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Налог на добавленную стоимость в Российской Федерации

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Ieienoa?noai iauaai e i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ia?aciaaiey ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee

Eacaineee oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneee einoeooo

Eaoaae?a Oeiainia

Aeiionoeoue e caueoa

Caa. Eaoaae?ie __________

I. I. Naaeoiaa

«___» ___________1998 a.

Aeeieiiiay ?aaioa

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Aaoi? aeeieiiiie ?aaiou
____________ A. A. THaeei

A?oiia
nooaeaio 514 a?oiiu OEO

?oeiaiaeeoaeue
___________ O. O. Aaeeaaiiaa

«___» _____________1998 a.

– Eacaiue 1998 aiae –

NIAeA?AEAIEA

Aaaaeaiea

1. Oai?aoe/aneea iniiau iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue

1.1. Enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey e nouiinoue iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue

1.2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo yeaiaioia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue

2. Aiaeec aeaenoaothuae i?aeoeee aceiaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

2.1. Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa iaeiaa e oa?aeoa?iua ioeaee, naycaiiua n aai
en/eneaieai

2.2. Ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey eiio?iey AIE ca aceiaieai iaeiaa

2.3. I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou AIE n iaaeieiueeaie ii IAeN e aiaeec
auiaaeathueo ec athaeaeaoa aeioiaeia ii IAeN

3. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea aceiaiey IAeN a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

3.1. Iaaeinoaoee i?aeoeee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e iooe eo i?aiaeieaiey

3.2. Niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaoaiecia aceiaiey IAeN a ?O

Auaiaeu e i?aaeeiaeaiey

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u

I?eeiaeaiey

3 – 5

6 – 18

19 – 30

31 – 41

42 – 56

57 – 65

66 – 76

77 – 84

85 – 90

91 – 95

AAAAeAIEA

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ea?aao aaaeouoth ?ieue a einaaiiii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee. Iinooieaiey io iaai caieiatho cia/eoaeueiia ianoi a
aeioiaeiie /anoe athaeaeaoa iaoaai ainoaea?noaa. I?e/ai aeiey
iinooieaiee io iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a iaueo iaeiaiauo
aeioiaeao ainoaea?noaa iaoeeiiii aic?anoaao. Oae, ia i?ioyaeaiee 1995 –
1998 aiaeia aeiey IAeN a iaeiaiauo aeioiaeao athaeaeaoa ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee oaaee/eeanue n 42 aei 46 %. Yoio iaeia i?i/ii caieiaao
ia?aia ianoi n?aaee anao iaeiaiauo aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaa.

Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia aaaeouoth ?ieue IAeN a iaeiaiaie nenoaia ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee a ioa/anoaaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ana aea nio?aiythony
cia/eoaeueiua i?iaeaiu, o?aaothuea naiaai nei?aeoaai ?ac?aoaiey. I?e/ai
ia iiaanoea aeiy ino?i noieo aii?in eciaiaiey iaoiaeeee ?an/aoa IAeN,
iiauoaiey ?iee e cia/aiey ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia a nenoaia iaeiaa,
cia/eoaeueiiai nie?auaiey ia?a/iy eniieuecoaiuo eueaio, ioiaiu
niaoeeaeueiuo ii?yaeeia ?an/aoa IAeN a ?yaea neo/aaa, i?iyaeaoeo naay ia
yooaeoeaii.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii IAeN oa?aeoa?ecoaony /?acau/aeiie
iiaeaeaeiinoueth e eciai/eainoueth. Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eino?oeoeee e ae?oaeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia,
?aaeaiaioe?othueo ii?yaeie en/eneaiey iaeiaa, o?aaotho naiae
oieoeeaoeee, oae eae eo iiiai/eneaiiinoue e ?ac?iciaiiinoue yaeyaony
i?e/eiie ?yaea ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia?ooaiee ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou
iaeiaa.

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue oe?iei eniieuecoaony e a ie?iaie
i?aeoeea. Ii aceiaaony aieaa /ai a 50 no?aiao. Niaoeeaeenou a iaeanoe
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iacuaatho o?e iniiaiua a?oiiu i?e/ei, aeaeathueo
oeaeaniia?aciui aaaaeaiea IAeN: ii iaania/eaaao aunieea i?ioeaioiua
ainoaea?noaaiiua aeioiaeu, aio naienoaaiiu iaeo?aeueiinoue e, eiia/ii
aea, yooaeoeaiinoue. A aieueoeinoaa no?ai IAeN iaania/eaaao io 12 aei 30
% ainoaea?noaaiiuo aeioiaeia, /oi yeaeaaeaioii i?eia?ii 5 – 10 %
aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa. Ie?iaie iiuo naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi
iaeiaiaay nenoaia, iino?iaiiay ia aaca IAeN, iaania/eaaao aunieoth
noaaeeueiinoue iinooieaiee a athaeaeao e iacia/eoaeueioth caaeneiinoue
aai io oa?aeoa?a yeiiiie/aneie eiiuthieoo?u. Yoio aeae iaeiaa
ninoaaeyao onoie/eaoth e oe?ieoth aaco oi?ie?iaaiey athaeaeaoa, ethaia
iacia/eoaeueiia iiauoaiea aai noaaie nouanoaaiii oaaee/eaaao iinooieaiey
a athaeaeao. IAeN iaeaaeaao oaeeie ea/anoaaie, eae oieaa?naeueiinoue e
aaniethoiay iauaeoeaiinoue, ii i?aeoe/anee ia aeeyao ia ioiineoaeueiua
eiieo?aioiua iiceoeee naeoi?ia yeiiiieee [43, 15].

IAeN eiaao i?aeiouanoaa eae aeey ainoaea?noaa, oae e aeey
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea. Ai – ia?auo, io iaai o?oaeiaa oeeiieoueny. Ai –
aoi?uo, n iei naycaii iaiueoa yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ooaiee. A – o?aoueeo, ii
a aieueoae noaiaie iiauoaao caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a ?inoa aeioiaeia. E
oiio aea aeey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ?ino
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ?anoiaeia, /ai aeioiaeia.

Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia noieue oniaoiia i?eiaiaiea iaeiaa a ie?iaie
i?aeoeea, ca?oaaaeiue iiuo eniieueciaaiey IAeN oaeaea niaea?aeeo ?yae
ia?aoaiiuo aii?inia, naycaiiuo n iaaaoeaiuie iniaaiiinoyie oe?ieiai
eniieueciaaiey IAeN. Iiyoiio neaiia eiie?iaaiea iieiaeaiee ca?oaaaeiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN a ioa/anoaaiioth oai?eth e i?aeoeeo
i?eiaiaiey yoiai iaeiaa e?aeia iaaeaeaoaeueii.

A ?innee IAeN aceiaaony n 1992 a. ia iniiaa Caeiia «I iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue» io 6 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. ? 1992-1. Aeey ?innee
yoi aue iiaue aeae iaeiaa, caiaieaoee aeaa aeaenoaiaaaoeo aei yoiai (n
iai?ioa e i?iaeaae). Ii i?eiaaeeaaeeo e /eneo oaaea?aeueiuo iaeiaia.
Iineaaeiaa icia/aao, /oi IAeN aceiaaony ia anae oa??eoi?ee no?aiu e
onoaiaaeeaaaony caeiiiaeaoaeueiuie aeoaie ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. I?e
yoii i?ioeann aceiaiey IAeN a iaoae no?aia iaeaaeaao oeaeui eiiieaenii
iniaaiiinoae, io?aaeathueo ?aaeee ?inneeneie yeiiiieee, oeiainia,
i?ioeaaeo?u aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa, o?iaaiue aioiaiinoe e iiaiio iaeiao
oeiainiauo eaae?ia e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, a oaeaea oeaeue ?yae i?iaeai,
naycaiiuo n nia?aiaiiui i?ioeannii oi?ie?iaaiey ?inneeneiai ?uiea [41,
38].

A yoeo oneiaeyo aeineiiaeueiia eco/aiea iaiauaiiie eiioeaioeee IAeN,
oniaoii i?eiaiyaiie e a ae?oaeo no?aiao ie?a (anoanoaaiii n o/aoii
niioaaonoaothueo iniaaiiinoae aeaiiie iaoeeiiaeueiie yeiiiieee) eiaao
aieueoia cia/aiea. Oae eae oieueei iniciaiea oeeinioneeo e eiae/aneeo
iinooeaoia eiioeaioeee yoiai iaeiaa aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioaeaeeoue
aeaoaee, iniaaiiinoe e ithainu, iaecaaaeiua i?e i?eiaiaiee IAeN a ethaie
no?aia, a neeo aa oieeaeueiinoe, io nouiinoiie iniiau, aac eioi?ie iaeia
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ia?anoaao auoue oaeiauie, i?aa?auaaony a
i/a?aaeioth iiaeeoeeaoeeth iaeiaa n iai?ioa [36, 51].

Iiuo aaaaeaiey IAeN a ?innee auyaee ana iieiaeeoaeueiua naienoaa yoiai
iaeiaa ia iio?aaeaiea. N iiiiuueth yoiai iaeiaa oaeaaony aieaa oniaoii
?aoaoue /enoi oeneaeueiua oeaee iiiieiaiey n?aaenoa ainoaea?noaaiiiai
athaeaeaoa, aaeieieno?aoeaiua caaea/e, naycaiiua n nicaeaieai aieaa
yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu nai?a iaeiaia. Aianoa n oai, oeaeue ?yae ianouiuo
i?iaeai aua aeaeao naiaai ?aoaiey a oiaea aeaeueiaeoaai
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN. N?aaee ieo –
?aaeecaoeey i?eioeeia iaeo?aeueiinoe; aieaa iineaaeiaaoaeueiia
inouanoaeaiea i?eioeeia ?aaainoaa e iaania/aiey i?ia?anneaiiai oa?aeoa?a
IAeN; iiauoaiea aai ?iee a noeioee?iaaiee ?inoa i?iecaiaenoaa,
aioo?aiieo e eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaie aeey auai?a aeaiiie oaiaoeee aeeieiiiie ?aaiou
iineoaeeea ana aic?anoathuay aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n iaeiaii
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

1. OAI?AOE*ANEEA INIIAU IAEIAA IA AeIAAAEAIIOTH NOIEIINOUe

1.1. Enoi?ey aicieeiiaaiey e nouiinoue iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue

Naiui yooaeoeaiui iiaiaaaaeaieai a oeiainiaie iieeoeea e i?aeoeea
iineaaeiae o?aoe iaoaai noieaoey noaei, iiaeaeoe, oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue – IAeN (Value – Added
Tax /VAT/ aiae.). Iaeioi?ua no?aiu eniieuecotho ae?oaea iaeiaiiaaiey:
iaeia ia oiaa?u e oneoae (Eaiaaea, Iiaay Caeaiaeey), iaeia ia
iio?aaeaiea (ssiiiey). A iiiaiaaeiaie enoi?ee iaeiaiaiai i?aaa IAeN –
ioiineoaeueii iiaue aeae einaaiiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoio iaeia
aeaenoaoao ii/oe a 80-oe no?aiao, n?aaee ieo i?aeoe/anee ana i?iiuoeaiii
?acaeoua no?aiu. Aaeeinoaaiiia ec ?acaeouo ainoaea?noa, aaea oaeiai
iaeiaa iao, – NOA. Ii e caeanue ia i?ioyaeaiee iineaaeiaai aeanyoeeaoey
aaaeoony eioaineaiua aeeneonnee i caiaia iaeiaa n iai?ioa ia
oaaea?aeueiue iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. A eiioea 80-o – ia/aea
90 aiaeia ii aue onoaiiaeai a ainoaea?noaao Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu (Aieaa?ee,
Aaia?ee, Iieueoa, ?oiuiee, Neiaaeee, *aoee), a oaeaea a iaeioi?uo
no?aiao NIA (Aaei?onney, Eacaonoai) [41, 38].

E oioy iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue iaoiaeeo ana aieaa oe?ieia
?ani?ino?aiaiea a ie?iaie i?aeoeea, aai /anoi iacuaatho «aa?iiaeneei
iaeiaii», ioaeaaay aeieaeiia eae naiiio ianoo iiyaeaiey iiaiai iaeiaa,
oae e ?iee IAeN a noaiiaeaiee e ?acaeoee caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai, a
naaiaeiy oaea – iauaaa?iiaeneiai, eioaa?aoeeiiiiai i?ioeanna.
Aeinoaoi/ii neacaoue, /oi IAeN yaeyaony aaaeiui enoi/ieeii athaeaeaoiie
aacu Aa?iiaeneiai niiauanoaa: ia aeaiiue iiiaio eaaeaeay no?aia –
o/anoieoea AN ia?a/eneyao 1,4 % iinooieaiee io iaeiaa a «aa?iiaeneee»
athaeaeao.

Ia?aainoai a ecia?aoaiee iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
i?eiaaeeaaeeo O?aioeee. A iniiaa aai eaaeaei ?acaeoea iaoiaeeee aceiaiey
e i?eiaiaiey iaeiaa n iai?ioa, eioi?ia i?ioei iineaaeiaaoaeueii o?e
yoaia. Ia?aue aue iciaiaiiaai ia?aoiaeii a 1937 a. io iaeiaa n iai?ioa e
aaeeiiio iaeiao ia i?iecaiaenoai. Aoi?ie – nicaeaieai a 1948 a. nenoaiu
?acaeaeueiuo ieaoaaeae, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ie eaaeaeue
i?iecaiaeeoaeue ieaoee iaeia n iauae noiiu naieo i?iaeaae ca au/aoii
iaeiaa, aoiaeyuaai a oeaio eoieaiiuo ei eiiieaeoothueo, n ?acieoeae a
iaeei ianyoe. O?aoueei yoaiii noaei nianoaaiii aaaaeaiea a iaeiaiaoth
i?aeoeeo a 1954 a. aianoi aaeeiiai iaeiaa ia i?iecaiaenoai iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Ecia?aoaiea iaeiaa i?eiaaeeaaeeo o?aioeocneiio oeiainenoo Ii?eno Ei?a.
Ii iienae noaio aeaenoaey IAeN e iainiiaae aai i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae
iaeiaii n iai?ioa, au?aaeathueany a ono?aiaiee eaneaaeiiai yooaeoa i?e
aceiaiee iineaaeiaai. Iaeiaei a oa/aiea aieaa /ai aeanyoe eao IAeN
i?eiaiyeny a yenia?eiaioaeueiii, oae neacaoue «eieaeueiii aa?eaioa, a
iiuoiui iieeaiiii aeey aai i?eiaiaiey iineoaeeei caaeneiia io O?aioeee
ao?eeaineia ainoaea?noai Eio aee Aoa?. Ai O?aioeee iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a oii aeaea, eioi?ue ii eiaao naaiaeiy, aue
aaaaeai 1 yiaa?y 1968 a. n anooieaieai a neeo Caeiia Iyoie ?anioaeeee N
66-10. Naiae oeaeueth Caeii noaaee: iauaaeeieoue, oi?inoeoue e iaiaueoue
ii?yaeie aceiaiey e en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue n oai,
/oiau i?aa?aoeoue aai a aaeeiue e nia?aiaiiue iaeia ia i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
?anoiaeu (ecaea?aeee).

A 7I-a aiaeu ?ani?ino?aiaiea IAeN noaei iauaaa?iiaeneei. Yoiio a
cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie niinianoaiaaei i?eiyoea AYN 17 iay 1977 a.
niaoeeaeueiie aee?aeoeau ia oieoeeaoeee i?aaiauo ii?i, ?aaoee?othueo
aceiaiea iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a no?aiao – /eaiao
Niiauanoaa, a eioi?ie IAeN ooaa?aeaeaeny a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai einaaiiiai
iaeiaa e onoaiaaeeaaeinue aai iaycaoaeueiia aaaaeaiea aeey anao no?ai –
/eaiia AYN aei 1982 a. Aeey no?ai aea eiathueo iaia?aiea a aoaeouai
anooieoue a Niiauanoai, iaiaoiaeeiui oneiaeai noaiiaeeinue iaee/ea
ooieoeeiie?othuae nenoaiu IAeN [36, 51].

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ioiineony e naiuea iaeiaia,
oaea?aeeaaaiuo n iai?ioa. Iineaaeiea iiyaeeenue a 1916 aiaeo a Aa?iaiee
e iaeaaaee ii i?iii?oeeiiaeueiie oeaea noaaie iai?io i?aaei?eyoey a
oa/aiea ii?aaeaeaiiiai a?aiaie.

Nouanoaotho aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu iaeiaia n iai?ioa: eoioeyoeaiua iaeiae
e iaeiae ?aciaiai oaea?aeaiey. Neeyiea yoeo aeaoo oeiia iaeiaia e aeaei
ia/aei iaeiao aaeeie/iiai e /anoe/iiai oaea?aeaiey, eioi?ue iieo/ee
iacaaiea IAeN.

Eoioeyoeaiua iaeiae, oae iacuaaaiua «iiiainooiai/aoua», oaea?aeeaathony
n iauae noieiinoe eaaeaeie iia?aoeee. Iie iicaieytho aeaeaoue
cia/eoaeueiua nai?u, ianiio?y ia ioiineoaeueii ieceea noaaee. Aieaa
oiai, eo oaea?aeaiea ia ninoaaeyao aieueoiai o?oaea, oae eae aceiathony
iie, aac eaeeo eeai eneeth/aiee, ni anao iia?aoeee, eioi?ua auee
niaa?oaiu n oiaa?ii a oiaea aai i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey.

Ii a oi aea a?aiy iie ieacuaatho cia/eoaeueiia aeaaeaiea ia oeaio
oiaa?a, iniaaiii a eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?aiao, aaea ?acaeoi ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea, iiaoaeaeay i?aaei?eyoey nie?auaoue oeeeeu i?iecaiaenoaa e
ia?auaiey oiaa?ia. Yoio cia/eoaeueiue iaaeinoaoie eoioeyoeaiuo iaeiaia
iineoaeee i?e/eiie oiai, /oi aeaiiua iaeiae i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth
en/acee ec iaeiaiauo nenoai i?iiuoeaiiuo aea?aeaa.

Iaeiae ?aciaiai oaea?aeaiey, eae oeacuaaao eo iaeiaiiaaiea, aceiathony
iaeei ?ac, ni anae noieiinoe i?iaeoeoa ia iaeiie no?iai ii?aaeaeaiiie
noaaeee. Iaeia iiaeao oaea?aeeaaoueny ia noaaeee eae i?iecaiaenoaa, oae
e ?aaeecaoeee (noa?ue iaeia n iai?ioa ai O?aioeee), a oaeaea a iiiaio
ia?aoiaea io iioiaie e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea (Aano?aeey, Oeieyiaeey) eee
i?e ?icie/iie oi?aiaea (NOA).

Iaeia n iai?ioa ?aciaiai oaea?aeaiey i?eiineo a eacio ia ianoieueei
iiiai nai?ia, eae eoioeyoeaiua, oioy aai noaaee ioiineoaeueii aaeeee,
/oi iiaoaeaeaao e iaeiaiaiio iioaiie/anoao. A oi aea a?aiy, aaee/eia
nai?ia ii yoei iaeiaai ieioi i?iaiice?oaia, oae eae eaeea-eeai i?iaeaiu
o iaiin?aaenoaaiiiai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea eeoatho eacio anae noiiu iaeiaa,
eioi?ay iiaeeaaeaea au oaea?aeaieth n yoiai i?iaeoeoa. A eiioea eiioeia,
aai neiaeii en/eneyoue: ?an/aou iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie aua aei noaaeee
oaea?aeaiey iaeiaa aeieaeiu i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea aai eiia/iia
oaea?aeaiea. Oai ia iaiaa aeaiiue oei iaeiaa aeaao ianeieueei
iainii?eiuo i?aeiouanoa: iie ia iaeaieeaathony a oeaia oiaa?a eae
eoioeyoeaiua, e aeioiae io ieo ia caaeneo io i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoe
yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea, no?oeoo?u i?iecaiaenoaa e ?ani?aaeaeaiey. Aieaa
oiai, aiciiaeii inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yenii?oa, /oi
iieiaeeoaeueii aeeyao ia iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaeth.

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue eae ?ac e yaeeny iauaaeeiaieai
eoioeyoeaiiai iaeiaa e iaeiaa ?aciaiai oaea?aeaiey. Eae e eoioeyoeaiua
iaeiae, ii aceiaaony ia eaaeaeie noaaeee io i?iecaiaenoaa aei
?aaeecaoeee, ii ii inoaaony «iaeo?aeueiui», oae eae eaaeaeue
iaeiaiieaoaeueuee oiaiueoaao noiio iaeiaa, oaea?aeaiiiai ei i?e
i?iaeaaea, ia aaee/eio iaeiaa, oaea?aeaiiiai n iaai i?e caeoieao. Oaeei
ia?acii, eaaeaeue ec iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia aiineo a athaeaeao eeoue /anoue
iaeiaa, oioy a eiioea yeiiiie/aneiai oeeeea aaee/eia iaeiaa,
ia?a/eneaiiiai a eacio, ?aaia aaee/eia iaeiaa ?aciaiai oaea?aeaiey ia
noaaeee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee.

Iieiaeeoaeueiua ea/anoaa iaeiaa i?ienoaeatho ec aeaienoaaiiinoe aai
i?e?iaeu: n iaeiie noi?iiu, ii oaea?aeeaaaony i?e niaa?oaiee eaaeaeie
naeaeea, /oi iicaieyao aeaeaoue aieueoea nai?u, n ae?oaie – a aeaeo
/anoe/iiai oaea?aeaiey, ii ia iaeaieeaaaony a oeaia oiaa?a [52, 28].

Iauae oaiaeaioeeae aeey anao no?ai, onoaiiaeaoeo IAeN, yaeeinue auno?ia
i?aa?auaiea yoiai iaeiaa a iaeei ec aeaaiuo a iaeiaiaie nenoaia. Ai
O?aioeee ia aeieth IAeN i?eoiaeeony 45 % anao iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee a
athaeaeao, a Aaeeeia?eoaiee e Aa?iaiee – 50 %. Ia aai aeieth
i?eoiaeeoueny a n?aaeiai 13,8 % iaeiaiauo iinooieaiee athaeaeaoia 42
no?ai.

Oa aea oaiaeaioeey iaaethaeaeanue e a ?innee. N iiiaioa naiaai aaaaeaiey
IAeN noae ia?aui ii cia/eiinoe n?aaee /aou?ao aeaaiuo iaeiaia,
iaania/eaathueo aieueooth /anoue iaeiaiauo aeioiaeia oaaea?aeueiiai
athaeaeaoa.

Aeey ?innee yoi aue iiaue aeae iaeiaa, caiaieaoee aeaa aeaenoaiaaaoeo
aei yoiai (n iai?ioa e i?iaeaae). Aeey iaoae no?aiu iniaaiii aaaeii, /oi
IAeN naiaiaeai io iaaeinoaoeia, i?enoueo oi?acaeiaiiiio oaia?ue iaeiao n
iai?ioa. Iaeia n iai?ioa i?aaenoaaeye niaie /anoue oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
/enoiai aeioiaea ainoaea?noaa, nicaeaiiiai a noa?a iaoa?eaeueiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa e eniieuecoaiiai ainoaea?noaii aeey aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey
yeiiiieee e ae?oaeo iauaainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae. ssaeyynue oaa?aei
oeene?iaaiiie aeieae a oeaia oiaa?a, iaeia n iai?ioa ia caaenae io
eieaaaiee naaanoieiinoe e auiieiaiey i?aaei?eyoeai ieaia i?eauee,
iaania/eaae onoie/eaia e ?aaoey?iia iinooieaiea i?aaeoniio?aiiuo noii a
ainathaeaeao. Yeiiiie/aneay i?e?iaea iaeiaa n iai?ioa oa aea, /oi e
i?eauee; iie iaoiaeeeenue a i?aaie/aneie acaeiinayce, aeiiieiyy ae?oa
ae?oaa, e i?aaenoaaeyee aaeeioth no?ieioth nenoaio ?ani?aaeaeaiey
/enoiai aeioiaea. Iiiuoee «eni?aaeoue» iaaeinoaoee iaeiaa n iai?ioa ca
61 aiae aai nouanoaiaaiey (ii aue aaaaeai a oiaea oeiainiaie ?aoi?iu
1930 a.) i?aaei?eieiaeenue iaiaeiie?aoii. Ii ecaaaeoueny io ieo iiaeii
auei eeoue aianoa n naiei iaeiaii, /oi e naeaeaii a eiioea 1991 aiaea
[27, 43].

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (IAeN) – yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo
aaaeiuo e a oi aea a?aiy naiuo neiaeiuo aeey en/eneaiey iaeiaia. A
iniiao en/eneaiey yoiai iaeiaa iieiaeaii iiiyoea «aeiaaaeaiiie
noieiinoe», eioi?ia iaiaeiicia/ii o?aeooaony a ?acee/iuo no?aiao ie?a.

A caiaaeiie eiioeaioeee IAeN iauaeoii iaeiaa yaeyaony aeiaaaeaiiay
noieiinoue. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noieiinoue, eioi?oth, iai?eia?,
i?iecaiaeeoaeue a ia?aaaouaathuai i?iecaiaenoaa, i?aaei?eieiaoaeue a
noa?a ?ani?aaeaeaiey, aaaio ?aeeaiu, ia?eeiaoa?, oa?ia? e o. ae.
aeiaaaeytho e noieiinoe nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia eee e noieiinoe oao oiaa?ia e
i?iaeoeoia, eioi?ua ii i?eia?ae aeey nicaeaiey iiaiai ecaeaeey e oneoae.

Iiaeii iino?ieoue i?inoaeooth noaio, a eioi?ie oeao?e?otho oae
iacuaaaiua enoiaeiua oiaa?u (inputs), eioi?uie iiaoo neoaeeoue nu?uea,
o?ainii?o, ?aioa, ?aeeaia e o. ae. e auioneaaiua oiaa?u (out puts).

Aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (VA) iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue eae noiio auiea/eaaaiie
ca?aaioiie ieaou (V) e iieo/aaiie i?eauee (m)

VA = V + m

VAT=O – I

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue eae
?aciinoue noii iinooieaiee ca i?iaeaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth (outputs-O) e
i?iecaaaeaiiuo cao?ao (inputs – I). I?e ?an/aoa iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue eniieuecoaony /aou?a iaoiaea aai ii?aaeaeaiey. I?e yoii, anee
oneiaii «i?eiyoue noaaeo iaeiaa ca «R», oi ?an/ao iaeiaa niaeanii
ia?a/eneaiiui iaoiaeai aoaeao eiaoue aeae:

i?yiie aaeaeeoeaiue, eee aooaaeoa?neee – R * (V + m) = VAT;

einaaiiue aaeaeeoeaiue – R * V + R * m = VAT;

iaoiae i?yiiai au/eoaiey – R * (O – I) = VAT;

einaaiiue iaoiae au/eoaiey (ca/aoiue iaoiae ii n/aoai) –

R * O – R * I = VAT.

Iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee /aoaa?oue iaoiae ?an/aoa iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Ia i?aeoeea aai eniieueciaaiea ia o?aaoao
ii?aaeaeaiey nianoaaiii aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe. Aianoi yoiai noaaea
i?eiaiyaony e aa eiiiiiaioai (cao?aoai e i?iecaaaeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee).
Yoio iaoiae oaeiaai oai, /oi:

1. iicaieyao i?eiaieoue noaaeo iaeiaa iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?e naeaeea, /oi
aeaao i?aeiouanoaa oaoie/aneiai e th?eaee/aneiai oa?aeoa?a;

2. iaee/ea n/aoa-oaeoo?u, a eioi?ii io?aaeathony iaeiae, noaiiaeony
naiui aaaeiui e i?eioeeieaeueiui iiiaioii niaa?oaiey naeaeee e
eioi?iaoeee i iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoaao. Eniieueciaaiea n/aoa-oaeoo?u n
oeacaieai niaa?oaiiie naeaeee aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeey i?ineaaeeaaiey
aeaeaeaiey oiaa?a n oeaeueth i?iaa?ee;

3. /oiau eniieueciaaoue ia?aue e aoi?ie iaoiaeu ?an/aoa iaeiaa, o. a.
iaoiaeu, iniiaaiiua ia aaeainao, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue i?eaueue. Ii
iineieueeo a aaeainao eiiiaiee niaa?oaiiua iia?aoeee ii i?iaeaaea ia
iiae?acaeaeythony ia aeaeu oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n
aeaenoaothueie noaaeaie iaeiaa, a oaeaea ia auaeaeythony ii aeaeai
oiaa?ia caeoiee, oi noaiiaeony yniui, /oi a yoii neo/aa i?eiaieia eeoue
aaeeiay noaiea ia aeiaaaeaieth noieiinoue. *aoaa?oue iaoiae aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiie noaaee iaeiaa.

O?aoee iaoiae iaoaeiaai oai, /oi i?eiaiaiea noaaee iaeiaa e iieacaoaeth,
iieo/aaiiio a ?acoeueoaoa au/eoaiey cao?ao ec noieiinoe auioneaaiie
i?iaeoeoeee, oi ii oae aea oaeiaai, eae e 1 e 2 iaoiaeu, aeey aaeeiie
noaaee iaeiaa. Ia i?aeoeea iaoaeiaii ?ann/eouaaoue aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue aaeaiany/ii, iineieueeo iieoiee e i?iaeaaee iiaoo eieaaaoueny
ai a?aiaie.

Oaeei ia?acii, 4-e iaoiae eee «eiaieniue» iaeaieaa i?aeoe/iue. Iaeiaiaua
iaycaoaeuenoaa iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoueny aaeaiaaeaeueii, aaeaiany/ii,
aaeaeaa?oaeueii eee aaeaaiaeii. Yoio iaoiae iicaieyao iaeaieaa iieii
ioaaoeoue oiaa?u e eniieueciaaoue aieaa /ai iaeio noaaeo.

Iaeiaii iaeaaathony ana noaaeee i?ioiaeaeaiey nu?uey eee oiaa?a /a?ac
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e nauoiaoth naoue, ii i?e yoii ia eaaeaeii
iineaaeothuai yoaia iaeia ia/eneyaony oieueei n noiiu, aeiaaaeaiiie a
noieiinoue oiaa?a a ?acoeueoaoa aai aeaeueiaeoae ia?aaioee eee
i?iaeaeaeaiey e iio?aaeoaeth. ?anniio?ei noaio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey iaeiaa
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue oaae. 1.1.

Oaaeeoea 1.1

Noaia ia/eneaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue

(a ?oaeyo)

I?iecaiaeeoaeue

nu?uey I?iecaiaeeoaeue

aioiaie

i?iaeoeoeee Iioiaue oi?aiaaoe

?icie/iue oi?aiaaoe Iio?aaeoaeue

Iau?i i?iaeaae aac IAeN

Ia/eneaiiue iaeia

Noieiinoue i?eia?aoaiiiai nu?uey aac IAeN

Iaeia, oaea

ia/eneaiiue ?aiaa

ia noieiinoue

i?eia?aoaiiiai nu?uey

?aaeueii auiea/eaaaiue iaeia

20 000 ?oa.

4 000 ?oa.

(1)

0

0

4 000 ?oa.

(1) (A)

100 000 ?oa.

20 000 ?oa.

(2)

20 000 ?oa.

4 000 ?oa.

(1)

16 000 ?oa.

(2) – (1) (A)

140 000 ?oa.

28 000 ?oa.

(3)

100 000 ?oa.

20 000 ?oa.

(2)

8 000 ?oa.

(3) – (2) (A)

175 000 ?oa.

35 000 ?oa.

(4)

140 000 ?oa.

28 000 ?oa.

(3)

7 000 ?oa.

(4) – (3) (A)

210 000 ?oa.

35 000 ?oa.

(A)+(A)+(A)+(A)

Ec oaaeeoeu aeaeii, /oi auiea/eaaaiue ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao aeaeaeaiey
oiaa?a iaeia a eiia/iii n/aoa aeeth/aaony a i?iaeaiioth oeaio oiaa?a e
ia?aeeaaeuaaaony ia iio?aaeoaey. [31, 55].

Iaeiaiaay aaca – noieiinoue, aeiaaaeaiiay ia eaaeaeie noaaeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a. Aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue (i?e?ino
noieiinoe) aeeth/aao ca?ieaoo n ia/eneaieyie, aii?oecaoeeth, i?ioeaio ca
e?aaeeo, i?eaueue, ?anoiaeu ia yeaeo?iyia?aeth, ?aeeaio, o?ainii?o, ae?.
A oeaio aoiaeeo iauay noiia IAeN, aianaiiay i?aaei?eieiaoaeai ia anao
noaaeeyo i?iaeaeaeaiey oiaa?a e iio?aaeoaeth, oaeei ia?acii iio?aaeoaee
yaeythony aaeeinoaaiiui e eiia/iui ieaoaeueueeii yoiai iaeiaa.

I?eiyoue iaeia aceiaaony n iieoiaoaey iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa
oiaa?ia e oneoa ia eaaeaeie noaaeee eo i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaeaeaiey e
eiia/iiio iio?aaeoaeth. I?e yoii noiia iaeiaa, i?eaaaeyaiay e noieiinoe
oiaa?a, ii?aaeaeyaony enoiaey ec aai ?uii/iie oeaiu e onoaiiaeaiiie
noaaee iaeiaa. Iauay noieiinoue ecaeaeee, aeeth/ay iaeia, iiea/eaaaony
iio?aaeoaeyie ia neaaeothuae noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa i?iaeoeoeee e aoiaeeo
a aa naaanoieiinoue (oi?iaeueii n/aoa-oaeoo?u, i?aaeuyaeyaiua
i?iaeaaoeaie e iieaoa, iieacuaatho iieoiaoaeth ioaeaeueii oeaio oiaa?a e
aaee/eio iaeiaa). A oi aea a?aiy iaeia, oiea/eaaaiue i?aaei?eyoeyie a
athaeaeao, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo iaeiaii, aeeth/aiiui a
noieiinoue oiaa?a (iieo/aiiui n iio?aaeoaey), e iaeiaii, aiciauaiiui
ecaioiaeoaeyi ca iinoaaeo iaoa?eaeia e eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee. Oaeei
ia?acii, iaeia ?ann/eouaaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii noieiinoe, aeiaaaeaiiie
ia niioaaonoaothuae noaaeee ia?aaioee.

Ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey ?anniao?eaaao iieacaoaeue
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe n oi/ee c?aiey nenoaiu iieacaoaeae iaoeeiiaeueiuo
n/aoia. I?e yoii aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue iiae?acaeaeyaony ia /enoue
aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (/enoay aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue) e aaeiaue
aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo (aaeiaay aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue). A iauai aeaea
/enoue aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo ii?aaeaeyaony eae noiia n?aaenoa ia iieaoo
o?oaea, aeeth/ay io/eneaiey ia nioeeaeueiia no?aoiaaiea, i?eaueue e
i?e?aaiaiiua e iae aeioiaeu e einaaiiua iaeiae ca au/aoii noaneaeee.
Aaeiaue aioo?aiiee i?iaeoeo en/eneyaony eae noiia /enoiai aioo?aiiaai
i?iaeoeoa e noiiu iio?aaeaiiuo iniiaiuo oiiaeia (eciin iniiaiuo oiiaeia
e iaaeiaii?oece?iaaiiay noieiinoue iniiaiuo oiiaeia).

A ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie i?aeoeea iaeaieaa aeeceei e iieacaoaeth
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe ia?aaioee yaeyaony oneiaiay /enoay i?iaeoeoeey,
ii?aaeaeyaiay eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo aaeiaie i?iaeoeoeeae e noieiinoueth
iio?aaeaiiuo nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, iieooaa?eeaoia e ae?.

