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Чайковский в Петербурге

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NIa AAAI

?aoa?ao

Oaia:

*aeeianeee a

Iaoa?ao?aa.

Nooaeaioee 361 a?oiiu Ia/aaaie I.I.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue : Nie?iiaa O. I.

Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a

1997

Niaea?aeaiea.

1.Iainiiaaiea oaiu. 3.

2.Ooiaiiue ai?iae thiinoe . 4.

3.*eiiaiee eee iocueaio? 8.

4.Aac oai?/anoaa iao aeecie. 13.

5.Ia aa?oeia. 16.

6.”Ieeiaay aeaia”.
18.

7.Caeeth/eoaeueiay /anoue. 20.

8.Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. 21.

1. Iainiiaaiea oaiu.

I Iao?a Eeuee/a *aeeianeii iaienaii iaiaei ,ii a iniiaiii ,yoi
iocueaeueiay eeoa?aoo?a .I?e oiiieiaiee aai eiaie , n?aco aea aniiieiaai
Eeei ,iaaieueoie iiaeiineiaiue ai?iaeie ,a eioi?ii Iao? Eeuee/ i?iaae
iineaaeiea aiaeu aeecie. Ii ciaiaieoue aeii a Eeeio ,iuia
Ainoaea?noaaiiue Aeii-iocae I. E. *aeeianeiai, aeaaea ia i?eiaaeeaaeae
aio –Iao? Eeuee/ nieiae oai ianeieueei eiiiao ia ia?aii yoaaea. A iinea
aai nia?oe aeii yoio aueoiee a?ao *aeeianeiai Aiaoieee Eeuee/ e
i?aa?aoee aai a iocae.

Iaeiaei ,Iaoa?ao?a iiiai cia/ee aeey eiiiiceoi?a, ai?acaei aieueoa
Iineau eee ethaiai ae?oaiai ai?iaea . A Iaoa?ao?aa nouanoaoao
iiiai iaiyoiuo iano ,

naycaiiuo n eiaiai Iao?a *aeeianeiai ,i eioi?uo oioaeinue au ?anneacaoue
.Caeanue ii o/eeny a O/eeeua I?aaiaaaeaiey ,a Iocueaeueiuo eeannao
.caoai ,a Iaoa?ao?aneie eiina?aaoi?ee . Iioi?iiai ii oiaea a Iaoa?ao?aa
a Aeaenaiae?i-Iaaneie eaa?a.

Iiyoiio iia oi/aony ?anneacaoue i *aeeianeii eae i iaoa?ao?aeoea ,i
iaiyoiuo ianoao ,eioi?ua ii eiaaea-oi iinauae ,i ethaeyo ,ciaaoeo e
ethaeaoeo aai.

2. Ooiaiiue ai?iae thiinoe.

A ia/aea 1848 aiaea E. I. *aeeianeee ,aueaey a ionoaaeo ,ia?aaoae ec
Aioeeinea ,aaea ii neoaeee aee?aeoi?ii ai?iuo caaiaeia ,a Iaoa?ao?a .
Naiuey *aeeianeeo auea aieueoay. Noa?oay ec aeaoae -Ceiaeaea ,caoai oee
nuiiauey—Ieeieae aeanyoe e Iao? ainueie eao ,aei/ue Aeaenaiae?a oanoe
eao e iyoeeaoiee Eiiieeo.

Ia Ae?aeaaie eeiee Aaneeueaaneiai ino?iaa aei iaoeo aeiae
nio?aieeny aieueoie , iaeeiiei

noiyuee aeii. Aeii-ootha “iacuaatho aai aeeoaee . Yoiio aeiio e
noaeaeaii auei noaoue ia?aui aeeeueai Iao?a Eeuee/a a Iaoa?ao?aa.

O?oaeii neacaoue ,a eaeie eiaiii eaa?oe?a iinaeeeanue oiaaea
naiuey *aeeianeeo . A oi a?aiy aeii aue o?aoyoaaeiue , a a 1879 aiaeo
aue iaaeno?iai /aoaa?oue yoaae , a 1887 aiaeo iaae /anoueth ei?iona
,auoiaeeaoaai ia Ae?aeaaoth eeieth , iiyaeeanue iaaeno?ieea iyoiai
yoaaea , eioi?ay iiiaea aiaeu neoaeeea ianoa?neie aeey ooaeiaeieeia , a
yoii aeiia aeeee e oia?ee E?aineie e Eoeiaeaee .

Nae/an yoi aeii ?18/ 2 ii Ae?aeaaie eeiee, oiaaea aea ii/oiaue
aae?an ienaee oae: ”Aaneeueaaneee ino?ia ,aeec Ae?aee, aeii Iaiyaaa”.

A oii aea aiaeo Ieeieay e Iao?a ioaeaee a /anoiue iaineii
Oiaeeeiaa . Aeieai ia oaeaaaeinue iaeoe aae?an

yoiai iaineiia. Iiiiaei iauyaeaiea a noa?ii Iaoa?ao?aneii
iooaaiaeeoaea: ”A.i?.16 Iao .no . ae . Iaiaea. Oeiea ioae. sscue: aiae.
O?. iaiaoee. e eaouiue . Oaioeu e aeiianoeea. Ieaoa ca iaineii 350 ?oa.,
iieoiaineii 225 ?oa., i?eoiaeyu. 80 ?oa.” Iao? *aeeianeee aue
i?eoiaeyuei.

A yoi aea a?aiy ia/aeenue aai ia?aua caiyoey iocueie n
o/eoaeai Oeeeiiiaui. A aeaeaa?a Iao? oyaeaei caaieae e a?a/e cai?aoeee
aio any/aneea caiyoey. Iinea iiacaeee ia O?ae a 1849-50 aa. caei?iauea
?aaaiea ainnoaiiaeeinue ,anoae aii?in i i?iaeieaeaiee iao/aiey. Aia/aea
oioaee /oiau iaa a?aoa o/eeenue a Ai?iii ei?iona, ii iioii ?aoeee
iiianoeoue Iao?a a ioe?uoua a 1847 aiaeo i?eaioiaeoaeueiua eeannu
O/eeeua i?aaiaaaeaiey , eioi?ua aiineaaenoaee ia?aciaaee n O/eeeuai
iaeii o/aaiia caaaaeaiea.

Iniiaaiiia a 1835 aiaeo aeey iiaeaioiaee noaeaeneeo /eiiaieeia ,iii
ioee/aeinue ia?aia a?aiy iaoa?aeoa?iui aeey ieeieaaaneie ?innee iyaeei
?aaeeiii.

