ????a ???
??th?o ?????.

O?????? e ??????a ???a y??ey:

– ????y??y ( ???y??y);

– ????ey ????.

O??????a ???a y??ey:

– ???????a: ????a, ???e, ???? ???, ?????y;

– ???e, ??, ???, ???, ??e, ???, ??? ??? ?????e.

E????e ???a y?a?y:

– ???a ?????, ??o?a ??o;

– ??? ?????a ?????.

*?????a ???? ??????? ??????y.

O?????a: ?????i?, ???????a, ?????a, ???, ???????.

I???????a ???a y??ey:

– n ??????? ?????? y???: ???, ?????a ?e ????? ?????, ????a, ??????
????a ?????e, ???; ????????a ( ??? ??? n ?????? ?? ???a e ????????i
????ey); ???u ??? n ?????? ????? ???a; ???u ???, ????a ?? ?????? ?iy ??
?e ????a ???a ? ???? ????eyo;

– n ??????ai ?????e y???: ???, (???) a ??eyo ? ???????i ??????; ???
(???) ? ???? ???, ?????e, ???ey, ???????yth??y, ??th?o, ????? ???a; ???
(???) ? ?????; ??? (???) a ??eyo ??ai, ????i-???? e ?????i ????ey;
?????a ???????y ?????a; ??? ???????yth??y, ??th?o, ????? ???a;

– n ??????? ?????? y???: ??? ? AYN, AYO ????????i e ?n???????i ????ey n
???? ( ???? ???a) ??????o ???a (?A); ??? n ???? (???e ???a) ?A ?
?a??y?yo y???????i ??a (ssOOe); a??e ? ?????? e ?????o ????o n y???e
?????e ?e n ??? ?A; ??? n y???e ?????? a ??? ? y?????e, ???ey ?e ????e;
??? ??????o ?????;

– n ??????? ????? y???: ??? n ???? (???e ???a) ??????oth?o y???o ???a (
NAessA) ?e ? ??c?????e ?????a ?e ???ey (?????e); ??? ? ????? n ???? (
???e ???a) NAessA; ?????a e ?????i?? NAessA a ???? ????ey ????? ???e,
????ny a ????? ???; ?a?e n ?????e ??????; ??? ????? NAessA;

– ??? ????????? ???a: i???? ??? y?????e ???? ??????y e ?????e; ????a
????? a ??? ???ey?e ???e ???????; ????a ??? ????? ????i-y???????e?i
(?????????i) ???y.

N?????e ???a y??ey:

– ?????ay ???????: ????a ??? y?????o e ??i ???o ?????? ?????e; ????a ???
??i ???o ????; y???y, ???ey; ??????? ae???o (y???y, y???ey, ????y); ???e
?n??e: ?????oth?y y????y; ????ey; ???? ???????a ????? ???ee.

N????a ???a y??ey:

– ??u – ??nyo e e ?????i e e ????? ???i y??eyi;

– ???a ????u, ????i, ?????? ???y?e, ?????, ????ey, ????a?y e ?.

3. E??ay ??????? ????? e ????a ???u ?????y ?????? i???ey.

I???? 15 ?o ??????a ????? ????? ?a ????th?e ??? ?????, ????, a ???e a
1996a. ? ????th n ??y ?????e ??? ??????? ????? ???? ??????, ?y??? n
?????i, a 2,5 ??. I???aeyo ?????y?? ?????? ????y. N?? ?o ??i ????: ?????
?ny???n? ? ??ue e ???? eth?e ?e ?a???e ?? ?ny????a ? ?o????a ???u; ??
??????, ?y ???e ????? ???a ?????? ???; o???a ????? e ???y??? ????
o?????. ????y?ny ??a ??????ay, ?????y, ???ay ????y ????a ???????? ????a
e ??i ?e a ???? ?y?e ???, ?e e a ??????i ????. I????o ??????i e ?????
????? ? ?? ?ey?y e ??o????a ?????o e ????o ???? ye??????i ??a n
?????????e, ?????-??????, ?????????e e ???e ?????? ? ??? ????a??o ????a.
O???? ?????iy?ny ??ii ???ay, ?????ay y???y OOa.

I??i, ?????e ? a ??e ??? ?? ? ????? ? ???????i ??? y????ay ???a ??
?y ??? ?????a, ???? ?e ???? ? ??a ?????.

Ii-????, ???? ??th ??? ????? n ???i ?????y ????? e? ????i-????i
y??ey, ??????? ??a ????? ? ????i, ??? ??o?e, ????? ?????, ????e e o. ae.

Ia ???y?? ?? ?o ???i ?????y ?????. O??i n 1936 ? 1981 ?ae ?? ?????
??a 100 ?????e.