Aianoa n oai yoe iieacaoaee ia oiaeaeanoaaiiu ii aeaoi i?e/eiai.
Ai-ia?auo, a neeo ?acee/iiai niaea?aeaiey, aeeaaeuaaaiiai a iiiyoea
iauanoaaiiiai i?iaeoeoa o ian e ?ann/eouaaaiiai ii iaoiaeieiaee Nenoaiu
iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia (NIN). Ai-aoi?uo, ?acee/iie iaoiaeieiaeae
ii?aaeaeaiey i?iiaaeooi/iuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo cao?ao. Iiyoiio aii?in i
i?eiaiaiee iieacaoaey aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe ia?aaioee a ieaiiaie
i?aeoeea iio?aaoao i?iaaaeaiey ?yaea i?aaeaa?eoaeueiuo enneaaeiaaiee.
Aii?in yoio aeooaeueiue, oae eae iiiaieaoiee iiuo enneaaeiaaiey
iieacaoaey /enoie i?iaeoeoeee iieacae, /oi iaeaieaa neaaui caaiii a aai
?an/aoa yaeyaony iaio?aaioaiiinoue iaoiaeieiaee ii?aaeaeaiey e o/aoa
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao.

Iiyoiio ia?aoiae e iieacaoaeth aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe a niioaaonoaee n
iaoiaeieiaeae Nenoaiu iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia III, iniiaaiiie ia
?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiii iaoiaea o/aoa cao?ao, iiaeao a cia/eoaeueiie ia?a
iaeaa/eoue n/ao yoiai iieacaoaey, o/eouaay, /oi ii?aaeaeaiea n?aaenoa
ia iieaoo o?oaea ioee/aaony o ian aeinoaoi/iie aeinoiaa?iinoueth.

I?e aiaae?aiee iieacaoaey aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe aoaeoo ano?a/aoueny
o?oaeiinoe, naycaiiua n ?acee/eyie a nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa,
ionoonoaeai niioaaonoaothueo n/aoia, ia eioi?uo aeeoioee?iaaeenue au
cao?aou i?aaei?eyoee, naycaiiua n iieaoie iaoa?eaeueiuo e
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa, a oaeaea ?acee/iiai iiaeoiaea a aii?inao iieaou
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo oneoa (n/aoia iao/iuo i?aaiecaoeee, ?anoiaeia ia
nii?oeaiua , eoeueoo?ii-i?inaaoeoaeueiua e ae?oaea ia?ii?eyoey). Yoe
aii?inu a i?eioeeia ?aoaaiu, iaeiaei iio?aaoaony ?ai?aaiecaoeey ia
oieueei yeiiiie/aneie ?aaiou, ii e ia?ae/iiai, e aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a
iai?aaeaiee i?eaeeaeaiey eo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai.

Iieacaoaeue aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe ia?aaioee a oneiaeyo ?uii/iie
yeiiiieee iineo oieaa?naeueiue oa?aeoa?. E?iia eniieueciaaiey a nenoaia
iaoeeiiaeueiuo n/aoia ii yaeyaony enoiaeiie aacie i?e oi?ie?iaaiee e
?aaeecaoeee iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ainoaea?noaa [51, 26].

Oai?aoe/anee, iieacaoaeue aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe eaaeeo a iniiaa
en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Yoio iaeia i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie iaeio ec iniiaiuo oi?i ecuyoey a ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao /anoe
/enoiai aeioiaea, nicaeaiiiai a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa). I?e yoii a eaaeaeii caaia i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a ecuiaaony /anoue i?e?inoa noieiinoe, ia?acothuayny a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey oiaa?ia, ?aaio e oneoa. Yoa /anoue
ii?aaeaeyaony ii oaa?aei onoaiiaeaiiui noaaeai, aeeth/aaony a oeaio
oiaa?a e aiineony a athaeaeao ii ia?a aai ?aaeecaoeee.

I?e yoii eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i i?e?inoa noieiinoe – iiae?acoiaaaaony oae
iacuaaaiay aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue eee eia/a – noieiinoue, aeiaaaeaiiay
ia?aaioeie. Iia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noieiinoueth
oiaa?a e iaoa?eaeueiuie cao?aoaie ia aai i?iecaiaenoai. Anee, iai?eia?,
noieiinoue ?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee iaoeiino?ieoaeueiiai caaiaea
ninoaaeyao 56 400 oun. ?oa., a oaeouea iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (aac
aii?oecaoeee) a iauae noiia cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth yoie
i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeee 35 400 oun. ?oa., oi aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue (o.
a. aeiaaaeaiiay o?oaeii ?aaioieeia aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey) ninoaaeyao 21
000 oun. ?oa. (56 400 – 35 400). Yoo aaee/eio iaeuecy n/eoaoue
iieiinoueth aiiaue nicaeaiiie noieiinoueth, oae eae a iaa aoiaeeo e
noiia aii?oecaoeee iniiaiuo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oiiaeia. Aeiaaaeaiiay
noieiinoue nicaeaaony ai anao caaiueyo, a eioi?uo inouanoaeyaony
i?ioeann i?iecaiaenoaa e ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, e ai anao yoeo
caaiueyo aa /anoue ecuiaaony a ainathaeaeao, anee yoe caaiuey eiatho
iainiaeaiioth nenoaio o/aoa e naiinoiyoaeueii ?aaeecotho oiaa?u, ?aaiou
e oneoae, aeaaea anee iie ia yaeythony th?eaee/aneeie eeoeaie [29, 57].

Aeey en/eneaiey IAeN a niioaaonoaee n yeiiiie/aneei niaea?aeaieai yoiai
iieacaoaey neaaeiaaei ec au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee i?aaei?eyoey
au/anoue ana aai iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (ia nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai,
yia?aeth, iieoiiua eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey e iieooaa?eeaou e
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oneoae noi?iiieo i?aaiecaoeee, ieacaiiua aeaiiiio
i?aaei?eyoeth e iiea/aiiua ei), iaoaaeoea io?aaeaiea a naaanoieiinoe
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii naeaeaoue yoi a iaoeo oneiaeyo oaoie/anee
e?aeia neiaeii, oae eae nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa cao?ao e
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iino?iaia o ian oaeei ia?acii, /oi
iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii aeinoiaa?ii eeoue
a ?an/aoa ia aaeiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth (iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou a iauae noiia
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ii yeaiaioai), a a ?an/aoa ia oiaa?ioth
i?iaeoeoeeth o/ao cao?ao aaaeaony ii eaeueeoeyoeeiiiui noaoueyi. Iiiaea
ec yoeo noaoae yaeythony eiiieaeniuie (oeaoiaua ?anoiaeu, ?anoiaeu ia
niaea?aeaiea e yenieoaoaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey, iioa?e io a?aea,
iauacaaiaeneea ?anoiaeu, i?i/ea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu), e auaeaeeoue ec ieo iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou
i/aiue o?oaeii.

Iiyoiio i?eiyo eiie, oi?iuaiiue ii?yaeie ?an/aoa IAeN, eioi?ue iicaieyao
ii?aaeaeeoue noiio iaeiaa aac onoaiiaeaiey aaee/eiu naiie aeiaaaeaiiie
noieiinoe. Nouiinoue yoiai ii?yaeea ninoieo a oii, /oi noiia iaeiaa,
iiaeeaaeauay aciino a athaeaeao, ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo
noiiaie iaeiaa, iieo/aiiuie io iieoiaoaeae ca ?aaeeciaaiiua ei oiaa?u
(?aaiou, oneoae), e noiiaie iaeiaa, oiea/aiiuie iinoaaueeai ca
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, oiieeai, oneoae, noieiinoue eioi?uo oaeoe/anee
ioianaia (nienaia) a aeaiiii io/aoiii ia?eiaea ia ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey (o. a. ii aiaeiaee n i?aaeiei iaeiaii n
i?iaeaae).

Ieaoaeueueee io yoiai ie/aai ia oa?ytho, i?ienoiaeeo eeoue iaeioi?ia
ianiaiaaeaiea ai a?aiaie iaaeaeo ia?eiaeii, a oa/aiea eioi?iai auee
i?iecaaaeaiu iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou, e ia?eiaeii, a oa/aiea eioi?iai auee
iiea/aiu n/aoa iinoaaueeia iaoa?eaeia, nu?uey, oiieeaa, eiiieaeoothueo e
ae?oaeo ecaeaeee. Anee, iai?eia?, a yiaa?a iinooieee ?an/aoiua
aeieoiaiou ii iieaoa i?aaei?eyoeai noieiinoe iinooieaoeo io iinoaaueeia
iaoa?eaeia, oiieeaa ia noiio 300 oun. ?oa., oi yoi ia cia/eo, /oi iie
aoaeoo eniieueciaaiu oaeaea a yiaa?a. Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi a yiaa?a
iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou ia i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee
ninoaaeee 270 oun. ?oa. eee, aeiionoei, 320 oun. ?oa. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
noiia iiea/aiiuo a yiaa?a n/aoia iinoaaueeia iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia e
oiieeaa ianiiinoaaeia n au?o/eie io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee ca yiaa?ue.

Caeanue aeiioneaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay oneiaiinoue, ii iia ia ouaieyao
eioa?ania i?aaei?eyoee e ia aeaao ei ieeaeeo i?aeiouanoa: noiia iaeiaa,
«ia?aiea/aiiay» a iaeiii ianyoea, aoaeao «nyeiiiieaia» a ae?oaii e
iaiai?io. Anee acyoue aeeeoaeueiue ia?eiae, iai?eia? aiae, oi
oaeoe/aneay noiia ieaoaaea i?aeoe/anee niaiaaeaao n oai?aoe/anee
?ann/eoaiiie (ca eneeth/aieai noaeino?iaiey e ae?oaeo io?aneae n iniai
aeeeoaeueiui ia?eiaeii i?iecaiaenoaa, aaea niaiaaeaiea oaeoe/aneeo noii
ieaoaaea n ?an/aoiuie aeinoeaaaony ca aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue ia?eiae –
2 – 3 aiaea).

Iiyoiio iiaeii n/eoaoue, /oi i?eiyoue o ian oi?iuaiiue ii?yaeie ?an/aoa
e aieaa neiaeiue iaoiae, iniiaaiiue ia i?aaeaa?eoaeueiii ii?aaeaeaiee
aaee/eiu aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe, aeatho iaeei e oio aea ?acoeueoao [29,
61].

Iaeia aeiaaaeyaony e i?iaeaaeiie oeaia oiaa?a, ii oeacuaaaony
ioaeaeueii. Niune eiiiainaoeee iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oiau iaeaaaoue yoei iaeiaii ia eaaeaeie noaaeee
i?iecaiaenoaa noiio ca?aaioiie ieaou, ?aiou, i?eauee e ae?oaeo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

I?iaeaaaoe i?e iieoiea oiaa?ia aeey naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa iieo/aao
eiiiainaoeeth io ainoaea?noaa ia ethaoth noiio iaeiaa, eioi?oth ii
oiea/eaaao naiei iinoaaueeai. Niune yoiai iaoaiecia ninoieo a oii, /oiau
ia?aeiaeeoue oieaoo iaeiaa /a?ac ana noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa e
?ani?aaeaeaiey oiaa?a ia eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey, eioi?ue oiea/eaaao aai a
oi?ia /anoe i?iaeaaeiie oeaiu oiaa?a eee oneoae e ia eiaao aiciiaeiinoe
eiiiaine?iaaoue aai. A ioee/ea io iaeiaa n iai?ioa IAeN iicaieyao
ainoaea?noao iieo/aoue /anoue aeioiaeia ia eaaeaeie noaaeee
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai e ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiiai oeeeea. I?e yoii eiia/iua
aeioiaeu ainoaea?noaa ia caaenyo io eiee/anoaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae i?aaenoaaeyaony, /oi IAeN ieaoyo i?aaei?eyoey,
ecaioiaeythuea e ?aaeecothuea naith i?iaeoeoeeth. Ii a
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe IAeN – iaeia ia eiia/iiai iio?aaeoaey, aeaaiui
ia?acii aai ieaoeo ianaeaiea e a iaiueoae ia?a i?aaei?eyoey. Oaeei
ia?acii, IAeN a iniiaiii iaeo?aeai ii ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeyi –
ecaioiaeoaeyi i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi aa?ii a oii niunea, /oi IAeN ia
oaaee/eaaao o i?aaei?eyoee – ecaioiaeoaeae i?iaeoeoeee cao?ao ia aa
i?iecaiaenoai e ?aaeecaoeeth, iie ia?aeeaaeuaatho aai ia iio?aaeoaeae,
caeac/eeia eo i?iaeoeoeee, iiea ia aeioiaeeo i/a?aaeue aei eiia/iiai
iio?aaeoaey, eioi?ue eniieuecoao i?eia?aoaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, a ia
ia?a?aaaouaaao eee ia?aaaouaaao aa.

Oaeei eiia/iui iio?aaeoaeai yaeyaony i?aaeaea anaai ianaeaiea,
iiea/eaathuaa i?aiaeaaeathuoth /anoue IAeN, caoai – iai?iecaiaenoaaiiay
noa?a a oie ia?a, a eaeie iia ia i?iecaiaeeo e ia ?aaeecoao ieaoiuo
oneoa (a yoii neo/aa IAeN «ia?aeeaaeuaaaony» ia iio?aaeoaeae,
iieoiaoaeae yoeo oneoa). Iaeiaei n/eoaoue IAeN «iaeo?aeueiui» ii
ioiioaieth e i?aaei?eyoeyi iaeuecy, a ?yaea neo/aaa iie yaeythony
eiia/iuie iio?aaeoaeyie i?iaeoeoeee e oneoa, a iiyoiio e ?aaeueiuie
ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa (a ia oieueei nai?ueeaie aai). E?iia oiai, IAeN
oaei?iaeaao i?iaeoeoeeth aeey iio?aaeoaeae e iiyoiio cao?oaeiyao aa
?aaeecaoeeth, noaeaao ?uiie nauoa [29, 64].

Auaeaeaiea aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe a eaaeaeii caaia i?iecaiaenoaa e
?aaeecaoeee eiaao aaaeiia cia/aiea: – /aoei ia?aie/eaathony ana yeaiaiou
oeaiu oiaa?a, /oi iiaoaeaeaao i?iecaiaeeoaey nieaeaoue ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa; – a i?ioeanna ?an/aoia ii iaeiao ainoaea?noai iieo/aao
naaaeaiey i oaiiao iai?a/eaaaiinoe i?iiuoeaiiiai e oi?aiaiai eaieoaea,
oai naiui iaeaa/athony caaea/e iae?iyeiiiie/aneiai i?ia?aiie?iaaiey; –
ainoaea?noao iinooiatho aeioiaeu aua aei ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a ianaeaieth –
i?aeoe/anee aaeeinoaaiiiio e eiia/iiio ieaoaeueueeo iieiie noiiu iaeiaa.

Aaaaeaiea IAeN yaeeinue iaeiei ec iniiaiuo iai?aaeaiee aeiaaeueiie
iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu 80 – 90-o aiaeia. Noieue oe?ieia ?ani?ino?aiaiea IAeN
ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a e aai i?eciaiea iauyniythony oeaeui ?yaeii
i?e/ei.

Nooue IAeN – oieaoa iaeiaa i?iaeaaoeii (i?iecaiaeeoaeai, iinoaaueeii)
oiaa?ia e oneoa n oie /anoe noieiinoe, eioi?oth ii aeiaaaeyao e
noieiinoe naieo oiaa?ia e oneoa aei noaaeee eo ?aaeecaoeee. Aeiaaaeaiiay
noieiinoue nicaeaaony a i?ioeanna anaai oeeeea i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey
oiaa?ia, ia/eiay ni noaaeee eo ecaioiaeaiey e eii/ay ?aaeecaoeeae
eiia/iiio iio?aaeoaeth. Niioaaonoaaiii e oiea/eaaaony iaeia ia eaaeaeie
noaaeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey. Eae iiaeii aeaeaoue, IAeN eiaao
oe?ieoth iaeiaiaoth aaco, i?aeoe/anee ioaaouaaao ana aeaeu oiaa?ia e
oneoa. I?iaeaaaoe aeeth/aao IAeN a noieiinoue i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ei
oiaa?ia e ieacuaaaiuo oneoa. Ii e nai ii ieaoeo IAeN ca i?eia?aoaaiua ei
a oiaea i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?u e oneoae. Oaeei ia?acii, noiia
oiea/eaaaiiai ei iaeiaa ninoaaeyao ?acieoeo iaaeaeo noiiaie iaeiaa,
iieo/aiiuie ei io iieoiaoaeae ca ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u e oneoae, e
noiiaie iaeiaa, oiea/aiiuie iinoaaueeai i?e i?eia?aoaiee oao oiaa?ia e
oneoa, eioi?ua iaiaoiaeeiu a i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa iaeaaaaiuo iaeiaii
oiaa?ia e oneoa. Ieaoaeueuee IAeN eiaao i?aai ia au/ao iaeiaa,
oiea/aiiiai ei iinoaaueeai. Ia yoii, nianoaaiii, e iniiaai iaoaieci
aeaenoaey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Ia i?aeoeea eiathony ?acee/iua ioeeiiaiey io aaeeiie noaiu, iineieueeo
ioaeaeueiua no?aiu i?eiaiytho ?aciua iaoiaeu en/eneaiey iaeiaa,
ii?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiaie aacu, noaaie, eueaio e i?. Iaeiaei a oeaeii
iienaiiue auoa aa?eaio IAeN noae oieaa?naeueiui, iineieueeo eiaiii ii
aue i?eiyo iiaeaaeythuei aieueoeinoaii no?ai.

1.2. Oa?aeoa?enoeea iniiaiuo yeaiaioia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey a yaiethoeee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN a no?aiao,
aaea yoio iaeia nouanoaoao, ii?aaeaeythony no?aieaieai, n iaeiie
noi?iiu, oneeeoue /enoi oeneaeueioth ooieoeeth iaeiaa, a n ae?oaie, –
eniieueciaaoue aai a oeaeyo noeioee?iaaiey yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. N
yoei naycaia iaaethaeathuayny ii/oe ai anao no?aiao oaiaeaioeey e
?anoe?aieth iaeaaaaiie aacu iaeiaa, e?oaa ieaoaeueueeia e nie?auaieth
eueaio.

Iioiaeea oaiaeaioeee oa?aeoa?ecotho ?acaeoea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN
a ?innee. Iaeiaei o ian iii i?ienoiaeeo a niaoeeoe/aneeo oneiaeyo.
I?aaeaea anaai, yoi naycaii n ia?aoiaeii e iiaie nenoaia ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee, a oaeaea n ?aoaieai caaea/ eioaa?aoeee no?aiu a nenoaio
ie?iauo yeiiiie/aneeo naycae.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN oa?aeoa?ecoaony /?acau/aeiie
iiaeaeaeiinoueth e eciai/eainoueth. Ni a?aiaie i?eiyoey ia?aiai caeiia
auei ecaeaii aua 17 caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, aiineaoeo eciaiaiey e
aeiiieiaiey a caeii (eiiaaea ?aaeeeaeueiua). Ia iaiueoa eciaiaiee auei
aianaii e a Eino?oeoeeth AIN ? 1 i ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa
(naiue – ca o?e aiaea aa aeaenoaey). Eciaiaiey auee ianoieueei
nouanoaaiiu, /oi 11 ieoya?y 1995 aiaea auoiaeeo a naao iiaay Eino?oeoeey
? 39 «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue». Iaeiaei ia yoii eciaiaiey i?aaiaie aacu yoiai iaeiaa ia
i?ae?aoeeenue. Ii ianoiyuee iiiaio a Eino?oeoeeth ? 39 io 11 ieoya?y
1995 a. oaea aianaiu 4 eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey, a oaeaea ecaeai oeaeue
?yae eino?oeoeaiuo ienai AIN ?O, AOE ?O, Ieioeia ?O e Iinoaiiaeaiee
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O, ?aaoee?othueo i?aaiaia iieiaeaiea iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Eciaiaiey i?aaiaie aacu IAeN iicaieytho aiai?eoue i iaeioi?uo iaueo
oaiaeaioeeyo, oa?aeoa?ecothueo yaiethoeeth IAeN a ?innee. Ai – ia?auo,
yoi aieaa ouaoaeueiia e aeaoaeece?iaaiiia ?aaoee?iaaiea iieiaeaiee,
eanathueony iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aniaeoia aeaenoaey IAeN. Ai – aoi?uo, yoi
no?aieaiea i?eniiniaeoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN e iiaui oneiaeyi
?uiea e ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee. A – o?aoueeo, yoi oaiaeaioeey e ?anoe?aieth
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu e oneeaieth oeneaeueiuo ooieoeee iaeiaa. Aianoa n
oai, iaaethaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiay iiiuoea oneeeoue ?ieue IAeN a ea/anoaa
eino?oiaioa noeioee?iaaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e eiaanoeoeee [41, 40].

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, iniiaiui aeieoiaioii, ii?aaeaeythuei ii?yaeie
aceiaiey IAeN, yaeyaony Caeii ?O io 6 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. ? 1992-1 «I
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue» (n iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie e
aeiiieiaieyie).

Ia?aiia/aeueiay ?aaeaeoeey noaouee 1 yoiai caeiia niaea?aeaea
neaaeothuaa ii?aaeaeaiea IAeN: «Ii i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io ecuyoey a
athaeaeao /anoe i?e?inoa noieiinoe, eioi?ay nicaeaaony ia anao noaaeeyo
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia, ?aaio e oneoa (aeaeaa – oiaa?u
(?aaiou, oneoae)), e aiineony a athaeaeao ii ia?a eo ?aaeecaoeee».

Ec aiaeeca aeaiiie ii?iu neaaeoao, /oi caeiiiaeaoaeue onoaiiaee eeoue
iauaa iiiyoea iaeiaa, ec eioi?iai iaynii – eae aea ii aoaeao aceiaoueny.

Aieaa iicaeiyy ?aaeaeoeey noaouee 1 ii?aaeaeeea e iauee iaoaieci
en/eneaiey IAeN: «Iaeia i?aaenoaaeyao niaie oi?io ecuyoey a athaeaeao
/anoe aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe, nicaeaaaaiie ia anao noaaeeyo
i?iecaiaenoaa e ii?aaeaeyaiie eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noieiinoueth
?aaeeciaaiiuo oiaa?ia, ?aaio e oneoa e noieiinoueth iaoa?eaeueiuo
cao?ao, ioianaiiuo ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey» [2,1].

Oaeay oi?ioee?iaea io?aaeaao aeaeaei ia ana neo/ae en/eneaiey IAeN,
iiyoiio aeaiiia ii?aaeaeaiea iaiaoiaeeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae anaai eeoue
iiiyoea iaeiaa, eioi?ia iiaeao iaiyoueny a caaeneiinoe io oiai, eaeie
nouanoaaiiue i?eciae aoaeao iieiaeai a aai iniiao [25, 527].

Ia?aue yeaiaio ethaiai iaeiaa, a oii /enea e IAeN, – ii?aaeaeaiea
noauaeoa iaeiaeaiey. Iiiyoea ieaoaeueueea yaeyaony iaeiei ec
oeaio?aeueiuo a nenoaia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Iii
iaicia/aao iaeiaiaiai noauaeoa, iiae eiio?ieai eioi?iai iaoiaeyony ana
yeiiiie/aneea iauaeou – oiaa?u, oneoae, iiaeeaaeauea iaeiaeaieth yoei
iaeiaii. Oieueei yoio noauaeo ianao ioaaonoaaiiinoue ia?aae iaeiaiauie
i?aaiaie, aaaeao niioaaonoaothuee aooaaeoa?neee o/ao, eiaao i?aai ia
ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa, iaycai aunoaaeyoue n/aoa ii o?aaiaaieth naieo
eeeaioia, auaeaeyy noiio iaeiaa a n/aoa ioaeaeueiie no?ieie, eiaao i?aai
ia ioaeaeueiua eueaiou ii iaeiao, e oieueei iai?io yoiai noauaeoa
iiaeeaaeeo iaeiaeaieth IAeN. Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi ai anao nenoaiao
caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneiai iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa oaeei noauaeoii –
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii – yaeyaony – ia i?aaei?eyoea, a i?aaei?eieiaoaeue.

I?aaei?eieiaoaeai iiaeao auoue eae oece/aneia, oae e th?eaee/aneia
eeoei, anee iii oaeiaeaoai?yao iauai?eiyoui i?eciaeai iiiyoey
i?aaei?eieiaoaey, o. a. naiinoiyoaeueii e iinoiyiii inouanoaeyao
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth, eiiia?/aneoth eee i?ioanneiiaeueioth aeayoaeueiinoue
n oeaeueth iieo/aiey aeioiaea. Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoea
«i?aaei?eieiaoaeue» a nenoaia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue eiaao
naiue oe?ieee niune, e ei iiaeao yaeyoueny ethaay oicyenoaaiiay
no?oeoo?a, eioi?ay niioaaonoaothuei ia?acii ioi?ieaia, i?eciaaony
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii e o/anoaoao a yeiiiie/aneie aeecie no?aiu.

I?eiyoia a caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneeo no?aiao iiiyoea
i?aaei?eieiaoaey-ieaoaeueueea IAeN eiaao naiue oe?ieee niune e
ioaaouaaao iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia /enei iioaioeeaeueiuo
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, nicaeaaay oe?i/aeooth iaeiaiaoth aaco IAeN. Aianoa
n oai yniinoue iiiyoey e aai i?eciaeia iaaeaaeii ii?aaeaeytho i?aaa
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e iicaieytho ?ann/eouaaoue ia eo eiyeueiinoue e
iaeiao e nio?oaeie/anoai n ainoaea?noaaiiuie i?aaiaie i?e aceiaiee IAeN
[39, 54].

A yaiethoeee ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN i?iyaeeanue
oaiaeaioeey e ?anoe?aieth e?oaa ieaoaeueueeia. A niioaaonoaee n ia?aui
caeiiii ia IAeN a /enei ieaoaeueueeia aoiaeeee th?eaee/aneea eeoea, a
oii /enea i?aaei?eyoey n eiino?aiiuie eiaanoeoeeyie, inouanoaeythuea
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e eiiia?/aneoth aeayoaeueiinoue, a oaeaea eiino?aiiua
th?eaee/aneea eeoea, inouanoaeythuea i?iecaiaenoaaiioth e eiiia?/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue ia oa??eoi?ee ?innee. Iaeiaei a /enei ieaoaeueueeia ia
auee aeeth/aiu i?aaei?eyoey, eiii?oe?othuea oiaa?u ia oa??eoi?eth ?O. Ii
oaea ii/oe /a?ac aiae iinea aaaaeaiey caeiia a aeaenoaea aue i?eiyo
caeii, niaeanii eioi?iio noauaeoaie iaeiaeaiey noaee i?aaei?eyoey,
eiii?oe?othuea oiaa?u ia oa??eoi?eth ?innee [3, 1].

Aoi?ie yeaiaio iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue – iauaeo iaeiaeaiey e
naycaiiia n iei ii?aaeaeaiea iniiau iaeiaa – iaeaaaaiie aacu [41, 41].

A ?acaeoee ?inneeneiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN ioia/aaony
naienoaaiiay anai no?aiai oaiaeaioeey e ?anoe?aieth noa?u aeaenoaey
iaeiaa ca n/ao aeeth/aiey a iaeiaiaoth aaco iiauo aeaeia oiaa?ia e
oneoa. A ?innee a /enei iauaeoia iaeiaeaiey aoiaeeo ia oieueei
i?aaeinoaaeaiea oiaa?ia e ieacaiea oneoa, ii e auiieiaiea ?aaio. Ia?aue
caeii ia IAeN ia?aie/eaae ia?a/aiue iauaeoia oieueei iai?ioaie ii
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, ?aaio e oneoa ia oa??eoi?ee no?aiu. Iicaeiaa e
/eneo iaeaaaaiuo iai?ioia auee ioianaiu oaeaea oiaa?u, aaiceiua ia
oa??eoi?eth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. E iauaeoai iaeiaeaiey iaeiaii
aeiaaaeeenue oaeaea iai?iou ii ?aaeecaoeee caeiaa. Nthaea aea ioiinyony
iaiai oiaa?ia e oneoa, eo aacaiciacaeiay ia?aaea/a, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa,
iieo/aiiua io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee [41, 42].

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iauaeoaie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii IAeN yaeythony
?aciiia?aciua th?eaee/aneea oaeou:

1.) iai?iou ii ?aaeecaoeee ia oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee oiaa?ia
(?aaio, oneoa);

2.) iai?iou ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) aioo?e i?aaei?eyoey
aeey ioaeae nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, cao?aou ii eioi?ui ia ioiinyony
ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa;

3.) oiaa?u, aaiceiua ia oa??eoi?eth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

I?e yoii iai?iou ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) aioo?e
i?aaei?eyoey aeey ioaeae nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, cao?aou ii eioi?ui
ia ioiinyony ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa, i?eciathony iauaeoii
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii IAeN a neeo oiai, /oi i?aaei?eyoea a aeaiiii neo/aa
iaeiia?aiaiii aunooiaao e i?iecaiaeeoaeai oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), e aai
iio?aaeoaeai. Eiuie neiaaie, nicaeaaay aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a oi?ia
oaaee/aiey noieiinoe oiaa?a, i?aaei?eyoea ia i?iaeaao aai, oi anoue ia
ia?aeeaaeuaaao noiio iaeiaa ia iieoiaoaey, a oiea/eaaao IAeN ca n/ao
nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa. A aeaiiii neo/aa IAeN aceiaaony a oi?ia i?yiiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey [25, 528].

A niioaaonoaee n caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneie eiioeaioeeae IAeN iaeaaaaiue iai?io
iiae?acaeaeyaony ia neaaeothuea aeaeu:

– iinoaaee oiaa?ia (oneoa) e ae?oaea eiiia?/aneea iia?aoeee,
inouanoaeyaiua a i?ioeanna ethaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– nianoaaiiia iio?aaeaiea oiaa?ia (oneoa) ia iai?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea
oeaee (ee/iua, naiaeiua o. i.) a i?ioeanna inouanoaeaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe, eioi?ia iiaeao aunooiaoue a ?aciuo
oi?iao (eae ecuyoea oiaa?ia a oeaeyo ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey, i?iaeaaea
oiaa?ia eee ieacaiea oneoa naiei ?aaioieeai, iaoo?aeueiay iieaoa o?oaea,
niaoeeaeueiua cao?aou ia iai?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea oeaee);

– eiii?o oiaa?ia.

Ia?a/eneaiiua aeaeu iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ioaaouaatho i?aeoe/anee ana
aiciiaeiua neo/ae eiiia?/aneiai iai?ioa e iaania/eaatho naioth oe?ieoth
iniiao iaeiaeaiey. Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi caiaaeiua iiiyoey
iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa a ioee/ea io ?inneeneiai – iai?iou ii ?aaeecaoeee –
iinyo aieaa oe?ieee e anaioaaouaathuee oa?aeoa?, e a oi aea a?aiy aeaeu
iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa /aoei eiie?aoece?iaaiu.

Nouanoaaiiui a iiieiaiee iaoaiecia aeaenoaey IAeN yaeyaony iiiyoea
«iinoaaee» oiaa?ia e oneoa.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa neiiieiii yoiai iiiyoey yaeyaony «i?iaeaaea».
Iaeiaei, e?iia i?iaeaaee yoio oa?iei iiaeao icia/aoue ia?aaea/o, naea/o
a a?aiaeo eee ?aaeecaoeeth eiouanoaa, ieacaiea oneoa, auiieiaiea ?aaio,
aeiaiai? a ioiioaiee oiaa?ia (oneoa). I?aaeiaoii iinoaaee a naiii iauai
aeaea yaeyaony ana oi, /oi aini?eieiaaony ia ?uiea eae aauue, eiathuay
noieiinoioth ioeaieo.

Iinoaaea eiaao ianoi, anee i?aaei?eieiaoaeue ia?aaeaao i?aai
?anii?yaeaiey eee aeaaeaiey i?aaeiaoii iinoaaee iieo/aoaeth
(iieoiaoaeth, caeac/eeo) eee, ii aai ii?o/aieth, o?aoueaio eeoeo. Any
nenoaia iaeiaa oaeoe/anee iniiauaaaony ia ia?aaea/a yoiai i?aaa: eae
oieueei iinoaaea i?ienoiaeeo, iai?io noaiiaeony iaeaaaaiui e aicieeaao
iaeiaiaay ioaaonoaaiiinoue. Eae i?aaeei, ia?aaea/a i?aaa ?anii?yaeaiey
niaiaaeaao n ia?aaea/ae i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe, ii ia i?aeoeea auaatho
neo/ae eo ianiaiaaeaiey. Eiaiii iiyoiio caiaaeiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
aeey ecaaaeaiey nii?iuo iiiaioia aa?ao ca iniiao ia?aaea/o i?aaa
?anii?yaeaiey [36, 55].

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeey iaeiaiaiai i?aaa e oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
iniaia cia/aiea eiaao ianiaiaaeaiea iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu ii iaeiao ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue n iauaeoii iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Iaeiaiiaeaaaaiay
aaca ninoieo ec neaaeothueo iieacaoaeae:

1.) iauaeoa iaeiaa (iai?iou ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia, ?aaio, oneoa);

2.) aoaeouaai iauaeoa (aaainu iieo/aiiua);

3.) eiua n?aaenoaa, anee eo iieo/aiea naycaii n ?an/aoaie ii iieaoa
oiaa?ia (noiia oo?aoia ii oicyenoaaiiui aeiaiai?ai, n?aaenoaa,
ia?a/eneyaiua a oiiaeu ?acaeoey i?aaei?eyoey).

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa aaaeiu aeaa e?eoa?ey: ai-ia?auo,
noieiinoue ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia (oneoa); ai-aoi?uo, en/eneaiea noieiinoe.
Ia ia?auo ii?ao ?inneeneee caeiiiaeaoaeue oeacuaae, /oi aeey en/eneaiey
noieiinoe ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia eniieuecoaony iiiyoea «i?eiaiyaiuo oeai»,
ia?aue caeii ia IAeN ia aeaaae ?anoeo?iaee yoiai oa?ieia [1, 1].

A 1992 aiaeo a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN aaiaeeony iiiyoea «?uii/iie
oeaiu» aeey neo/aaa ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ii oeaia ia auoa oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe. A oaeie neooaoeee aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey
i?eieiaaony ?uii/iay oeaia, neiaeeaoayny ia aiaeiae/ioth i?iaeoeoeeth ia
iiiaio ?aaeecaoeee, ii ia auoa oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe [6, 2].

I?eaaaeaiiua iieiaeaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa nicaeatho
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe aeey i?aaei?eyoee a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee eie
oiaa?ia ii oeaia ieaea eo naaanoieiinoe. Aeaei a oii, /oi caeii ia IAeN
ia oeacuaaao, n eaeiai iiiaioa ii?aaeaeyaony ?uii/iay oeaia.
Niioaaonoaothuaa ?acuyniaiea aeaaony a Eino?oeoeee AIN i i?eiaiaiee
yoiai iaeiaa. Eino?oeoeey oeacuaaao, /oi a ?an/ao i?e yoii i?eieiaaony
?uii/iay oeaia, neiaeeaoayny ia ?uiea ia iiiaio eniieiaiey naeaeee [17,
3].

Iiaeiaiia oieeiaaiea iiaeao iiaea/ue aieueoea oauoee aeey i?iaeaaoea,
?aaeecothuaai naie oiaa? a oneiaeyo eioeyoeee. I?iaeaaoeo i?eoiaeeony
aeiia/eneyoue aei ?uii/iie oeaiu naith au?o/eo e oaea n yoie noiiu
ieaoeoue iaeia [41, 43].

Iaeiaiiaeiaeaiea aoaeouaai iauaeoa (aaainia iieo/aiiuo) ia i?eaiaeeo e
aeaieiiio iaeiaiiaeiaeaieth, oae eae a iiiaio iiyaeaiey iai?ioa ii
?aaeecaoeee noiiu IAeN, oiea/aiiua ?aiaa n aaainia, aica?auathony
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo.