Iaeiaei niieieiay aeeciue a o/eeeua i?ioaeaea eeoue aei 1848
aiaea – ia/aea “ i?a/iiai naieeaoey “, eioi?ia auei iaeaieaa oyaeeei ca
ana a?aiy oea?noaiaaiey Ieeieay 1 . Aanoe i ?aaiethoeee ai O?aioeee
auno?i acaoaei?aaeeee thiua oiu . A o/eeeua ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieeny
?aaeei . Aee?aeoi?ii iacia/eee auaoaai ?eaeneiai iieeoeiaenoa?a
aaia?ae-iaei?a sscueiaa. Noa?uo aoaa?ia?ia caiaieee a aieueoeinoaa
ioeoea?aie . E?iia oiai, iiyaeeanue iiaay aeieaeiinoue einiaeoi?a
ainieoaiieeia .Aa caiye iieeiaiee ?ooaiaa?a , eioi?ue aue ?aiueoa
i?aiiaeaaaoaeai aa?oiaie acaeu . Iaeei ec ainieoaiieeia
i?eaioiaeoaeueiuo eeannia A. Iaua?neee aniiieiae i ia?aii naiai
ciaeiinoaa n iiaui aee?aeoi?ii :

“Iiiith ,eae a/a?a , aai iiyaeaiea e iai a i?eaioiaeoaeueiua
eeannu .Ii ia aioae ,a aeaoae ,eae o?aaai ,iicaei?iaaeny ,a caoai n
aeacaie ia aueaoa aeey i?eaeaiey naaa no?iainoe noae iaoiaeeoue iaoe
eeanniua noieu … ss noiye n ?oeaie ,iieiaeaiiuie ia noie .Ii iiaeioae
ei iia , oaea?ee ii ?oeai .”Eae niaoue oae noiyoue ? – ?yaeioe ii ,-
?oee ii oaai !”A caoai, neacaa –

oe : “Niio?eoa o iaiy ,aanoe naay oi?ioi ,a ia oi ?ani?aaa aoaeao
ei?ioeay !”-au eaoae ec eeanna … Yoi auei ia?aia aia/aoeaiea io
iiaiai ?aaeeia “.1

Ono?iea nuia ia eo?nu ,Aeaenaiae?a Aiae?aaaia *aeeianeay
auioaeaeaia auea iiaoaoue ia O?ae , aaea aa aeaeaea naiuey .
Ano?aoeeenue iie eeoue /a?ac aiae ,inaiueth 1852 aiaea ,eiaaea any
naiuey ia?anaeeeanue a Iaoa?ao?a. Ia yoio ?ac *aeeianeea niyee eaa?oe?o
ia Na?aaaaneie oeeoea (oie, /oi oaia?ue iacuaaaony oeeoeae *aeeianeiai
),a aeiia ?41.

Oie aea inaiueth aeaaiaaeoeaoeeaoiee Iao? *aeeianeee ia?aoae a
7-ie (ieaaeoee ) eeann O/eeeua I?aaiaaaeaiey .

I aeiia ? 6 ia Oiioaiea ,a eioi?ii 7 eao i?iaae Iao? Eeuee/,
neaaeoao neacaoue ianeieueei neia .

Iaeii a?aiy yoii aeiia ,iino?iaiiii ia ianoa ,aaea eiaaea-oi
iaoiaeeeenue eiithoie Ae?iia ,

aeee ciaiaieoue ?onneee iieeiaiaeaoe aaia?ae-oaeueaeia?oae Aa?eeae aea
Oieee ,

caoai ,aica?auaiiue ec nnueee ninoaaeoaeue ainoaea?noaaiiuo caeiiia I.I.
Nia?aineee

A iai ia?aauaaei iiiai aeeeueoeia . Iineaaeiei aue aeaoneee iineaiiee
Aethi. Niaoeeaeueii aeey O/eeeua aeii aue ia?ano?iai a?oeoaeoi?ii A.I.
Noaniaui .

A1893-1896 aa. caeaiea yoi niiaa ia?ano?aeaaeinue. Auee naeaeaiu
iaeioi?ua i?eno?ieee e eciaiai oanaae. Iaeii inoaeinue iaeciaiiui – ana
oae aea ec anao ieii oanaaea eaoii auea aeaeia eaaeay cuaue Oiioaiee e
oae aea ca iath e?aniaaeenue aaeiaua aea?aauey Eaoiaai naaea.

Enoi?ey noa?iai aeiia aoaeao iaiieiie, anee ia oiiiyiooue ,/oi a iiya?a
1917aiaea a iai ninoiyeny *?acau/aeiue nuacae niaaoia e?anoueyineeo
aeaiooaoia.1

…Eoae, a 1835 aiaeo caeanue ioe?ueinue o/eeeua i?aaiaaaeaiey, aaea
aioiaeeenue noaeaeneea /eiiaieee “ iiaiai ia?acoea “.Ec yoiai o/eeeua
aua aei i?aauaaiey oai *aeeianeiai, auoee auaeathueany aeayoaee ?onneie
eoeueoo?u. Yoi eiiiiceoi? e e?eoee A.I. Na?ia, eneonnoaiaaae A.A.
Noania, iiiai naeaeaaoee aianoa n I.A. Aaeaee?aaui aeey nicaeaiey
niae?oaeanoaa ia?aaeiauo ?onneeo iocueaioia, aai a?ao Ae.A. Noania,
e?oiiue aaeaieao, ecaanoiue naiei o/anoeai a ?yaea i?ioeannia ii aeaeo
?aaiethoeeiia?ia.

Aaniith 1853 aiaea Iaoy ia?aoae a 6-e eeann, a inaiueth naiuey ia?aaoaea
ia iiaoth eaa?oe?o a Nieyiii ia?aoeea – “Aeii Eauaaie ieiei Ionoiai
?uiea”(oaia?ue aeii ? 6 ii Nieyiiio ia?aoeeo).A yoii aeiia i?iecioei
naiia ai?anoiia a aeecie *aeeianeiai niauoea :13 ethiy 1854 aiaea oia?ea
aai iaoue Aeaenaiae?a Aiae?aaaia.

Inoaaaoueny a yoie eaa?oe?a auei iaauiineii oyaeaei, e inaiueth 1854
aiaea ine?ioaaoay naiuey ia?aaoaea ia Aaneeueaaneee ino?ia, ia 4-oth
eeieth, a aeii Aaea (aeii yoio iaeoe ia oaeaeinue).

A yoii aea aiaeo Eiiieeoa, ieaaeoaai a?aoa Iao?a Eeuee/a, ioaeaee a
ii?neie ei?ion. Eiiieeo Eeuee/ aiineaaenoaee ?anneacuaae, /oi auai? aai
aeeciaiiiai iooe aue aeiaieueii neo/ae-

iui. Nai ii oioae auoue ii?yeii, ii ioaoe ?aoee ioaeaoue aai a Ai?iia
o/eeeua ,aaea o/eeny aai noa?oee nui Ieeieae. E aio ia aeaoo caieni/eao
iaienaee iacaaiey yoeo o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee, iieiaeeee eo ca eeiio, e
iaeaiueeie Eiiieeo, acia?aaoenue ia nooe, auoyioe iaeio ec ieo: “Ii?neie
ei?ion”. Oae ?aoeeanue noaeueaa iaeue/eea.1

Eeuey Iao?iae/, ia?auaaoee aieiaiea ia iocueaeueiia ?acaeoea nuia, a
1855 aiaeo i?eaeanee aio o/eoaey, ecaanoiiai ieaienoa ?oaeieueoa
Aaneeueaae/a Ethiaeeiaa?a. Caiyoey , ai?i/ai, aeeeeenue ia oae aeieai :
o/eoaeue ia caiaoee a naiai o/aieea aieueoeo niiniaiinoae.