Ii ??eth A. I. I?????i, A. I. ???y (1997a) ??????? ????? ?e n????-????i
y??ey ???o ????e ?i ?????y a ??i e ??????a?y ??????i e ??????yi. A ????
y???? ??????? ??? ??eytho ??, ??a, ????? ????, ????? e ???? ?????y.

O???? ??o ?????? ?? ????ey ???? ???? e ???o, ????ey?ny ???ue? e
????.

Ii ??o ?? ?????? ? ?i??? ??????i ??y, ????a ?????a ??? (???a) , ????a
???????e ?????e, ?ay???a a ???? ?????e ????e ?????? ?????, ?????o,
yo???? ????? e ???th?o ? ?o ???????o ???e, ?? ?????? ???? ???? ?????a,
?????? ??o???o ?????a, «??????» ?????? e ?????a ????, ????o ??i ??e?ey,
????? ??? ????????ui ????yi e ??????? ??? ae???e (??u).

E???oy ?y ??????? ????? a ???? ????i-????i y??ey ?e? y???u, ?e ?????
e ?????y ???? ?????a, ???o ???ue ? ?yc????? ???y ???y e? ?i ???u, ???
??????; ????ey ?e ??cu ????ey ??? ??a (?????? ??yi ?e ???ueth, ??
??????i , ????? ?e ?? y?o ??a a ??????), e??? ???? ???ue ???e ????,
?o?y?e ????, ???oue ???? ?aae a ????? ????y ?e ?i ?????? ???, ????ue
????o ??????, ?????y, ?????? a ????, ?????ue ???i ??????e ??ae «?????
?????a. I?????i ???ey ?????a ? ? ?????yi ?y?? n ?????? ????e ?y????e
???????? ????a (?e ?i ??? ???a) ?? ???????ey ???u ???????ey ????y.

*??y ??????? ????? a ?/??a ????i-????i y??ey ? y?y?ny ????th. I?
???? ???? ???e?i ?y ??, ??u ????? ???, ?a??a. I??????? e ????a ???u ???
n ?????i a ????a ????? e ??????y ???????? ???ey?e, i??y??y e eth?e ??a
????? e ?a?? ??o?e ???e. E?? ???e, ??????i ????? e ?????e?i ???? ??y?e,
?e ???i ??? i?????a, ??????? y?????? ???a ?????? ? y????a ? ??????????
y??o. O?? ??? ??????? ? ????th i ?i., ?i ??? n ?????i ????ny ??e ?
?????? ??/ ?????a e ????.

*? ???ny ???????i ?????y y?o ??/, ????? ?????o ???? ?????a ????? e
?????????? ?y????e; ????ey ??????o e ????????? ???? e ??????? o??i,
????ey ??a ??????? ??? ? ????? e ????? ?????, i ?????o; ???? ???i ??a
????? ( ?eth?y ??? i ?????o ????i ?c??????) e ??? ???????i ???, ?????ey
??????? ????? i ???????? ?????eyo e ???o ?????? ?y?yo, ????? e ????y
???? ??? ?????e ???????? ??o???e, ?eth?y ??a ? ?ny????a ? ?c? e ????, ?
?????? ???u, ? ????oth ?y????ue ???????? ????, ? ?????a ????y.

I?????? e ????o ?????th ????? ??y?a ?????? ??? i ???a n ?????i, n
???i ????? e ?? a a?a ??? I????a ?????e O????, ??????e ??????a, ?????o
?????, ???????? e ??????o ?????o ??a. I?? ??y ???ey ??? i ??????, ??? i
????e?i ????e. N?????o ????? ??otho ??? ? ???, ? ???e?i-????e ?y????e, i
???e, ???a??, ???????e e ???????e ???, ? ?????e ?????? y???, ????eo
????????? e ?? ???? ???? (a o./. ???? ?????? ????ae????, ?????? ?????),
? ??????? ??????, i ???a e ?y????e NIE, i ???i ??????? e o. ae.

4. A?? ?e ???? ???a

A ???a ????o 200 ?o ???? ????i ???a y?y?ny ?e???a ????uo ???a (AA)
e ??a?o ????a (AO).

A ??iy?a ??y ???? ??a ??e ??a AA, ? ????? a ???i ?? e ??????? ?
????? ???? ??aeyo ? 30 ? ?o. A ???o ?eyo ??? ?????ny ???, n??u ???a n
???a?i, ????a ??e ? ??? ????a. A????a ??iyiey ??? – ???a, ???, ??????.
I?i ????, ?i ?? ??????o ??? ????i ???? AA ? ???-??? ???? ????i ????a,
?y?? ????e?ey ? ??o ?? ?i???? ??? e ?c ????ey ?????a.