Aeeth/aiea a iaeiaiiaeaaaaioth aaco ii IAeN eiuo noii, iieo/aiea eioi?uo
naycaii n inouanoaeaieai ?an/aoia ii iieaoa oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa),
yaeyaony auioaeaeaiiie ia?ie. Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iaeiaiieaoaeueueee
eeoathony nouanoaiaaaoae ia ia?auo ii?ao aiciiaeiinoe ooiaea io IAeN,
eiaaea noi?iiu ii aeiaiai?o oiuoeaiii caieaeaee oeaio i?iaeoeoeee, a
iieo/aee inoaaoothny noiio a aeaea ia?a/eneaiey ai anaaiciiaeiua oiiaeu
?acaeoey eeai a aeaea oo?aoia [25, 529].

Iniiaa en/eneaiey iaeiaa. A ?inneeneii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i IAeN yoio
oa?iei ia oiio?aaeyaony. Aianoi iaai aaaaeaiu iiiyoey «ii?aaeaeaiea
iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa», a oaeaea «noieiinoue ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia» (?aaio,
oneoa), /oi aiineo iaii?aaeaeaiiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiea naiiai iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey.

A caiaaeiie aea eiioeaioeee IAeN iauaeo iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii?aaeaeyaony
iaeiicia/ii: iniiaie en/eneaiey iaeiaa yaeyaony aiciaa?aaeaeaiea –
aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue. Anee aea aiciaa?aaeaeaiea, aeaenoaeoaeueiia eee
iiae?acoiaaaaiia, ionoonoaoao, iai?io ia iiaeeaaeeo iaeiaeaieth. I?e
yoii a ?aieao eiioeaioeee IAeN aiciaa?aaeaeaiea iiaeao inouanoaeyoueny
iooai iaiaia a ethaie oi?ia: «oiaa? – aeaiueae», «oiaa? – oiaa?», «oiaa?
– oneoaa», «oneoaa – oiaa?», «oneoaa – aeaiueae», «oneoaa – oneoaa» e
o. i.

Iiae aiciaa?aaeaeaieai – iniiaie en/eneaiey iaeiaa – iiieiaaony any
noiia ?anoiaeia iio?aaeoaey, iaiaoiaeeiay aio aeey iieo/aiey i?aaeiaoa
iio?aaeaiey, ca eneeth/aieai ?anoiaeia ia IAeN. Oaeei ia?acii, oieueei
IAeN ia aoiaeeo a iniiao aai en/eneaiey, ana aea inoaeueiua ecaea?aeee,
iai?eia? o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu, i?i/ea iaeiae ia iio?aaeaiea, ana
i?i/ea ?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n inouanoaeaieai iai?ioa e o. i., yaeythony
ninoaaiie /anoueth aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. I?e aa?oa?iii iaiaia
aiciaa?aaeaeaieai n/eoaaony noieiinoue eaaeaeiai iai?ioa. Anee i?e
inouanoaeaiee iai?ioa aiciaa?aaeaeaiea eae oaeiaia ionoonoaoao, ii ii
iaeiaiaie eiioeaioeee iii aeieaeii eiaoue ianoi, eae, neaaeai, i?e
ee/iii iio?aaeaiee, oi iniiaie en/eneaiey iaeiaa noaiiaeony ?an/aoiia
eee ioeaii/iia aiciaa?aaeaeaiey, ii?aaeaeyaiua ii caeiiiaeaoaeueii
onoaiiaeaiiui i?aaeeai a oeaeyo i?aaeioa?auaiey aiciiaeiie
aeiaiai?aiiinoe iaaeaeo eeoeaie i auieaoa caieaeaiiiai eee
neiaiee/aneiai aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Oaeie iiaeoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iniiau
en/eneaiey IAeN iicaieyao ia oieueei /aoei iaicia/eoue iauaeo, ii e
ioaaoeoue naioth oe?ieoth aaco iaeiaeaiey yoei iaeiaii [36, 55].

Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN ai anao no?aiao onoaiaaeeaaao ia?a/aiue
oiaa?ia e oneoa, inaiaiaeaeaaiuo io oieaou iaeiaa. Iau/ii i?e yoii
i?eiaiyaony i?eioeei inaiaiaeaeaiey oae iacuaaaiuo i?ei?eoaoiuo oiaa?ia
e oneoa. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue e iei ioiinyony i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u.
I?aeoeea inaiaiaeaeaiey aanueia ?aciiia?acia. Iaeioi?ua ec aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai iaeaaatho iaeiaii i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u; ae?oaea
?oeiaiaenoaothony i?eioeeiii inaiaiaeaeaiey io iaeiaa oao
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, eioi?ua yaeythony iaeaieaa aaaeiuie aeey
iio?aaeaiey naiae n ieceeie aeioiaeaie. E /eneo inaiaiaeaeaaiuo io
oieaou IAeN oiaa?ia ioiinyony eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa. A iaeioi?uo
no?aiao eueaiou ?ani?ino?aiythony ia ia?eiaee/aneoth ia/aoue, eieae.

E i?ei?eoaoiui oneoaai, inaiaiaeaeaaiui io oieaou IAeN, iau/ii ioiinyo
o?ainii?oiua oneoae, ii/oiaoth naycue, iaaeeoeeineea oneoae. Ia
iaeaaathony iaeiaii aeeeuea, aiaeiniaaaeaiea, o/aaiua caaaaeaiey,
eoeueoo?ii – i?inaaoeoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey, ?aaeei e oaeaaeaeaiea, oeaeue
?yae ae?oaeo oneoa (e?aiaoeey, caoi?iiaiea). I?e yoii ia eiaao cia/aiey,
eaeea i?aaiecaoeee ieacuaatho yoe oneoae, – ainoaea?noaaiiua eee
/anoiua. Aaaeia cia/eiinoue aeey iauanoaa aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai niaea?aeeo oe?ieee ia?a/aiue oiaa?ia,
?aaio e oneoa, inaiaiaeaeaaiuo io IAeN. A noaouea caeiia, ia?a/eneythuae
eueaiou, eniieueciaaiu ana aoeau ?onneiai aeoaaeoa, e?iia iineaaeiae.
?inneeneia iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aiiaua oa?aeoa?ecoaony
eacoenoe/iinoueth, ae?iaiinoueth. Iniaaiii yoi ioiineony e ia?a/ith
oaeeo aai eaoaai?ee eae ieaoaeueueee, eueaiou e i?. Ia ecaaaeaei yoeo
iaaeinoaoeia e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN.

Iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe eueaio ii IAeN a ?innee iaoneiaeaiu i?ioiaeyueie a
iae i?ioeannaie i?eaaoecaoeee. Caeii inaiaiaeaeaao io IAeN noieiinoue
aueoiaaiiai a ii?yaeea i?eaaoecaoeee eiouanoaa ainoaea?noaaiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, a oaeaea noieiinoue i?eia?aoaaiuo a?aaeaeaiaie aeeeuo
iiiauaiee a aeiiao ainoaea?noaaiiiai e ioieoeeiaeueiiai aeeeeuiiai
oiiaea. ?inneeneee caeii inaiaiaeaeaao io oieaou IAeN eaa?oe?ioth ieaoo.
Ia iaeaaaaony yoei iaeiaii i?iaeoeoeey nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
eieoicia, niaoicia, a oaeaea ecaeaeey ia?iaeiuo i?iiuneia.
Inaiaiaeaeathony io iaeiaa iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n ia?auaieai aaethou e
oeaiiuo aoiaa, iia?aoeee ii no?aoiaaieth. I?e yoii ?inneeneee
caeiiiaeaoaeue i?e onoaiiaeaiee eueaio enoiaeeo ec iauaai i?eioeeia:
ia?a/aiue oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), inaiaiaeaeaaiuo io IAeN, yaeyaony
aaeeiui ia anae oa??eoi?ee ?O [1, 4].

Nouanoaaiiay ?ieue a eiioeaioeee IAeN ioaiaeeony aii?ino onoaiiaeaiey
noaaie iaeiaa. I?eioeei iaeo?aeueiinoe iaeiaiaiai iaeiaeaiey,
noeioee?othuee eiieo?aioiua iiceoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, iaeaieaa iieii
auaea?aeeaaaony, anee a noa?o iaeiaeaiey aeeth/aiu ana oiaa?u (oneoae),
a iaeia aceiaaony ii aaeeiie noaiaea?oiie noaaea. E?iia i?i/aai,
onoaiiaeaiea aaeeiie noaaee iaeiaa cia/eoaeueii oi?iuaao nenoaio
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e nieaeaao cao?aou a i?ioeanna aceiaiey IAeN.
Aieueoeinoai caiaaeiuo niaoeeaeenoia neeiiiu n/eoaoue, /oi oai?aoe/aneea
a?aoiaiou, aac niiiaiey, aiai?yo a iieueco aaeeiie noaaee IAeN. Iie
iiae/a?eeaatho, /oi, e?iia ineaaeaiey iaeo?aeueiinoe, nenoaia IAeN n
aeeooa?aioee?iaaiiuie noaaeaie aoaeao iaeaaeaoue e ae?oaeie
iaaeinoaoeaie aieaa i?aeoe/aneiai oa?aeoa?a: oiaa?u e oneoae,
iiaeiaaeathuea iiae iaeiaeaiea ii ?aciui noaaeai, aeieaeiu auoue /aoei
eeanneoeoee?iaaiu, /oi oaoie/anee o?oaeii auiieieii e iiyoiio aaaeao e
aeaoniuneaiiinoe e, niioaaonoaaiii – iaeiaiaui ia?ooaieyi, oeeiiaieth io
iaeiaeaiey, ?inoo ecaea?aeae ia niaethaeaiea iaeiaiaie aeenoeeieeiu,
iiieaeaieth (aei ioeaaie) noaaie iaeiaia eee inaiaiaeaeaieth io
iaeiaeaiey ii ioaeaeueiui aeaeai oiaa?ia e oneoa, ?ani?ino?aiaieth
iaeiaiaie neeaeee ia eeoe e naiuee n iiauoaiiuie aeioiaeaie; e?iia
ia?a/eneaiiiai ecaea?aeee ii i?aaeinoaaeaieth iaeiaiauo eueaio iiaoo
auoue ioiineoaeueii aieueoeie e iio?aaiaaoue iiauoaiey noaaie ia
iniiaioth ianno oiaa?ia e oneoa.

Iaeiaei i?aeoeea i?eiaiaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue noaaeo
i?aeoe/anee ana no?aiu, i?eiaiythuea IAeN, ia?aae iaiaoiaeeiinoueth
aeeooa?aioeeaoeee noaaie iaeiaa aeey aeinoeaeaiey nioeeaeueiuo,
ia?a?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiuo oeaeae e iaania/aiey eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naiae
i?iaeoeoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea. Ii/oe ana no?aiu i?eiaiytho aieaa ieceea
noaaee IAeN ia oiaa?u (oneoae), iio?aaeaiea eioi?uo aaaeii aeey
ieceiaeioiaeiuo a?oii, e aieaa aunieea, /ai noaiaea?oiua noaaee, ia
ioaeaeueiua aeaaa e i?aaeiaou ?ineioe, iio?aaeyaiua a iniiaiii
aunieiaeioiaeiuie eaoaai?eyie ianaeaiey. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, aiineony
yeaiaio i?ia?anneaiinoe iaeiaa a caaeneiinoe io iio?aaeaiey e
oiaiueoaaony aai ?aa?anneaiinoue a caaeneiinoe io aeioiaea [36, 55].

Iniaaiiinoueth IAeN yaeyaony oae iacuaaaiay ioeaaay noaaea (0, Zero
rate). Ioeaaay noaaea e inaiaiaeaeaiea io oieaou – ia iaeii e oiaea.
Ioeaaay noaaea – yoi noaaea iaeiaa, eioi?ue a i?eioeeia aceiaaony, ii ii
noaaea, ?aaiie 0 i?ioeaioia. A yoii niunea ioeaaay noaaea eiaao oi aea
iineaaenoaea, /oi e inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaa. Iaeiaei i?aaei?eieiaoaeue,
oiea/eaathuee ioeaaoth noaaeo, iieo/aao i?aai ia aica?ao anae noiiu
IAeN, aoiaeyuae a noieiinoue oiaa?ia e oneoa, i?eia?aoaaiuo ei a
i?ioeanna i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia. Iiaeiaiay eueaioa noaaeo aai a aieaa
auaiaeiia ii n?aaiaieth n oaie i?aaei?eieiaoaeyie, eioi?ua i?inoi
inaiaiaeaeaiu io oieaou iaeiaa.

A iaeioi?uo no?aiao e?oa oiaa?ia, e eioi?ui i?eiaiyaony ioeaaay noaaea,
/?acau/aeii oe?ie; a ae?oaeo – aanueia ia?aie/ai. A Aaeeeia?eoaiee n
iiiiuueth ioeaaie noaaee oaeoe/anee inaiaiaeaeaiu io oieaou iaeiaa ii/oe
ana i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiua oiaa?u (ca eneeth/aieai oieieaaea, eiiaeeoa?neeo
ecaeaeee, aeeiaieueiuo iaieoeia). Ii ioeaaie noaaea iaeaaathony e oaeea
oneoae, eae eaiaeecaoeey e aiaeiniaaaeaiea (anee iie ia aeey
i?iiuoeaiiuo oeaeae). Ioeaaay noaaea i?eiaiyaony e eieaai (a eo /enei
aeeth/athony e eieae aeey neaiuo), ia?eiaee/aneei ecaeaieyi, ia?aaicea
iannaaee?ia, niaaaeaieth eaea?noaaie e i?. A oeaeii ieiei 30 % oiaa?ia
/anoiiai iio?aaeaiey a yoie no?aia iaeaaathony ii ioeaaie noaaea.

A yaiethoeee ?acia?a noaaee a no?aiao, onoaiaaeeaathueo IAeN,
ioia/athony aeaa oaiaeaioeee: ai-ia?auo, e iiauoaieth ?acia?a
noaiaea?oiie noaaee; ai-aoi?uo, e aeeooa?aioeeaoeee e aaaaeaieth
ianeieueeeo noaaie iaeiaa.

A ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ia ia?aii yoaia (1991-1993 aa.) auea
onoaiiaeaia aaeeiay noaaea. ?acia? aa aue /?acau/aeii aunie – 28 %. Ia
aoi?ii yoaia – 1992-1995 aa. – i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia nie?auaiea
noaaee. Aieaa oiai, iie aeeooa?aioee?iaaeenue. Aianoi aaeeiie noaaee
auee aaaaeaiu aeaa noaaee – iaeneiaeueiay (20 %) e ieieiaeueiay (10 %).
A caeiiiaeaoaeueiii ii?yaeea onoaiaaeeaaeinue, /oi ieieiaeueiay noaaea
i?eiaiyaony ei anai i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui oiaa?ai (e?iia iiaeaeoeeciuo), a
oaeaea e oiaa?ai aeey aeaoae ii ia?a/ith, ooaa?aeaeaiiiio
I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?O [2, 3]. Oaeei ia?acii, ia aoi?ii yoaia ?acia? noaaee
IAeN a ?innee aue i?eaeeaeai e ie?iaiio o?iaith.

O?aoee yoai a yaiethoeee noaaee IAeN naycai n i?iaaaeaieai e?oiiie
iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ai?aea 1995 a. I?e yoii naie noaaee ia iiaeaa?aeenue
eciaiaieyi. Ii i?iecioee nouanoaaiiua ia?aiaiu a eo i?eiaiaiee.

Ai-ia?auo, cia/eoaeueii noceeny ia?a/aiue a?oii oiaa?ia, e eioi?ui
i?eiaiyaony ieieiaeueiay 10-i?ioeaioiay noaaea. Caeii onoaiiaee, /oi
oaeay noaaea i?eiaiyaony ia ei anai i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiui oiaa?ai, eae
auei aei yoiai, a eeoue e oai, ia?a/aiue eioi?uo niaea?aeeony a
ooaa?aeaeaiiii I?aaeoaeuenoaa aeieoiaioa [5, 5]. Oaeie ia?a/aiue aue
ooaa?aeaeai I?aaeoaeuenoaii a ethea 1995 a [14, 3]. A iai niaea?aeaeinue
iaeiaiiaaiea 18 i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, e eioi?ui i?eiaiyaony
ieieiaeueiay noaaea. A iiya?a oiai aea aiaea, i?aaaea, auei i?eiyoi
iiaia Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa, cia/eoaeueii ?anoe?eaoaa ia?a/aiue
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, ii eioi?ui i?eiaiyaony noaaea a ?acia?a 10
% [15, 2].

Ai-aoi?uo, Caeii io 25 ai?aey 1995 a. onoaiiaee, /oi i?aaeoniio?aiiua ei
noaaee i?eiaiythony ia oieueei e ioa/anoaaiiui, ii e e eiii?oiui
oiaa?ai. «Oeacaiiua noaaee, – aeaneo Caeii «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue» a iiaie ?aaeaeoeee, – i?eiaiythony oaeaea i?e en/eneaiee
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii oiaa?ai, aaiceiui ia oa??eoi?ee
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» (/. 2, no. 6).

A-o?aoueeo, ia/eiay n 28 ai?aey 1995 a., oi anoue n ioeoeeaeueiie aeaou
anooieaiey a neeo Oaaea?aeueiiai Caeiia ? 63-OC, iaeiaiieaoaeueueee
iieo/eee i?aai ioiineoue ia aiciauaiea ec athaeaeaoa noiiu iaeiaia ii
iaoa?eaeueiui ?ano?nai, ?aaioai e oneoaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey
ii ia?a iieaou yoeo ?ano?nia iinoaaueeai, a ia a caaeneiinoe io nienaiey
cao?ao ii eo i?eia?aoaieth ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey, eae
auei onoaiiaeaii ?aiaa.

A-/aoaa?ouo, oeacaiiui Caeiiii eciaiaii ii?aaeaeaiea iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa
aeey ?an/aoa IAeN o caaioiaeoaeueiuo, niaaaeai/anei-nauoiauo, iioiauo e
ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee, caieiathueony i?iaeaaeae e ia?ai?iaeaaeae oiaa?ia,
ca eneeth/aieai i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey.
Ia/eiay n iai?ioia ca iae 1995 a., oeacaiiua i?aaei?eyoey oi?aiaee
ii?aaeaeytho iai?io, iaeaaaaiue IAeN, ia iniiaa noieiinoe ?aaeecoaiuo
oiaa?ia, enoiaey ec i?eiaiyaiuo i?iaeaaeiuo oeai e ?ann/eouaatho noiio
IAeN, iiaeeaaeauoth aciino a athaeaeao, a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo noiiie
iaeiaa, iieo/aiiie io iieoiaoaeae, e noiiie iaeiaa, oiea/aiiie
iinoaaueeai oiaa?ia (a ia n noiiu iaoeaiee, iaaeaaaee, iaaeoeaiiaie
?acieoeu, eae auei onoaiiaeaii ?aiaa).

Ana iacaaiiua iieiaeaiey ia?aiia/aeueii iaoee niioaaonoaothuaa
io?aaeaiea a eciaiaieyo e aeiiieiaieyo ? 6 Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O ? 1 io 9
aeaeaa?y 1991 a. «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou IAeN», a caoai a
Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O io 11 ieoya?y 1995 a. ? 39 «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e
oieaou IAeN». Iaeiaei, eae iieacaea i?aeoeea, yoa ei?aiiay ?aoi?ia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ?aoeea anao aii?inia i?aaiecaoeee en/eneaiey e
oieaou IAeN [41, 46].

2. AIAEEC AeAENOAOTHUAE I?AEOEEE ACEIAIEss IAEIAA IA

AeIAAAEAIIOTH NOIEIINOUe A ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

2.1. Ii?yaeie ?an/aoa iaeiaa e oa?aeoa?iua ioeaee, naycaiiua n aai
en/eneaieai

Aeaenoaothuay a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oai?ey e i?aeoeea en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a iaoae no?aia i/aiue neiaeia. Aiaoia ii
?ann/eouaaaony i?yiui iaoiaeii, o. a. iooai oiiiaeaiey noaaee ia ?acia?
iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie aacu. Iaeiaei onoaiiaeaii iiiaeanoai ?acee/iuo ii?i e
ia?aie/aiee, ii?aaeaeythueo ?acee/iue ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e o/aoa IAeN a
caaeneiinoe io niaea?aeaiey oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee, aeaeia
i?eia?aoaaiuo ?ano?nia, eo eniieueciaaiey, aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee ieaoaeueueeia.

I?eiaiyaiue a ianoiyuaa a?aiy ii?yaeie en/eneaiey IAeN oanii naycai n
aai aooaaeoa?neei o/aoii e caaeneo io aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe
iaeiaiieaoaeueueea, niaea?aeaiey e iacia/aiey i?iaiaeeiuo ei
oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee. Aeey oiai, /oiau naiaiaeii aeaaeaoue iaoiaeaie
e i?eaiaie en/eneaiey IAeN neaaeoao ?acee/aoue iiiyoey : a) iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iiaeeaaeauee oieaoa a athaeaeao; a) iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iieo/aiiue io iieoiaoaeae; a) iaeia ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, oiea/aiiue ca i?eia?aoaiiua oiaa?u (?aaiou,
oneoae); a) iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, i?eieiaaiue e ca/aoo ii
i?eia?aoaiiui oiaa?ai, ?aaioai, oneoaai. ?anniio?ei o/aoioth e
?an/aoioth niaoeeoeeo auoaiacaaiiuo aeaeia IAeN.

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iiaeeaaeauee oieaoa a athaeaeao,
en/eneyaony neaaeothueie iaoiaeaie :

1) aei 28 ai?aey 1995 a. – eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiaie iaeiaa,
iieo/aiiuie io iieoiaoaeae ca ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u, ?aaiou, oneoae, e
noiiaie iaeiaa, oiea/aiiuie iinoaaueeai ca oiaa?u, ?aaiou, oneoae,
noieiinoue eioi?uo oaeoe/anee nienaia a io/aoiii ia?eiaea ia ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa;

2) n 28 ai?aey 1995 a. – eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiaie iaeiaa,
iieo/aiiuie io iieoiaoaeae ca ?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth e noiiaie
iaeiaa, oaeoe/anee oiea/aiiuie ca i?eia?aoaiiua iaoa?eaeueiua oeaiiinoe,
noieiinoue eioi?uo ioiineony ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey;

3) ii ?an/aoiui noaaeai n noiiu ?acieoeu iaaeaeo oeaiaie ?aaeecaoeee
oiaa?ia n IAeN e oeaiaie eo i?eia?aoaiey n IAeN ca ieionii iaeiaa,
oiea/aiiiai iinoaaueeai ca i?eia?aoaiiua e nienaiiua ia ecaea?aeee
ia?auaiey iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, oneoae, ?aaiou, – aei 28 ai?aey 1995 a.
ii i?aaei?eyoeyi oi?aiaee, iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e ae?oaei, iieo/athuei
aeioiae a aeaea ?acieoeu a oeaiao, iaoeaiie, iaaeaaaie;

4) n 28 ai?aey 1995 a. ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey – ii ?an/aoiui noaaeai n noiiu ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
oeaiie ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia e oeaiie eo i?eia?aoaiey n IAeN ca ieionii
iaeiaa, oaeoe/anee oiea/aiiiai iinoaaueeai ca i?eia?aoaiiua
iaoa?eaeueiua ?ano?nu, noieiinoue eioi?uo ioiineony ia ecaea?aeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey;

5) n 28 ai?aey 1995 a. ii caaioiaeoaeueiui, niaaaeai/anei – nauoiaui,
iioiaui e ae?oaei aiaeiae/iui i?aaei?eyoeyi – eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo
iaeiaii, iieo/aiiui ca ?aaeeciaaiiua oiaa?u, ?aaiou, oneoae, e noiiie
iaeiaa, oiea/aiiie iinoaaueeai yoeo oiaa?ia e iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia,
noieiinoue eioi?uo ioiineony ia ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa e ia?auaiey.

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iieo/aiiue io iieoiaoaeae,
ii?aaeaeyaony ia iniiaa aeaenoaothueo noaaie, iauaia ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee e ?acia?ia iieo/aiiuo io ae?oaeo i?aaei?eyoee aeaiaaeiuo
n?aaenoa. Noiia iaeiaa, auaeaeaiiay ioaeaeueii a aeieoiaioao ii
ioa?oaeaiiui oiaa?ai, auiieiaiiui ?aaioai, ieacaiiui oneoaai,
ioa?oaeaaony a ninoaaa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee.

Iniiaiui iiiaioii i?e ii?aaeaeaiee IAeN, iieo/aiiiai io iieoiaoaeae
i?iaeoeoeee, yaeyaony iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey iaeiaiiaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy eniieuecoaony iauee ii?yaeie, iniiaaiiue ia
onoaiiaeaiiii naiei iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii iaoiaea ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (a iiiaio iieaou oiaa?a eee a iiiaio ioa?ocee
i?iaeoeoeee).

I?e ii?aaeaeaiee aea noii iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeaueo ca/aoo, iaiaoiaeeii
eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi ia ana noiiu iaeiaa, oiea/aiiua iinoaaueeai,
aica?auathony iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo. I?e yoii noiiu IAeN iiaoo iie?uaaoueny
ca n/ao neaaeothueo enoi/ieeia:

ioiineoueny e ca/aoo

ioiineoueny ia naaanoieiinoue i?iaeoeoeee

iie?uaaoueny ca n/ao n?aaenoa i?aaei?eyoey.

I?aai ia ca/ao noii IAeN oiea/aiiuo, ii iauaio i?aaeeo, aicieeaao i?e
ianooieaiee neaaeothuae niaieoiiinoe oaeoia:

– oaeo iieaou iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia;

– oaeo ii?eoiaeiaaiey (iieo/aiey aeinooia e ?anii?yaeaieth eiouanoaii).

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii IAeN e
iiiaio aicieeiiaaiey i?aaa ia ca/ao noii IAeN, oiea/aiiuo iinoaaueeai,
th?eaee/anee iiaoo e ia niaiaaeaoue.

Enoiaey ec auoaia?a/eneaiiie iaoiaeeee en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ana ioeaee aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
IAeN iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa aieueoea a?oiiu:

– ioeaee, iiaeaeoea ca niaie iaiainiiaaiiia caieaeaiea iaeiaiiaeaaaaiie
aacu ii IAeN (ia aeeth/aiea a iaeaaaaiue iai?io au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa, au?o/ee io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee iaoa?eaeia,
IAI, iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, ia aeeth/aiea a
iaeaaaaiue iai?io n?aaenoa, iieo/aiiuo a ii?yaeea /anoe/iie iieaou ca
i?iaeoeoeeth, ?aaiou, oneoae e ae?oaea neo/ae) – ieiei 30 % anao
aeiia/eneaiiuo noii iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue e niaoeiaeiaa;

– ioeaee, iiaeaeoea ca niaie iaiainiiaaiiia caauoaiea noii iaeiaa,
i?eieiaaiuo e ca/aoo (ioiineiuo ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii a aeaaao 68
n/aoa) – ieiei 70 % anao aeiia/eneaiiuo a athaeaeao noii IAeN oaae. 2.1.

Iaa a?oiiu ioeaie i/aiue iiiaiia?aciu ii niaea?aeaieth e eo aiaeec
iicaieyao auyaeoue oa?aeoa?iua i?iaaeu aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
i iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Oaaeeoea 2.1

Ii aeaiiui AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie

Oa?aeoa?iua ioeaee, naycaiiua n en/eneaieai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue

ii iaeaieaa e?oiiui iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai Aaoeoianeiai ?aeiia a. Eacaie

a iei. ?oaeae

Nnueea ia

Aeiey aeaea

Oa?aeoa?iia ia?ooaiea aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN, ioieo e
?acaeae Noiia ia?ooaiey

auyaeaiiia a ?acoeueoaoa aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie a 1997 aiaeo
Eino?oeoeee ? 39

a eoiaa

1 2 3 4

Aeeth/aiea a iaeaaaaiue iai?io ia anaai iauaia ?aaeecaoeee i. 4 ?acae.
IV 2 536,47 10,46 %

En/eneaiea IAeN ia ni anae noiiu aaainia e i?aaeiieao, iinooieaoeo ia
?/n i. 9 ?acae. IV 70,13 0,29 %

Iaaeeth/aiea a iaeaaaaiue iai?io noieiinoe ?aaio, auiieiaiiuo oicyeno.
niiniaii i. 11 ?acae. IV 4 033,90 16,64 %

Aiciauaiea IAeN ii ii?eoiaeiaaiiui, ii ia iiea/aiiui iaoa?eaeai
(?aaioai) i. 19 ?acae. IX 17 480,31 72,12 %

Aiciauaiea IAeN ii iaoa?eaeai, i?eia?aoaiiui o /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
i. 19 ?acae. IX 51,28 0,22 %

Aiciauaiea IAeN ii ?aaioai, oneoaai, inaiaiaeaeaiiui io IAeN i. 12
?acae. V 65,50 0,27 %

Anaai aeiia/eneaii a ?acoeueoaoa aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie ca 1997 aiae

24 237,59 100 %

Enoiaey ec aiaeeca oaaeeoeu 2.1 aeaeii, /oi naiua e?oiiua aeiia/eneaiey
iaeiaa a athaeaeao i?ienoiaeyo ec-ca iaiainiiaaiiiai ioianaiey ia
?an/aou n athaeaeaoii noii iaeiaa ii ii?eoiaeiaaiiui, ii ia iiea/aiiui
iaoa?eaeai, ?aaioai, oneoaai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a. Oae, a
?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiuo aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie ia i?aaei?eyoeyo IYI
«Oaoyia?ai» iauay noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa ii i?e/eia caauoaiey noii
iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeaueo aiciauaieth ec athaeaeaoa ninoaaeea 9544,33 iei.
?oaeae. Aoi?ui e?oiiui ia?ooeoaeai i. 19 ?acae. IX Eino?oeoeee ? 39
yaeyaony YIO «Eacaiueai?aac», eioi?ue aiciauae IAeN ca i?eia?aoaiiue aac
ii AAECI Oaoo?ainaaca aac oaeoe/aneie iieaou iineaaeiaai. Noiia
aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa ii YIO «Eacaiueai?aac» ninoaaeea 5708,4 iei.
?oae. Iniiaiie i?e/eiie oaeeo ia?ooaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ni noi?iiu
e?oiiaeoeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae yia?aee a ?anioaeeea Oaoa?noai yaeyaony
neiaeiay yeiiiie/aneay ianoaiiaea a ?aaeiia, au?aaeathuayny a a?iiaaeiie
nenoaia iaieaoaaeae a yeiiiieea, iaaiciiaeiinoueth inouanoaeaiey i?yiuo
aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia n iio?aaeoaeyie, i?iaaaeaieai iaaeaiaaeiuo ca/aoia n
eniieueciaaieai aaenaeae Ae Aa?n Aaiea e aieueoie aeaaeoi?neie
caaeieaeaiiinoueth iio?aaeoaeae yia?aee e aaca ia?aae i?iecaiaeeoaeyie.

Aiaeec oeie/iuo ioeaie a i?aeoeea oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe
i?aaei?eyoee iieacuaaao, /oi iiiaea ioeaee, aicieeathuea a i?ioeanna
ioi?ieaiey ia?ae/iie o/aoiie aeieoiaioaoeee, aaaeaiey o/aoa aeaeaeaiey
iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa e
oi?ie?iaaiey oeiainiauo ?acoeueoaoia, aeaeoo ca niaie na?ueaciua ia?u
oeiainiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe i?e eo auyaeaiee a oiaea iaeiaiauo i?iaa?ie.

Iaeiie ec naiuo ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ioeaie yaeyaony naiinoiyoaeueiia
auaeaeaiea noii IAeN i?e eo ionoonoaee a ?an/aoii-ieaoaaeiuo
aeieoiaioao, a /anoiinoe, i?e i?eia?aoaiee iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae
(?aaio, oneoa) ca iaee/iue ?an/ao o i?aaiecaoeee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e o
/anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae. Naiinoiyoaeueiia auaeaeaiea noii IAeN
?an/aoiui iooai e i?eiyoea eo e ca/aoo iieoiaoaeai a aeaiiii neo/aa
yaeyaony ia?ooaieai ioieoa 19 Eino?oeoeee Ainiaeianeoaeau ?innee io 11
ieoya?y 1995 a. ? 39 «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue». Ia?ooaiea oaeiai ?iaea ano?a/athony
i?aeoe/anee a eaaeaeii aoi?ii aeoa aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaiaoiaeeiinoe oieoeeaoeee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
IAeN, oi anoue ioiaiu niaoeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea ?an/aoa IAeN ii
i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, a oaeaea
ioiaiu inaiaiaeaeaiey io IAeN /anoiuo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae aac ia?aciaaiey
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea. Iaeiaei ia?ooaiey yoiai aeaea iau/ii ia iinyo
eaoano?ioe/aneee ii ?acia?ai aeey i?aaei?eyoey oa?aeoa?, iaeaieaa
e?oiiia ec anao auei auyaeaii a oiaea aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee IIOE
«Oaoyia?ai», a ?acoeueoaoa /aai a athaeaeao auei aeiia/eneaii 51278,2
oun. ?oaeae.

Aeiaieueii /anoi aeiioneathony ioeaee i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noii IAeN,
iiaeeaaeaueo e ca/aoo ia?aae athaeaeaoii ii ai?th/a-niaci/iui
iaoa?eaeai, i?eia?aoaaiui ca iaee/iue ?an/ao /a?ac ACN. A /anoiinoe, i?e
auaeaeaiee IAeN ?an/aoiui iooai i?eiaiyaony noaaea 16,67 i?ioeaioa, a oi
a?aiy eae a niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 19 Eino?oeoeee Ainiaeianeoaeau ?innee
io 11 ieoya?y 1995 a. ? 39 a yoii neo/aa e ca/aoo i?eieiathony noiiu
iaeiaa, en/eneaiiua ii ?an/aoiie noaaea 13,79 i?ioeaioa io noieiinoe
yoeo iaoa?eaeia. I?e/eiie oaeiai ?iaea ia?ooaiee yaeyaony neiaeiinoue e
caiooaiiinoue i?eiaiaiey IAeN e ai?th/a-niaci/iui iaoa?eaeai, iaeaaaaiui
iaeiaii ia ?aaeecaoeeth ANI.

I/aiue ?ani?ino?aiaiiui ia?ooaieai yaeyaony iaiainiiaaiiia caauoaiea
noiiu iaeiaa, ioiineiiai ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii (aeaaao 68 n/aoa) eee
caieaeaiea iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii IAeN aaeaeo caiouaiiinoe o/aoa ai
iiiaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo, a oaeaea ianiioaaonoaey aeaiiuo aeaaiie eieae e
ae?oaeo aooaaeoa?neeo ?aaeno?ia aeaiiui iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN.
I?e/eiie aeaiiuo ia?ooaiee iiaeao yaeony eae iaa?aiioiinoue aooaaeoa?a,
aaaeouaai o/ao ia i?aaei?eyoee, oae e iaaeenoeeieeie?iaaiiinoue
aaeieieno?aoeee e ?aaioieeia aeaiiiai i?aaei?eyoey. Oae, iai?eia?,
ianaiaa?aiaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea aeieoiaioia a aooaaeoa?eth i?aaei?eyoey
aai ?aaioieeaie iiaeao i?eaanoe e iaiieiiio aeaeea?e?iaaieth iaeiaa e
caieaeaieth iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii IAeN. Iaeiaei, iai?aaeeueiia
aeaeea?e?iaaiea IAeN iiaeao yaeoueny i?e/eiie ia oieueei i?eiaiaiey
oo?aoiuo naieoeee, ii e cia/eoaeueiiai caauoaiey ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao,
/oi oaeaea i?eaiaeeo e aeanoaaeeecaoeee oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey
i?aaei?eyoey. Oae aooaaeoa? iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey ioeai/ii iieacae ii
no?iea 3 iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee au?o/eo, iinooieaooth ca ieacaiiua
o?ainii?oiua oneoae, aeeth/athuoth a naay IAeN, oioy ii no?iea 3
iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee iaeaaaaiue iai?io iieacuaaaony aac o/aoa IAeN e
i?eiaiyaony noaaea 20 %. Oaeei ia?acii, aooaaeoa? aoi?e/ii i?eiaiee
noaaeo 20 %, /ai cia/eoaeueii caaunee ieaoaaee naiaai i?aaei?eyoey a
athaeaeao e iinoaaee aai a cao?oaeieoaeueiia oeiainiaia iieiaeaiea.