…A a o/eeeua aeeciue oea naiei /a?aaeii. Oae aea i?eoiaeeeinue
iinauaoue iaycaoaeueiua eaeoeee. Oaia?ue ia noa?oeo eo?nao eco/aeenue
niaoeeaeueiua i?aaeiaou. A aunoai oieaa?neoaoneii eo?na o/eeeua( a 3-i,
2-i e 1-i eeannao ) i?aiiaeaaaeenue, iai?eia?, oaeea aeenoeeieeiu
:yioeeeeiiaaeey caeiiiaaaeaiey, ?eineia ainoaea?noaaiiia , a?aaeaeaineia
e oaieiaiia i?aai, noaeaaiay iaaeeoeeia, oaieiaiia e a?aaeaeaineia
noaeii?iecaiaenoai, caeiiu oeiainiaua e iieeoeaeneea n i?aaeaa?eoaeueiui
eceiaeaieai iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee, a?aaeaeaineay e oaieiaiay
th?eaee/aneay i?aeoeea e ae?oaea.2

Inaiueth 1855 aiaea Eeuey Iao?iae/ iinaeeeny a aeiia ? 39 ia 8-ie eeiee
Aaneeueaaneiai ino?iaa. Eaa?oe?a *aeeianeeo iiiauaeanue a aeaoo yoaaeao
– o?aoueai e /aoaa?oii n aioo?aiiae eanoieoeae. Aei eaieoaeueiiai
?aiiioa a eiiiaoa Iao?a *aeeianeiai auea oe?aieaia iaaieueoay
iaii?eaeueiay aeinea n iaaeienueth :” 1855-1858 aa. I.E. *aeeianeee
i?iaae caeanue naie thiioaneea aiaeu n 15 aei 18 eao – ia/aeueiue
ia?eiae aai iocueaeueiiai ?acaeoey”. Oae eee eia/a, ii, iiaeaeoe eiaiii
caeanue ia/ae Iao? Eeuee/ caieiaoueny eiiiiceoeeae. Ii anae aa?iyoiinoe,
caeanue a 1857 aiaeo thiue *aeeianeee iaienae ?iiain “Iie aaiee, iie
aiaae, iie ae?oa”.

?ieue oicyeee a yoii aeiia auiieiyea ieaaeoay nano?a Iao?a Naiy.
Iiiai/eneaiiua oaoooee i?eoiaeeee a oaean iooiai, /oi oicyeie/aoue
aoaeao 14-oe eaoiyy aeaai/ea. Iaeiaei, oicyenoai iia aaea oi?ioi, ana
aeaeaea auno?i, aanaei e ethaiaii.

Aanaeay aeeciue iieiaeaaee i?a?aaeanue iiaui ian/anoueai : Eeuey
Iao?iae/ iaaie?ioeeny e naiuey inoaeanue aac n?aaenoa e nouanoaiaaieth.

A yoo aea ceio *aeeianeee aue a ia?aii (auioneiii) eeanna O/eeeua
i?aaiaaaeaiey, eioi?ia ieii/ee 13 iay ii ia?aiio ?ac?yaeo n /eiii
oeooey?iiai niaaoieea.

3. *eiiaiee eee iocueaio ?

Ia iiaeoiae, /oi y aiia?aaeath naeaeaoueny aaeeeei a?-

oenoii, – i?inoi y oi/o aeaeaoue oi , e /aio iaiy aea/ao

i?ecaaiea ; aoaeo ee y ciaiaieoue eiiiiceoi? eee aaae-

iue o/eoaeue, -ii niaanoue iiy aoaeao niieieia e y ia ao-

aeo eiaoue oyaeeiai i?aaa ?iioaoue ia noaeueao e ia ethaeae.

I.E. *aeeianeee. Ec ienueia e nano?a .

Ia Iaeie naaeiaie oeeoea, i?ioea iuiaoiaai Aeiia ?aaeei, anoue aieueoia
caeaiea. Ii iaa noi?iiu ianneaiuo aeaa?ae – iiiaeanoai aeinie,
oeacuaathueo ia ?yae o/?aaeaeaiee, eioi?ua nae/an iiiauathony caeanue.

Aei 1917 aiea aanue yoio aeii e niaaeeiaiiue n iei auoiaeyuee ia
Eoaeueyineoth oeeoeo iniaiye Ooaaeiaa, iino?iaiiue a na?aaeeia 18-ai
aaea ii i?iaeoo a?oeoaeoi?a N.E. *aaaeeineiai, caieiae aeaia?oaiaio
ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee. Nthaea, a ia?aia ?anii?yaeeoaeueiia ioaeaeaiea
,e aue iacia/ai Iao? *aeeianeee n?aco iinea ieii/aiey o/eeeua.
Aiineaaenoaee aai i?iecaaee a eieeaaeneea ananni?u, a caoai, a
iaaeai?iua niaaoieee.

Iao? Eeuee/ neoaeee a “Noiea i?ioaiee” e ninoaaeye aeieeaaeu e i?iaou
?aoaiee. Aeaea, eioi?uie i?eoiaeeeinue caieiaoueny *aeeianeiio, auee,
aeaaiui ia?acii, e?anoueyineea, eie aiiaua oiaaea caaaeeee ieienoa?noai.

A 1861 aiaeo auea i?iaaaeaia e?anoueyineay ?aoi?ia, ioiaiaii e?aiinoiia
i?aai.

“A aine?anaiuea iauyaeaia naiaiaea. ss ia?i/ii oiaeee a i?eoiaeneoth
oea?eiaue, /oiau aeaeaoue aia/aoeaiea, eioi?ia iaieoano i?iecaaaeao ia
ioaee/eia ,”- ienae *aeeianeee nano?a.

…Ianooiae aa/a?, eii/aeenue neoaeaaiua /anu, e *aeeianeee noaiiaeeny
naaoneei iieiaeui /aeiaaeii. I?iaoeee ii Iaaneiio e Eaoiaio naaeo,
?anoi?aiu e ano?a/e ni ciaeiiuie. Ii auaae a Eoaeueyineie iia?a e ia
o?aioeocneeo niaeoaeeyo a Ieoaeeianeii oaao?a ; iinauae Aeaenaiae?eieo,
oai oee iueanu eeanne/aneiai ?aia?ooa?a e aiaeaaeee n o/anoeai
Ea?aouaeia, Ia?ouiiaa, Naiieiiaa.

Aei yiaa?y 1859 aiaea ia ianoa oaia?aoiaai Ia?eeineiai oaao?a auei
caeaiea n e?oaeie a?aiie e iaoe?iie noeaiie – Oaao?-oee?e, eae aai
iacuaaee. Ooo oee e iueanu e eiiiua i?aaenoaaeaiey, iieacuaaeanue
aeaeeaeoiaea n ?oaeaeiie iaeueaie, aunooiaee ae?iaaou. Iinea iiaea?a ia
ianoa oaao?a-oee?ea aue auno?iai e a 1860 aiaeo ioe?uo Ia?eeineee
eiia?aoi?neee oaao?, aaea e?iia iia? noaaeeenue e aaeaou, a eiiaaea e
ae?aiaoe/aneea niaeoaeee.

Iai?ioea iaai, oai, aaea nae/an caeaiea eiina?aaoi?ee, iiiauaeny
Aieueoie oaao?. Caeanue oea a iniiaiii eoaeueyineay, a eiiaaea e ?onneay
iia?a.

Io naiaai aeaith?iaeiiai a?aoa *aeeianeee ociae, /oi nouanoaotho eeannu
oai?ee iocuee. ”ss iaiaaeeaiii ioi?aaeeny e caienaeny neooaoaeai o
i?ioanni?a I.E. Ca?aiau.