Y? ???u ?????? e ??iy?i ??????th?y. A 1977 ?? a NNN? ?? ???a ??y ????
a i????e ???? ????a a ???? ??n?a ???a 8 y??y 1977 ??, a I??a ????? ?e
a??a, ?e y?i ??e ????e a ??i – ?? ??a ?ny? ???. O????u ?????? ??? ??? ?
????e ????i ???e ????ey. A ???? ????ey ?????? ???ey ?e ????e ???a ??????
??. A ??i ? ?e y?i ?in?a a ?? e ????a y????? ??u, ???u, ?ath?a a ??i
???a ???.

I? ??? ? ?????? ????o ??o ?????? ???y?? ? ??i ???e, ????a o???u,
????, ?????? e o. ae. Y?o ??? ??? a *?? ????e, i? y?i a ????
???i-???th?o ?o??? ???ytho ?????? OEA ????a.

E?????y ??a ??a ??i ??? ?????i ?? ? y???????? ii ????. O???e ??? –
??? ? E?ey???i ????. N??a ???? ??o e ???y?ny ?y ???a n ?????i ???y?y,
??a ????o ????i ??th?? ???. O?? ??o ?????ue AO a ???th ????? e ???o.

A??? ???????a ???? AO, ????ath?a ?e ??eth??e ?????? y??? (o?????,
???????a, e o. ae.). e ?? ?e ?e ?eth??e ??????i ?????y y???y???e a ?????
(??, ??-???a, ????i ???a e ?.). A?? ??o ??a ????e ? ????????i ???? ????
?e ??????i ???aa n ?????i.

I????i ????, ?i ???? ?n ???? n ??????? AO ??? ??e. I????, a 1999 ??
a ???e ????? 539 ?????? ???a, ?? ?????i 150 ???? ????a. A ? ? ??y ??
??i?a ?iy?u ??a ???? ???u, ??a ???? ?????ue ????a eth? – y? ??? a ??o
??o a 1999a., a ????i ???? ? I????e ???e a 2000a.

5. I???e AO e ???ey ?e ?i ?????e

I? ??ay??y ???a ??? ?? ????oth?a ???ee:

– ??????? a ?????? ??a ?e ??ue ??? ? ??ey ?????;

– ?????e ???;

– ????e ???o n ?ath??ny ? ?i ?????e ???y;

– ???a, ??y?e, ??a?;

– ?i, ???a ? ?????e ?c o?y?a ??e, ???;

– ????a ?????? ?i, ?????a ?y ??? e o. ae.

I? ????? ? c???o ?e ?????e AO ?????:

– ????? ???? ? ?????? i???a a ???th, ???i ???;

– ?????ue ??i n ??????? ????i, ? ????ue e ??, ? ???ue e ? ?????
???;

– ?? ?? ????? a ????e, y?????ue ?? ????, ? ?????e ?a ?? e ??e ?y
???????y ???e ??u;

– ??th?? ??????a ????o ????a, ???ay?, ?e ?e y? ??o i???e e ?????eth
AO.

E????y ?????e ???????? ??a ?????i ????a ????ey?ny ? a??e ??a ?????
?????e *N ???i e ???? ???e. I??i ????? ?i??, ?i ??i-???ay ??? ????y e
??o ???? oy??o ??a ??? ????e e ??i ???i ???e.

Aeey ??o ???e ???u ???a ???e ???????i ??, ???? ???y ???a ???
????e ?????e. I??? ????a? ? ??????y ?uy?yth?y ???? ?????y iy?? ???, ???,
????, ??i n ??? ?????i ?e ???i ??? ?e ?? ????? ???o? ?????e, ?????
?????y ???a ??e, ???, ???…

A?? ???ue ??: a i???? ??ayo ???? ??i ???, ?? ??uue ??o ???a
???????i.

Ii ??? ???????o e ?????? ?????? ????o ??????, ????a?, ?i ?? a ???e
???i ?? ??a ????y ??i-???? ??? ? ??a? ??oth ??? (???? ??, ?o???ue
??????, ??? ??????? ??a??), ? ??y??? ??? ??????y ? 80%. O?? ???i, ????
?????e ??? y?y?ny ???????, ???? ?????i ????.

N??e ?????

O?i O.A., O?i I.A. A?????ue ???ay????e. N?ey «O???e e ???a ???y». ???a
i/Ae: «Oa??», 2003a.

Y.A.I??a , I.I. O???a. A??ay ???? e ????? ??i? ???e. I., 1994a.

A.A. A?oth?? , N.E. O??a . A??a ????y. – I.: 1995.

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение
    Заказать реферат
    UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019