Iaeiei ec aeaeia ia?ooaiee, ano?a/aaiuo ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, yaeyaony
ioeai/iia nienaiea ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii IAeN n caeoiaaiuo oiaa?ia
(?aaio, oneoa), eioi?ua a niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 12 ?acaeaea V
Eino?oeoeee ? 39 io 11.10.95 a. inaiaiaeaeaiu io iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue. Oae, a ia?ooaiea aeaiiiai ioieoa Eino?oeoeee iiiaea
i?aaei?eyoey nienuaatho ia aiciauaiea ec athaeaeaoa IAeN n oneoa
aiaaaaeiinoaaiiie io?aiu, n iiea/aiiiai eeoeaiceiiiiai nai?a ia i?aai
oi?aiaee, ni noieiinoe aueoiaaiiai a ii?yaeea i?eaaoecaoeee eiouanoaa
ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee. Ia?ooaiey oaeiai ?iaea auee iaia?oaeaiu
ia YIO «Eacaiueai?aac», a ?acoeueoaoa /aai a athaeaeao auei aeiia/eneaii
65,5 iei. ?oaeae iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

?ani?ino?aiaiiie ioeaeie yaeyaony ia aeeth/aiea a iaeaaaaiue iai?io
au?o/ee io i?i/ae ?aaeecaoeee iaoa?eaeia, IIA ia noi?iio, aeioiaea io
naea/e a a?aiaeo eiouanoaa, noii iinooieaoeo aaainia. A ia?ooaiea ioieoa
48 ?acaeaea XV Eino?oeoeee ? 39 ia en/eneyaony IAeN i?e aacaiciacaeiie
ia?aaea/a iniiaiuo n?aaenoa, i?e ?aaeecaoeee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa ieaea
naaanoieiinoe aac i?eaea/aiey yenia?oia-ioeaiueeia. Neiaeiui aeey
en/eneaiey inoaaony aii?in oieaou e aiciauaiey IAeN ii
no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiui ?aaioai, auiieiyaiui oicyenoaaiiui e iiae?yaeiui
niiniaii. A niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 52 ?acaeaea XVI i?aaei?eyoea i?e
auiieiaiee no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio iiae?yaeiui niiniaii aeieaeii
ioiineoue aanue iauai no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio aeeth/ay IAeN ia
aeaaao n/aoa 08 «Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey» e nienuaaoue IAeN, oiea/aiiue
iiae?yae/eeo /a?ac ia/eneaiea aii?oecaoeee iinea aaiaea iauaeoa a
yenieoaoaoeeth. A neo/aa aea auiieiaiey no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo ?aaio
oicyenoaaiiui niiniaii, i?aaei?eyoea iaycaii a niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 11
?acaeaea IV Eino?oeoeee ? 39 en/eneyoue iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue ni anaai iauaia ?aaio, io?aaeaiiuo ii aeaaaoo n/aoa 08
«Eaieoaeueiua aeiaeaiey». Ianiaethaeaiea auoaiienaiiiai ii?yaeea
en/eneaiey IAeN ii no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiui ?aaioai i?eaiaeeo e
iaeiaeaieth aieueoeo oo?aoia ia e?oiiua i?iiuoeaiiua i?aaei?eyoey,
oooaeoay e aac oiai o?oaeiia oeiainiaia ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoee. Oae,
no?oeoo?iua iiae?acaeaeaiey IYI «Oaoyia?ai» – N?I «Oaoyia?ainiaoe?aiiio»
e Oaoyia?ai?aiiio ia en/eneyee IAeN ni noieiinoe no?ieoaeueii-iiioaaeiuo
?aaio, auiieiyaiuo oicyenoaaiiui niiniaii, /oi i?eaaei e caieaeaieth
iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeauaai oieaoa a athaeaeao ia iauoth noiio 4033,9 iei.
?oaeae.

Iaeiaei naiui ia?ooaaiui yaeyaony ?acaeae IX «Ii?yaeie en/eneaiey
iaeiaa» Eino?oeoeee ? 39 io 11.10.95 a. E iaeaieaa /anoi ano?a/aaiui
ia?ooaieyi aeaiiiai ?acaeaea Eino?oeoeee ioiinyony:

a) ia?ooaiea ioieoa 18 ?acaeaea IX Eino?oeoeee ? 39 io 11.10.95 a. a
aeaea iaiainiiaaiiiai nienaiey a aeaaao n/aoa 68 iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue ii i?eia?aoaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui oeaiiinoyi, ia
iiaeoaa?aeaeaiiui ?an/aoiuie aeieoiaioaie;

a) ia?ooaiea ioieoa 20 ?acaeaea IX Eino?oeoeee a aeaea iaiainiiaaiiiai
ioianaiey ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii iaeiaa ii i?eia?aoaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui
oeaiiinoyi, eniieuecoaiui ia iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ioaeaeu, a oaeaea
iaeiaa oiea/aiiiai iinoaaueeai ii i?eia?aoaiiui neoaeaaiui eaaeiaui
aaoiiiaeeyi. Ia?ooaieai yoiai aea ioieoa Eino?oeoeee yaeyaony aiciauaiea
ec athaeaeaoa IAeN n ieaou ca i?iaeeaaiea a iauaaeeoee naieo ?aaioieeia,
ioiineiie ca n/ao i?eauee i?aaei?eyoey;

a) ia?ooaiea ioieoa 19 ?acaeaea IX Eino?oeoeee – iaiainiiaaiiia
ioianaiea ia aiciauaiea ec athaeaeaoa iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
n noiiu oo?aoa, oiea/aiiiai ca i?inoie aaaiiia. A ia?ooaiea aeaiiiai
ioieoa Eino?oeoeee ano?a/athony neooaoeee aeaieiiai nienaiey ia
aiciauaiea ec athaeaeaoa noii iaeiaa ii i?eia?aoaiiui iaoa?eaeueiui
oeaiiinoyi. Oae, aooaaeoa?ii iaeiiai ec oi?aiauo i?aaei?eyoee auei
ioeai/ii aeaaaeaeu nienai ia aiciauaiea ec athaeaeaoa IAeN ii eiii?oiui
oiaa?ai, i?eia?aoaiiui aeey ia?ai?iaeaaee. Ia?aue ?ac IAeN aue nienai a
iiiaio iieaou oaiiaeaiiuo ieaoaaeae ii oaiiaeaiiie aeaeea?aoeee, a
aoi?ie ?ac IAeN aue nienai i?e iieaoa noieiinoe eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia
eiino?aiiiio iinoaaueeo; noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa a ?acoeueoaoa
aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee ninoaaeea 870,6 iei. ?oaeae.

Iiiaea i?aaei?eyoey ia oniaaatho neaaeeoue ca eciaiaieyie a
aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, /oi i?eaiaeeo e oeiainiaui naieoeeyi
ca ia?ooaiea caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Oae aooaaeoa? iaeiiai i?aaei?eyoey
iioiaie oi?aiaee i?iaeieaeae en/eneyoue IAeN a iioiaie oi?aiaea n
iaoeaiee ai 3 eaa?oaea 1995 aiaea, oiaaea eae a niioaaonoaee n eciaiaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa io 28 ai?aey 1995 aiaea iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue, iiaeeaaeauee oieaoa a athaeaeao ii i?aaei?eyoeyi iioiaie
oi?aiaee aeieaeai aue auoue en/eneai eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo iaeiaii,
iinooieaoei io iieoiaoaeae i?iaeoeoeee, e iaeiaii, oiea/aiiui
iinoaaueeai yoie i?iaeoeoeee. Ae?oaia i?aaei?eyoea ia oneaaeeei ca
ia?a/iai i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ia, ii eioi?ui i?eiaiyaony noaaea
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?acia?a 10 i?ioeaioia, e
iaiainiiaaiii i?eiaieei e naiae i?iaeoeoeee yoo noaaeo, /oi i?eaaei e
caieaeaieth noii iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeaueo aciino a athaeaeao. Iaeiei ec
aeaeia iainaaaeiieaiiinoe a aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa yaeyaony
iaiainiiaaiiia i?eiaiaiea eueaio ii IAeN. Oae, iai?eia?, i?iaaaeaiea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo eiioa?aioeee ia ioiineony e
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neei ?aaioai, auiieiyaiui
o/?aaeaeaieyie iaoee e eoeueoo?u ia iniiaaiee oicyenoaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia e
, eae neaaenoaea, ia iaeiaeaiea oaeeo ?aaio iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue yaeyaony ia?ooaieai iiaeioieoa «i» ioieoa 12 ?acaeaea V
Eino?oeoeee ? 39 io 11.10.95 a. Iaeiaei, a niioaaonoaea n aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii iaiainiiaaiiia i?eiaiaiea eueaio ia aea/ao ca niaie
i?eiaiaiea oo?aoiuo naieoeee, /oi a aeaiiii neo/aa cia/eoaeueii
iaeaa/eei noaeueao ia?ooeoaey.

Neiaeiinoue e iaiaeiicia/iinoue caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo iieiaeaiee ii iaeiao
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi aneaaenoaea
iaaeinoaoi/iie e ianaiaa?aiaiiie eioi?ie?iaaiiinoe iniiaiay ianna
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia /anoi aeiioneaao ioeaee a aai en/eneaiee. A neo/aa
iaia?oaeaiey niioaaonoaothueie i?aaiaie oaeoia iaeiaiauo ia?ooaiee ia
i?aaei?eyoey e i?aaiecaoeee iaeaaathony cia/eoaeueiua oeiainiaua
naieoeee, a ianeieueei ?ac i?aauoathuea ia?aiia/aeueii ia oiea/aiiua eie
noiiu IAeN oaae. 2.2.

Ana yoi io?eoeaoaeueii neacuaaaony ia oeiainiaie aeayoaeueiinoe
oicyenoaothueo noauaeoia, aeiaiaeeo ii?ie eo aei a?aie aaie?ionoaa.
Iiyoiio eaaeaeiio iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo i/aiue aaaeii iieo/aoue
naiaa?aiaiioth e oi/ioth eioi?iaoeeth ia eciaiaiee ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e
oieaou IAeN, a oaeaea i?aaieciaaoue yooaeoeaiue eiio?ieue ca o/aoiie e
io/aoiie ?aaioie ii iaeiaai ia i?aaei?eyoee.

Oaaeeoea 2.2

Ii
aeaiiui AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie

Niioiioaiea noii oo?aoiuo naieoeee ca ia?ooaiea
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN,

iaeaaaaiuo ia iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e noii
aeiia/eneaiiiai IAeN

a iei. ?oaeae

Iieacaoaeue I ea 97 a. II ea 97 a. III ea 97 a. IV ea 97 a. Anaai

1 2 3 4 5 6

Noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai IAeN (iei. ?oaeae) 13 182,00 20 336,00 562,00 6
722,00 40 802,00

Noiia oo?aoiuo naieoeee ii IAeN (iei. ?oaeae) 20 538,00 107 212,00 42
619,00 8 386,00 178 755,00

Aeiey aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa a noiia oo?aoiuo naieoeee 64,18% 18,97%
1,32% 80,16% 22,83%

Anaai aeiia/eneaii n o/aoii oo?aoiuo naieoeee ca 1997 a. 33 720,00 127
548,00 43 181,00 15 108,00 219 557,00

Aiaeec oaaeeoeu 2.2, a oaeaea aeeaa?aiiu 2.3 naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia i/aiue
aeanoeeo oo?aoiuo naieoeeyo, eioi?ua iaeaaathony ia ieaoaeueueeia a
?acoeueoaoa auyaeaiey neo/aaa ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. I?e yoii
noiiu oo?aoia a n?aaeiai a 5 ?ac auoa noii iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeaueo
aeiia/eneaieth a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaa?ie. Oaeay nenoaia oo?aoiuo naieoeee
iainiiaaia a neo/aa oioaeueiiai oeeiiaiey io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e
/?acau/aeiie iaa?aiioiinoe o/aoiuo eaae?ia. Iaeiaei iineaaeiea 3-5 eao
naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i iiauoaiee ea/anoaa aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai e
iaeiaiaiai o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo e /?acia?iua oo?aoiua naieoeee
ia/eiatho noaiiaeoueny naea?aeeaathuei oaeoi?ii ?acaeoey yeiiiieee.

Aeeaa?aiia 2.3

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi a ioa/anoaaiiii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
ioaaonoaaiiinoe a noa?a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia i?aaeoniio?aii ?acaaoaeaiiie
nenoaiu ninoaaia iaeiaiauo i?aaiia?ooaiee. Oae, a ioiioaiee IAeN no. 13
Caeiia ?O io 27.12.91 a. ? 2118-1 «Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» i?aaeoniio?aii aeaa i?aaiia?ooaiey: «nie?uoea
iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey» e «iao/ao iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey».
Eneonnoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea aeaeia i?aaiia?ooaiee i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
i?aeoe/anee ethaua aeaenoaey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, iiaeaeoea iaaeiieaoo
iaeiaa, iaeiaiaua i?aaiu ?anniao?eaatho a nouanoaothueo ?aieao. Eiuie
neiaaie, i?e/eiu ia?aciaaiey iaaeieiee ii IAeN ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
iaiainiiaaiii eaaeeoeoee?othony eae nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aea/ao ca niaie iaiainiiaaiiia
i?eiaiaiea naieoeee – acuneaiea oo?aoa a noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa, a
a neo/aa iiaoi?a – a aeaieiii ?acia?a. Iaeiaei, aiaeec
a?aeo?aaeii-noaeaaiie i?aeoeee ?anniio?aiey nii?ia i IAeN
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i neaaeothuai:

– caauoaiea noii, i?eieiaaiuo e ca/aoo i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noiiu ieaoaaea a
athaeaeao, ia iiaeao eaaeeoeoee?iaaoueny eae nie?uoea eee iao/ao iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e ia aea/ao i?eiaiaiey naieoeee, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
iiaeioieoii «a» ioieoa 1 noaouee 13 Caeiia «Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee»;

– iaaeeth/aiea a iaeaaaaiue iai?io aaainia, iinooieaoeo a n/ao iieaou
oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eae nie?uoea (iao/ao)
iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?e oneiaeyo, /oi yoe noiiu aeeth/aiu a iai?io
e io?aaeaiu a ?an/aoa ii ia?a iinoaaee oiaa?ia, auiieiaiey ?aaio
(oneoa), a anee oaeie iiiaio ia ianooiee – i?e oneiaee, /oi iie
iieiinoueth io?aaeaiu a aooaaeoa?neii o/aoa;

– iaauiieiaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii iaycaiiinoe en/eneeoue iaeaaaaiue
iai?io ii ?uii/iui oeaiai a neo/aa ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?a (?aaio, oneoa) ii
oeaia ia auoa naaanoieiinoe, ia iiaeao ioeaieaaoueny eae nie?uoea eee
iao/ao iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. [44, 86].

Yoe e ae?oaea auaiaeu iniiaaiu ia aiaeeca a?aeo?aaeii-noaeaaiie i?aeoeee
?anniio?aiey nii?ia i IAeN e ia anaaaea niaeaniauaathony n
eino?oeoeaiuie ienueiaie AIN ?O ii aii?inai i?eiaiaiey oo?aoiuo naieoeee
ca ia?ooaiea ioaeaeueiuo ioieoia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i IAeN. Iaeiaei
iaee/ea ?acee/iuo o?aeoiaie iaeieo e oao aea ioieoia caeiia i iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i ianiaa?oainoaa iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa a oeaeii e i iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a
/anoiinoe e oieueei iiauoaao aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu ?aoi?ie?iaaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i IAeN.

2.2. Ii?yaeie i?iaaaeaiey eiio?iey AIE ca aceiaieai iaeiaa

Aeaaiie caaea/ae ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee yaeyaony inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey ca niaethaeaieai iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, ca i?aaeeueiinoueth en/eneaiey, iieiioie e
naiaa?aiaiiinoueth aianaiey a niioaaonoaothuee athaeaeao
ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeiaia e ae?oaeo ieaoaaeae, onoaiiaeaiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ?anioaeee, aoiaeyueo a
ninoaa ?innee.

A nayce n auiieiaieai oeacaiiie ?aaiou iaeiaiaua i?aaiu eiatho i?aai
niaeanii noaouea 7 Caeiia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I ainoaea?noaaiiie
iaeiaiaie neoaeaa ?NON?» iieo/aoue io i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee
aooaaeoa?neea io/aou, aaeainu, ?an/aou, aeaeea?aoeee e ae?oaea
aeieoiaiou, naycaiiua n en/eneaieai e oieaoie iaeiaia e eiuo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao. Yoe aeieoiaiou yaeythony iniiaie
aeey i?iaaaeaiey iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie aeieoiaioaeueiuo e eaia?aeueiuo
i?iaa?ie [30, 5].

I?e yoii iaeiaiaay i?iaa?ea i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee yaeyaony
iniiaiui niiniaii eiio?iey ainoaea?noaa ca aeayoaeueiinoueth
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. A oi aea a?aiy i?eoiaeeony i?eciaaaoue, /oi
aeaenoaothuei iaeiaiaui caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii noaoon e i?ioeaaeo?a
i?iaaaeaiey oaeeo i?iaa?ie /aoei ia ii?aaeaeaiu, /oi i/aiue /anoi
ii?iaeaeaao neooaoeee i?aaiaiai i?iecaiea e i?eaiaeeo e ia?ooaieth i?aa
e eioa?ania iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi
aieueoeinoai aeieoiaioia, oae eee eia/a ?aaeaiaioe?othueo aii?in
i?iaaaeaiey iaeiaiaie i?iaa?ee ia i?aaei?eyoeyo, iinyo aaaeiinoaaiiue
oa?aeoa? e eiatho a?eo «Ia aeey ia/aoe», «Nae?aoii» e ae?. E?iia oiai,
ana auoaia?a/eneaiiua aeou eiatho ?aeiiaiaeaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e ia
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ia ?ani?ino?aiythony. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeii
i?eaanoe A?aiaiiua oeacaiey i ii?yaeea i?iaaaeaiey aeieoiaioaeueiuo
i?iaa?ie th?eaee/aneeo eeoe, iacaaeneii io aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe e oi?iu
nianoaaiiinoe (aeeth/ay i?aaei?eyoey n iniaui ?aaeeiii ?aaiou), ii
niaethaeaieth iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?aaeeueiinoe en/eneaiey,
iieiiou e naiaa?aiaiiinoe oieaou a athaeaeao iaeiaa ia i?eaueue [22, 1].
Enoiaey ec auoaeceiaeaiiiai aii?in caeiiiaeaoaeueiie ?aaeaiaioaoeee
ii?yaeea i?iaaaeaiey eiio?iey AIE ca aceiaieai iaeiaia e ae?oaeo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae inoaaony /?acau/aeii aeooaeueiui [25, 412].

Ooieoeee eiio?iey ca i?aaeeueiinoueth en/eneaiey, iieiioie e
naiaa?aiaiiinoueth oieaou a athaeaeao einaaiiuo iaeiaia, a oii /enea
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, aiceiaeaiu ia ioaeaeu einaaiiuo
iaeiaia e i?i/eo aeioiaeia ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeiaiauo einiaeoeee ia
ianoao. I?e yoii enoiaey ec cia/aiey e ianoa iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue a iaeiaiaie nenoaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aaaeouoth ?ieue a
aeayoaeueiinoe yoeo ioaeaeia ea?aao iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Iniiauaaynue ia aeaiiuo AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie iiaeii
i?iaanoe aiaeec nouanoaothuae i?aeoeee aceiaiey IAeN, auyaeoue
oa?aeoa?iua i?iaeaiu ?acaeoey aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN
a ?aieao ioaeaeueii acyoiai ?aeiia a. Eacaie.

Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth Aaoeoianeiai ?aeiia a. Eacaie yaeyaony
iaee/ea a ?aeiia aieueoiai eiee/anoaa i?aaei?eyoee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee,
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, iaaaceiia, ?anoi?aiia, eaoa e aa?ia. Iaeiaei a
neiaeeaoaeny yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee aieueoeinoai yoeo i?aaei?eyoee
iaoiaeeony ia a?aie aaie?ionoaa e iinooieaiey IAeN a athaeaeao io yoeo
ieaoaeueueeia iaeu. Oaeoe/anee aea yeiiiieea Aaoeoianeiai ?aeiia a.
Eacaie iniiauaaaony ia o?ao iaeaieaa e?oiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeao: IYI
«Oaoyia?ai», AI «Eeaa?-Oaaae» e YIO «Eacaiueai?aac». Iaeiaei cia/aiea
iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana a ?aeiia iaeuecy iaaeiioeaieaaoue.

Ii aeaiiui AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie

Oaaeeoea 2.4

Iinooieaiea iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeaoioth nenoaio ?O ii
iniiaiui io?aneyi yeiiiieee

Iinooieei ii iaeiaiaui ieaoaaeai

Ec iauae noiiu iinooieaiee a oaae athaeaeao

Io?aneue anaai a o./. a oaaea? athaeaeao ii IAeN ii iaeiao ia i?eaueue

iei. ?oae. iei. ?oaeae iei. ?oaeae iei. ?oaeae

1 2 3 4 5

Anaai, a oii /enea 1 270 661 555 413 526 042 21 106

10000 I?iiuoeaiiinoue: 908 602 471 665 469 463 1 262

11100 yeaeo?iyia?aaoeea 845 077 460 296 460 267

13100 oeie/aneay e 2 839 423 414

iaooaoeie/aneay i?ii-oue

14000 iaoeiino?iaiea e 3 707 1 603 1 305 273

iaoaeeiia?aaioea

17000 eaaeay i?ii-oue 17 626 7 458 6 371 532

18000 ieuaaay i?ii-oue 39 350 1 885 1 106 457

20000 Naeueneia oicyenoai 1 399 50 42 1

51000 O?aniii?o: 16 087 1 696 1 288 163

51110 ae/ae o?ainii?o 9 182 36

52000 Naycue 12 772 3 944 3 601 102

60000 No?ieoaeuenoai 21 632 5 333 4 072 907

70000 Oi?aiaey e iauaieo 70 030 17 354 12 354 4 298

80000 Niaaaeaiea e nauo 67 849 22 881 12 358 4 299

96000 Oeiainu, e?aaeeo 41717 15804 7335 6890

96100 aaieianeay aeayo-oue 9389 665

96200 no?aoiaaiea 442 78 2 26

Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu 2.4 aeiey ieaoaaeae ii IAeN i?aaei?eyoee
yia?aaoeee ninoaaeyao 87,5 %. Aoi?ia ianoi ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue aeaeyo io?aneue
iaoa?eaeueii-oaoie/aneiai niaaaeaiey e nauoa e io?aneue oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, aeiee eioi?uo a iauae noiia ieaoaaeae ii IAeN
ninoaaeyao ii 2,3 %. Oaeie cia/eoaeueiue io?ua a oaeaeueiuo aanao
ieaoaaeae ii IAeN naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia ia?iiiie caaeneiinoe ieaoaaeae ii
IAeN a oeaeii ii ?aeiio io ieaoaaeae IYI «Oaoyia?ai». Iiyoiio ninoiyiea
aeae ia IYI «Oaoyia?ai» ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyao ninoiyiea aeae ii
ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao ?aeiia. Iaeiaei ianiio?y ia noieue aieueoia
aeeyiea IYI «Oaoyia?ai» n eaaeaeui aiaeii oneeeaaaony ?ieue iaeiai e
n?aaeiaai aeciana a ?aeiia. Oae aeiey ieaoaaeae ii IAeN io i?aaei?eyoee
/anoiie oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe i?i/ii caieiaao aoi?ia ianoi iinea
ainoaea?noaaiiie nianoaaiiinoe e ninoaaeyao ii/oe 4 %.

?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua iieacaoaee aeayoaeueiinoe iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia
?aeiia e i?iaeaiu a iaeanoe iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, n eioi?uie i?eoiaeeony
noaeeeaaoueny iaeiaiaui i?aaiai ?aeiia. Aeeiaieea i?aaenoaaeaiey
i?aaei?eyoeyie iaeiaiauo aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN ii eaa?oaeai 1997 aiaea
i?aaenoaaeaia a oaae. 2.5.

Oaaeeoea 2.5

Aeeiaieea i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN a 1997 aiaeo

a aaeeieoeao

Iieacaoaeue I ea 97 a. II ea 97 a. III ea 97 a. IV ea 97 a.

Eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee ninoiyueo ia iaeiaiaii o/aoa

Eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaenoaaeaoeo iaeiaiaua aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN

I?aaei?eyoey ia i?aaenoaaeaoea ?an/ao ii IAeN

Eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee eueaioieeia

3011

1875

1136

144

3070

2034

1036

151

3149

2047

1102

154

3220

2235

985

160

Ii ninoiyieth ia 1 yiaa?y 1998 aiaea ia iaeiaiaii o/aoa ninoieo 3220
i?aaei?eyoee ieaoaeueueeia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue,
eiee/anoai eioi?uo iinoiyiii ?anoao (?ino a IV eaa?oaea ninoaaee 71
i?aaei?eyoea, a III eaa?oaea – 79 i?aaei?eyoee, ai II eaa?oaea – 59
i?aaei?eyoee e a I eaa?oaea – 56 i?aaei?eyoee). ?ino eiee/anoaa
i?aaei?eyoee iaoneiaeai oaaee/aieai /enea aiiaue ?aaeno?e?oaiuo
i?aaei?eyoee. Iaeiaei aianoa n oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa aiiaue
?aaeno?e?oaiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?anoao e iaa?ocea ia iaeiaiaua i?aaiu, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iaiaa ieioiiio ioaaoo aeieoiaioaeueiuie i?iaa?eaie anao
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ?aeiia. Yoo i?iaeaio iaiaoiaeeii ?aoaoue ia
caeiiiaeaoaeueiii o?iaia iooai oi?iuaiey i?ioeaaeo? cae?uoey
i?aaei?eyoee e niyoey eo n o/aoa, a oaeaea aaaaeaiey i?ioeaaeo?u
iaycaoaeueiiai cae?uoey ia?aaioathueo a oa/aiea aeeeoaeueiiai a?aiaie
i?aaei?eyoee.

Eae iieacuaatho aeaiiua oaaeeoeu 2.5, a n?aaeiai ieiei 1000 i?aaei?eyoee
ia i?aaenoaaeytho iaeiaiauo aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN e e iei iaeiaiaua
i?aaiu i?aaeuyaeytho naieoeee a aeaea i?einoaiiaeaiey iia?aoeee ii
?an/aoiui (oaeouei) n/aoai a aaieao. Iaeiaei aieueoeinoai yoeo
i?aaei?eyoee ia aaaeoo oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe e
iiaeeaaeao cae?uoeth. Ii a niioaaonoaee n aeaenoaothuei
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii eaa/a ia aanoe oeiainiai-oicyenoaaiioth
aeayoaeueiinoue e ia i?aaeinoaaeyoue aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN, /ai i?iaanoe
iieioth i?ioeaaeo?o cae?uoey i?aaei?eyoey.

Oaaeeoea 2.6

No?oeoo?a i?aaei?eyoee, ninoiyueo ia iaeiaiaii o/aoa a 1997 aiaeo

a aaeeieoeao

Oi?ia i?aaei?eyoey-iaeiaiieaoaeueueea I ea 97 a. II ea 97 a. III ea 97
a. IV ea 97 a.

Ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey

Aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa

Iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e eiiia?aoeau

Eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua /anoiua i?aaei?eyoey

I?i/ea i?aaiecaoeee

179

162

1191

70

273

177

188

1319

112

238

179

184

1347

95

242

188

195

1352

57

283

Aiaeec oaaeeoeu 2.6 iieacuaaao, /oi a no?oeoo?a iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia
?aeiia cia/eoaeueii i?aiaeaaeatho i?aaei?eyoey iaeiai e n?aaeiaai
aeciana – iauanoaa n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth e eiiia?aoeau, ii
eioi?ui iaaethaeaaony noaaeeueiia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe yoeo
i?aaei?eyoee ca n/ao aiiaue ?aaeno?e?oaiuo iauanoa. Eae iieacuaaao
i?aeoeea – yoi iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiay i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiaay oi?ia
i?aaei?eyoey. Aeiey ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee e aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa
i?eaeeceoaeueii iaeeiaeiaa e ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai ii 9 % io iauaai
/enea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia (aeeaa?aiia 2.7). I?e/ai ii aini?aaei?eyoeyi
iaaethaeaaony ioiineoaeueiay noaaeeueiinoue, a ii aeoeeiia?iui iauanoaai
ieaaiia oaaee/aiea /eneaiiinoe e aeiee a no?oeoo?a, /oi iauyniyaony
iiyaeaieai iiauo aeoeeiia?iuo iauanoa a ?aeiia.

Cia/eoaeueiay ianoaaeeueiinoue iaaethaeaaony eeoue ii eiaeeaeaeoaeueiui
/anoiui i?aaei?eyoeyi, /oi aiieia iauynieii oycaeiinoueth naiie
no?oeoo?u i?aaei?eyoey. Iaeiaei aieaa aeoaieea auaiaeu i no?oeoo?a
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ?aeiia iiaeii naeaeaoue i?iaiaeece?iaaa no?oeoo?o
i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoia ii IAeN e oieaou naiiai iaeiaa a athaeaeao.

Aeeaa?aiia 2.7

Eae oaea aiai?eeinue auoa, iniiaiuie iaoiaeaie iaeiaiaiai eiio?iey
yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea eaia?aeueiuo e aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia. Eaia?aeueiua i?iaa?ee i?iaiaeyony iaeiaiauie
einiaeoeeyie ia noaaeee i?eaiee io iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia io/aoiuo
aeieoiaioia e iaeiaiauo ?an/aoia, oi anoue aac auoiaea ia i?aaei?eyoea.
I?e yoii oeaeueth eaia?aeueiie i?iaa?ee yaeyaony:

a) onoaiiaeaiea a?aoeea naea/e io/aoia e oieaou IAeN.

Nouanoaotho aeaa oi?iu io/aoiinoe ii IAeN: – aaeaeaa?oaeueiay e
aaeaiany/iay. Oieaoa aea iaeiaa inouanoaeyaony, i?e eaa?oaeueiie oi?ia
io/aoiinoe aei 20 /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui eaa?oaeii, i?e
iany/iie oi?ia io/aoiinoe, eeai aaeaiany/ii aei 20 /enea ianyoea,
neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui ianyoeai, eeai aaeaaeaeaaeii ii n?ieai 15, 25 e
5 /enea n ia?a?an/aoii 20 /enea. Oio eee eiie a?aoee naea/e io/aoia ii
IAeN e oieaou iaeiaa onoaiaaeeaaaony eiaeeaeaeoaeueii aeey eaaeaeiai
i?aaei?eyoey ia aoaeouee ianyoe (eaa?oae) a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a
n?aaeiaiany/iiai ieaoaaea enoiaey ec oaeoe/aneeo iai?ioia ca enoaeoee
ianyoe (eaa?oae). Ia?eiaee/iinoue naea/e io/aoia e oieaou iaeiaa
?aaoee?oaony ioieoii 30 ?acaeaea X «N?iee oieaou iaeiaa e i?aaenoaaeaiey
?an/aoia» Eino?oeoeee ? 39 io 11 ieoya?y 1995 a. Ianiaethaeaiea a?aoeea
naea/e io/aoiinoe e n?ieia oieaou iaeiaia aaaeao e iaeiaeaieth
oeiainiauo naieoeee ia i?aaei?eyoey e aaeieieno?aoeaiuo oo?aoia ia
?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee-ia?ooeoaeae.

a) iaiin?aaenoaaiiay i?iaa?ea io/aoiinoe e ?an/aoia ii iaeiao.

I?e yoii i?iaa?ea a iniiaiii iiaeaa?aaaony i?aaeeueiinoue caiieiaiey
niioaaonoaothueo a?ao e no?ie aeaeea?aoeee e io/aoia, i?aaiia?iinoue
eniieueciaaiey oao eee eiuo eueaio, a oaeaea inouanoaeyaony
a?eoiaoe/aneay naa?ea io/aoiuo iieacaoaeae. E?iia a?eoiaoe/aneiai
iiaen/aoa i?iaa?yaony iieiioa caiieiaiey ?aeaeceoia, i?aaeeueiinoue
i?eiaiaiey noaaie, iaee/ea ia/aoe i?aaei?eyoey e iiaeienae aeieaeiinoiuo
eeoe. I?e iaoiaeaeaiee a?eoiaoe/aneeo ioeaie iaeiaiaue einiaeoi?,
i?eieiathuee io/ao iiaeao iaeiaeeoue 10 % oeiainiaua naieoeee ca
iai?aaeeueiia en/eneaiea iaeiaa, iaeiaei a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa
iaeiaiaua einiaeoi?a eeai aica?auatho io/ao ia eni?aaeaiea, eeai aeatho
aiciiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeoaeth i?aaei?eyoey eni?aaeoue ioeaeo ia ianoa.
Oaeie iiaeoiae e i?iaaaeaieth eaia?aeueiie i?iaa?ee yaeyaony iaeaieaa
aoiaiiui a ianoiyueo oneiaeyo ianoaaeeueiiai e i/aiue oneiaeiaiiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa.

a) aaaeaiea ea?oi/ae eeoeaauo n/aoia i?aaei?eyoey-iaeiaiieaoaeueueea.

O/ao iinooieaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii eaaeaeiio
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo aaaeaony ia ea?oi/eao eeoeaauo n/aoia ii oi?ia ? 6
(i?eeiaeaiea ? 9 e Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O io 15 ai?aey 1994 a. ? 26 «I
ii?yaeea aaaeaiey a ainoaea?noaaiiuo iaeiaiauo einiaeoeeyo
iia?aoeaii-aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa iaeiaia, nai?ia, iioeei e ae?oaeo
iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae»). Oaeei ia?acii, iinea i?eiyoey aeaeea?aoeee ii
IAeN io/ao ia?aaeaaony a ioaeae o/aoa, aaea i?ienoiaeeo ia/eneaiea
iaeiaa.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo eaia?aeueiuo i?iaa?ie iaoiaeyo naia io?aaeaiea
a iauae io/aoiinoe iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee ia?aae auoanoiyueie i?aaiaie
ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie neoaeau ?O.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiuo eaia?aeueiuo i?iaa?ie a 1997 aiaeo, a oaeaea
aeeiaieea iinooieaiey IAeN a athaeaeao ii eaa?oaeai 1997 aiaea
i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaaeeoea 2.8.

Oaaeeoea 2.8

?acoeueoaou eaia?aeueiuo i?iaa?ie e aeeiaieea oieaou iaeiaa a athaeaeao

a iei. ?oaeae.

Iieacaoaeue I ea 97 a. II ea 97 a. III ea 97 a. IV ea 97 a.

Noiia IAeN, iiaeeaaeauay oieaoa a athaeaeao

– a oii /enea ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ainnaeoi?a

Aeiey ainnaeoi?a a iauae noiia ia/eneaiee

Noiia IAeN iinooieaoay a athaeaeao

81410,3

64690,9

79,5 %

43699,0

235920,0

218926,2

92,8 %

151303,0

209227,3

191195,7

91,4 %

109285,0

116217,8

89053,6

76,6 %

696678,0

Aiaeec aeeiaieee iinooieaiee iaeiaa iieacuaaao, /oi cia/eoaeueiia
oaaee/aiea iinooieaiee iaeiaa a IV eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea ii n?aaiaieth n
III eaa?oaeii 1997 aiaea ia 637,5 % iauyniyaony ?aceei oaaee/aieai
ieaoaaeae io iniiaiiai ieaoaeueueea a ?aeiia – IYI «Oaoyia?ai». Aeiey
iinooieaiee ii IAeN a athaeaeao io IYI «Oaoyia?ai» a IV eaa?oaea 1997
aiaea ninoaaeea 90,4 % io anae noiiu iinooieaiey iaeiaa. Oaaee/aiea
iinooieaiee io IYI «Oaoyia?ai» ii?aaeaeaii i?iaaaeaieai aeaiaaeiuo
ca/aoia a /anoe athaeaeaoa ?O ia noiio 374095,0 iei. ?oa., a oaeaea
aieueoie noiiie iinooieaoeo aaenaeae aaiea Ae Aa?n a iieaoo IAeN ii
athaeaeaoo ?O a noiia 253526,0 iei. ?oa. E?aeia ieceie inoaaony aeiey
aeaiaaeiuo iinooieaiee a athaeaeao io IYI «Oaoyia?ai» ii n?aaiaieth n
iaaeaiaaeiuie. Oae a IV eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie
iinooieei a athaeaeao 1901,1 iei. ?oa., eee 0,6 % io anae noiiu,
iinooieaoae a athaeaeao.