Eoae, Iao? Eeuee/ *aeeianeee noae iinauaoue eeannu ?onneiai
iocueaeueiiai iauanoaa (?II), eioi?ua iiiauaeenue a ieaeiai yoaaea
eaaiai e?uea Ieoaeeianeiai aeai?oea (oai, aaea oaia?ue ?onneee iocae).

Ia?aia a?aiy *aeeianeee caieiaeny a eeannao aeiaieueii iaa?aaeii. Ia
eaaeiiuneea iieiaeiai /aeiaaea ia?aoee aieiaiea Aioii A?eai?ueaae/
?oaeiooaei. ?anneacuaatho, /oi ii iiaiai?ee n iieiaeui iocueaioii
aeinoaoi/ii ?aoeoaeueii e i?aaeeiaeee *aeeianeiio ”eee o/eoueny ona?aeii
eee iieeiooue eeannu”. N oiai aeiy Iao? Eeuee/ ia/ae caieiaoueny n
aieueoei oii?noaii, eioi?ia ia iieeaeaei aai anth aeeciue.

8 naioya?y 1862 aiaea a Iaoa?ao?aa ioe?ueanue eiina?aaoi?ey ( a oi a?aiy
iia iacuaaeanue iocueaeueiui o/eeeuai ). Iaeiei ec ia?auo o/aieeia noae
Iao? *aeeianeee, ?aoeaoee ieii/aoaeueii iinayoeoue naay iocuea, ia /oi
aai aeyaey, Iao? Iao?iae/ io?aaae?iaae oae :”A Iaoy-oi Iaoy! Eaeie n?ai!
TH?eni?oaeaioeeth ia aoaeie i?iiaiye!”

A eiina?aaoi?ee ii caieiaaony o A. ?oaeiooaeia (ni/eiaiea e
eino?oiaioiaea), o I. Ca?aiau (eiio?aioieo e oi?iu), iaeiia?aiaiii
iao/aaony ea?a ia oeaeoa o ciaiaieoiai a oi a?aiy *aca?a *e?a?aea e ia
i?aaia o Aai?eoa Ooeey.

Aei iineaaeiaai a?aiaie n/eoaeinue, /oi ia nouanoaoao oaia?ue aeiia,
aaea ioe?ueanue ia?aay ?onneay eiina?aaoi?ey , iao aeaaea ecia?aaeaiey
aai ; ia oaeaeinue iaeoe yoi ecia?aaeaiea ie a Iaoa?ao?aa, ie a
Aeiia-iocaa *aeeianeiai a Eeeio, ie a a?oeaao – neiaii, ieaaea. Auei
eeoue ecaanoii, /oi ia?aay ?onneay eiina?aaoi?ey iiiauaeanue a iaeiii ec
oeeaaeae Aeaieaeianeiai aeiia, iaoiaeyuaainy a Aeaieaeiaii Ia?aoeea (
oaia?ue ia?aoeie A?eaoeiaa ).

*eoaai ainiiieiaiey eiiiiceoi?a-nia?aiaiieea *aeeianeiai: ” ss aue ia
ioe?uoee. Naiue eee ainaiue eiiiao a aeiia Aeeieaeiaa ia oaeo Iieee e
Aeaieaeianeiai ia?aoeea ninoaaeyee ana iiiauaiea e neoaeeee eeannaie
aeey ea?u ia oi?oaieaii , ia no?oiiuo eino?oiaioao e aeey iaiey “.

*eoaai a ae?oaii ianoa: “A iaeiii ec oeeaaeae aeiia
Aeaieaeiaa…iiiauaeny Aiaeeeneee eeoa ia oaeo Iieee e Aeaieaeianeiai
ia?aoeea. A yoii aea aeiia aiineaaenoaee ioe?ueenue ia?aua eo?nu
o/?aaeaeaiiie Aioiiii A?eai?ueaae/ai ?oaeiooaeiii eiina?aaoi?ee. Iuia
yoe oeeaaey ia nouanoaotho : ia eo ianoa aicaeaeaioo iiaui aeaaeaeueoeai
aieueoie aeii “. Cia/eo yoiai oeeaaey oaea iao.

Eoae, a 1861 aiaeo, aoaeo/e /eiiaieeii Ieienoa?noaa thnoeoeee,
*aeeianeee iiaeaao cayaeaiea a aee?aeoeeth ?II i i?eaia a ioe?uaoothny
eiina?aaoi?eth e inaiueth 1862 aiaea ii noaiiaeony aa o/aieeii. A
oa/aiea aiaea Iao? Eeuee/ niaiauae neoaeao a ieienoa?noaa e
iocueaeue-

iua caiyoey, ii oaea a iaa 1863 aiaea ii ioeacaeny io aeaeiaaiey e
ooaoiiai ianoa, ii inoaeny “i?e/eneaiiui e ieienoa?noao” , oi anoue ii
iia aa?iooueny a aeieaeiinoue i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe.

Oie aea aaniie Eeuey Iao?iae/ auioaeaeai aue inoaaeoue aeieaeiinoue
aee?aeoi?a Oaoiieiae/aneiai einoeoooa e Ai?iie oeieu ec-ca ia/aaoeony
nooaeai/aneeo aanii?yaeeia. Iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea naiuee noaei
oaia?ue aanueia noaniaiiui. I?eoeinue iieeiooue aee?aeoi?neea
aiia?oaiaiou i?e einoeoooa e ia?aaoaoue a iaeaiueeoth eaa?oe?eo ia oaeo
Caai?iaeiiai i?iniaeoa e Eaoooeiaa ia?aoeea ( ia?aoeie Aeaeaiaoea ), a
aeii ?16 e aeeoue ia iaineth.

Iao?o Eeuee/o i?eoeinue iiiai a?aiaie o?aoeoue ia oi, /oiau ca?aaioaoue
oioue neieueei-ieaoaeue, aeaaay o?iee iocuee – ?iyey e oai?ee ,
aeeiiiaie?oy iaaoeai e o.ae. Ioaeii ioiaoeoue, /oi oiaaea o iieiaeiai
eiiiiceoi?a ia caia/aee iniaiai oaeaioa , aio aeaaea aiai?eee, /oi ii
ieioi ciaao iocueo.

Iocueaeueiua iiciaiey *aeeianeiai a yoi a?aiy, iaei neacaoue.
Ia?aie/aiu, ii aeey /aeiaaea, ?aoeaoaai niaoeeaeueii iinayoeoue naay
iocuea, yaii iaaeinoaoi/iu. Ioaeii iieneaoue a enoi?ee iocuee i?eia?
“auaeathuaainy eiiiiceoi?a, ia/aaoaai oae oaiiiaiaeueii iicaeii. Naii
niaie ?acoiaaony, /oi ciaiey aai auno?i ?inee…” Iaeiaei iinea
iieo/aiey aeeieiia ii /eoaao no?iaue oaeenoaaiiue i?eaiai? e?eoeea Oe.A.
Ethe: “ Eiina?aaoi?neee eiiiiceoi? a. *aeeianeee nianai neaa “.

Iaeii a?aiy *aeeianeee “ aeiaieueii niinii ea?ae ia oeaeoa, – aniiieiae
A. Ea?io. – Ii aue o/aieeii ciaiaieoiai *e?a?aea”. Ii o/anoaiaae a
o/aie/aneii i?eano?a e ea/anoaa oeaeoenoa.