O/eouaay cia/aiea IYI «Oaoyia?ai» eae iaeiaiieaoaeueueea AIE ii
Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie aunoaaeyao ii ii?o/aieth
Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O ia oa??eoi?ee iauaaeeiaiey iaeiaiaue iino, eioi?ue
neaaeeo ia oieueei ca ninoiyieai iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae
athaeaeaoii, ii e ca oaeoi?aie, ieacuaathueie aeeyiea ia yoi ninoiyiea.
Oae ii aeaiiui iaeiaiaiai iinoa, oaaee/aiea iinooieaiee ii IAeN a
athaeaeao a IV eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea i?iecioei ia oiia oaaee/aiey
?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee a iaoo?aeueiii e noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee. Oaii
?inoa iauaia auionea i?iaeoeoeee a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee ii n?aaiaieth
n III eaa?oaeii 1997 aiaea ninoaaee: – ii oaieiaie yia?aee – 77,9 %, –
ii yeaeo?iyia?aee – 6,6 %. A noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee ?aaeecaoeey aic?inea
ia: – 45,1 % ii oaieiaie yia?aee, e ia 2,4 % ii yeaeo?iyia?aee.
Oaaee/aiea iauaiia i?iecaiaenoaa a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee iaoneiaeaii
naciiiui oaeoi?ii – ia/aeii ioiieoaeueiiai naciia. Oaaee/aiea auionea
i?iaeoeoeee a noieiinoiii au?aaeaiee iaoneiaeaii cia/eoaeueiui
oaaee/aieai auionea i?iaeoeoeee a iaoo?aeueiii au?aaeaiee. Iinooieaiey
iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae io IYI «Oaoyia?ai» iiaei auoue aua aieueoei, anee au
ia ?yae oaeoi?ia, iiaeeyaoeo ia eo oiaiueoaiea:

– aieueoay noiia iaaeieiee, eioi?ay ia 1 yiaa?y 1998 a. ninoaaeea
220624,9 iei. ?oa.;

– aieueoay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay ia 1 yiaa?y 19978
aiaea ninoaaeea 4415251,0 iei. ?oa.;

– ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia oaeoe/aneia iinooieaiea iaeiaia a athaeaeao
ieacuaaao nenoaia acaeiica/aoia e iaaeaiaaeiua oi?iu iieaou iaaeaeo
i?aaei?eyoeyie ca ieacaiiua oneoae, auiieiaiiua ?aaiou, ioa?oaeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth oaae. 2.9.

Oaaeeoea 2.9

?aaeecaoeey oiaa?iie i?iaeoeoeee e?oiiuie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie ?aeiia a
1997a

(iei. ?oaeae)

Iaeiaiiaaiea

i?aaei?eyoey ?aaeeciaaii

anaai

a oii /enea

?an/aoiue n/ao aaenaey Ae Aa?n Acaeiica/ao

IYI «Oaoyia?ai»

AI «Eeaa?-Oaaae»

3791542,5

80681,5

74465,8

211,1

149203,8

20030,5

3567872,9

60439,9

Oae, iaaeaiaaeiua oi?iu ?an/aoia ia iauaaeeiaiee ninoaaeee ii ninoiyieth
ia 1 aeaeaa?y 1997 aiaea 98 % io anaai iauaia oiaa?iie ?aaeecaoeee ca 11
ianyoeaa 1997 aiaea. Oaeay aea neooaoeey neeaaeuaaaony e o aoi?iai
e?oiiiai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ?aeiia AI «Eeaa? Oaaae». Oae, ia yoii
i?aaei?eyoee aeaiaaeiuie n?aaenoaaie iiea/eaaaony anaai 0,02 % anae
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. Inoaeueiay iieaoa inouanoaeyaony eeai iooai
acaeiica/aoia, eeai aaenaeyie Ae Aa?n Aaiea.

Enoiaey ec anaai auoaeceiaeaiiiai iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae, /oi i?iaeaia
iaieaoaaeae a yeiiiieea ieacuaaao ia?iiiia aeeyiea ia ninoiyiea
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu no?aiu e ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu iicaieeo cia/eoaeueii
iiauneoue yooaeoeaiinoue iaeiaia a oeaeii e iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue a /anoiinoe. Iaeiaei ?aoaiea yoie i?iaeaiu ia aeieaeii
iineoue ?aceee, ac?uaiie oa?aeoa? eae, iai?eia?, cai?ao n 1 yiaa?y 1998
aiaea anao oiaa?iuo acaeiica/aoia n athaeaeaoii e acaeiica/aoia n
o/anoeai aaenaeae Ae Aa?n Aaiea, oae eae oaeia ?aoaiea iiaeao aiiaua
i?ae?aoeoue oioue eaeea-oi iaeiaiaua iinooieaiey a athaeaeao.

A i?iaiaeeiii aiaeeca iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea oaeaeeoue aieiaiea no?oeoo?a
i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoia ii IAeN e oieaou iaeiaa a athaeaeao ii
i?aaei?eyoeyi ?acee/iuo i?aaiecaoeeiiii-i?aaiauo oi?i a ?ac?aca
eaa?oaeia 1997 aiaea oaae. 2.10.

Oaaeeoea 2.10

No?oeoo?a i?aaenoaaeaiey io/aoia ii IAeN e oieaou
iaeiaa a athaeaeao

a iei. ?oaeae

I ea 97 a.

II ea 97 a.

III ea 97 a.

IV ea 97 a.

Anaai

I?aaei?eyoea ?an/ao oaeo ?an/ao oaeo ?an/ao oaeo ?an/ao oaeo ?an/ao
oaeo

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11

Aini?aaei?eyoey 64 690,9 29 077,4 218 926,2 138 199,4 191 195,4 93 814,2
89 053,6 371 613,6 563 866,1 632 704,6

Aeoeeii iauanoaa 6 903,7 4 812,7 9 480,8 5 811,7 10 235,7 7 984,1 17
155,5 22 585,2 43 775,7 41 193,7

III e eiiia?aoeau 6 767,3 6 597,2 5 456,5 5 151,6 5 466,5 5 062,7 6
176,0 8 093,4 23 866,3 24 904,9

E*I 333,2 310,4 49,7 50,1 124,4 125,1 133,9 250,8 641,2 736,4

I?i/ea 2 715,2 2 901,3 2 006,8 2 090,2 2 205,3 2 298,9 3 707,8 2 823,0
10 635,1 10 113,4

Anaai 81 410,3 43 699,0 235 920,0 151 303,0 209 227,3 109 285,0 116
226,8 405 366,0 642 784,4 709 653,0

Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu 2.10 aieaa 80 % anao ieaoaaeae ii IAeN a
athaeaeao i?eoiaeeony ia ainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey ?aeiia. Oaeay
ia?iiiay caaeneiinoue ieaoaaeae iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a
athaeaeao io ainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee ?aeiia ai iiiaii
ii?aaeaeyaony ieaoaaeaie e?oiiaeoaai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ?aeiia IYI
«Oaoyia?ai». Ia aoi?ii ianoa ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao iaoiaeyony
aeoeeiia?iua iauanoaa, aeiey eioi?uo aeinoeaaao ii/oe 6 %. Aeiey aea
cia/eoaeueii i?aiaeaaeathueo ii /eneaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee iaeiai e
n?aaeiaai aeciana iaea (3,5 %) ec-ca cia/eoaeueiuo iieacaoaeae IYI
«Oaoyia?ai» e YIO «Eacaiueai?aac». A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ianoaeaeaaony
aii?in i ia?aaea/a aeae ii aaaeaieth e?oiiaeoaai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea ia
oieueei ?aeiia, ii e ?anioaeeee a AIE ii ?O. Yoi oeaeaniia?acii n oi/ee
c?aiey cia/aiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iauaaeeiaiey a ?anioaeeea.
Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea oaeaeeoue aieiaiea cia/eoaeueiie ia?aaiiia?iinoe
ieaoaaeae ii IAeN a oa/aiea aiaea ii anai iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai ?aeiia.
I?aeoe/anee ana i?aaei?eyoey a IV eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea e?iia oaeoueo
ieaoaaeae ii IAeN inouanoaeyee oaeaea iiaaoaiea iaaeieiee ii IAeN,
ia?aciaaaoaeny a oa/aiea 1997 aiaea. Oae, ieaoaaee ii IAeN a IV eaa?oaea
1997 aiaea a 3,5 ?aca i?aauneee noiio iaeiaa, iiaeeaaeauoth oieaoa a
athaeaeao ii aeaeea?aoeeyi. Oaeay aeoeaiinoue iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia a
eiioea aiaea ai iiiaii iauyniyaony cai?aoii n 1 yiaa?y 1998 aiaea
eniieueciaaiey aaenaeae Ae Aa?n Aaiea eae eino?oiaioa oieaou 50 % iaeiaa
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a athaeaeao ?O.

Iaeiei ec cia/eoaeueiuo yoaiia i?iaaaeaiey iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie eiio?iey
ca aceiaieai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue yaeyaony i?iaaaeaiea
aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee ?acee/iuo oi?i
nianoaaiiinoe.

A niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 11 Caeiia ?NON? «I Ainoaea?noaaiiie iaeiaiaie
neoaeaa ?NON?» iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee i?iecaiaeyo aeieoiaioaeueiua
i?iaa?ee i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee ia ?aaea iaeiiai ?aca a aeaa aiaea.
Aeieoiaioaeueiua i?iaa?ee inouanoaeythony a niioaaonoaee n aiaeiauie
ieaiaie ?aaiou einiaeoeee e eaa?oaeueiuie a?aoeeaie i?iaa?ie,
ninoaaeyaiuie ii eaaeaeiio o/anoeo ?aaiou. I?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe
i?iaiaeyony aiaieaiiaua aeieoiaioaeueiua, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua
oaiaoe/aneea i?iaa?ee i?aaei?eyoee.

I?e aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?eao i?iaa?yaony aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaei?eyoey
io aeaou i?aaeuaeouae aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee ii oaeouee iiiaio. A
neo/aa iaiaoiaeeiinoe aeieoiaioaeueiua i?iaa?ee i?iaiaeyony ca aieaa
aeeeoaeueiua ia?eiaeu.

I?iaaaeaieth aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee i?aaeoanoaoao eaia?aeueiay
i?iaa?ea, eco/aiea eiathueony iaoa?eaeia i?aaeuaeouae i?iaa?ee,
iinooieaoeo neaiaeia i ia?ooaiee iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e ae?oaie
eioi?iaoeee, oa?aeoa?ecothuae ?aaioo e oeiainiaia ninoiyiea
ieaoaeueueea. Ia iniiaaiee yoie eioi?iaoeee ?ac?aaaouaaaony i?ia?aiia
i?iaaaeaiey aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee, i?aaeoniao?eaathuay ia?a/aiue
iniiaiuo aii?inia, ia eioi?uo neaaeoao nin?aaeioi/eoue aieiaiea, a
oaeaea eiie?aoiue ia?eiae, ca eioi?ue iia aeieaeia auoue i?iaaaeaia.
I?ia?aiia i?iaa?ee ooaa?aeaeaaony ?oeiaiaeeoaeai Ainoaea?noaaiiie
iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee eee aai caianoeoaeai.

Iniiaiie oeaeueth aeieoiaioaeueiie i?iaa?ee yaeyaony i?iaa?ea
aeinoiaa?iinoe i?aaeinoaaeyaiie iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee. Aieaa aeaoaeueii
yoo iniiaioth oeaeue iiaeii iiae?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei, iniiauaaynue
ia niaoeeoeea en/eneaiey IAeN: a) i?iaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe io?aaeaiey
iai?ioia ii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee, ?aaio, oneoa, oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo
oeaiiinoae e anao iinooieaoeo aeaiaaeiuo oeaiiinoae ia n/aoa
i?aaei?eyoey; a) i?iaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe io?aaeaiey iai?ioia ii
i?eia?aoaieth oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuo oeaiiinoae, ?aaio, oneoa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oa?aeoa?a e nienaiea eo a onoaiiaeaiiii caeiiii
ii?yaeea ia aiciauaiea ec athaeaeaoa; a) i?iaa?ea i?aaeeueiinoe
io?aaeaiey IAeN ii i?eia?aoaiiui iniiaiui n?aaenoaai, iaiaoa?eaeueiui
aeoeaai n niaethaeaieai aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa; a) i?iaa?ea
i?aaeeueiinoe e iainiiaaiiinoe i?eiaiaiey eueaio ii IAeN; ae) i?iaa?ea
i?aaeeueiinoe aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa IAeN e o.ae.

I?iaa?ea aeinoiaa?iinoe iaeiaiauo aeaeea?aoeee ia/eiaaony n
niiinoaaeaiey aeaiiuo aeaaiie eieae n iieacaoaeyie iaeiaiaie
aeaeea?aoeee. I?e yoii iniaia aieiaiea oaeaeyaony iai?ioai ii aaeainiaui
n/aoai 68, 46, 64, 19, 60, 62, 76. Iinea naa?ee iaeiaiaie aeaeea?aoeee e
aeaaiie eieae i?iaa?yaony aeinoiaa?iinoue iai?ioia ii auoaia?a/eneaiiui
n/aoai aeaaiie eieae. Aeey yoiai iaeiaiaue einiaeoi? ia?auaaony e
?aaeno?ai aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa e ia?ae/iui aeieoiaioai (aaieianeea
auienee, ieaoaaeiua ii?o/aiey, iaeeaaeiua, n/aoa-oaeoo?u, aeiaiai?a e
o.ae.). Aaaeiui yoaiii a ?aaioa iaeiaiauo einiaeoi?ia yaeyaony
caiieiaiea nee/eoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoae. Noaia nee/eoaeueiie aaaeiiinoe
i?aaenoaaeaia a oaae. 2.11 (I?eeiaeaiea 1).

Ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo nee/eoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoae iaeiaiaue einiaeoi?
aeaeaao auaiae i noiiao nie?uoiai (caieaeaiiiai) iaeiaa, noiiao
ia?aieaou e noiiao iaaeieiee, iaia?oaeaiiie a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaa?ee. Ia
iniiaaiee nee/eoaeueiuo aaaeiiinoae i?eieiaaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueiie
?aoaiea i i?eiaiaiee e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeo oeiainiauo naieoeee.

?acoeueoaou i?iaaaeaiiie eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou iaoiaeyo naia io?aaeaiea a
io/aoa iaeiaiauo i?aaiia i i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaioa ii aii?inai iieiie
iiaeeecaoeee iaeiaia a athaeaeaou ?acee/iiai o?iaiy oaae. 2.12.

Oaaeeoea 2.12

Io/ao i i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaioa ii aii?inai iieiie iiaeeecaoeee iaeiaia

(a aaeeieoeao)

Iieacaoaeue I ea 97 a. II ea 97 a. III ea 97 a. IV ea 97 a. Anaai

Eiee/anoai aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie

– a oii /enea ainnaeoi?

– a oii /enea eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u

Neo/ae ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai caeii-aa

– a oii /enea ainnaeoi?

– a oii /enea eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u

76

22

54

32

13

19

117

21

96

49

20

29

106

26

80

39

12

27

140

33

107

47

20

27

439

102

337

167

65

102

Ca 1997 aiae ioaeaeii einaaiiuo iaeiaia i?iecaaaeaii 2235 eaia?aeueiuo
i?iaa?ie ii IAeN. Aeieoiaioaeueiuie i?iaa?eaie ca yoio aea ia?eiae auee
ioaa/aiu 439 i?aaei?eyoee – ieaoaeueueeia IAeN ni. oaae. 2.12. Neo/ae
ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN onoaiiaeaiu ca 12
ianyoeaa 1997 aiaea a 167 i?aaei?eyoeyo. Oi anoue, a n?aaeiai 38 %
i?iaiaeeiuo aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie ioi?ieythony aeoaie, a 62 %
i?iaa?ie – ni?aaeaie. I?e/ai 62 % ia?ooaiee onoaiaaeeaatho ia
eiiia?/aneeo i?aaei?eyoeyo, /oi naycaii ni cia/eoaeueii aieueoei eo
/eneii a ?aeiia e aieueoei /eneii i?iaa?ie, i?iaiaeeiuo a eiiia?/aneeo
no?oeoo?ao (77 % anao i?iaiaeeiuo i?iaa?ie). Ii ?acoeueoaoai
aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie iauay noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ninoaaeea ca 12 ianyoeaa 1997 aiaea 37856,0
iei. ?oa., ii niaoeiaeiao 2946,0 iei. ?oa., a n o/aoii oo?aoiuo naieoeee
ii IAeN 209141,0 iei. ?oa., ii niaoeiaeiao 11416,0 iei. ?oa.

Ca ia?ooaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ?oeiaiaeeoaee e aeaaiua
aooaaeoa?a i?aaei?eyoee i?eaea/aiu e aaeieieno?aoeaiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe,
noiia iaeiaeaiiuo oo?aoia ninoaaeyao 39 iei. ?oa.;

a oii /enea ii eaa?oaeai:

– I ea 97 a. – 5,6 iei. ?oa.;

– II ea 97 a. – 14,6 iei. ?oa.;

– III ea 97 a. – 5,8 iei. ?oa.;

– IV ea 97 a. – 13,0 iei. ?oa.

Iaeiie ec na?ueaciaeoeo i?iaeai en/eneaiey IAeN, n eioi?ie iaiaeiie?aoii
noaeeeaathony e iaeiaiieaoaeueueee e iaeiaiaua i?aaiu a ?acoeueoaoa
aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?ie, yaeyaony neiaeiinoue a ii?aaeaeaiee
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe oicyenoaaiiuo iia?aoeee iaeiaiaiio ia?eiaeo, eioi?ue a
ioee/ee io iaeiaia, en/eneyaiuo ia?anoathuei eoiaii, ia?aie/eaaaony
ianyoeai (eaa?oaeai). Ii?aaeaeaiea iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea ea?aao aieueooth
?ieue i?e i?eiaiaiee ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca iaeiaiaua i?aaiia?ooaiey. Eae
?acuyniee a naiai ienueia io 10 ia?oa 1994 a. ? IU-7/II-142 Aunoee
A?aeo?aaeiue Noae ?O, iineieueeo IAeN ia yaeyaony iaeiaii, en/eneyaiui
ia?anoathuei eoiaii, ioaaonoaaiiinoue i?eiaiyaony ca oa iaeiaiiaeaaaaiua
ia?eiaeu, a eioi?uo aeiiouaiu ia?ooaiey. Oaeo ia?aieaou iaeiaa a
iineaaeothuea iaeiaiiaeaaaaiua ia?eiaeu ia aeeyao ia ?acia? yoie
ioaaonoaaiiinoe. A oi aea a?aiy, anee iaaeieiea ii iaeiao ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii eiie?aoiiio ia?eiaeo ainiieiyaony ia?aieaoie
a i?aaeoanoaothuea ia?eiaeu, ninoaa iaeiaiaiai i?aaiia?ooaiey,
i?aaeoniio?aiiue iiaeioieoii «a» i. 1 noaouee 13 Caeiia «Ia iniiaao
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu» ionoonoaoao [25, 308].

Oaeei ia?acii, ia/aoeia iiieiaiea iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie i?iaeaiu
iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea ii IAeN i?eaiaeeo e nouanoaaiiui oeiainiaui
naieoeeyi e, oai naiui, iiaeao cia/eoaeueii oneiaeieoue oeiainiaia
ninoiyiea i?aaei?eyoey.

A nayce n auoaeceiaeaiiui iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi,
/oi anee aei iaeiaiaie i?iaa?ee (eaia?aeueiie eee aeieoiaioaeueiie)
iaeaeaiu ioeaee, aianaiu niioaaonoaothuea eni?aaeaiey a io/aoiinoue, a
?an/aou ii iaeiaai e ieaoaaeai, e oiea/aiu a athaeaeao i?e/eoathueany
noiiu, oi iaeiaiieaoaeueuee inaiaiaeaeaaony io oo?aoia e iaiae.
Iniiaaiea – ioieo 13 Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996 a. ? 685 «Ia
iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ia?ao
ii oe?aieaieth iaeiaiaie e ieaoaaeiie aeenoeeieeiu». Niioaaonoaothuea
?acuyniaiey aeaiu Ainiaeianeoaeaie ?O a ienueia io 28 ethiy 1996 a. ?
IA-6-09/450 «I ?aaeecaoeee ioaeaeueiuo iieiaeaiee Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O ?
685 io 8 iay 1996 a.», a oaeaea a ienueia Oi?aaeaiey iaoiaeieiaee e
i?aaiecaoeee eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou Ainiaeianeoaeau ?O io 10 aeaeaa?y 1996
a. ? 16-2-29/280 e a ienueia Oi?aaeaiey iaeiaiauo nii?ia e
i?aoaiceiiii-eneiaie ?aaiou AIN ?O io 4.12.96 a. ? 11-05/382.

A neo/aa n iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue oaeia eni?aaeaiea
i?eieiaaony oieueei i?e i?aaenoaaeaiee iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii a
niioaaonoaothuea iaeiaiaua einiaeoeee aeiiieieoaeueiuo iaeiaiauo
?an/aoia (aeaeea?aoeee) ioaeaeueii ca eaaeaeue iaeiaiaue ia?eiae, a
eioi?ii i?iecaiaeyony ooi/iaiey. Iaiaoiaeeii oaeaea ioiaoeoue, /oi
aieioue aei i?eiyoey Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996 a. ? 685,
iaeiaiaui einiaeoeeyi auei eaoaai?e/anee cai?auaii i?eieiaoue e
?anniio?aieth oaeea aeiiieieoaeueiua ?an/aou, oioy eo nouanoaiaaiea
i?yii neaaeoao ec nouiinoe iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

Ana auoaneacaiiia ioiineony e acaeiiioiioaieyi iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia ii aii?ino i?aaeeueiinoe en/eneaiey e naiaa?aiaiiinoe
ia?a/eneaiey a athaeaeao iaeiaia e ae?oaeo iaycaoaeueiuo ieaoaaeae, oi
anoue i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iee?io?iaaiue iaeiaiaiai eiio?iey ca aceiaieai
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Iaeiaei aeey oiai, /oiau
enneaaeiaaoue anth nenoaio eiio?iey iaeiaiauo i?aaiia ca aceiaieai
iaeiaa, iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue aieiaiea iae?io?iaith, oi anoue o?iaith
i?eiyoey ?aoaiee ia yooaeoeaiinoe aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i
IAeN. Yoei iae?io?iaiai yaeyaony Oeaio?aeueiue aiia?ao Ainiaeianeoaeau
?O, a aacie aeey i?eiyoey ei ?aoaiee ia yooaeoeaiinoe iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
a oeaeii, e iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a /anoiinoe, yaeyaony
io/aoiinoue ianoiuo i?aaiia iaeiaiaiai eiio?iey i i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaioa,
eioi?ay yaeyaony no?iai ea?a?oe/iie e iaycaoaeueiie.

Iniiaiuie oi?iaie io/aoia, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuie AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio
a. Eacaie ? 1, yaeyaony neaaeothuea aeaeu io/aoia: a) io/ao i
iinooieaieyo iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae e ae?oaeo aeioiaeia a athaeaeaoioth
nenoaio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii oi?ia ? 1-IIO. Aeaiiay oi?ia io/aoa
i?aaeinoaaeyaony aaeaiany/ii a auoanoiyuoth iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth ii a.
Eacaie, aaea aeaiiua ii anai ?aeiiai ai?iaea niae?athony, a?oiie?othony
e iai?aaeythony a auoanoiyuea i?aaiu Ainiaeianeoaeau ?innee. Aeaiiue
io/ao ninoieo ec /aou?ao ?acaeaeia, io?aaeathueo ?acee/iua noi?iiu
oi?ie?iaaiey aeioiaeia athaeaeaoia ?acee/iiai o?iaiy. Io/ao ii oi?ia
1-IIO ii ninoiyieth ia 1 yiaa?y 1998 aiaea i?aaenoaaeai oaae. 2.13
(I?eeiaeaiea ? 2); a) io/ao i iinooieaiee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae a
athaeaeaoioth nenoaio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii iniiaiui io?aneyi
yeiiiieee, ieienoa?noaai e aaaeiinoaai ii oi?ia 1-III. Aeaiiay oi?ia
io/aoa yaeyaony aeaoaeecaoeeae io/aoa 1-IIO e i?aaeinoaaeyaony niaianoii
n iei aaeaiany/ii; a) io/ao i iinooieaiee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae e ae?oaeo
aeioiaeia a athaeaeaoioth nenoaio ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee ii oi?iai
nianoaaiiinoe e noauaeoai iaeiai aeciana ii oi?ia 1-ION. Aeaiiay oi?ia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiay a oaae. 2.14 (I?eeiaeaiea ? 3) yaeyaony eaa?oaeueiie
oi?iie io/aoiinoe.

Ana yoe ?aciiaeaeiinoe io/aoia ii oi?ia 1-I oi?ie?othony a oeaeii ii
iaeiaiaie einiaeoeee eeai aaeaiany/ii, eeai aaeaeaa?oaeueii e
i?aaenoaaeythony a ainoaea?noaaiioth iaeiaiaoth einiaeoeeth ii a.
Eacaie. Oi?ie?iaaiea aeaiiuo aeaeia io/aoia inouanoaeyaony ioaeaeii
o/aoa e io/aoiinoe AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio a. Eacaie ? 1. Ioaeae
einaaiiuo iaeiaia e i?i/eo aeioiaeia a naith i/a?aaeue aaeaeaa?oaeueii
aei 15 /enea ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui eaa?oaeii, oi?ie?oao e
ia?aaeaao a ioaeae einaaiiuo iaeiaia AIE ii a. Eacaie aiaeeoe/aneoth
caieneo e io/aoo 1-I ca i?ioaaeoee eaa?oae. E?iia yoiai, a iaycaiiinoe
ioaeaea einaaiiuo iaeiaia aoiaeeo oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeaiea neaaeothueo
aeaeia io/aoia: a) io/ao i aaca iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii IAeN ii oi?ia 5-I.
Aeaiiue aeae io/aoa ninoaaeyaony e aiaeece?oaony iaeei ?ac a iieaiaea
(oaaeeoea 2.15 (I?eeiaeaiea ? 4)); a) aaeaiany/iue io/ao i auiaaeathueo
noiiao IAeN; a) aaeaiany/iue io/ao i ?acoeueoaoao aeieoiaioaeueiuo
i?iaa?ie niaethaeaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii oi?ia 2-II; a)
aaeaeaa?oaeueiue io/ao i ?acoeueoaoao eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou iaeiaiauo
i?aaiia ii oi?ia 2-IE.

Eoiaii i?iaeaeaiiie ?aaiou ca eaa?oae yaeyaony io/ao i i?iaeaeaiiie
?aaioa ii aii?inai iieiie iiaeeecaoeee iaeiaia, eioi?ue niaea?aeeo
e?aoeee aiaeec ioeaie, auyaeaiiuo i?e aeieoiaioaeueiuo i?iaa?eao ca
enoaeoee eaa?oae e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuaai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

2.3. I?aaiecaoeey ?aaiou AIE n iaaeieiueeaie ii IAeN e aiaeec
auiaaeathueo ec athaeaeaoa aeioiaeia ii IAeN

A niioaaonoaee ni noaoueae 11 Caeiia ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu
iaeiaiieaoaeueueee iaycaiu naiaa?aiaiii e a iieiii iauaia oiea/eaaoue
iaeiae e ae?oaea iaycaoaeueiua ieaoaaee. I?e yoii ni n?i/iinoueth oieaou
iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae oanii naycaii iiiyoea iaaeieiee, eioi?ay
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie noiio iaeiaa, ia aianaiioth a athaeaeao eee
aiaathaeaeaoiue oiiae ii enoa/aiee onoaiiaeaiiuo n?ieia oieaou.

Iiiyoea iaaeieiea (iaaeieiuee) aa?ao naia ia/aei a ia?aie iieiaeia XIX
aaea. Oae, oieeiaue neiaa?ue A. E. Aeaey oae o?aeooao yoi iiiyoea:
«Iaaeieiea – oi, /oi iaaeiiyoi, iaaeia?aii, iaacuneaii aeaiueaaie eee
i?eianaie, /oi inoaeinue ca eai-oi a aeieao» [26, 513].

Oaeei ia?acii, iiiyoea iaaeieiee oanii naycaii n iiiyoeai iaeiaia e
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a oeaeii. Eiee/anoai iaaeieiueeia e ?acia?u iaaeieiie
i?yii caaenyo io oeiainiaiai ninoiyiey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia e io
ninoiyiey yeiiiieee a oeaeii. Aeooaeueiinoue yoie i?iaeaiu cia/eoaeueii
aic?inea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oio oaeo, /oi
nae/an a iaeiaiauo i?aaiao yoie i?iaeaiie iinoiyiii caieiaaony
niaoeeaeueii nicaeaiiue ioaeae (naeoi? iaaeieiee).

I?iaaaeai aiaeec aeeiaieee iaaeieiee e ?anniio?ei ia?u, i?eieiaaiua
iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie ii aa ono?aiaieth ia i?eia?a AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio
?aeiio a. Eacaie.

Aiaeec oaae. 2.16 naeaeaoaeuenoaoao ia aeooaeueiinoe i?iaeaiu ?an/aoia
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia n athaeaeaoii ii IAeN, a oaeaea i iaiaoiaeeiinoe
?aaiou iaeiaiauo i?aaiia n iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie ii aii?ino iiaaoaiey
iaaeieiie. Ia yoii naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oi, /oi a n?aaeiai 15,6 %
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia aeiioneatho a naiae ?aaioa i?in?i/aiioth
caaeieaeaiiinoue ii iaeiao ia?aae athaeaeaoii. I?e yoii noiia
i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae athaeaeaoii a n?aaeiai a 2 ?aca
i?aauoaao noiio ia/eneaiiiai IAeN ii aeaeea?aoeeyi ii i/a?aaeiiio n?ieo
oieaou. Aaeaeaa?oaeueii athaeaeao iaaeiiieo/aao a n?aaeiai 359073,4 iei.
?oaeae, ec eioi?uo 93,6 % i?eoiaeeony ia i?aaei?eyoey ainoaea?noaaiiiai
naeoi?a yeiiiieee.

Oaaeeoea 2.16

Aiaeec aeeiaieee iaaeieiee e no?oeoo?a iaaeieiee ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ?aeiia

(iei. ?oaeae)

Iieacaoaeue I ea 97 a. II ea 97 a. III ea 97 a. A n?aaeiai ca 9 ian 97
a.

Eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee, i?aaenoaaeaoeo iaeiaiaua aeaeea?aoeee ii IAeN

Eiee/anoai i?aaei?eyoee-iaaeieiueeia

Aeiey i?aaei?eyoee iaaeieiueeia, a %

Noiia IAeN, iiaeeaaeauay oieaoa a athaeaeao

– a oii /enea ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ainnaeoi?a

– aeiey ainnaeoi?a a iauae noiia ia/eneaiee

Noiia aeiiouaiiie iaaeieiee ii IAeN

– a oii /enea ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ainnaeoi?a

– aeiey ainnaeoi?a a iauae noiia iaaeieiee

Aeiey iaaeieiee a iauae noiia ia/eneaiee

1875

384

20,5 %

81410,3

64690,9

79,5 %

344368,1

328938,9

95,5 %

423 %

2034

274

13,5 %

235920,0

218926,2

92,8 %

325424,5

302146,4

92,8 %

138 %

2047

273

13,3 %

209227,3

191195,7

91,4 %

407427,7

377431,9

92,6 %

195 %

1985

310

15,6 %

175519,2

158270,9

90,2 %

359073,4

336172,4

93,6 %

205 %

Iniiaiay aeiey iaaeieiee i?eoiaeeony ia e?oiiaeoaai iaeiaiieaoaeueueea
?aeiia IYI «Oaoyia?ai». Aeiey iaaeieiee IYI «Oaoyia?ai» a iauae noiia
iaaeieiee ninoaaeyao ieiei 90 -92 %. Ae?oaea e?oiiua iaaeieiueee ?aeiia
i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae. 2.17.

Ii
aeaiiui AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie

Oaaeeoea 2.17

Aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue e caaeneiinoue iaaeieiee io iaa ii
i?aaei?eyoeyi ?aeiia

a iei. ?oaeae

I ea 97 a.

II ea 97 a.

III ea 97 a.

I?aaei?eyoea Aeaaeoi? Noiia Aeiey Aeaaeoi? Noiia Aeiey Aeaaeoi? Noiia
Aeiey

caaeieae iaaeieiee 3:4 caaeieae iaaeieiee 6:5 caaeieae iaaeieiee 9:8

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

IYI “Oaoyia?ai” 4110714,7 317317,0 7,72% 4405650,0 295586,0 6,71%
4362997,0 369377,7 8,47%

AI “Eeaa?-Oaaae” 4000,0 5934,1 148,35% 8000,0 6880,0 86,00% 10888,0
8629,0 79,25%

AI “Naioeeii” 2400,0 819,4 34,14% 2317,2 1210,6 52,24% 3500,0 1603,0
45,80%

Caaiae “Oi/iao”

45446,0 3796,0 8,35% 66217,9 4208,0 6,35%

AI “Eeaiiy?”

1597,2 2163,8 135,47% 1716,0 3895,8 227,03%

Anaai 4117114,7 324070,5

4463010,4 309636,4

4445318,9 387713,5

Ii aeaiiui oaae. 2.17 ia aeieth AI «Eeaa?-Oaaae» i?eoiaeeony 2 % io
iauae noiiu iaaeieiee. Aeiey inoaeueiuo iaaeieiueeia ninoaaeyao iaiaa 1
%.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua i?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey iaaeieiie ii aaaeouei
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai ?aeiia e ia?u, i?eieiaaiua iaeiaiauie i?aaiaie e
iiaaoaieth eie naieo i?in?i/aiiuo caaeieaeaiiinoae ia?aae athaeaeaoii.

Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie iaaeieiee IYI «Oaoyia?ai» yaeyaony:

1) Aieueoie oaeaeueiue aan ?an/aoia ca ?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth
oiaa?ii-iaoa?eaeueiuie oeaiiinoyie e oneoaaie (aa?oa?), a ?acoeueoaoa
/aai i?aaei?eyoea ia a ninoiyiee ?ann/eouaaoueny n athaeaeaoii
naiaa?aiaiii. Oae, ii aeaiiui oaaeeoeu 2.2.6. iaaeaiaaeiua oi?iu
?an/aoia ia iauaaeeiaiee ninoaaeee ii ninoiyieth ia 1 aeaeaa?y 1997
aiaea 98 % io anaai iauaia oiaa?iie ?aaeecaoeee ca 11 ianyoeaa 1997
aiaea.

2) Nouanoaaiiia aeeyiea ia iaaeieieo IYI «Oaoyia?ai» ieacuaaao aieueoay
aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue, eioi?ay ii ninoiyieth ia 1 ieoya?y 1997
a. ninoaaeea 4362997,0 iei. ?oaeae. Iniiaiuie aeaaeoi?aie IYI
«Oaoyia?ai» yaeythony:

AI «EAIAC» – 378897,0 iei. ?oaeae;

AI «Ieaeiaeaineiaooaoei» – 253772,0 iei. ?oaeae;

EAII ei. Ai?aoiiaa – 134263,0 iei. ?oaeae.

Iaeiaei, iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aeiey iaaeieiee a iauae noiia
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe iauaaeeiaiey ia i?aauoaao 8 %, /oi
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oi?ioae no?oeoo?a aaeaina iauaaeeiaiey e iaee/ee
ne?uouo ?aca?aia iiaaoaiey i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae
athaeaeaoii.

3) Oaeaea aieueoia cia/aiea ia ninoiyiea ?an/aoia IYI «Oaoyia?ai» n
athaeaeaoii ieacuaatho ?acee/iua ?aoaiey I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O. Oae, a
aeaeaa?a 1996 aiaea, a niioaaonoaee n Iinoaiiaeaieai Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia
?O IYI «Oaoyia?ai»onooieei Oiiaeo Aaceoeeaoeee i?e I?aceaeaioa ?O i?aai
o?aaiaaiey aeieaia ca iieueciaaiea oaieiaie e yeaeo?e/aneie yia?aeae ia
noiio 989,1 iei. ?oaeae, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai noiia IAeN ia/eneaiiiai a
athaeaeao auea oaaee/aia ia 168,8 iei. ?oaeae. I?e yoii a niioaaonoaee n
ioieoii 3 Iinoaiiaeaiey IYI «Oaoyia?ai» auea i?aaeinoaaeaia ion?i/ea ii
oieaoa iaeiaia a athaeaeao, aicieeoeo a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaa o?aaiaaiey
aeieaia oieueei a /anoe athaeaeaoa ?O. Yoi Iinoaiiaeaiea cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eei noiio iaaeieiee, eioi?ay a 1 eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea aeinoeaea 423
% io noiiu ia/eneaiee IAeN a athaeaeao ii eoiaai 1 eaa?oaea 1997 a.

A oeaeyo ono?aiaiey yoie neooaoeee IYI «Oaoyia?ai» auei i?aaeeiaeaii
i?iecaanoe ca/ao aeieaia ca iio?aaeaiiue aac n Oaoo?ainaacii ia noiio
989,1 iei. ?oaeae (noiia ia?aonooieaiiiai aeieaa), iinea i?iaaaeaiey
eioi?iai iauaaeeiaiea niiaei au aicianoeoue ec athaeaeaoa cia/eoaeueioth
noiio IAeN e, oai naiui, ?acei nie?aoeoue noiio iaaeieiee.

Iaaeieiea AI «Eeaa?-Oaaae» a noiia 8629,0 iei. ?oaeae iaoneiaeaia
aieueoei oaeaeueiui aanii ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee iaaeaiaaeiuie oi?iaie
iieaou (99,6 %), /oi ia iicaieyao i?aaei?eyoeth ?ann/eouaaoueny n
athaeaeaoii. E?iia oiai, aieueoia aeeyiea ia noiio iaaeieiee ieacuaaao
aieueoay aeaaeoi?neay caaeieaeaiiinoue a noiia 10888,0 iei. ?oaeae.
I?e/ai ca ia?eiae 9 ianyoeaa 1997 aiaea AI «Eeaa?-Oaaae» oaaee/ee noiio
iaaeieiee ii IAeN ia 45,4 %, /oi a aieueoae ia?a iaoneiaeaii oaaee/aieai
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia 172 %. Aieaa cia/eoaeueiia oaaee/aiea
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe ii n?aaiaieth n noiiie iaaeieiee oeo/oeei
niioiioaiea iaaeieiee e aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe, niecea aai ni 148
% aei 79 %.

AI «Naioeeii» i?aeoe/anee oaeaieei noiio iaaeieiee ii IAeN ca 9 ianyoeaa
1997 aiaea, aeiaaaey aa o?iaaiue aei 1603,0 iei. ?oaeae. Yoi iauyniyaony
oaaee/aieai aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe athaeaeaoiuo i?aaiecaoeee.
I?e/ai 85 % anae aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe AI «Naioeeii» a ?acia?a
3500,0 iei. ?oaeae i?eoiaeeony ia athaeaeaoioth i?aaiecaoeeth
«Eacaeeeai?oic».

Iaaeieiea ii AI «Eeaiiy?» a noiia 3895,8 iei. ?oaeae iauyniyaony
iaieaoaaeaniiniaiinoueth i?aaei?eyoey. I?aaei?eyoea iauyaeaii aaie?ioii
e ana n?aaenoaa a oa/aiea 1997 aiaea iai?aaeyei ia iiaaoaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe ii ca?aaioiie ieaoa ia?aae ?aaioieeaie i?aaei?eyoey.

Iaaeieiea ii caaiaeo Oi/iiai iaoeiino?iaiey a noiia 4208,0 iei. ?oaeae
iauyniyaony aieueoie aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoueth Ieienoa?noaa
iai?iiu ?O a noiia 43514,9 iei. ?oaeae, a oaeaea caaeieaeaiiinoueth
i?aaei?eyoee Ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu, eniieuecothueo i?iaeoeoeeth caaiaea a
ea/anoaa eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee.

A caeeth/aiee aiaeeca no?oeoo?u iaaeieiee e i?e/ei aa aicieeiiaaiey
iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi aieueoay /anoue iaaeieiee ii
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai ?aeiia i?eoiaeeony ia athaeaeao ?O, oae eae
caaeieaeaiiinoue ia?aae athaeaeaoii ?O i?aeoe/anee iieiinoueth
iiaaoaaony aaenaeyie Ae Aa?n Aaiea.

A oeaeyo nieaeaiey iaaeieiee ioaeaeii einaaiiuo iaeiaia e i?i/eo
aeioiaeia AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie i?iaiaeyony
neaaeothuea ia?ii?eyoey:

1) inouanoaeyaony i?iaa?ea e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ii ?an/aoiui n/aoai
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ia i?aaeiao auyaeaiey ia?ooaiee naiaa?aiaiiinoe
eniieiaiey ii?o/aiee ieaoaeueueeia ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao. Oae, a I
iieoaiaeee 1997 aiaea i?iaa?aii 14 e?aaeeoiuo o/?aaeaeaiee ii 42
?an/aoiui n/aoai. Ii aeaoi aaieai onoaiiaeaiu ia?ooaiey naiaa?aiaiiinoe
eniieiaiey ii?o/aiee eeeaioia ii ieaoaaeai a athaeaeao. A ?acoeueoaoa
/aai ia/eneaiu iaie 1467,5 iei. ?oaeae.

2) aunoaaeythony o?aaiaaiey i iiaaoaiee iaaeieiee. Oae, a I iieoaiaeee
1997 a. ii 12 i?aaei?eyoeyi auee ioi?aaeaiu o?aaiaaiey i iiaaoaiee
iaaeieiee ia iauoth noiio 963698,0 iei. ?oaeae, ec eioi?uo iiea/aiu
224990,8 iei. ?oaeae.

3) ia?aaeathony aeaea ii iaaeieiueeai ia a?ano eiouanoaa a Aeaia?oaiaio
iaeiaiaie iieeoeee ?O. Oae, a I iieoaiaeee 1997 a. ia a?ano eiouanoaa
ia?aaeaii a AeII 4 i?aaei?eyoey, iauay noiia iaaeieiee ii eioi?ui
ninoaaeyao 934,5 iei. ?oaeae.

4) i?iecaiaeeony acuneaiea iaaeieiee ia iaee/ii-aeaiaaeiua n?aaenoaa.
Oae, a 1 e 2 eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea i?iecaaaeaii acuneaiea iaaeieiee ia 12
i?aaei?eyoeyo ia iauoth noiio 225,6 iei. ?oaeae.

Oae aea a oeaeyo nie?auaiey iaaeieiee a AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1
a. Eacaie ?aaoey?ii i?eaeaoathony ?oeiaiaeeoaee iaeaieaa e?oiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee-iaaeieiueeia, a ?acoeueoaoa /aai iaia/athony niaianoiua
ia?ii?eyoey ii aa nie?auaieth. Ai eniieiaiea ienueia AIE ii ?O io
30.01.97 a. ? 02-01-06 e i?eeaca AIE ii a. Eacaie io 30.01.97 a. ?
11/6ae/24 «Ia oneeaiee eiio?iey ca eniieiaieai iaeiaiaiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e?oiiaeoeie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie» ia i?aaei?eyoeyo
IYI «Oaoyia?ai» e AI «Eeaa?-Oaaae» onoaiaaeeaathony iaeiaiaua iinou.

E?iia yoiai, niaianoii n I?aaeoaeuenoaii ?anioaeeee Oaoa?noai
?ac?aaaouaaaony i?ia?aiia ?ano?oeoo?ecaoeee aeieaia IYI «Oaoyia?ai», a
oaeaea i?ia?aiia aeoeeiie?iaaiey iauaaeeiaiey.

Aua iaeiei oaeoi?ii, ieacuaathuei cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia iinooieaiea
iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao, yaeythony auiaaeathuea aeioiaeu ii IAeN
aneaaenoaea eueaioiiai iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey i?aaei?eyoee ?aeiia.

Oae, a 1997 aiaeo auiaaeathuay ec aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa noiia IAeN
ninoaaeea 135877,2 iei. ?oaeae, /oi ninoaaeei 21,1 % io noiiu IAeN,
iiaeeaaeauae aciino a athaeaeao ii aeaeea?aoeeyi a 1997 aiaeo. Ec-iiae
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey IAeN a 1997 aiaeo auiaee iauaiu a ?acia?a 681442,6 iei.
?oaeae, /oi ninoaaeei 6,7 % io noieiinoe ?aaeecoaiuo oiaa?ia, ?aaio
(oneoa), iaeaaaaiuo IAeN. Ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii iaaethaeaeinue
oaaee/aiea iaiaeaaaaiuo iai?ioia ii ?aaeecaoeee ia 56,8 %, /oi a
aaniethoiii au?aaeaiee ninoaaeei 49262,6 iei. ?oaeae. No?oeoo?a
auiaaeathueo aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa ii IAeN ii aeaeai eueaio auaeyaeaea
neaaeothuei ia?acii:

Aeeaa?aiia 2.18

Oaeei ia?acii, iaeaieueoee oaeaeueiue aan caieiatho iaiaeaaaaiua IAeN
oiaa?u, eioi?ua ninoaaeytho 39 % anao auiaaeathueo noii IAeN, e
i?aaei?eyoey, yenii?oe?othuea i?iaeoeoeeth, a oaeaea eniieuecothuea
o?oae eiaaeeaeia, eioi?ua a niaieoiiinoe caieiatho aoi?ia ianoi iinea
iaiaeaaaaiuo IAeN oiaa?ia (31 %). ?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii
ninoaaeythuea yoeo iieacaoaeae e eo aeeiaieeo ii n?aaiaieth n 1996
aiaeii.

Ii aeaiiui AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie

Oaaeeoea 2.19

Io/ao i auiaaeathueo noiiao IAeN ii iaiaeaaaaiui oiaa?ai e
i?aaei?eyoeyi ca 1996 – 1997 aiaeu

iei. ?oaeae

Iieacaoaeue 1996 aiae

1997 aiae

Iaiaeaaaaiue Auiaaeathuay Iaiaeaaaaiue Auiaaeathuay

iai?io noiia IAeN iai?io noiia IAeN

1 2 3 4 5

Oiaa?u

– i?iaeoeoeey, i?iecaiaeeiay noieiauie o/aaiuo 579,9 116,0 209,6 41,9

caaaaeaiee, aieueieoe e ae?oaeo o/?aaeaeaiee,

oeiaine?oaiuo ec ainathaeaeaoa

– eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa, ecaeaeey iaaeeoeeineiai 294 149,6 58 829,9
267 119,4 53 423,9

iacia/aiey, i?ioacii-i?oiiaaee/aneea ecaeaeey,

iaaeeoeeineay oaoieea, eniieuecoaiay aeey

i?ioeeaeoeee eiaaeeaeiinoe

– ecaeaeey ia?iaeiuo i?iiuneia 256,4 51,3 728,3 145,6

I?aaei?eyoey

– oiaa?u, ?aaiou e oneoae, i?iecaiaeeiua e ?aaeecoaiua 26 095,0 5 219,0
36 883,8 7 376,8

i?aaei?eyoeyie n /eneaiiinoueth eiaaeeaeia ia iaiaa

50 % io iauaai /enea ?aaioieeia

– yenii?oe?othuea naith i?iaeoeoeeth, ?aaiou (oneoae) 0,0 0,0 173 601,3
34 720,3

Eae aeaeii ec oaaeeoeu 2.19, aaaeouoth ?ieue n?aaee inaiaiaeaeaaiuo io
oieaou IAeN oiaa?ao ea?atho eaea?noaaiiua n?aaenoaa. Eo aeiey a iauae
noiia auiaaeathueo aeioiaeia ii IAeN ninoaaeyao 39,3 %. Iaeiaei ii iei,
oaeaea eae e ii i?iaeoeoeee, i?iecaiaeeiie noieiauie o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee
e aieueieoe iaaethaeaaony caiaoiia nieaeaiea.

A ioee/ea io iaiaeaaaaiuo IAeN oiaa?ia, ii i?aaei?eyoeyi, i?iecaiaeyuei
e ?aaeecothuei naith i?iaeoeoeeth, ?aaiou (oneoae), a ninoaaa eioi?uo
?aaioatho ia iaiaa 50 % eiaaeeaeia iaaethaeaaony oaaee/aiea iauaiia
?aaeecaoeee.

A nayce n iiyaeaieai a ?aeiia i?aaei?eyoee, yenii?oe?othueo naith
i?iaeoeoeeth ca ?oaaae, iieacaoaee auiaaeathueo noii IAeN caiaoii
au?inee ii n?aaiaieth n 1996 aiaeii. Aeiey auiaaeathueo noii IAeN,
naycaiiuo n yenii?oii, ninoaaeyao 25,5 %.

Aiaeec oaaeeoeu 2.20 naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i cia/eoaeueiii oaaee/aiee
eueaioe?oaiuo ii IAeN no?aoiauo e e?aaeeoiuo iia?aoeee aieaa /ai a 3
?aca, a oaeaea i ?inoa ieaoiuo iaaeeoeeineeo oneoa aeey ianaeaiey e
icaei?iaeoaeueiuo iooaaie a 8 ?ac ii n?aaiaieth n iieacaoaeyie 1996
aiaea.

A ioee/ea io yoiai a 1997 aiaeo iaaethaeaeinue nie?auaiea
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neeo ?aaio, oeiaine?oaiuo
ca n/ao ainathaeaeaoa, /oi iaoneiaeaii oiaiueoaieai oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai
oeiaine?iaaiey oaeiai ?iaea ?aaio, a oaeaea oneoa ai?iaeneiai e
i?eai?iaeiiai iannaaee?neiai o?ainii?oa.

Ii aeaiiui AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie

Oaaeeoea 2.20

Io/ao i iaiaeaaaaiuo IAeN ?aaioao,
oneoaai ca 1996 – 1997 aiaeu

iei. ?oaeae

Iieacaoaeue 1996 aiae

1997 aiae

Iaiaeaaaaiue Auiaaeathuay Iaiaeaaaaiue Auiaaeathuay

iai?io noiia IAeN iai?io noiia IAeN

1 2 3 4 5

?aaiou

– iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneea e iiuoii-eiino?oeoi?neea 9 360,8 1 872,2 3
728,0 745,6

?aaiou, auiieiyaiua ca n/ao n?aaenoa ainathaeaeaoa

– ?aaiou, auiieiyaiua o/?aaeaeaieyie ia?aciaaiey 2 040,9 408,2 4 401,5
880,3

ia iniiaaiee oicyenoaaiiuo aeiaiai?ia

Oneoae

– ai?iaeneiai e i?eai?iaeiiai iannaaee?neiai o?ainii?oa 2 949,8 590,0
47,0 9,4

– iia?aoeee ii no?aoiaaieth e ia?ano?aoiaaieth, auaea/a 11 069,3 2 213,8
45 294,9 9 059,0

e ia?aaea/a nnoae, ii aeaiaaeiui aeeaaeai, ?an/aoiui e

oaeouei n/aoai, ii ia?auaieth oeaiiuo aoiaa

– a noa?a ia?aciaaiey, naycaiiua n o/aaii- 6 174,4 1 234,9 12 749,7 2
549,9

i?iecaiaenoaaiiui e ainieoaoaeueiui i?ioeannii

– o/?aaeaeaiee eoeueoo?u e eneonnoaa, oaao?aeueii- 3 275,3 655,0 9 517,8
1 903,6

c?aeeuiua, nii?oeaiua, ?acaeaeaoaeueiua ia?ii?eyoey

– ieaoiua iaaeeoeeineea oneoae aeey ianaeaiey, iooaaee 4 521,6 904,3 41
461,1 8 292,2

a naiaoi?ii-eo?i?oiua e icaei?iaeoaeueiua o/?aaeaeaiey

Ia i?ioyaeaiee 1996 aiaea a ninoaa auiaaeathueo noii IAeN aoiaeeee
oaeaea eiaeeaeaeoaeueii i?aaeinoaaeaiiua Iinoaiiaeaieyie Eaaeiaoa
Ieieno?ia ?O eueaiou ii IAeN a /anoe noii, ca/eneyaiuo a athaeaeao ?O.
Aeaiiia i?aai auei i?aaeinoaaeaii Eaaeiaoo Ieieno?ia ?O Caeiiii i
athaeaeaoa ia 1996 aiae. Iauay noiia auiaaeathueo ii yoie noaouea
aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa ?O ca 9 ianyoeaa 1996 aiaea ninoaaeea 5167,6 iei.
?oa. I?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeiai ?iaea eueaio iaaeiionoeii a ianoiyueo
oneiaeyo, oae eae yoi cao?oaeiyao ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee eueaioe?oaiuo
i?aaei?eyoee, noaeaao ?uiee nauoa e iaaaoeaii neacuaaaony ia
iio?aaeoaeyo yoie i?iaeoeoeee, a neo/aa eiaaea iio?aaeoaeyie yoie
i?iaeoeoeee yaeythony i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, eiiia?/aneea e ae?oaea
i?aaei?eyoey. Iaaaoeaiua iineaaenoaey au?aaeathony a aeaea oae
iacuaaaiie eoioeyoeee iaeiaa e ia?aeiaeaiea aai ia iio?aaeoaey a
aieueoai iauaia. I?aaeinoaaeaiea oaeiai ?iaea oeaeaauo eueaio
oeaeaniia?acii inouanoaeyoue ii i?yiui iaeiaai (iaeia ia i?eaueue, iaeia
ia eiouanoai i?aaei?eyoee), a /anoe ca/eneyaiie a niioaaonoaothuea
athaeaeaou.

Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1
a. Eacaie ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey iaeiaii ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, a oaeaea ii?yaeea ?an/aoia
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie n athaeaeaoii ii yoiio iaeiao yaeythony:

– i?e neiaeeaoaeny neooaoeee iiiai/eneaiiuo iaieaoaaeae a yeiiiieea,
eniieueciaaiey iaaeaiaaeiuo oi?i ?an/aoia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie –
nio?aiaiea aeaenoaothuaai ii?yaeea i?iaaaeaiey ca/aoia ii iaeiaiaui
ieaoaaeai n athaeaeaoaie ?acee/iiai o?iaiy, a oaeaea aiciiaeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey a ea/anoaa eino?oiaioia iiaaoaiey caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae
athaeaeaoii ii iaeiaiaui ieaoaaeai ?acee/iiai ?iaea «aeaiaaeiuo
no??iaaoia» – aaenaeae Ae Aa?n Aaiea, i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo /aeia ?O e o.
ae. – eae a?aiaiiie ia?u ai?aaeue aei oeo/oaiey neooaoeee a yeiiiieea,
oaaee/aiey aeiee aeaiaaeiuo ?an/aoia iaaeaeo i?aaei?eyoeyie ca
?aaeeciaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth, oiaa?u, ?aaiou (oneoae). A i?ioeaiii neo/aa
athaeaeaou ?acee/iiai o?iaiy iiaoo i?aeoe/anee inoaoueny aac eaeeo-eeai
iinooieaiee;

– cia/eoaeueiay aeiey ia iinooieaiee iaeiaiauo ieaoaaeae a athaeaeao
i?eoiaeeony ia auiaaeathuea aeioiaeu athaeaeaoa ii IAeN aneaaenoaea
i?eiaiaiey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie i?aaeoniio?aiiuo caeiiii ?acee/iiai
?iaea eueaio. Oaeei ia?acii athaeaeaou ?acee/iiai o?iaiy aaeaaiaeii
oa?ytho ieiei 1/5 anao iinooiathueo ieaoaaeae ii IAeN. Iiyoiio iaeiei ec
i?aaeeiaeaiee ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey yaeyaony
i?aaeeiaeaiea i nie?auaiee ia?a/iy eueaioe?oaiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe.

3. NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEA ACEIAIEss IAeN A ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

3.1. Iaaeinoaoee i?aeoeee iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e iooe eo i?aiaeieaiey

Eae iieacuaaao aiaeec i?aeoeee aceiaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee aeaenoaothuay nenoaia en/eneaiey
iaeiaa niaea?aeeo a naaa cia/eoaeueiua iaaeinoaoee, o?aaothuea ei?aiiiai
aa ia?aniio?a. I?e/ai eciaiaieth aeieaeiu iiaeaa?aiooueny ia oieueei
ioaeaeueiua aa /anoe e yeaiaiou, ii naia nenoaia en/eneaiey o?aaoao
iiaiai iiaeoiaea e aa ?anniio?aieth.

?inneeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ii IAeN oa?aeoa?ecoaony /?acau/aeiie
iiaeaeaeiinoueth e eciai/eainoueth. Ia?iiiia eiee/anoai
caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eino?oeoeee e ae?oaeo ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia,
?aaeaiaioe?othueo ii?yaeie en/eneaiey iaeiaa, o?aaotho naiae
oieoeeaoeee, oae eae eo iiiai/eneaiiinoue e ?ac?iciaiiinoue yaeyaony
i?e/eiie ?yaea ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia?ooaiee ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou
iaeiaa.

E?iia yoiai ?yae aeaenoaothueo iieiaeaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa o?aaotho
naiaai eciaiaiey eee ei??aeoe?iaee. E iei ioiinyony:

1) i?iaeaia niaoeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii
IAeN (a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiuie oeaiaie e oeaiaie
i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia, aeeth/athueie IAeN) aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. Ia/aoeinoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii
aii?ino ii?aaeaeaiea iioiaiai eee ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa i?eaiaeeo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy e iiiai/eneaiiui ia?ooaieyi ni noi?iiu
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, a oaeaea nicaeaao iiiaeanoai eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee,
?aoaiea eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony i?iaiaeeoue /a?ac a?aeo?aaeiua noaeu.
Niaeanii aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa nouanoaoao aeaa o?aeoiaee
?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa. I?eioeeieaeueiua ioee/ey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee io
ae?oaeo aa aeaeia onoaiiaeaiu a noaouea 492 /anoe 2 A?aaeaeaineiai
Eiaeaena ?O, iaeiaei iaeiaiaua i?aaiu i?e ii?aaeaeaiee i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe
oi?aiauo iia?aoeee e ?icie/iui iieuecothony Eino?oeoeeae ii o/aoo
?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa e oiaa?iuo caiania a i?aaei?eyoeyo ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai (ianniaiai) ieoaiey, ooaa?aeaeaiiie
Iinoaiiaeaieai Aineiieoaoa ?O ii noaoenoeea io 08.02.93 a. ? 17.
?acee/iua oieeiaaiey yoeo aeieoiaioia e nicaeatho eiioeeeoiua neooaoeee
io eioi?uo ia auea?uaatho ie iaeiaiaua i?aaiu, ie iaeiaiieaoaeueueee. A
yoie nayce /?acau/aeii aeooaeueiui noaiiaeony aii?in iaiaoiaeeiinoe
eniieueciaaiey caeiiia i?yiiai aeaenoaey, oae eae yoi naeaeaao
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aieaa iiiyoiui;

2) iniaue ii?yaeie en/eneaiey IAeN ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, a oaeaea iaaeeth/aiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a /enei iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia IAeN nicaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe ia oieueei naiei i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee e /anoiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, ii e yaeythony i?e/eiie
iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?ooaiee ni noi?iiu iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, au?aaeathueany
a naiinoiyoaeueiii auaeaeaiee iaeiaa a ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioao e
iaiainiiaaiiii ioianaiee noii IAeN ii iei ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii;

3) iniaia ianoi a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa caieiaao oaeaea iniaue ii?yaeie
en/eneaiey IAeN i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ii oeaiai ia auoa oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu en/eneaiey IAeN i?e
?aaeecaoeee ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia. Yoe ioieou caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
/?acau/aeii neiaeiu, caiooaiiu e niioaaonoaaiii iayooaeoeaiu.
Iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie aeiioneaaony ii iei aieueoia eiee/anoai ioeaie,
iaeiaei iaeiaiaui i?aaiai i/aiue neiaeii i?iaa?eoue i?aaeeueiinoue
en/eneaiey IAeN a oaeeo neo/ayo;

4) oaeaea iaeiei ec aeooaeueiaeoeo aii?inia ia iiaanoea aeiy noieo
aii?in eioaa?aoeee ?innee a ie?iaia yeiiiie/aneia niiauanoai. Ia yoio
i?ioeann aieueoia aeeyiea ieacuaaao iaaeaeoia?iaeiua aniaeou iaeiaeaiey
iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue oi?aiauo iia?aoeee, iiyoiio oaea
nae/an iaiaoiaeeii i?aaeoniio?aoue ia?u ii naeeaeaieth ?aaeeiia a
iaeiaeaiee iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, i?eiaiyaiuo a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee e a Aa?iiaeneii Niiauanoaa.

Iaeiaei yoei ia?a/iai ana i?iaeaiu aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
en/a?iuaathony. Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai a
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN aue e inoaaony aii?in ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia a
nenoaia iaeiaa. A ?inneeneie nenoaia aceiaiey IAeN ?an/aoiui
aeieoiaioai, e niaeaeaieth, ia oaeaeaii aeieaeiiai aieiaiey. Oiiieiaiea
i ieo iiaeii iaia?oaeeoue eeoue a niioaaonoaothuae Eino?oeoeee e oieueei
a nayce n auaeaeaieai iaeiaa ioaeaeueiie no?ieie e a nayce n ca/aoii
aaainiaiai iaeiaa i?e yenii?oa. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a iaoae no?aia
i?ienoiaeyo eciaiaiey a yoie iaeanoe, iinyuea e niaeaeaieth ianenoaiiue
oa?aeoa?. Eae i?aaeei, ai anao caiaaeiuo no?aiao, aaea i?eiaiyaony IAeN,
?an/aoiua aeieoiaiou eee n/aoa yaeythony aeaaiuie aeieoiaioaie a nenoaia
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Ia eo iniiaa onoaiaaeeaathony iaeiaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa
i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iinoaaueea ii aai enoiaeyuaio iai?ioo e o?aaiaaiey
i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iieoiaoaey a ioiioaiee ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa ii
aai aoiaeyuaio iai?ioo i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai iacia/aiey. N/aoa oaeaea
iaaeaaeii iaania/eaatho oaoie/aneoth noi?iio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu
IAeN, aeeth/ay eiio?ieue, o/ao e oi?aaeaiea. Iiyoiio n/aoa iiaeeaaeao ia
oieueei eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiio caiieiaieth, ii e o?aiaieth a oa/aiea
onoaiiaeaiiiai caeiiii n?iea.

Caiaaeiay nenoaia IAeN iaycuaaao i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iinoaaueea a
eaaeaeue eiie?aoiue iiiaio niaa?oaiey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneiai iai?ioa
aunoaaeyoue i?aaei?eieiaoaeth – iieoiaoaeth n/ao n oeacaieai a iai
ioaeaeueii noiiu iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, /oi a naith
i/a?aaeue, aa?aioe?oao aiciiaeiinoue ca/aoa i?aaei?eieiaoaeai –
iieoiaoaeai oeacaiiie a n/aoa noiiu a ea/anoaa aaainiaiai iaeiaa.
Oa?aeoa?ii, /oi n/ao i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iinoaaueea yaeyaony aeey
i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iieoiaoaey ia oieueei ieaoaaeiui o?aaiaaieai e
oeiainiaui i?aaiai e naiaai ?iaea oeaiiie aoiaaie. Aeaaiaea?y
aiciiaeiinoe ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa ioaeaeueii oeacaiiay a n/aoa noiia
IAeN icia/aao aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaey – iieoiaoaey iaee/iua aeaiueae eee
e?aoein?i/iia o?aaiaaiea e oeiainiaui i?aaiai. [36, 55].

Iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi a caiaaeiuo iaeiaiauo
nenoaiao, ii?aaeaeaia /aoeay ?aaeaiaioaoeey ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa.

Ai-ia?auo, yoi aa?aioey i?aaa – ia ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa ia iniiaa
n/aoia. Iaania/eaaaony yoa aa?aioey oai, /oi i?aaei?eieiaoaeue iiaeao
i?iecaanoe ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa ca oio io/aoiue ia?eiae – ianyoe,
eaa?oae eee aiae, a eioi?ii iinooieee n/aoa ca i?eia?aoaiiua oiaa?u eee
oneoae. I?e yoii niaa?oaiii iaiaycaoaeueii, /oiau n/aoa auee iiea/aiu e
iiiaioo en/eneaiey IAeN, iaycaoaeai oieueei nai oaeo inouanoaeaiey
iai?ioa. Oioaeinue au ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iiaeiaiay nenoaia
ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa eiaao aannii?iia i?aeiouanoai ia?aae
?inneeneie, oae eae ii iaoaio iaeiaiaiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao ca/ao
aaainiaiai iaeiaa iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeai oieueei ii ia?a
ii?eoiaeiaaiey e iieaou iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, a ia ca io/aoiue ia?eiae
eo i?eia?aoaiey. Iiaeiaiia iieiaeaiea i?aeoe/anee icia/aao caaea?aeeo
aica?aoa ia iaii?aaeaeaiiue n?ie aaainiaiai iaeiaa e noaaeo
i?aaei?eieiaoaey a iaauaiaeiua oneiaey i?e oieaoa IAeN, nicaeaao
neooaoeeth oeiainiaie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe.

Ai-aoi?uo, aa?aioey i?aaa ia ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa iaania/eaaaony
oieueei oiaaea, eiaaea niaethaeathony ana neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey: a)
iieo/aoaeue n/aoa yaeyaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeai; a) aunoaaeoaeue n/aoa
yaeyaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeai; a) noiia iaeiaa auaeaeaia a n/aoa
ioaeaeueii; a) iai?io niaa?oai – i?iecioea ia?aaea/a i?aaa
?anii?yaeaiey; ae) iai?io i?aaeiacia/ai aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo
oeaeae; a) i?eia?aoaiiua oiaa?u e oneoae ia eniieuecothony aeey
niaa?oaiey iai?ioa, ia aeathuaai i?aaa ia ca/ao iaeiaa.

A-o?aoueeo, IAeN n eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia i?e?aaieaaaony e aaainiaiio iaeiao
e niioaaonoaaiii iiaeao auoue ca/oai, ii, iiyoue aea, i?e niaethaeaiee
anao neaaeothueo ia?aie/aiee : a) i?aai ia au/ao eiatho oieueei
i?aaei?eieiaoaee; a) eiii?o aeieaeai auoue inouanoaeai a
i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oeaeyo; a) IAeN aeieaeai auoue oiea/ai e oieaoa
iiaeoaa?aeaeaia aeieoiaioaeueii; a) eiii?oiua oiaa?u ia aeieaeiu
eniieueciaaoueny aeey niaa?oaiey iai?ioia, ia aeathueo i?aaa ia ca/ao
aaainiaiai iaeiaa.

Aeey au/aoa IAeN ec oeaiu eiii?oa a ea/anoaa aaainiaiai iaeiaa oaeaea,
iaiaoiaeeii, /oiau oiaa? aue aaacai ec-ca a?aieoeu ia oa??eoi?eth
aceiaiey iaeiaa. A i?aaii yoiai ca/aoa iiaoo ainiieueciaaoueny oieueei
oa i?aaei?eieiaoaee, a i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneeo oeaeyo eioi?uo aue
inouanoaeai eiii?o. A ioee/ea io ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa i?e aioo?aiiai
iai?ioa iaycaoaeueiui oneiaeai aeey ca/aoa iaeiaa n iai?ioa eiii?oa
yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiay oieaoa, a ia iinooieaiea n/aoa iacaaeneii io
aai iieaou. Oaeie aeeooa?aioee?oaiue iiaeoiae e aioo?aiiaio e eiii?oiiio
iai?ioo iauyniyaony oai, /oi a ia?aii neo/aa e?aaeeoi?ii aaainiaiai
iaeiaa yaeyaony i?aaei?eieiaoaeue, a ai aoi?ii – ainoaea?noai. I?e
eiii?oiii iai?ioa, anee iicaieeoue ca/ao iaeiaa aei aai oieaou,
ainoaea?noai i?eia?aoaei au o?aaiaaiea e eiii?oa?o ia oieaoa IAeN, a
eiii?oa? iieo/ee au aiciiaeiinoue ia aai ca/ao, aua ia oieaoea iaeiaa.
Eae aeaeei, iiaeiaiay neooaoeee i?ioeai?a/eo ?aaeaiaioaoeee ca/aoa
aaainiaiai iaeiaa e naiie eiioeaioeee IAeN a ?aieao caiaaeiiai
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, iaaeiionoeia.

A-/aoaa?ouo, caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia?aie/eaaao i?aai
ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa, iai?eia?, a neo/ayo: a) eniieueciaaiey
i?eia?aoaiiuo oiaa?ia (oneoa) aeey inouanoaeaiey inaiaiaeaeaaiiai io
iaeiaa iai?ioa, e?iia yenii?oiiai; a) eniieueciaaiea oiaa?ia (oneoa)
aeey inouanoaeaiey iai?ioa ca i?aaeaeaie oa??eoi?ee aceiaiey, eioi?ue au
iiaeeaaeae inaiaiaeaeaieth io iaeiaa, anee au ii inouanoaeyeny ia yoie
oa??eoi?ee; a) eniieueciaaiey i?eia?aoaiiuo oiaa?ia (oneoa) aeey
inouanoaeaiey aanieaoiiai iai?ioa, e ?yae ae?oaeo.

Ia?aie/aiea i?aaa ia ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa iiaeao aucaaoue
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe o i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, eioi?ua iaeiia?aiaiii
inouanoaeytho iaeaaaaiue e iaiaeaaaaiue iai?io, a oaeaea anee eo iai?io
iaeaaaaony ii ?aciui iaeiaiaui noaaeai. A oaeeo neo/ayo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aaeea ?acaeaeaiey aaainiaiai
iaeiaa ia au/eoaaiue e iaau/eoaaiue, a caaeneiinoe io aeiee ?acee/iuo
aeaeia iai?ioa.

A oeaeii caiaaeiay nenoaia i?aaiecaoeee en/eneaiey IAeN no?ieony ia
/aoei ioeaaeaiiie nenoaia aeieoiaioiiai?ioa ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia aeey
aceiaiey IAeN, eioi?ua iicaieytho iaaeaaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue i?ioeaaeo?o
aceiaiey iaeiaa. Ioneaaeeaay ii aoiaeyuei e enoiaeyuei n/aoai aeaeaeaiea
oiaa?ia, nu?uey, iaoa?eaeia, oneoa a ?aieao i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai oeeeea,
iaeiaiaua i?aaiu eiatho aiciiaeiinoue yooaeoeaii ii?aaeaeyoue iaeiaiaua
iaycaoaeuenoaa i?aaei?eieiaoaeae – iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, i?iaiaeeoue
iieioth i?iaa?eo auieaou iaeiaa, i?ioeainoiyoue iiiuoeai oeeiiaiey io
iaeiaeaiey, e a oi aea a?aiy iaaeaaeii caueuaoue i?aai i?aaei?eieiaoaeae
– iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ia ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa, a a eiia/iii n/aoa
yooaeoeaii eiio?iee?iaaoue aanue i?ioeann iaeiaeaiey iio?aaeaiey yoei
iaeiaii. [36, 55].