A 1863 aiaeo o/aie/aneea eiioea?ou ia?aianee ec caea Aeaai?iaeiiai
nia?aiey (Iaaneee i?. ae. 15, aaea oaia?ue eeiioaao? “Aa??eeaaea” ) a
caeaiea Ai?iaeneie Aeoiu. ”O/aie/aneea aa/a?a ii aoi?ieeai i?eaeaeaee
ioaeeeo aua aieueoa i?aaeiaai : a caea auei oanii e
aeoo-

ii…Iiicaeaaoei i?eoiaeeeinue noiyoue. Iaeiaei, ieeoi ia ?iioae, oae
eae aa/a?a auee aanieaoiuie.

Iiieii naieo o/aie/aneeo i?iecaaaeaiee, oae iacuaaaiuo , aeiiaoieo
caaeaiee, eiiiiceoi? nicaeaao naie ia?aua iocueaeueiua i?iecaaaeaiey –
“Ianiue Caioe?u” e “Oa?aeoa?iua oaioeu” aeey neioiie/aneiai i?eano?a.
I?aiuea?a “Oa?aeoa?iuo oaioeaa ninoiyeanue 30 aaaonoa 1865 aiaea a
Iaaeianeii aiecaea, eee, eae aai oiaaea iacuaaee, eo?caea, iiae
oi?aaeaieai Eiaaiia Oo?aona.

I?iecaaaeaiea eiaei oniao e auei oi?ioi i?eiyoi ioaeeeie. Iaaeaeo oai,
ianiio?y ia oniao a iiciaiee iocueaeueiiai eneonnoaa, iaoa?eaeueiua
i?iaeaiu *aeeianeiai ia eii/aeenue.

E ieii/aieth eiina?aaoi?neiai eo?na Iao?o *aeeianeiio auei caeacaii
aieueoia ni/eiaiea. A a?oeaa eeeineiai Aeiia-iocay o?aieony i?ioieie io
12 ieoya?y 1865 aiaea i” ii?o/aiee o/aieeai noa?oaai eeanna *aeeianeiio
e ?uaaniao n i?aaeuyaeaieai ia ioaee/iue yecaiai ia aeeieii naai 1865
aiaea eaioaou n nii?iaiaeaeaieai i?eano?a ia iaeo Oeeea?a “E ?aaeinoe”.

*aeeianeee iieo/ee aeeieii ia caaiea naiaiaeiiai ooaeiaeieea
e…na?aa?yioth iaaeaeue.

Aua a naioya?a a Iaoa?ao?a i?eacaeaao aoaeouee aee?aeoi? Iineianeie
eiina?aaoi?ee Ieeieae A?eai?ueaae/ ?oaeiooaei a iieneao i?aiiaeaaaoaey
oai?ee iocuee. ?aoeee i?eaeaneoue eiai-ieaoaeue ec ieii/eaoeo
Iaoa?ao?aneoth eiina?aaoi?eth e inoaiiaeeenue ia *aeeianeii.

E aio a yiaa?a 1866 aiaea *aeeianeee oacaeaao ec Iaoa?ao?aa, noi?a/iie
oea?neie ?aceaeaioeee, ai?iaea naiaai aeaonoaa e thiinoe, ai?iaea
aaee/anoaaiiie Iaau, Eaoiaai naaea, ai?iaea Iooeeia e “Ieeiaie aeaiu”.

4.Aac oai?/anoaa iao aeecie.

Eoae, n ia/aea 1866 aiaea Iao? Eeuee/ *aeeianeee noae i?aiiaeaaaoaeai
Iineianeie eiina?aaoi?ee. “Iieiaeie, n ieeiaeaeiuie, ii/oe e?aneauie
/a?oaie e aeoaieei acaeyaeii e?aneauo oaiiuo aeac, n iuoiuie iaa?aaeii
ca/anaiiuie aieinaie, n /oaeiie ?onie ai?iaeeie”. “A ia?auaiee n
o/aieeaie Iao? Eeuee/ aue oaeeaeoaeueii iyaie, aeaeeeaoai e
oa?iaeea…Eceiaeaiey *aeeianeiai ,aai caia/aiey e iii?aaee auee
caia/aoaeueii yniu, naeaou e oaeiaiiiiyoiu…?acee/iua i?aaeea ii ethaee
eeethno?e?iaaoue nnueeaie ia Aeeieo e Iioea?oa. Eae o/eoaeue ii aue
neiiaoe/iui, aeaeueiui e aeia?iniaanoiui”. Oaeei inoaeny ii a iaiyoe
naieo o/aieeia ii eeanno aa?iiiee, i?eano?iaee e eiiiiceoeee ieaienoa
?inoeneaaa Aaieee e ne?eia/a Aeaenaiae?a Eeoaeiiaa. I?aiiaeaaae ii a
eiina?aaoi?ee 12 eao.

Ia/aooth a Iineaa neioiieth “Ceiiea a?acu” *aeeianeiio oaeaeinue
caeii/eoue eaoii 1866 aiaea. Ia?aay neioiiey “Ceiiea a?acu” –
aaeeinoaaiiia iinea ieii/aiey eiina?aaoi?ee i?iecaaaeaiea /anoe/ii
iaienaiiia e i?eano?iaaiiia iiae Iaoa?ao?aii. Ie iaeiie aaue iinea iaa
ie iaienae *aeeianeee a iaoai ai?iaea.

I?eaoaa a 1868 aiaeo a Iaoa?ao?a, 28 ia?oa ia aa/a?a o Aaeaee?aaa Iao?
Eeuee/ ciaeiieony n “Iiao/ae eo/eie” :I.A. ?eineei-Ei?naeiaui, A.I.
Ai?iaeeiui, I.I. Ioni?aneei, Oe.A. Ethe. I?iecioei yoi a aeiia
Aaiaea?aeaee ia Iaaneii i?iniaeoa ?84.

Aeceou *aeeianeiai a Iaoa?ao?a auaaee a yoi a?aiy i/aiue ei?ioeeie. A
1869 aiaeo ii i?eaoae a Iaoa?ao?a anaai ia aeaa aeiy. Yoi aeaeii ec aai
caienae: “Iiaeano! ss i?eaoae nthaea ia aeaa aeiy …I?eoiaee e Aieiaea
(Oeeianeiio): aeec Aie/eiaa iinoa a aeiia I.A. Aaae/aaie”…

Aeii Aaae/aaie ia Oiioaiea 25. Eioa?anii i?ioeia yoiai aeiia,
iino?iaiiiai a eiioea 18 aaea : a ia/aea 1814 aiaea aai i?eia?aea iaoue
aeaeaa?enoa Ieeeou Io?aaueaaa – Aeaoa?eia Oaaei?iaia. Ooo aeee ienaoaeue
e enoi?ee Ea?aicei, ooaeiaeiee Eei?aineee, iiyo Aaothoeia, caeanue

niae?aeenue ae?ocuey aeaeaa?enoa I. Io?aaueaaa. Io niaeaeaiiie Iooeeiui
aeanyoie aeaau “Aaaaiey Iiaaeia” nio?aieeenue no?iee ia yoeo ethaeyo, ia
yoii aeiia:

Aeoeenoaii ?aceei ciaiaieou

Nia?aeenue /eaiu nae naiuee

O aaniieieiiai Ieeeou…

Yoi ii, “aaniieieiue Ieeeoa“ Io?aaueaa, no?anoii i?iiiaaaeiaae caeanue
naie aieueiiaeoiiua eaeae, caeanue auaaee aai ae?ocuey Aycaineee,
AEoeianeee, Aiaaee/, Iooeei.