Ii/oe ana no?aiu eniieuecotho iaoiae aceiaiey IAeN ia iniiaa n/aoia –
oaeoo?, eee oae iacuaaaiue e?aaeeoiue iaoiae. Iaoiae aceiaiey IAeN ia
iniiaa n/aoia – oaeoo? eniieuecoaony ii neaaeothuei niia?aaeaieyi.
Iaeiaii iaeaaaaony naeaeea, e i?e yoii n/ao – oaeoo?a noaiiaeony aaaeiui
aeieoiaioaeueiui naeaeaoaeuenoaii. E oiio aea inoaaony oi?ioee
aoaeeoi?neee neaae. E iaeiiaoe, caeanue iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
iiiaeanoaaiiua noaaee (i?e aceiaiee IAeN ia iniiaa aooaaeoa?neeo n/aoia
iiaeii i?eiaiyoue eeoue iaeio noaaeo). [58, 46].

Iaoa no?aia oaeaea eniieuecoao iaoiae aceiaiey IAeN ia iniiaa
n/aoia-oaeoo?, iaeiaei naie n/aoa-oaeoo?u eae iniiaiua ?an/aoiua
aeieoiaiou a nenoaia iaeiaa aei neo ii? ia caiyee aeieaeiiai ianoa a
ioa/anoaaiiie i?aeoeea en/eneaiey iaeiaa. En/eneaiea noiiu iaeiaa,
iiaeeaaeauae aciino a athaeaeao, no?ieony o ian ia iniiaaiee aeaiiuo,
niaea?aeaueony ia n/aoao aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa. Iaeiaei, a nayce n
eciaiaieai nenoaiu aaaeaiey aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa a ?O, oi anoue ioiaiu
nouanoaiaaaoae ?aiaa iaoiaeeee ii?aaeaeaiey au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee ii
ia?a iieaou oiaa?ia, ?aaio (oneoa), a i?aeoeea ioa/anoaaiiiai
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia?aciaaeny aaeooi iaaeaeo aeaenoaothuae nenoaiie
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e nenoaiie aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa eae iniiaiie aacu,
iaiaoiaeeiie aeey en/eneaiey iaeiaia, a oii /enea e iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. A nayce n iiyaeaieai iiiyoey iaeiaiaiai o/aoa
i?iaeaia n/aoia-oaeoo? – eae iniiau en/eneaiey iaeiaa noaea iniaaiii
aeooaeueia.

Eae oaea auei neacaii auoa a ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ioa/anoaaiiii
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN i?ienoiaeyo cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a iaeanoe
?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia a nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii IAeN. Ianiio?y ia
oi, /oi yoe eciaiaiey iinyo e niaeaeaieth ianenoaiiue oa?aeoa?, iie
yaeythony ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia iniiaiuie e caneoaeeaathueie aieiaiey.

I?iaeaia n/aoia-oaeoo? aicieeea iinea iioaeeeiaaiey a ia/aoe Oeaca
I?aceaeaioa io 21 ethey 1995 a. ? 746 «I ia?aii/a?aaeiuo ia?ao ii
niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee», eioi?ue
aue iai?aaeai ia ii?aaeaeaiea ia?aii/a?aaeiuo ia? ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?O.

A yoii oeaca I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O auei ii?o/aii iiaeaioiaeoue i?iaeo
oaaea?aeueiiai caeiia i aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a iaeiaiaia
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai, a eioi?ii ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie iieiaeaieyie aue au
i?aaeoniio?ai ia?aoiae e ii?aaeaeaieth iaeiaiiaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa a
oeaeyo oieaou IAeN ia iniiaa eniieueciaaiey n/aoia-oaeoo?.

Yoi iieiaeaiea /a?ac iaeiaiaia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ?aaeeciaaii ia auei.
Iiyoiio nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy aue iiaeienai e iioaeeeiaai e ia/aoe Oeac
I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996 a. ? 685 «Ia iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo
iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ?O e ia?ao ii oe?aieaieth iaeiaiaie e ieaoaaeiie
aeenoeeieeiu», a eioi?ii ii?aaeaeaiu iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey iaeiaiaie
?aoi?iu a ?O e ia?u ii oe?aieaieth iaeiaiaie e ieaoaaeiie aeenoeeieeiu,
a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ia/eiay n 1 yiaa?y 1997 a. ana ieaoaeueueee
IAeN iaycaiu ninoaaeyoue n/aoa-oaeoo?u ia ?aaeecaoeeth i?iaeoeoeee
(?aaio, oneoa), a I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O ii?o/aeinue ?ac?aaioaoue ii?yaeie
aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa n/aoia-oaeoo?.

29 ethey 1996 a. auoei iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ? 914 «Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee ii?yaeea aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e
?an/aoao ii iaeiao ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue». [42, 17].

Nenoaia aaiaeeiuo n/aoia-oaeoo? – i?iiaaeooi/iia caaii a o/aoa IAeN
iaaeaeo ia?ae/iui e aiaeeoeei-neioaoe/aneei o/aoii. Iineieueeo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue en/eneyaony eae
?acieoea aeaoo iaeiaia: enoiaeyuaai, iinooiathuaai io iieoiaoaeae
(e?aaeeo n/aoa 68) IAeN, e aoiaeyuaai, oiea/eaaaiiai iinoaaueeai (aeaaao
n/aoa 68) IAeN, oi iniiaiie caaea/ae a o/aoa IAeN yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey
eo aeinoiaa?iiai o/aoa. A nayce n aieueoei ?aciiia?aceai ia?ae/iuo e
?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia, ia iniiaaiee eioi?uo ia/eneyaony IAeN, aaaaeaiu
n/aoa-oaeoo?u oieoeoee?iaaiiua noaiaea?oiua oi?iu, iaiauathuea e
aaeaioe?othuea eioi?iaoeeth i IAeN, niaea?aeauothny a ia?ae/iuo
aeieoiaioao. Aaiaeeiay noaiaea?oecaoeey aeieaeia iaeaa/eoue eae aaaeaiea
aooaaeoa?eae iaeiaiieaoaeueueea o/aoa IAeN, oae e eiio?ieue ca yoei ni
noi?iiu oeneaeueiuo i?aaiia. [45, 36].

Niaeanii Ii?yaeeo aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e ?an/aoao ii
IAeN, ooaa?aeaeaiiiio Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 29.07.96 a. ?
914, n/ao-oaeoo?a ninoaaeyaony i?aaei?eyoeai eee i?aaiecaoeeae,
yaeythuaeny iinoaaueeii eee iiae?yae/eeii, ia eiy i?aaei?eyoey eee
i?aaiecaoeee, yaeythuaeny iieoiaoaeai, iio?aaeoaeai eee caeac/eeii
iacaaeneii io oiai, iaeaaathony ee iaeiaii ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
i?iaiaeeiua oicyenoaaiiua iia?aoeee, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae
i?iaeoeoeee, auiieiaieai ?aaio e ieacaieai oneoa.

Ia i?aeoeea yoi icia/aao, /oi n/aoa-oaeoo?u ninoaaeythony e oaeeie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, o eioi?uo aeiey iaeaaaaiuo iia?aoeee i/aiue iaea. Yoi e
oeiainiai-e?aaeeoiua o/?aaeaeaiey, e eiaanoeoeeiiiua einoeooou, e
athaeaeaoiua i?aaiecaoeee (aeeth/ay iaaeeoeeineea, ia?aciaaoaeueiua e o.
i.).

Eneeth/aiea ninoaaeytho iia?aoeee ii ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ca iaee/iue
?an/ao i?aaei?eyoeyie ?icie/iie oi?aiaee, iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey e
ae?oaeie i?aaiecaoeeyie, ieacuaathueie ieaoiua oneoae iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ianaeaieth n eniieueciaaieai eiio?ieueii-eanniauo iaoei. Anee
i?iaeaaaoe oiaa?a (?aaiou, oneoae) auaeae iieoiaoaeth eanniaue /ae,
niaea?aeauee iaiaoiaeeiua ?aeaeceou, n/eoaaony /oi i?iaeaaaoe auiieiee
o?aaiaaiey Ii?yaeea. I?e yoii i?iaeaaaoe aeieaeai aanoe eieao i?iaeaae,
a eioi?ie neaaeoao oeene?iaaoue aeaiiua eiio?ieueiie eanniaie eaiou.

Aeiioneaaony i?eiaiaiea aeaieia no?iaie io/aoiinoe acaiai n/aoia-oaeoo?
n iineaaeothuei eo io?aaeaieai a eieaa i?iaeaae o i?aaiecaoeee,
ieacuaathueo ieaoiua oneoae ianaeaieth aac eniieueciaaiey
eiio?ieueii-eanniauo iaoei a neo/ayo, i?aaeoniio?aiiuo
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii.

Iineieueeo a niioaaonoaee n ioieoii 19 eino?oeoeee ANI ?O io 11 ieoya?y
1995 a. ? 39 «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue» (n iineaaeothueie eciaiaieyie e aeiiieiaieyie)
i?aaeoniio?aii, /oi noiia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii
iaoa?eaeueiui oeaiiinoyi (?aaioai, oneoaai), i?eia?aoaiiui aeey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ioaeae o i?aaiecaoeee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee ca iaee/iue
?an/ao e o ianaeaiey, e ca/aoo o iieoiaoaey ia i?eieiaaony, oi ia
aicieeaao e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieo/aiey iieoiaoaeai io iinoaaueea
(i?aaei?eyoey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee eee ianaeaiey) n/aoa-oaeoo?u.

I?e yoii i?aaei?eyoey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee iaycaiu aanoe eieao iieoiie
aeey o/aoa i?eia?aoaaiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, oae eae noiia iaeiaa
ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, iiaeeaaeauay aciino a athaeaeao yoeie
i?aaei?eyoeyie, ii?aaeaeyaony eae ?acieoea iaaeaeo noiiie iaeiaa,
en/eneaiiie n oi?aiaiai iaeiaeaiey, e noiiaie iaeiaa, oiea/aiiuie
iinoaaueeai ia ecaea?aeee ia?auaiey.

N aaaaeaieai ia oa??eoi?ee ?O n/aoia-oaeoo? aeey oeaeae en/eneaiey
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue i?aaeiieaaaaony a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy
ia?aaanoe i?aaei?eyoey ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey ia
iauaonoaiiaeaiiue aeey anao ieaoaeueueeia ii?yaeie en/eneaiey e oieaou
iaeiaa. [57, 13].

N/ao-oaeoo?a ninoaaeyaony a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: ia?aue yecaiiey?
(i?eaeiae) ia iicaeiaa 10 aeiae n aeaou ioa?ocee oiaa?a (auiieiaiey
?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa) eee i?aaeiieaou (aaaina) i?aaeuyaeyaony
iinoaaueeii e aeaao i?aai ia ca/ao (aiciauaiea) noii IAeN a ii?yaeea,
onoaiiaeaiiii oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii.

Aoi?ie yecaiiey? (eiiey) n/aoa-oaeoo?u inoaaony o iinoaaueea aeey
io?aaeaiey a eieaa i?iaeaae e ia/eneaiey IAeN i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia
(?aaio, oneoa). ?aaeno?aoeey i?eaeiaeia n/aoia-oaeoo? iinoaaueeia a
eieaa iieoiie i?iecaiaeeony ii aieaa iicaeiae aeaoa ianooieaiey iaeiiai
ec iaycaoaeueiuo oneiaee i?eiyoey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue e
ca/aoo (aiciauaieth): iieaoa eee ii?eoiaeiaaieth [47, 18].

O?aaoao ?aoaiey e aii?in auaeaeaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
?an/aoiui iooai i?e iaee/ee cao?ao ia eiiaiaee?iai/iua (?anoiaeu ii
i?iacaeo e ianoo neoaeaaiie eiiaiaee?iaee e ia?aoii, aeeth/ay
iieueciaaiea a iiacaeao iinoaeueiuie i?eiaaeeaaeiinoyie, ?anoiaeu ii
iaeio aeeeiai iiiauaiey e o.i.), oae eae aaaaeaiea ii?yaeea i?eiaiaiey
n/aoia-oaeoo? i?eaiaeeo e iaaiciiaeiinoe ioianaiey oeacaiiiai iaeiaa e
aiciauaieth (ca/aoo). [57, 13].

Niaeanii i. 14 Ii?yaeea, eieaa i?iaeaae aeieaeia auoue i?ioio?iaaia, a
aa no?aieoeu i?iioia?iaaiu e ne?aieaiu ia/aoueth. I/aaeaeii, /oi yoi
o?aaiaaiea, ii iiaieth ?ac?aaio/eeia, aeieaeii i?aiyonoaiaaoue
ninoaaeaieth, aianaieth eciaiaiee a n/aoa-oaeoo?u caaeiei /eneii, ii yoi
aiciiaeii eeoue i?e ne?aieaiee ia/aoueth eiio?iee?othuaai iaeiaiaiai
i?aaia. [45, 34].

N/ao-oaeoo?a ninoaaeyaony i?e iieo/aiee i?aaeiieaou eee aaaina.
I?aaei?eyoea – iinoaauee, iieo/ea i?aaeiieaoo a n/ao i?aaenoiyuae
iinoaaee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), ninoaaeyao n/ao-oaeoo?o niaeanii
Iinoaiiaeaieth I?aaeoaeuenoaa a aeaoo yecaiiey?ao: ia?aue yecaiiey? ia
iicaeiaa 10 aeiae n aeaou iieo/aiey i?aaeiieaou (aaaina) i?aaenoaaeyaony
iinoaaueeii iieoiaoaeth. Aoi?ie yecaiiey? inoaaony o iinoaaueea e
?aaeno?e?oaony a eieaa i?iaeaae. Iieoiaoaeue, ia?a/eneeaoee i?aaeiieaoo,
ieeaeeo caienae a eieaa iieoiie ia aeaeaao.

Aeaeaa ii oaeoo ioa?ocee oiaa?ia (auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa) iiae
iieo/aiioth i?aaeiieaoo a eieaa i?iaeaae aeaeaaony noi?ie?iai/iay
caienue, oiaiueoathuay noiio ?aiaa ioi?ieaiiiai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue ii yoie i?aaeiieaoa (aaaino) n niioaaonoaothuei eciaiaieai
eoiaiaie noiiu iaeiaa ca io/aoiue ia?eiae, a eioi?ii i?iecaaaeaia
ioa?ocea. I?e yoii oeacuaathony ?aeaeceou n/aoa-oaeoo?u, ninoaaeaiiiai
i?e iieo/aiee i?aaeiieaou (aaaina).

Caoai a niioaaonoaee n Ii?yaeeii aaaeaiey n/aoia-oaeoo? io?aaeathony
iia?aoeee ii oaeoe/aneie ioa?ocea oiaa?ia (auiieiaieth ?aaio, ieacaieth
oneoa) iiae iieo/aiioth i?aaeiieaoo (aaain), a eiaiii ia noiio
ioa?oaeaiiuo oiaa?ia (auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, ieacaiiuo oneoa) ninoaaeyaony
n/ao-oaeoo?a a 2 yecaiiey?ao: ia?aue yecaiiey? ia?aaeaaony iieoiaoaeth
aeey io?aaeaiey a eieaa iieoiie; aoi?ie yecaiiey? ?aaeno?e?oaony a eieaa
i?iaeaae n io?aaeaieai noiiu IAeN ii ?aaeeciaaiiui oiaa?ai.

A ieaoaaeiuo aeieoiaioao ia iieaoo ioa?oaeaiiue oiaa?ia (auiieiaiiuo
?aaio, ieacaiiuo oneoa) ii no?iea, aaea oeacuaaaony iacia/aiea ieaoaaea,
iaeiaiiaaiea oiaa?a, auiieiaiiuo ?aaio, ieacaiiuo oneoa, iiia?a e noiiu
oiaa?iuo aeieoiaioia, ii iiaieth AIN e Ieioeia, iaycaoaeueia nnueea ia
iiia?a niioaaonoaothueo n/aoia-oaeoo?.

A neo/aa ii?aaeaeaiey aeaou ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) a oeaeyo
oieaou IAeN ii ia?a iieaou ?aaeno?aoeey n/aoa-oaeoo?u a eieaa i?iaeaae o
iinoaaueea e a eieaa iieoiie o iieoiaoaey i?iecaiaeeony ia eaaeaeoth
noiio, iinooieaooth io iieoiaoaey iinoaaueeo a ii?yaeea /anoe/iie
iieaou, n oeacaieai ?aeaeceoia n/aoa-oaeoo?u ii iieo/aiiui oiaa?ai
(?aaioai, oneoaai) e iiiaoeie ii eaaeaeie noiia «/anoe/iay iieaoa».
?aaeno?aoeey n/aoia n iaeeiaeiauie ?aeaeceoaie aeiioneaaony oieueei a
neo/aa /anoe/iie iieaou. Caeanue iaaei eiaoue a aeaeo oi, /oi
n/ao-oaeoo?a ninoaaeyaony a oa/aiea ia aieaa 10 aeiae n aeaou ioa?ocee
oiaa?a (auiieiaiey ?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa) e ia caaeneo io i?eiyoie ia
i?aaei?eyoee o/aoiie iieeoeee. A aio ?aaeno?aoeey a eieaa i?iaeaae e a
eieaa iieoiie i?iecaiaeeony n oeaeueth ii?aaeaeaiey noiiu iaeiaa e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, caaeneo io i?eiyoie o/aoiie iieeoeee. Iai?eia?, anee
en/eneaiea IAeN i?iecaiaeeony ii ioa?ocea, oi caienue a eieaa i?iaeaae
aeaeaaony a iiiaio ninoaaeaiey n/aoa-oaeoo?u, anee aea en/eneaiea IAeN
i?iecaiaeeony ii iieaoa, oi caienue a eieaa i?iaeaae i?iecaiaeeony a
iiiaio iieo/aiey iieaou. [42, 19].

A caeeth/aiee iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O
io 29.07.96 a. ? 914 ia i?aaeoniao?eaaao ieeaeeo ia? ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
ianinoaaeaiea n/aoia-oaeoo?. Iaeiaei i?eiaiaiea iieiaeaiey,
onoaiiaeaiiiai Ii?yaeeii, a niioaaonoaee n eioi?ui ia iiaeeaaeeo ca/aoo
o iieoiaoaey iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ii i?eia?aoaiiui oiaa?ai
(?aaioai, oneoaai), n/aoa-oaeoo?u ia eioi?ua ia niioaaonoaotho
onoaiiaeaiiui ii?iai eo caiieiaiey eee ia ninoaaeaiu aiana, oaea
aeinoaoi/ii, /oiau iaeacaoue i?aaei?eyoea. Iieoiaoaee naie noaioo
o?aaiaaoue io iinoaaueeia i?aaenoaaeaiey n/aoia-oaeoo?, caiieiaiiuo a
niioaaonoaee n o?aaiaaieyie Ii?yaeea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?eoiaeeony eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi aaaaeaiea
n/aoia-oaeoo? i?eaaaeao e oneiaeiaieth nenoaiu o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoee,
iineieueeo iiaay nenoaia ii nouanoao i?aaeiieaaaao nio?aiaiea ?aiaa
aeaenoaiaaaoeo iaoiaeia eiio?iey ca i?aaeeueiinoueth en/eneaiey IAeN i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii aaaaeaiee iiauo o/aoiuo ?aaeno?ia. Ia ioaeaeueiuo
e?oiiaeoeo i?aaei?eyoeyo aaaaeaiea iiaie nenoaiu e?aeia
cao?oaeieoaeueii. [57, 23].

Oaeei ia?acii, eniieueciaaiea n/aoia-oaeoo? a oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea a
oie oi?ia, a eioi?ie iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai auei i?aaeeiaeaii
Iinoaiiaeaieai I?aaeoaeuenoaa io 29.07.96 a. ? 914, i?aeoe/anee ia
iaiyao neiaeeaoaainy ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa, a eeoue
cia/eoaeueii oneiaeiyao nenoaio o/aoa ia i?aaei?eyoeyo. Eiaiii iiyoiio
i?ia?aiia i?iaa?ee ioaeaea einaaiiuo iaeiaia AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio
? 1 a. Eacaie aeaaea ia niaea?aeeo ioieoa, ?aeiiaiaeothuaai iaeiaiaui
einiaeoi?ai aeeth/aoue a aeou i?iaa?ie oa?aeoa?enoeeo eniieueciaaiey
n/aoia-oaeoo? a oicyenoaaiiie i?aeoeea, i?aaeeueiinoue ioi?ieaiey eiea
iieoiie e eiea i?iaeaae.

Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi ioieo 15 Oeaca I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996 a. ? 685
?aeiiaiaeiaae I?aaeoaeuenoao ?O ?aaeeciaaoue iieiaeaiey aeaiiiai Oeaca
/a?ac eciaiaiey iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, i?yiiai eciaiaiey
iieiaeaiee Caeiia ?O «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue» oae e ia
iineaaeiaaei.

Iie?aynue ia ca?oaaaeiue iiuo eniieueciaaiey n/aoia-oaeoo? eae iniiaiuo
?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia a nenoaia iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue
iiaeii naeaeaoue auaiae i iaiaoiaeeiinoe ei?aiiiai eciaiaiey iaoiaeeee
en/eneaiey iaeiaa, oae eae a oneiaeyo aeaenoaothuaai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
eniieueciaaiea n/aoia-oaeoo? eeoue oneiaeiyao ?aaioo e iaeiaiauo i?aaiia
e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

3.2. Niaa?oainoaiaaiea iaoaiecia aceiaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee

Iaoaieci aceiaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue ca aieaa /ai 6 eao
naiaai nouanoaiaaiey a iaeiaiaie nenoaia ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
i?aoa?iae iiiaeanoai eciaiaiee. Iaeiaei e ii nae aeaiue ii ia i?eiye
oiai aeaeaaiiai iaiieieaaeiiai ninoiyiey, i?e eioi?ii yooaeoeaiinoue io
aai i?eiaiaiey aoaeao iuooeia e iaeiaiieaoaeueueeai e ainoaea?noao. Yoi
naycaii a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue n aieueoei eiee/anoaii eciaiaiee,
i?ienoaaeoeo ca yoi a?aiy a ?innee. Ana i?ienoiaeyuea eciaiaiey oai eee
eiui ia?acii iaoiaeyo naia io?aaeaiea e a iaeiaiaii caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa,
iaeiaei iii ia noaiiaeony io yoiai aieaa i?ic?a/iui e iiiyoiui. Yoi a
iieiie ia?a einioeinue e caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa i iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue.

I?aeoe/anee ana iac?aaoea i?iaeaiu e iaaeinoaoee nouanoaothuae nenoaiu
en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue iaoee naia io?aaeaiea a
aioiayuainy i?iaeoa Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena ?innee, eioi?ue iaoiaeeony
nae/an ia noaaeee ianoaeaeaiey. Iiyoiio iaiaoiaeeii oaeaeeoue aieiaiea
yoei ieaie?oaiui eciaiaieyi e ioeaieoue eo n oi/ee c?aiey aoaeouae
yooaeoeaiinoe.

Iaeiei ec ia?auo ieaie?oaiuo iiaiaaaaeaiee yaeyaony iiaue iiaeoiae e
ii?aaeaeaieth ieaoaeueueeia iaeiaa. Niaeanii i?iaeoa Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena
?O oece/aneea eeoea, caieiathueany i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie
aeayoaeueiinoueth aac ia?aciaaiey th?eaee/aneiai eeoea aeeth/aiu a /enei
ieaoaeueueeia IAeN, iaeiaei ei, a oaeaea iaeui i?aaei?eyoeyi n
/eneaiiinoueth aei 15 /aeiaae i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai ia en/eneyoue e ia
oiea/eaaoue IAeN a eaaeaeii iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea, anee a oa/aiea aeaoo
i?aaeuaeoueo eaa?oaeia eo au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ia i?aauoaea 2500 IIIO.
I?e inaiaiaeaeaiee io eniieiaiey iaycaiiinoae iaeiaiieaoaeueueea IAeN,
oiea/aiiue iinoaaueeai, ia i?eieiaaony e iaeiaiaiio au/aoo e ioiineony
ia oaaee/aiea noieiinoe i?eia?aoaaiuo oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa). Yoi i?aai
ia ?ani?ino?aiyaony ia ieaoaeueueeia aeoeecia, aaiee, no?aoiaueeia,
eiaanoeoeeiiiua oiiaeu e ae?oaea i?aaiecaoeee niaeanii ia?a/iy,
iaiai?aiiiai a eiaeaena.

E?iia yoiai, ia i?eciathony ieaoaeueueeaie iaeiaa eeoea, ?aaeecothuea
oieueei inaiaiaeaeaiiua io IAeN oiaa?u, ?aaiou (oneoae). Iaeia,
oiea/aiiue oaeeie eeoeaie iinoaaueeai ii oiaa?ai (?aaioai, oneoaai)
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iacia/aiey, ioiineony ia cao?aou ii i?iecaiaenoao e
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa).

I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena i?aaeoniao?eaaao cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a
iaeanoe ii?aaeaeaiey iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e iaeiaiaie aacu.
Ai-ia?auo, ioiaiyaony niaoeeaeueiue ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaie aacu
ii IAeN i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ii oeaiai ia auoa oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe. Ai-aoi?uo, aeey oeaeae iaeiaeaiey IAeN au?o/ea a eaaeaeii
iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea noaiao ii?aaeaeyoueny ii iaeaieaa ?aiiae ec
neaaeothueo aeao:

aeaiue i?aaeuyaeaiey iieoiaoaeth n/aoa-oaeoo?u;

aeaiue iieaou oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa);

aeaiue ioa?ocee (ia?aoiaea i?aaa nianoaaiiinoe) oiaa?ia (auiieiaiey
?aaio, ieacaiey oneoa).

Iineaaeiaa iieiaeaiea oaeoe/anee icia/aao ioiaio aiciiaeiinoe
ii?aaeaeaiey iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae
ainoaea?noaii ii ia?a iieaou i?e eniieueciaaiee niioaaonoaothuaai
iaoiaea o/aoa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa). I?e
oaeii iiaeoiaea cia/eoaeueii iiauoaaony cia/aiea n/aoia-oaeoo? – eae
iniiaiuo ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioia a nenoaia iaeiaa. Oae eae a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy n/aoa-oaeoo?u ia yaeythony noieue iaiaoiaeeiui aeieoiaioii ec-ca
aiciiaeiiai ianiaiaaeaiey aeaou ioa?ocee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa) e
auienee n/aoa-oaeoo?u ia ioa?oaeaiiue oiaa? e aeaou aicieeiiaaiey
iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae athaeaeaoii, eioi?ay i?e i?eiaiaiee
iaoiaea o/aoa au?o/ee aeey oeaeae iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ii ia?a iieaou iiaeao
cia/eoaeueii ioee/aoueny.

I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioiaio ?yaea nouanoaothueo
eueaio ii inaiaiaeaeaieth io IAeN. E iei ioiinyony:

?aaiou ii no?ieoaeuenoao aeeeuo aeiiia n i?eaea/aieai athaeaeaoiuo
n?aaenoa;

IEIE?, auiieiyaiua o/?aaeaeaieyie ia?aciaaiey e iaoee;

i?iaeoeoeey n?aaenoa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee e eieaeiay i?iaeoeoeey,
naycaiiay n ia?aciaaieai, iaoeie e eoeueoo?ie;

iiaea?ii-oaoie/aneay i?iaeoeoeey, ?aaiou e oneoae a iaeanoe iiaea?iie
aaciianiinoe;

eeceiaiaua ieaoaaee iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee;

a oaeaea iiyoaiiay ioiaia ?yaea ae?oaeo eueaio.

E?iia yoiai onoaiaaeeaaaony a?aiaiiia ia?aie/aiea ia i?eiaiaiea ?yaea
eueaio aei 31 aeaeaa?y 2000 aiaea, a eiaiii ia neaaeothuea eueaiou:

– inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey eaea?noaaiiuo n?aaenoa, ecaeaeee
iaaeeoeeineiai iacia/aiey, iaaeeoeeineie oaoieee, a oaeaea aaoa?eia?iuo
i?aia?aoia e aaoa?eia?iuo oneoa;

– inaiaiaeaeaiea io iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey oneoa a noa?a ia?aciaaiey, a oaeaea
?aaiou e oneoae ii ?anoaa?aoeee eoeueoiauo caeaiee, iaoiaeyueony a
iieueciaaiee ?aeeaeiciuo i?aaiecaoeee.

A ioiioaiee inoaeueiuo nio?aiyaiuo eueaio, eeoeo ?aaeecothuaio
inaiaiaeaeaiiua io IAeN oiaa?u, i?aaeinoaaeaii i?aai ioeaca io
i?eiaiaiey eueaio a neo/aa iiaea/e cayaeaiey a iaeiaiaue i?aai.

I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena i?aaeoniao?eaaao iiauoaiea noaaee IAeN n 20 %
aei 22 %, ioiaio iiieaeaiiie noaaee IAeN a 10 % aeey i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia e oiaa?ia aeey aeaoae, a oaeaea aaaaeaiea ioeaaie noaaee IAeN ii
yenii?oe?oaiui ca i?aaeaeu NIA oiaa?ai, ?aaioai e oneoaai, /oi iaania/eo
yenii?oa?ai iieioth eiiiainaoeeth IAeN, oiea/aiiiai iinoaaueeai. I?e
yoii iiae iaeiaeaiea ioeaaie noaaeie iiaeiaaeoo oaeaea oneoae
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce a /anoe iia?aoeee ii eo ?aaeecaoeee ca i?aaeaeaie
no?ai NIA; oneoae, naycaiiua n o?ainii?oe?iaeie o?aiceoiuo a?ocia /a?ac
oaiiaeaiioth oa??eoi?eth ?innee; ?aaiou (oneoae) ii ianeoaeeaaieth
eiino?aiiuo noaeia a ?inneeneeo oa??eoi?eaeueiuo e aioo?aiieo aiaeao;
oneoae, ieacuaaaiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii a ?inneeneeo ay?iii?oao e
aicaeooiii i?ino?ainoaa ?innee, ii ianeoaeeaaieth eiino?aiiuo aicaeooiuo
noaeia; ?aaiou (oneoae), auiieiyaiua iaiin?aaenoaaiii a einie/aneii
i?ino?ainoaa, i?e eniieueciaaiee ?acoeueoaoia ?aaio ca i?aaeaeaie no?ai
NIA; a oaeaea ioeaaay noaaea aoaeao i?eiaiyoueny e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia
(?aaio, oneoa) i?eia?aoaaiuo ca n/ao n?aaenoa eiino?aiiie iiiiue, i?e
iaee/ee niaoeeaeueiuo na?oeoeeaoeeiiiuo aeieoiaioia.

Oaeaea eciaieoueny i?iaeieaeeoaeueiinoue iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea e n?iee
oieaou iaeiaa. Ii Iaeiaiaiio eiaeaeno iaeiaiaue ia?eiae aoaeao
ninoaaeyoue eaa?oae oieueei aeey iaeuo i?aaei?eyoee n /eneaiiinoueth
?aaioieeia aei 15 /aeiaae e i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, anee a oa/aiea aeaoo
i?aaeuaeoueo eaa?oaeia eo au?o/ea io ?aaeecaoeee ia i?aauoaea 2500 IIIO
?O. Ana inoaeueiua ieaoaeueueee aoaeoo naeaaaoue iaeiaiaua aeaeea?aoeee
ii IAeN e oiea/eaaoue iaeia iaeei ?ac a ianyoe ia iicaeiaa 20 /enea
ianyoea, neaaeothuaai ca io/aoiui. I?e/ai anee o iaeiaiieaoaeueueea
noiia iaeiaa ii eoiaai i?aaeuaeouaai iaeiaiaiai ia?eiaea i?aauneea 5000
IIIO, oi iaeia ca neaaeothuee (io/aoiue) iaeiaiaue ia?eiae aoaeao
aiineoueny a o?e i?eaia a aeaea aaainiauo ieaoaaeae.

Cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey a ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou a athaeaeao IAeN
i?aaeoniao?eaathony a I?iaeoa Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena. Ai-ia?auo, iiaeeaaeeo
ioiaia niaoeeaeueiue ii?yaeie ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii IAeN
(a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiuie oeaiaie e oeaiaie i?eia?aoaiey
oiaa?ia, aeeth/athueie IAeN) aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee.
Ai-aoi?uo, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee noiiu IAeN, iiaeeaaeauae oieaoa a athaeaeao
iiyaeyaony iiiyoea iaeiaiauo au/aoia (i?eiyoea e ca/aoo IAeN,
oiea/aiiiai iinoaaueeai). I?e yoii au/ao iaeiaia, i?aaeuyaeaiiuo
i?iaeaaoeaie eee oiea/aiiuo oaiiaeaiiui i?aaiai i?e i?eia?aoaiee e aaica
oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa), aeiioneaaony i?e auiieiaiee neaaeothueo oneiaee:

– oiaa?u (?aaiou, oneoae) i?eia?aoaiu aeey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo oeaeae eee
inouanoaeaiey eiie yeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe;

– niioaaonoaothuea cao?aou ioiinyony ia cao?aou ii i?iecaiaenoao e
?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia (?aaio, oneoa);

– o iaeiaiieaoaeueueea eiathony n/aoa-oaeoo?u i?iaeaaoeia eee
oaiiaeaiiua aeaeea?aoeee;

– i?eia?aoaiiua oiaa?u i?eiyou iaeiaiieaoaeueueeii ia o/ao (?aaiou
auiieiaiu, oneoae ieacaiu).

Au/ao iaeiaia, oiea/aiiuo i?e i?eia?aoaiee iniiaiuo n?aaenoa e
iaiaoa?eaeueiuo aeoeaia, i?iecaiaeeony iinea i?eiyoey eo ia o/ao (a oii
/enea e ii iniiaiui n?aaenoaai, i?eieiaaiui ia o/ao ii caaa?oaiee
eaieoaeueiiai no?ieoaeuenoaa).

Iaeia, oiea/aiiue ca eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee e iee?iaaoiaonu, au/aoo ia
iiaeeaaeeo e ioiineony ia oeiainiaua ?acoeueoaou.

Oaeei ia?acii, niaeanii i?iaeoo Iaeiaiaiai eiaeaena, IAeN, oiea/aiiue
iinoaaueeai, aoaeao i?eieiaoueny e ca/aoo (iaeiaiaiio au/aoo) ia ii
iieaoa, a ii i?aaeuyaeaiee n/aoa-oaeoo?u.

Aeaaiaea?y yoiio iiaiaaaaeaieth cia/aiea n/aoa-oaeoo?u – eae iniiaiiai
?an/aoiiai aeieoiaioa a nenoaia iaeiaa aic?anoao ai iiiai ?ac e
ioa/anoaaiiay nenoaia en/eneaiey iaeiaa aoaeao cia/eoaeueii i?eaeeaeaia
e ca?oaaaeiiio iiuoo.

I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?aeoe/anee
caeiiiaeaoaeueiia cae?aieaiea iaaiciiaeiinoe aica?aoa io?eoeaoaeueiie
?acieoeu ii IAeN ec athaeaeaoa.

Oae, anee noiia iaeiaiauo au/aoia a aeaiiii iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea i?aauoaao
iauoth noiio iaeiaa, en/eneaiiiai n ?aaeecaoeee, oi ?acieoea n/eoaaony
eceeoia oiea/aiiui iaeiaii e iiaeeaaeeo au/aoai ec iauae noiiu iaeiaa a
neaaeothuai ia?eiaea a ia?aii/a?aaeiii ii?yaeea. Anee e a neaaeothuai
iaeiaiaii ia?eiaea iauay noiia iaeiaa ieaaeaony iaiueoa yoie noiiu
eceeoia oiea/aiiiai iaeiaa, oi iiaay ?acieoea iiaeeaaeeo ca/aoo a n/ao
eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa ii ae?oaei iaeiaai (nai?ai), oieaou iaiae e
oo?aoia eee aica?aoo ec athaeaeaoa. Aica?ao ec athaeaeaoa I?iecaiaeeony
i?e oneiaee, /oi oeacaiiay ?acieoea nio?aiyaony a oa/aiea oanoe ianyoeaa
ni aeiy iieo/aiey ?an/aoa ca niioaaonoaothuee iaeiaiaue ia?eiae. [23,
9].

Oaeei ia?acii, ia ia?aue ieai a oeiainiauo neoaeaao i?aaei?eyoee
aeieaeai aueoe i?ioeann iaeiaiaiai ieaie?iaaiey, a ?acoeueoaoa eioi?iai
i?aaei?eyoea aoaeao iioeiece?iaaoue naie ieaoaaee a athaeaeao ii
ia?eiaeai, oae eae ia?aieaoa a iaeiii ec iaeiaiauo ia?eiaeia inoaaeo
i?aaei?eyoea ia aeieaeo oanoue ianyoeaa aac oeiainiauo n?aaenoa.

Iaeiei ec nouanoaaiiuo yoaiia niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue iiaeao noaoue eciaiaiea ?acia?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea
iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN e ii?yaeea aa i?eiaiaiey. A
aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe a noa?a
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia i?aaeoniio?aii ?acaaoaeaiiie nenoaiu ninoaaia
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia?ooaiee. Oae, a ioiioaiee IAeN no. 13 Caeiia ?O io
27.12.91 a. ? 2118-1 «Ia iniiaao iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie
Oaaea?aoeee» i?aaeoniio?aii aeaa i?aaiia?ooaiey: «nie?uoea iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey» e «iao/ao iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey».

Eneonnoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea aeaeia i?aaiia?ooaiee i?eaaei e oiio, /oi
i?aeoe/anee ethaua aeaenoaey iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, iiaeaeoea iaaeiieaoo
iaeiaa, iaeiaiaua i?aaiu ?anniao?eaatho a nouanoaothueo ?aieao. Eiuie
neiaaie, i?e/eiu ia?aciaaiey iaaeieiee ii IAeN ai iiiaeo neo/ayo
iaiainiiaaiii eaaeeoeoee?othony eae nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aea/ao ca niaie iaiainiiaaiiia
i?eiaiaiea naieoeee – acuneaiea oo?aoa a noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa, a
a neo/aa iiaoi?a – a aeaieiii ?acia?a. Iaeiaei oaea nae/an aiaaoue iiuo
a?aeo?aaeii-noaeaaiie i?aeoeee ?anniio?aiey nii?ia i IAeN
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaaiciiaeiinoe a iieiie ia?a ioaaoeoue ana aeaeu
ia?ooaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN a ?aieao nouanoaothueo aeaeia
i?aaiia?ooaiee. Aeaenoaothuay aea ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca i?aaeoniio?aiiua
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii i?aaiia?ooaiey i/aiue aaeeea e iiyoiio any ?aaioa
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia naiaeeony e iaoiaeaeaieth «eaaeaueo ia iiaa?oiinoe»
i?aaiia?ooaiee e i?eiaiaieth e iei a iieiii iauaia anae nenoaiu oo?aoiuo
naieoeee. *aua anaai yoiai auaaao aiieia aeinoaoi/ii, oae eae
i?aaei?eyoea iinea i?iaa?ee noaiiaeony ia?aae oaeoii ia?iiiuo oo?aoiuo
naieoeee, eioi?ua a ianeieueei ?ac i?aauoatho iau/iue o?iaaiue ieaoaaeae
a athaeaeao yoiai ieaoaeueueea. Oaeei ia?acii, iniiaiuie ia?ii?eyoeyie
ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth nenoaiu iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey a iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey
oo?aoiuo naieoeee a neo/aa ia?ooaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN iiaoo
noaoue neaaeothuea:

– nicaeaiea naiae nenoaiu oo?aoiuo naieoeee, i?eiaiyaiie oieueei e
ia?ooaieyi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN, – yoi iicaieeo iaeaieaa iieii
ioaaoeoue ana aeaeu i?aaiia?ooaiee, naycaiiuo n ii?yaeeii en/eneaiey e
oieaou iaeiaa;

– aianaiea iieiaeaiee, ?aaoee?othueo neo/ae i?eiaiaiey yoeo oo?aoiuo
naieoeee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN, – yoi naeaeaao
ioa/anoaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aieaa i?ic?a/iui e /eoaaiui;

– oiaiueoaiea nouanoaothuaai ?acia?a oo?aoiuo naieoeee e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
anae nenoaiu ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie ia?ooaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, – yoi oneiaeieo ?aaioo iaeiaiauo i?aaiia, iaeiaei
i?eaaaeao e ?ani?aaeaeaieth ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo anaie o/anoieeaie
iaeiaiauo i?aaiioiioaiee, oiaaea eae nae/an iniiaiie a?oc oo?aoiuo
naieoeee eiaeeony iaiiia?iie iioae ia e?oiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia.

Iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue, /oi ana yoe ia?ii?eyoey i?eianoo iaeeaeaaiue
yooaeo oieueei a neo/aa eiiieaeniiai eciaiaiey caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia
IAeN, ?acoeueoaoii eioi?iai noaiao i?ic?a/iue, oi?ioi /eoaaiue caeii
i?yiiai aeaenoaey i iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue.

A caeeth/aiee oioaeinue au inoaiiaeoueny ia aeaoo ia naiuo i?eyoiuo
iniaaiiinoyo oe?ieiai eniieueciaaiey IAeN a iaeiaiaie i?aeoeea,
iai?yioth naycaiiuo ni anaioaaouaathuei oa?aeoa?ii yoiai iaeiaa.

Ai – ia?auo, niaeaci iaeneiaeueii oe?ieiai i?eiaiaiey IAeN n iinoaiaiiui
iiauoaieai iaeiaiauo noaaie, iaania/eaathueo noaaeeueiue ?ino
iinooieaiee a athaeaeao, a eoiaa niinianoaoao iiauoaieth oeai ia oiaa?u,
iinooiathuea a noa?o eiia/iiai iio?aaeaiey. I?e ia i/aiue aeanoeie
aeaiaaeii – e?aaeeoiie iieeoeea ia?aoiae e nenoaia IAeN, eae i?aaeei,
aea/ao ca niaie iiauoaiea iauaai o?iaiy oeai.

Ai-aoi?uo, a?aiy, aiceaaaaiia ia iio?aaeoaeae iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue, ianao /aoei au?aaeaiiue ?aa?anneaiue oa?aeoa?, /oi, ai?i/ai,
naienoaaiii aeey anao aeaeia einaaiiuo iaeiaia, ii, ianiiiaiii,
onoaoaeyaony a IAeN ec-ca i?aeoe/anee oioaeueiiai ioaaoa ?uiea oiaa?ia e
oneoa. Iio?aaeoaee n aieaa ieceeie aeioiaeaie auioaeaeaiu auiea/eaaoue a
oi?ia IAeN n?aaieoaeueii aieueooth eo /anoue ii ioiioaieth e aieaa
aunieiaeioiaeiui neiyi ianaeaiey. A ?yaea neo/aaa ?aa?anneaiue oa?aeoa?
iaeiaeaiey oneeeaaeny iiauoaiiuie noaaeaie ia oiaa?u ianniaiai
iio?aaeaiey aeey n?aaeieo neiaa ianaeaiey : iaeioi?ua aeaeu
eiiaeeoa?neeo ecaeaeee, ia?othia?eth, eaaeiaua aaoiiiaeee e o.ae. [36,
57].

Iioaioeeaeueii aiciiaeiua iaaaoeaiua nioeeaeueiua iineaaenoaey IAeN
niya/athony eeai aaaaeaieai ioeaaie noaaee, inaiaiaeaeaiey io aai oieaou
aieaa oe?ieeo a?oii oiaa?ia e oneoa, eeai iooai o?aaiiaaoaiey a?aiaie
IAeN nieaeaieai noaaee ii ae?oaei iaeiaai. I?e yoii anooiaao a aeaenoaea
i?eioeei acaeiicaaeneiinoe e acaeiinaycaiiinoe iaeiaia. Ie iaeei iaeia
ia iiaeao ?anniao?eaaoueny eciee?iaaiii e aia nayce n ae?oaeie
ninoaaiuie /anoyie iaeiaiaie nenoaiu. Nai IAeN ia i?aaeiacia/ai
ei??aeoe?iaaoue ia?aaainoai aeioiaeia. Yoo ooieoeeth aa?oo ia naay
ae?oaea iaeiae (a /anoiinoe, eiaeeaeaeoaeueiue iiaeioiaeiue iaeia).
Oieueei oaeie iiaeoiae e oi?ie?iaaieth iaeiaia niiniaai nicaeaoue aieaa
ni?aaaaeeeaue e ?aaiiia?iue ii?yaeie iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, i?e eioi?ii
iaeiae, a oii /enea e IAeN, ia eiaeaony noieue oyaeaeui a?aiaiai ia
iaeio /anoue ianaeaiey ca n/ao ae?oaie. [41, 48].

A iaoae no?aia oaeaea aeooaeueia i?iaeaia io?eoeaoaeueiiai aicaeaenoaea
IAeN ia ?aaeueiue o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey ieceiaeioiaeiuo eaoaai?ee
ianaeaiey. Ia/eiay n 1993 a. nieaeaiea noaaie IAeN e auaeaeaiea ia?yaeo
ni noaiaea?oiie iiieaeaiiie noaaee ianeieueei oiaiueoeee aeaiiue aeae
iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie, ii e niaeaeaieth, aacaae?anii, iineieueeo iii
eanaeinue anao iio?aaeoaeae. Nouanoaaiii aieueoee yooaeo aeey
iiaeaea?aeee ieceiaeioiaeiuo eaoaai?ee ianaeaiey iiaei au aeaoue
aaaaeaiea ?aaeeia aica?aoa oiea/aiiiai iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue naiueyi, aeioiaeu eioi?uo ii eoiaai aiaea ia i?aauoatho
caeiiiaeaoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiie aaee/eiu ia iniiaa iaeiaiauo aeaeea?aoeee
e niioaaonoaothuaai aeieoiaioaeueiiai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey i?iecaaaeaiiuo
?anoiaeia, a eiaaeeaeai – aeaaeaeueoeai o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa iiaeii
onoaiiaeoue eiiiainaoeeth anao einaaiiuo iaeiaia a oeaia
ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia. [43, 15].

AUAIAeU E I?AAeEIAEAIEss

Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue (IAeN) – yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo
aaaeiuo e a oi aea a?aiy naiuo neiaeiuo aeey en/eneaiey iaeiaia. A
iniiao en/eneaiey yoiai iaeiaa iieiaeaii iiiyoea «aeiaaaeaiiie
noieiinoe». Caiaaeiay eiioeaioeey IAeN ii?aaeaeyao aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue eae iniiao en/eneaiey iaeiaa. I?e yoii iiae iniiaie
en/eneaiey iaeiaa – aiciaa?aaeaeaieai – iiieiaaony any noiia ?anoiaeia
iio?aaeoaey, iaiaoiaeeiay aio aeey iieo/aiey i?aaeiaoa iio?aaeaiey, ca
eneeth/aieai ?anoiaeia ia IAeN. Oaeei ia?acii, oieueei IAeN ia aoiaeeo a
iniiao aai en/eneaiey, ana aea inoaeueiua ecaea?aeee, iai?eia?
o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu, i?i/ea iaeiae ia iio?aaeaiea, ana i?i/ea
?anoiaeu, naycaiiua n inouanoaeaieai iai?ioa e o. i., yaeythony
ninoaaiie /anoueth aiciaa?aaeaeaiey. Nai aea iaeia aceiaaony n
iieoiaoaey iiaeaaeythuaai aieueoeinoaa oiaa?ia e oneoa ia eaaeaeie
noaaeee eo i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaeaeaiey e eiia/iiio iio?aaeoaeth. I?e
yoii noiia iaeiaa, i?eaaaeyaiay e noieiinoe oiaa?a, ii?aaeaeyaony
enoiaey ec aai ?uii/iie oeaiu e onoaiiaeaiiie noaaee iaeiaa. A oi aea
a?aiy iaeia, oiea/eaaaiue i?aaei?eyoeyie a athaeaeao, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo iaeiaii, aeeth/aiiui a noieiinoue oiaa?a
(iieo/aiiui n iio?aaeoaey), e iaeiaii, aiciauaiiui ecaioiaeoaeyi ca
iinoaaeo iaoa?eaeia e eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee. Oaeei ia?acii, iaeia
?ann/eouaaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii noieiinoe, aeiaaaeaiiie ia
niioaaonoaothuae noaaeee ia?aaioee.

Ioa/anoaaiiay yeiiiie/aneay oai?ey ?anniao?eaaao iieacaoaeue
aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo noieiinoueth oiaa?a e
iaoa?eaeueiuie cao?aoaie ia aai i?iecaiaenoai. Iaeiaei a iaoeo oneiaeyo
oaoie/anee e?aeia neiaeii auaeaeeoue ana iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou (ia
nu?uea, iaoa?eaeu, oiieeai, yia?aeth, iieoiiua eiiieaeoothuea ecaeaeey e
iieooaa?eeaou e i?iecaiaenoaaiiua oneoae noi?iiieo i?aaiecaoeee,
ieacaiiua aeaiiiio i?aaei?eyoeth), iaoaaeoea io?aaeaiea a naaanoieiinoe
?aaeeciaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee, oae eae nenoaia aooaaeoa?neiai o/aoa cao?ao e
naaanoieiinoe i?iaeoeoeee iino?iaia o ian oaeei ia?acii, /oi
iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii aeinoiaa?ii eeoue
a ?an/aoa ia aaeiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth (iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou a iauae noiia
cao?ao ia i?iecaiaenoai ii yeaiaioai), a a ?an/aoa ia oiaa?ioth
i?iaeoeoeeth o/ao cao?ao aaaeaony ii eaeueeoeyoeeiiiui noaoueyi. Iiiaea
ec yoeo noaoae yaeythony eiiieaeniuie (oeaoiaua ?anoiaeu, ?anoiaeu ia
niaea?aeaiea e yenieoaoaoeeth iai?oaeiaaiey, iioa?e io a?aea,
iauacaaiaeneea ?anoiaeu, i?i/ea i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu,
iai?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?anoiaeu), e auaeaeeoue ec ieo iaoa?eaeueiua cao?aou
i/aiue o?oaeii. Iiyoiio i?eiyo eiie, oi?iuaiiue ii?yaeie ?an/aoa IAeN,
eioi?ue iicaieyao ii?aaeaeeoue noiio iaeiaa aac onoaiiaeaiey aaee/eiu
naiie aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe.

Oaeei ia?acii, iaio?aaioaiiinoue iaoiaeieiaee ii?aaeaeaiey e o/aoa
iaoa?eaeueiuo cao?ao, ?acee/ey a nenoaia ia?ae/iiai e aooaaeoa?neiai
o/aoa a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e ca ?oaaaeii i?eaiaeyo e cia/eoaeueiui
ioeeiiaieyi i?aeoeee en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue io oai?ee aii?ina. Eae iieacuaaao aiaeec i?aeoeee aceiaiey
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee
aeaenoaothuay nenoaia en/eneaiey iaeiaa niaea?aeeo a naaa cia/eoaeueiua
iaaeinoaoee, o?aaothuea ei?aiiiai aa ia?aniio?a. I?e/ai eciaiaieth
aeieaeiu iiaeaa?aiooueny ia oieueei ioaeaeueiua aa /anoe e yeaiaiou, ii
e naia nenoaia en/eneaiey o?aaoao iiaiai iiaeoiaea e aa ?anniio?aieth.

Oae, aiaeec oa?aeoa?iuo ioeaie, naycaiiuo n en/eneaieai iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue, auyaee ?yae aeaenoaothueo iieiaeaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa o?aaothueo naiaai eciaiaiey eee ei??aeoe?iaee. E iei
ioiinyony:

1) i?iaeaia niaoeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii
IAeN (a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo i?iaeaaeiuie oeaiaie e oeaiaie
i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia, aeeth/athueie IAeN) aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey. Ia/aoeinoue caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii
aii?ino ii?aaeaeaiea iioiaiai eee ?icie/iiai oiaa?iiai?ioa i?eaiaeeo a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy e iiiai/eneaiiui ia?ooaieyi ni noi?iiu
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, a oaeaea nicaeaao iiiaeanoai eiioeeeoiuo neooaoeee;

2) iniaue ii?yaeie en/eneaiey IAeN ii i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e
iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey, a oaeaea iaaeeth/aiea eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo
i?aaei?eieiaoaeae a /enei iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia IAeN nicaeaao
ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe ia oieueei naiei i?aaei?eyoeyi ?icie/iie
oi?aiaee e /anoiui i?aaei?eieiaoaeyi, ii e yaeythony i?e/eiie
iiiai/eneaiiuo ia?ooaiee ni noi?iiu iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, au?aaeathueany
a naiinoiyoaeueiii auaeaeaiee iaeiaa a ?an/aoiuo aeieoiaioao e
iaiainiiaaiiii ioianaiee noii IAeN ii iei ia ?an/aou n athaeaeaoii;

3) iniaia ianoi a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa caieiaao oaeaea iniaue ii?yaeie
en/eneaiey IAeN i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ii oeaiai ia auoa oaeoe/aneie
naaanoieiinoe, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua iaoiaeu en/eneaiey IAeN i?e
?aaeecaoeee ai?th/a-niaci/iuo iaoa?eaeia. Yoe ioieou caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa
/?acau/aeii neiaeiu, caiooaiiu e niioaaonoaaiii iayooaeoeaiu.
Iaeiaiieaoaeueueeaie aeiioneaaony ii iei aieueoia eiee/anoai ioeaie,
iaeiaei iaeiaiaui i?aaiai i/aiue neiaeii i?iaa?eoue i?aaeeueiinoue
en/eneaiey IAeN a oaeeo neo/ayo.

Iaeiei ec nouanoaaiiuo yoaiia niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue iiaeao noaoue eciaiaiea ?acia?a ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca ia?ooaiea
iaeiaiaiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN e ii?yaeea aa i?eiaiaiey. Oae, ia
i?ioyaeaiee 1997 aiaea a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiiie eiio?ieueiie ?aaiou
AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa
ninoaaeea ii/oe 41 ie?ae. ?oaeae a oeaiao 1997 aiaea. Noiia aea oo?aoiuo
naieoeee aieaa /ai a 4 ?aca i?aauneea noiiu aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa.
Oaeia iieiaeaiea aeae yaeeinue i?e/eiie ia?aciaaiey cia/eoaeueiie
iaaeieiee ii iaeiao, eioi?ay a 3 eaa?oaea 1997 aiaea aeinoeaaea 407
ie?ae. ?oaeae a oeaiao 1997 aiaea. Aiaeece?oy aeaiioth neooaoeeth iiaeii
naeaeaoue auaiae n iaeiie noi?iiu i caauoaiiinoe ?acia?ia oo?aoiuo
naieoeee, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu i iaaiciiaeiinoe i?eiaiaiey naieoeee,
i?aaeoniio?aiiuo no. 13 Caeiia ?O io 27.12.91 a. ? 2118-1 «Ia iniiaao
iaeiaiaie nenoaiu a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee» a ?yaea neo/aaa ia?ooaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN. Oaeay neooaoeey i?aaiaie iaii?aaeaeaiiinoe
iaoneiaeaia neaaeothuei:

A aeaenoaothuai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia ioaaonoaaiiinoe a noa?a
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey ia i?aaeoniio?aii ?acaaoaeaiiie nenoaiu ninoaaia
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia?ooaiee. Eneonnoaaiiia ia?aie/aiea aeaeia
i?aaiia?ooaiee i?eaaei e oiio, /oi i?aeoe/anee ethaua aeaenoaey
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia, iiaeaeoea iaaeiieaoo iaeiaa, iaeiaiaua i?aaiu
iaiainiiaaiii eaaeeoeoee?othony eae nie?uoea eee caieaeaiea iauaeoa
iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey. Yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aea/ao ca niaie iaiainiiaaiiia
i?eiaiaiea naieoeee – acuneaiea oo?aoa a noiia aeiia/eneaiiiai iaeiaa, a
a neo/aa iiaoi?a – a aeaieiii ?acia?a. Iaeiaei oaea nae/an aiaaoue iiuo
a?aeo?aaeii-noaeaaiie i?aeoeee ?anniio?aiey nii?ia i IAeN
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i iaaiciiaeiinoe a iieiie ia?a ioaaoeoue ana aeaeu
ia?ooaiee caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ii IAeN a ?aieao nouanoaothueo aeaeia
i?aaiia?ooaiee.

Oaeaea iaiaoiaeeii ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeai
naiaa?aiaiiinoe ?an/aoia iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia n athaeaeaoii. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao oi, /oi a n?aaeiai 15,6 % iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia
aeiioneatho a naiae ?aaioa i?in?i/aiioth caaeieaeaiiinoue ii iaeiao
ia?aae athaeaeaoii. I?e yoii noiia i?in?i/aiiie caaeieaeaiiinoe ia?aae
athaeaeaoii a n?aaeiai a 2 ?aca i?aauoaao noiio ia/eneaiiiai IAeN ii
aeaeea?aoeeyi ii i/a?aaeiiio n?ieo oieaou. Aaeaeaa?oaeueii athaeaeao
iaaeiiieo/aao a n?aaeiai 359073,4 iei. ?oaeae, ec eioi?uo 93,6 %
i?eoiaeeony ia i?aaei?eyoey ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a yeiiiieee.
Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie oaeiai iieiaeaiey aauae yaeyaony i?iaeaia
iaieaoaaeae a yeiiiieea, a oaeaea i?iaeaia caauoaiiinoe ?acia?ia
oo?aoiuo naieoeee.

Iniiauaaynue ia i?iaaaeaiiii aiaeeca iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth aeaenoaothuae i?aeoeee aceiaiey
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee:

1) ia?iiiia eiee/anoai caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo aeoia, eino?oeoeee e ae?oaeo
ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo ii?yaeie en/eneaiey iaeiaa,
o?aaotho naiae oieoeeaoeee e eiaeeoeeaoeee, oae eae eo iiiai/eneaiiinoue
e ?ac?iciaiiinoue yaeyaony i?e/eiie ?yaea ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo ia?ooaiee
ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa;

2) cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey aeieaeiu i?iecieoe a iaeanoe ii?aaeaeaiey
iauaeoa iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey e iaeiaiaie aacu. I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena
i?aaeoniao?eaaao ioiaio aiciiaeiinoe ii?aaeaeaiey iiiaioa aicieeiiaaiey
iaeiaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ia?aae ainoaea?noaii ii ia?a iieaou i?e
eniieueciaaiee niioaaonoaothuaai iaoiaea o/aoa au?o/ee io ?aaeecaoeee
i?iaeoeoeee (?aaio, oneoa);

3) iaeiei ec iaiaoiaeeiuo oneiaee noaiiaeony /aoeay ?aaeaiaioaoeoey
ca/aoa aaainiaiai iaeiaa ia iniiaaiee n/aoia-oaeoo?. I?e yoii yoa
aa?aioey aeieaeia iaania/eaaoueny oai, /oi ethaie iaeiaiieaoaeueuee
iiaeao i?iecaanoe ca/ao aaainiaiai iaeiaa ca oio io/aoiue ia?eiae –
ianyoe, eaa?oae eee aiae, a eioi?ii iinooieee n/aoa-oaeoo?u ca
i?eia?aoaiiua oiaa?u eee oneoae. I?e yoii niaa?oaiii iaiaycaoaeueii,
/oiau yoe n/aoa-oaeoo?u auee iiea/aiu e iiiaioo en/eneaiey IAeN,
iaycaoaeai oieueei nai oaeo inouanoaeaiey iai?ioa. I?e oaeii iiaeoiaea
cia/eoaeueii iiauoaaony cia/aiea n/aoia-oaeoo? – eae iniiaiuo ?an/aoiuo
aeieoiaioia a nenoaia iaeiaa;

4) ia iaiaa aeooaeueia aiciiaeiinoue ioiaiu niaoeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea
ii?aaeaeaiey iaeiaiaie aacu ii IAeN i?e ?aaeecaoeee oiaa?ia ii oeaiai ia
auoa oaeoe/aneie naaanoieiinoe, a oaeaea niaoeeaeueiiai ii?yaeea
ii?aaeaeaiey iaeaaaaiiai iai?ioa ii IAeN (a aeaea ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
i?iaeaaeiuie oeaiaie e oeaiaie i?eia?aoaiey oiaa?ia, aeeth/athueie IAeN)
aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?icie/iie oi?aiaee e iauanoaaiiiai ieoaiey;

5) a iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey oo?aoiuo naieoeee a neo/aa ia?ooaiey
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN iniiaiuie ia?ii?eyoeyie iiaoo noaoue
neaaeothuea:

– nicaeaiea naiae nenoaiu oo?aoiuo naieoeee, i?eiaiyaiie oieueei e
ia?ooaieyi caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia IAeN, – yoi iicaieeo iaeaieaa iieii
ioaaoeoue ana aeaeu i?aaiia?ooaiee, naycaiiuo n ii?yaeeii en/eneaiey e
oieaou iaeiaa;

– aianaiea iieiaeaiee, ?aaoee?othueo neo/ae i?eiaiaiey yoeo oo?aoiuo
naieoeee, iaiin?aaenoaaiii a caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai ia IAeN, – yoi naeaeaao
ioa/anoaaiiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai aieaa i?ic?a/iui e /eoaaiui;

– oiaiueoaiea nouanoaothuaai ?acia?a oo?aoiuo naieoeee e ?ani?aaeaeaiea
anae nenoaiu ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie aeaeaie ia?ooaiee
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa, – yoi oneiaeieo ?aaioo iaeiaiauo i?aaiia, iaeiaei
i?eaaaeao e ?ani?aaeaeaieth ioaaonoaaiiinoe iaaeaeo anaie o/anoieeaie
iaeiaiauo i?aaiioiioaiee, oiaaea eae nae/an iniiaiie a?oc oo?aoiuo
naieoeee eiaeeony iaiiia?iie iioae ia e?oiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia;

6) iioaioeeaeueiua i?iaaeu aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa, ia?acothueany
aneaaenoaea oiaiueoaiey ?acia?ia oo?aoiuo naieoeee iiaeao ainiieieoue
nie?auaiea ia?a/iy eueaioe?oaiuo aeaeia aeayoaeueiinoe. Aiaeec
auiaaeathueo aeioiaeia athaeaeaoa naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi a n?aaeiai
athaeaeaou ?acee/iiai o?iaiy oa?ytho aei 1/5 anao iinooiathueo ieaoaaeae
ii IAeN.

A caeeth/aiee iaiaoiaeeii ioiaoeoue cia/eoaeueioth iaa?oceo iaeiaiauo
i?aaiia, naycaiioth n iinoiyiiui oaaee/aieai eiee/anoaa i?aaei?eyoee,
ninoiyueo ia iaeiaiaii o/aoa a AIE ii Aaoeoianeiio ?aeiio ? 1 a. Eacaie
(a n?aaeiai aaeaeaa?oaeueiue ?ino ninoaaeyao ieiei 60 i?aaei?eyoee). Yoi
i?eaiaeeo e iaiaa iieiiio ioaaoo aeieoiaioaeueiuie i?iaa?eaie anao
iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia ?aeiia. A yoie nayce cia/eoaeueii iiauoaaony
aeooaeueiinoue i?iaeaiu aaoiiaoecaoeee e eiiiuethoa?ecaoeee ?aaiou
iaeiaiauo i?aaiia, nicaeaiea aaeeiuo aac aeaiiuo iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia
ai?iaea.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Caeii ?O ? 1992-1 io 6 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue».

2. Caeii ?O ? 3317-1 io 16 ethey 1992 a. «I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a iaeiaiaoth nenoaio ?innee».

3. Caeii ?O ? 4178-1 io 22 aeaeaa?y 1992 a. «I aianaiee eciaiaiee e
aeiiieiaiee a ioaeaeueiua caeiiu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee i iaeiaao».

4. Caeii ? 2813-1 io 22 iay 1992 a. «I aianaiee eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee
a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue».

5. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ? 63-OC io 25 ai?aey 1995 a.«I aianaiee eciaiaiee
e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue».

6. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ? 57-OC io 6 aeaeaa?y 1994 a. «I aianaiee
eciaiaiee e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue».

7. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ? 222-OC io 29 aeaeaa?y 1995 a. «Ia oi?iuaiiie
nenoaia iaeiaiiaeiaeaiey, o/aoa e io/aoiinoe aeey noauaeoia iaeiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa».

8. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ? 25-O3 io 1 ai?aey 1996 a «I aianaiee eciaiaiee
e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue».

9. Oaaea?aeueiue Caeii ?73-O3 io 28 ai?aey 1997 a. «I aianaiee eciaiaiee
e aeiiieiaiee a Caeii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee «I iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
noieiinoue».

10. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O ?2270 io 22 aeaeaa?y 1993 a. «I iaeioi?uo
eciaiaieyo a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee e ai acaeiiioiioaieyo athaeaeaoia
?acee/iuo o?iaiae».

11. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io 21 ethey 1995 a. ? 746 «I ia?aii/a?aaeiuo
ia?ao ii niaa?oainoaiaaieth iaeiaiaie nenoaiu ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee».

12. Oeac I?aceaeaioa ?O io 8 iay 1996 a. ? 685 «Ia iniiaiuo iai?aaeaieyo
iaeiaiaie ?aoi?iu a ?O e ia?ao ii oe?aieaieth iaeiaiaie e ieaoaaeiie
aeenoeeieeiu».

13. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 08 iay 1992 a. ? 305 «I
ainoaea?noaaiiie ?aaeno?aoeee aaaeiinoaaiiuo ii?iaoeaiuo aeoia».

14. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 1 ethey 1995 a. ? 659 «I
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ao, ii eioi?ui i?eiaiyaony noaaea iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?acia?a 10 i?ioeaioia».

15. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O io 13 iiya?y 1995 a. ? 1120 «I
i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo oiaa?ao, ii eioi?ui i?eiaiyaony noaaea iaeiaa ia
aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?acia?a 10 i?ioeaioia».

16. Iinoaiiaeaiea I?aaeoaeuenoaa ?O ? 914 io 28 ethey 1996 a. «Ia
ooaa?aeaeaiee ii?yaeea aaaeaiey aeo?iaeia o/aoa n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e
?an/aoao ii iaeiao ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue».

17. Eino?oeoeey AIN ?O ? 1 io 9 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey
e oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue».

18. Eino?oeoeey ? 01-20/741/16 io 30 yiaa?y 1993 a. «I ii?yaeea
i?eiaiaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue e aeoeecia a ioiioaiee
oiaa?ia, aaiceiuo ia oa??eoi?eth ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee e auaiceiuo n
oa??eoi?ee ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee».

19. Ienueii AIN ?O io 31 ethey 1995 a. «Eciaiaiey e aeiiieiaiey ? 7
Eino?oeoeee AIN ?O io 9 aeaeaa?y 1991 a. «I ii?yaeea en/eneaiey e oieaou
iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue».

20. Eino?oeoeey AIN ?O ? 39 io 11 ieoya?y 1995 a. «I ii?yaeea
en/eneaiey e oieaou iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue».

21. Ienueii Ainoaea?noaaiiie neoaeau ?O ? A3-6-03/890 e Ieienoa?noaa
oeiainia ?O ? 109 io 25 aeaeaa?y 1996 a. «I i?eiaiaiee n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e
?an/aoao ii IAeN n 01 yiaa?y 1997 a».

22. Ienueii AIN ?O io 28 aaaonoa 1992 a. ? EE-6-01/284 a ?aaeaeoeee
ienueia AIN ?O io 30 ai?aey 1993 a. ? AA-6-01/160.

23. I?iaeo Iaeiaiaiai Eiaeaena ?innee a noaiao, CAI «EIINYEI»,
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24. A. A. ?aaicei «Iaeiae e iaeiaiaia ieaie?iaaiea», ? 1 1995 a.

25. «Iaeiae e iaeiaiaia i?aai», o/aaiia iiniaea iiae ?aae. A. A.
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26. A. E. Aeaeue «Oieeiaue neiaa?ue aeeaiai aaeeei?onneiai ycuea: a 4
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27. «Oeiainu e e?aaeeo NNN?» iiae ?aaeaeoeeae E. A. Ae?iaiceiie, Iineaa,
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28. E. A. Ao?eaeiaa, E. Ae. Ao?ye, A. I. Iaaeeeianeee «Nenoaia
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29. A. ss. Eeia?iai, I. O. Oeiioaaaa «Iaeiae a ?uii/iie yeiiiieea»,
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30. A. E. Iaea?ueaaa «I?iaa?ea i?aaei?eyoee e i?aaiecaoeee iaeiaiauie
i?aaiaie» (iaoiaeeea e niiniau i?iaaaeaiey i?iaa?ee, ioaaou ia aii?inu),
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31. I. A. Iaua?yeiaa «Iaeiaiaua nenoaiu ?acaeouo no?ai ie?a:
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32. N. Aeaenaoaiei «Caiaaeiiaa?iiaeneay i?aeoeea eniieueciaaiey IAeN»,
Yeiiiie/aneea iaoee 1991 a. ? 6, no?. 94

33. I. Aa?iae Oiai «Aoaeouaa iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a
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34. O. I. Aieei «Ia?aia ciaeiinoai n iiaui iaeiaii», YEI 1992 a. ? 2

35. A. Aieioei «IAeN : i?aiaeieaiea e??aoeeiiaeueiiai», ?inneeneee
yeiiiie/aneee aeo?iae 1994 a. ? 9

36. E. A. Ea?aaaaaa «Yaiethoeey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a
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37. A. I. Eicu?ei, E. A. ?uaeeia «I?aaiaia ?aaoee?iaaiea IAeN a
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38. A. I. Eicu?ei «Einaaiiua iaeiae a iaoaiecia oaiiaeaiii-oa?eoiiai
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39. I. A. Eiiiaa «Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue», Eiinoeueoaio 1996
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40. I. Ae. Ei/aoiaa «Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue», Aoaeeo e
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41. I. N. E?ueiaa «Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue a ?innee e
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42. A. Eaoiaa, E. Eoeooeeia «I n/aoao-oaeoo?ao», Aoaeeoi? 1997 a. ? 4,
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43. E. Eueiaa «Iaeiaiaay iieeoeea : yooaeoeaiinoue ?u/aaia e noeioeia»,
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44. N. A. Iaiaeyaa «Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue:
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45. A. A. Iiiiia?aa «I?iaeaiu i?eiaiaiey n/aoia-oaeoo?»,
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46. A. A. ?aieciaa «I?eiaiaiea eueaio ii IAeN iauanoaaiiuie
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47. ?. ?yaiaa «I i?eiaiaiee n/aoia-oaeoo? i?e ?an/aoao ii iaeiao ia
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48. I. Naiaiia «Eae ii?aaeaeeoue IAeN i?e i?iaeaaea iioii e a ?icieoeo»,
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49. I. A. Na?iaa «Ia ioaeaeueiuo aii?inao o/aoa iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
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iaeiaa», Aeaaaoo 1996 a. ? 5, no?. 45

50. I. Oeiioaaaa «Iaeia ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue. Iiuo ca?oaaaeiuo
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51. I. Oeiioaaaa, Ae. Ieeieueneee «I aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe», Yeiiiieno
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52. I. A. Oa?auaiei, A. N. Aaeue «Noa?a i?eiaiaiey iaeiaa ia
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53. I. I. O?iiiaa «Oeie/iua aii?inu en/eneaiey iaeiaa ia aeiaaaeaiioth
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54. I. I. O?iiiaa «Eciaiaiea a iaeiaiiaeiaeaiee, naycaiiua n en/eneaieai
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55. Ae. A. *a?iee «Iaeiae Eoaeee», Oeiainu 1995 a. ? 1, no?. 35

56. Ae. A. *a?iee «Iaeiae O?aioeee», Oeiainu 1994 a. ? 7, no?. 33

57. I. N. *aieeia «Ii?yaeie aaaeaiey n/aoia-oaeoo?: iaeiaiaue einiaeoi?
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58. «IAeN a ie?iaie i?aeoeea», Aee?aeoi?-Aeaeaeaeano 1995 a. ? 11, no?.
46

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