Anee iiaeii neacaoue, /oi a Iaoa?ao?aa *aeeianeiai i?aneaaeiaae eaeie-oi
ceie aeoo, oi ?aeooii” yoei aue iocueaeueiue e?eoee Oeaca?ue Ethe. Iinea
aai io/aoa ia no?aieoeao “Iaoa?ao?aneeo aaaeiiinoae” i auioneiii
eiioea?oa a 1869 aiaeo Ethe ienae i neioiiee *aeeianeiai “Oaooi”,
nicaeaiiie a 1868 aiaeo :”Ana yoi oceiaaoi, no?iai, iaaunieiai iieaoa”.
Ianiiiaiii iaeii : Ethe n ?aceie iai?eyciueth ioiineeny e oai?/anoao
Iao?a Eeuee/a.

Ia?eiae aei 1877 aiaea ioia/ai aceaoaie e iaaeaieyie, oniaoii e i?iaaeii
e , aaconeiaii, aeoeaiui oai?/anoaii. Nicaeathony iia?u “Aiaaiaea”
(enoaoe, ii iiaiaeo “Aiaaiaeu” o e?eoeeia aicieeee oaeea ?aciiaeaney, a
?acoeueoaoa eioi?uo aaoi? naeaa ia?oeoo?o), “Ii?e/iee”, “Ao?y” ii
i?iecaaaeaieth Oaenie?a.

A 1875 aiaeo aue iauyaeai eiieo?n ia ni/eiaiea iia?u “Eociaoe Aaeoea” ia
eea?aooi ii ?anneaco Aiaiey “Ii/ue ia?aae ?iaeaeanoaii”. *aeeianeee
iieo/aao ia iai ia?aoth i?aieth. A 1876 aiaeo ii caeai/eaaao aaeao
“Eaaaaeeiia ica?i”, caeacaiiue aeey iineianeiai oaao?a. E na?aaeeia iay
1877 aiaea eiiiiceoi? aue “ia iiaenooiao” e iaeiiio eo naieo eo/oeo
i?iecaaaeaiee – “Aaaaieth Iiaaeio”.

A 1877 aiaeo , a ethea, *aeeianeee aeaieeny ia Aioiieia Eaaiiaia
Ieeetheiaie. Iaeiaei a?ae yoio ia aue oaea/iui. A naiai ienueia ii ieoao
: “Iia iieacaeinue, /oi y, eee, ii e?aeiae ia?a, eo/oay, aeaaea
aaeeinoaaiii oi?ioay /anoue iiaai y, o.a. iocueaeueiinoue, iiaeaea
aacaica?aoii”. A oa aeie Iao? Eeuee/ aue aeecie e naiioaeenoao. Eae
oieueei ii ii?aaeeny, Aiaoieee

oaac a?aoa ca a?aieoeo.

Ieii/ai e iineianeee ia?eiae, ia/eiaaony a?aiy no?ainoaiaaiee,
ia?aacaeia ec ai?iaea a ai?iae.

A 1878 aiaeo Iao? Eeuee/ ieoao Aiaoieeth : “*aeiaae, eioi?ue a iaa
caaeoiae aeaieoueny, a ethia, eae ie a /ai ia auaaei, iaienae oeaeoth
iia?o, a ethea aeaieeny, a naioya?a oaaaeae io aeaiu – aue ia y, a
ae?oaie Iao? Eeuee/, io eioi?iai inoaeanue oaia?ue iaeia iecaio?iiey,
eioi?ay, ai?i/ai, a?yae ee eiaaea-ieaoaeue i?ieaeao”. Iaeiaei, a yoii
aea aiaeo aue caaa?oai “Aaaaiee Iiaaei”.

Iao? Eeuee/ iinauaao Iaoa?ao?a e Iineao. 6 ieoya?y *aeeianeee aeae
iineaaeiee o?ie e, ieii/aoaeueii ii?aaa n eiina?aaoi?eae, iinea
i?iuaeueiiai iaaaea 7 ieoya?y oaoae a Iaoa?ao?a. A iiya?a ii niiaa ca
a?aieoeae.

______________________________

Aiaeu neeoaiee yaeeenue aanueia ieiaeioai?iuie aeey eiiiiceoi?a. Ii
iinaoee a 1879 aiaeo Oaaeoea?eth e Eoaeeth. A a yiaa?a 1880 aiaea ia/ae
?aaioaoue iaae iiaui i?iecaaaeaieai ia eoaeueyineea ia?iaeiua oaiu. Aio
oioaeinue iaienaoue /oi-ieaoaeue a?iaea “eniaineeo oaioacee” Aeeiee. E
oaa?aeth “Eoaeueyineay oaioacey”, eae ii ?aiueoa iacuaae “Eai?e//ei”,
auea caeii/aia.

Iao? Eeuee/ iinoiyiii iaaaaeuaaaony a Iaoa?ao?a, ii inoaiaaeeaaaony
caeanue iaiaaeieai, ia aieueoa, /ai ia aeaa iaaeaee. A ia/aea ia?oa ii
ieoao a?aoo : “…Eae y aithnue Iaoa?ao?aa! Ciaaoue, eoaea iaiy oyiao ?
– a Ieoa?, a iaiaaenoiue Ieoa?… I?eciathnue, /oi ia niio?y ia iith
aiaoeth e aa?aaai Iaau, iaiy oyiao ooaea i/aiue neeueii”.

Iaaeaeo oai, a Iaoa?ao?aa noaayony aai i?iecaaaeaiey : neioiie/aneay
oaioacey “O?ai/anea aea ?eieie”, a Ia?eeineii oaao?a aiciaiiaeyaony
“Eociaoe Aaeoea”, *aoaa?oay neioiiey, iia?a “I?eaaineay aeaaa” ii ae?aia
Oeeea?a “AEaiia ae`A?e” a ia?aaiaea AEoeianeiai, iia?u “Iacaia”,
“Iiaaei” (i?aiuea?a “Iiaaeia” a Iaoa?ao?aa ninoiyeanue 8 ieoya?y 1884
aiaea).

N na?aaeeiu 80-o aa. *aeeianeiai ana aieueoa e aieueoa ia/eiaao
i?eoyaeaaoue e naaa Iaoa?ao?a. Ai?iae aai aeaonoaa, aai thiinoe
noaiiaeony ai?iaeii ?anoeaaoa aai oaeaioa, aai iaia?eiouae neaau.

Ia aa?oeia

Neaaa, no?aieoaeueii ?anoouay aeaaiaea?y ia?iiiiio oniaoo “Aaaaiey
Iiaaeia”, iia iaiyea ia oieueei auo Iao?a Eeuee/a, ii e ia?ano?ieea aai
aioo?aiiee ie?. A ienueiao ii ia aeaeoaony aieueoa ia “iaiaaenoiue”
Iaoa?ao?a. Noiee/iay aeeciue oaia?ue ia oae, eae i?aaeaea oyaioeo aai.
Caeanue ii nae/an ia aani?aaiue eiiiiceoi?, euouee aiciiaeiinoae e
naycae aeey oiai, /oiau oaeaeaoue ia noeaia eiia?aoi?neeo oaao?ia naie
i?iecaaaeaiey, ii – aaeeeee iocueaio, iaiaeaaiue ioaeeeie, i?aaeaea
anaai iaoa?ao?aneie, aa ethaeiaoe.

Eoae, i?aiuea?a “Iiaaeia” iicaaee, ii ia niieeatho ianoaeaeaiey. A
aacaoao e ?acaiai?ao ana aua /oanoaoaony iaeioi?ia iaaeioiaiea io
eieinnaeueiiai oniaoa iia?u, eioi?ue noaiiaeony ana aieaa yaiui. Iinea
o?ao-/aou?ao niaeoaeeae *aeeianeee niiauae a?aoo Aiaoieeth: “Aaaaiee
Iiaaei” eiaao oniao ; nai?u aaeeeieaiiua…” Eaai Na?aaaae/ Oo?aaiaa, ia
i?eiyaoee iaeioi?ua ianoa eea?aooi, i?eoiaeee a ainoi?a e aiai?ee :
“Aeey iaiy, iai?eia?, Eaineee o *aeeianeiai eae aoaeoi au?in, noae
/ai-oi aieueoei, /ai o Iooeeia”.

A eiioea 1884 aiaea *aeeianeee iiciaeiieeny n iieiaeuie eiiiiceoi?aie,
ninoaaeyaoeie yae?i aaeyaaneiai e?oaeea, ai iiiaii i?iaeieaeaaoaai
o?aaeeoeee aaeaee?aaoeaa.

14 aeaeaa?y 1888 aiaea ii iiciaeiieeny n *aoiaui. *aeeianeee e *aoia !
Aac yoeo aeaoo eiai iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue naaa ?onneoth eoeueoo?o
80-90-o aa. i?ioeiai aaea, eae iaaiciiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue aai ia?aoth
iieiaeio aac Iooeeia e Aeeiee. Ciaeiinoai eo ninoiyeinue o Iiaeanoa
Eeuee/a *aeeianeiai ia Oiioaiea 24, eoaea *aoia aue i?eaeaoai e
caao?aeo.

Iaeia ano?a/a a Iaoa?ao?aa, iaeia – a Iineaa e ii o?e ienueia io
eaaeaeiai – oaeiai aiaoiaa i?iyaeaiea ae?oaeau aeaoo aaeeeeo ethaeae,
i?a?aaiiie nia?oueth eiiiiceoi?a. Aea aua iaia?aiea *aoiaa, oae e ia
inouanoaeaiiia, ienaoue aeey *aeeianeiai eea?aooi ia nthaeao
ea?iiioianeie “Ayeu”.

“Ii oi?ioee /aeiaae, – ienae Aioii Iaaeiae/ iinea ciaeiinoaa, – e nianai
ia iioiae ia iieoaiaa”. Ienaoaeue iinayoee aio naie nai?iee ?anneacia
“Oio?ua ethaee”. A a aai ienueia e Iiaeanoo Eeuee/o iu /eoaai oaeea
neiaa: “ss aioia aeaiue e ii/ue noiyoue ii/aoiui ea?aoeii o e?ueueoea
oiai aeiia, aaea aeeaao Iao? Eeuee/, – aei oaeie noaiaie y oaaaeath
aai”…

Aee?aeoi? eiia?aoi?neeo oaao?ia E.A. Anaaieiaeneee, aeaaii ia/oaaoee i
iinoaiiaea aaeaoa *aeeianeiai ia noeaia Ia?eeineiai oaao?a, ienae aio
aua a iaa 1888 aiaea :” I aaeaoa au ie aoao. A oi?ioi auei au , iaaeaeo
i?i/ei, iaienaoue aaeao. ss caaeoiae iaienaoue eea?aooi ia “Niyuoth
e?anaaeoeo” ii neacea Ia??i. Oi/o iecainoeaiu naeaeaoue a noeea
Ethaeiaeea 14”.

Aaniie 1888 aiaea *aeeianeee iieo/ee caeac io oaao?aeueiie aee?aeoeee ia
iiaue aaeao ii noeaia?eth Anaaieiaeneiai.

24 yiaa?y 1889 aiaea Iao? Eeuee/ oaoae ca a?aieoeo. Ii iinaoee
Aa?iaieth, Oaaeoea?eth, O?aioeeth e Aiaeeth. Aa?ioaoenue a ia/aea iay ai
O?ieianeia ( iaaieueoia eiaiea iiae Iineaie ), ii n?aco aea i?eiyeny ca
?aaioo e e eiioeo ianyoea “Niyuay e?anaaeoea” auea aioiaa. Aaeao n?aco
aea aue i?eiyo e iinoaiiaea a Ia?eeineii oaao?a.

Iaeiia?aiaiii n iiaeaioiaeie aaeaoa, Iao?o Eeuee/o i?eoeinue i?eiyoue
o/anoea a aua iaeiii niauoee ec iocueaeueiie aeecie Ieoa?a. A iiya?a
1889 aiaea i?acaeiiaaeinue iyoeaeanyoeeaoea iocueaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe
Aioiia A?eai?ueaae/a ?oaeiooaeia. Aai /anoaiaaiea ioe?uaaeinue
oi?aeanoaaiiui aeoii a Aeai?yineii nia?aiee. 18 iiya?y 1889 aiaea
caeanue eniieiyeny oi? “I?eaao ?oaeiooaeio” *aeeianeiai, iaienaiiue
niaoeeaeueii e thaeeath. 19 iiya?y – neiaeiaeoay i?aoi?ey ?oaeiooaeia
“Aaaeeiineia noieiioai?aiea”. *aeeianeee oi?aaeye eieeae-

oeaii aieaa, /ai a 700 /aeiaae.

I?aiuea?a “Niyuae e?anaaeoeu” ninoiyeanue 3 yiaa?y 1890 aiaea. Iinoaaeee
aa ?ineioii, aaeeeieaiii, eae ieeiaaea ?aiueoa : e a?aiaeeiciua iaaoeee
ia niieeaee.

6. “ Ieeiaay Aeaia”.

Oaea ia ?aiaoeoeeyo “Niyuae e?anaaeoeu” a oaao?a ia/aeenue ?acaiai?u i
oii, /oi e neaaeothuaio naciio *aeeianeee aeieaeai iaienaoue iia?o. E
iaoaeeaeoaeueii, /oi a ooiaiiii Iaoa?ao?aa ?iaeeeanue iuneue i oii,
/oiau aiieioeoue a iocuea naiia no?aiiia nicaeaiea aaeeeiai iiyoa,
iiaanoue, aeaenoaea eioi?ie i?ienoiaeeei a Iaoa?ao?aa. A aeie ia?aae
i?aiuea?ie “Niyuae…” ?aoaeny aii?in, niaeaneony ee *aeeianeee ienaoue
“Ieeiaoth aeaio”.

A aeaeaa?a 1889 aiaea o Anaaieiaeneiai nia?aeinue iiiai ia?iaeo.
Iiaeano e Iao? *aeeianeea, Iiaiiyaa, eia-eoi ec aee?aeoi?ia e ec
iiioe?iai/iie /anoe. Iiaeano Eeuee/ /eoae noeaia?ee, iiiai nii?eee,
ianoaeaeaee aoaeouoth iia?o. Iao? Eeuee/ aeae niaeanea ienaoue iocueo.

Iinea ianoaeaeaiey anao aeinoieinoa e iaaeinoaoeia eea?aooi i?eaiaeiuie
ieacaeeoue eeoue aeaa ia?aua ea?oeiu. Ana aea inoaeueiia Iiaeano Eeuee/
aeieaeai aue ia?aaeaaaoue a?aoo ii ia?a aioiaiinoe, /oiau ?aaioa ia
caaea?aeeaaeanue.

Iao? Eeuee/, oaea oaea/aiiue ?aaioie, oi?iieeny oaoaoue ec Iaoa?ao?aa :
caeanue ienaoue iocueo aio ieeiaaea ia oaeaaaeinue. 14 yiaa?y 1890 aiaea
ii oacaeaao ai Oei?aioeeth.

?aaioay aianoa n a?aoii iaae eea?aooi, Iao? Eeuee/ iniaia aieiaiea ia
e?aoeinoue e eaeiieci a eceiaeaiee. Ii aaiaeeo iaiaoiaeeiua, ia aai
acaeyae, yieciaeu. Iai?eia?, ii ianoiye ia noeaia Eecu o eaiaaee :
“Ioaeii, /oiau c?eoaeue ciae, /oi noaeinue n Eecie”.

Iauyniyy iniiaiia ioee/ea eea?aooi io iooeeineie iiaanoe, Iiaeano Eeuee/
oeacuaae ia aeaa iiiaioa : ia?aianaiea a?aiaie aeaenoaey a yiioo
Aeaoa?eiu (( e aaaaeaiea ethaiaii-

ae?aiaoe/aneiai yeaiaioa. O Iooeeia yoi ea?oeia i?aaia iauanoaa, o
*aeeianeiai – o?aaaaeey ee/iinoe, oaia ethaae e oaooia. O Iooeeia Aa?iai
– eiaeaia?, o *aeeianeiai – aona?. O Iooeeia Eeca – aaaeiay aeaaooea,
i?eaeeaaeea, eioi?ay iinea nia?oe Aa?iaia iiaea aueoe caioae ca
iaethaeiiai, o *aeeianeiai Eeca – aiaaoay ianeaaeieoea, aio/ea A?aoeie,
aeaaooea n oeaeueiui, neeueiui oa?aeoa?ii, no?anoiay iaoo?a, eioi?ay,
iiethaea ai?y/i e naiiioaa?aeaiii, ia iiaeao aeeoue aac Aa?iaia.
“Eea?aooi I. *aeeianeiai naeaeaei ec yaienoa e ea?uea?enoa /aeiaaea
no?anoiiai, Eeca ec aaaeiie ainieoaiieoeu i?aa?auaaony a aiaaooth
aio/eo”. Eiiiiceoi?, iaino?yy eiioeeeoioth neooaoeeth aaiaeeo ia?ac
aeaieoa Eecu – eiycy Aeaoeeiai.

A ia?aca noa?ie A?aoeie Iooeeiui caia/aoeaiu /a?ou aeaoo aaeeeinaaoneeo
aeai. Iaeia ec ieo – eiyaeiy Iaoaeuey Iao?iaia Aieeoeuia, ae?oaay –
Iaoaeuey Ee?eeeiaia Caa?yaeneay. Iaeiaei, a iaeeea A?aoeie iiaeii
iouneaoue aieueoa /a?o, aeinoaaoeony ae io Aieeoeuiie. Iienaiea aeiia
Ieeiaie Aeaiu ai iiiaii niaiaaeaao n aeiiii I.I. Aieeoeuiie. Iaeoe yoio
aeii auei nianai ia o?oaeii : ii iaoiaeeony ia oaeo Iaeie ii?neie e
Ai?ioiaie oeeoe.

Iaeay Ii?neay 10. Nae/an oai iieeeeeieea. I?inoi?iue aanoeatheue, iaae
eaieiii noa?eiiua /anu n iaaeienueth “ Leroy ”. Eioa?anii, /oi eiaaea
Aa?iai oae n caieneie Eecu, aio iiiaeenue noieiaua /anu ?aaiou “
neaaiiai Leroy “.

25 oaa?aey 1890 aiaea *aeeianeee ieoao :”A ianoiyuaa a?aiy y
inouanoaeyth ianeuoaiiue iiaeaea : 6 iaaeaeue oiio iacaae y i?eaoae n
iia?iui eea?aooi a ea?iaia, a /a?ac aeaa ianyoea ioaeii, /oiau ana auei
caeii/aii. ss ?aaioath ni no?anoueth e aaneiia/iui ianeaaeaeaieai, oae
eae nthaeao iia i?aaeony, anoue iano?iaiea ?aaioaoue”…

Ia/aa ienaoue “Ieeiaoth aeaio” 19 yiaa?y 1890 aiaea, Iao? Eeuee/ oaea
/a?ac 44 aeiy, o.a.3 ia?oa (n?ie iaaeaeaiiue!) ieii/ee yneecu. Aneaae ca
yoei a oa/aiea ianyoea aue naeaeai eeaae?, a e 8 ethiy e any
i?eano?iaea. Caaa?oaiea ia?oeoo?u i?ioiaeeei oaea aeiia ai O?ieianeii.

7 aeaeaa?y 1890 aiaea a Ia?eeineii oaao?a ninoiyeanue i?aiuea?a
“Ieeiaie aeaiu” , e

i?ioea iia aeanoyua.

A 1892 aiaeo *aeeianeee iieo/ee aeaa i/aiue ii/aoiuo e eanoiuo ecaanoey
: ai-ia?auo, Eaia?eaeaeneee oieaa?neoao naeaeae cai?in, niaeanai ee Iao?
Eeuee/ i?eiyoue caaiea aeieoi?a iocuee aac caueou aeenna?oaoeee ;
ai-aoi?uo, ii iieo/ee ecaanoea ec Ia?eaea i oii, /oi ii eca?ai
/eaiii-ei??aniiiaeaioii Ia?eaeneie aeaaeaiee Ecyuiuo eneonnoa.

Caeeth/eoaeueiay /anoue.

A naie iineaaeiee i?eacae a Iaoa?ao?a *aeeianeee iinaeeeny a aeiia ?13
ia oaeo Iaeie Ii?neie e Ai?ioiaie. Yoi auei iineaaeiaa aeeeeua Iao?a
Eeuee/a *aeeianeiai. Iai?ioea yoiai aeiia iaoiaeeeny oio naiue iniaiye,
a eioi?ii a ia/aea aaea aeeea Iaoaeuey Iao?iaia Aieeoeuia – “onaoay
a?aoeiy”, eae aa iacuaaee a iauanoaa. Ec ieia eiiiaou Iao?a Eeuee/a
oi?ioi aue aeaeai yoio iniaiye, i?aaaea, oaea ia?ano?iaiiue, ii ana aea
nio?aieaoee iaeee oiai aeiia “noa?eiiie a?oeoaeoo?u”, eae neacaii o
Iooeeia.

________________________

Aei 20 ieoya?y 1893 aiaea Iao? Eeuee/ aaaeao aeoeaioth aeeciue :
iinauaao oaao?u, iaaauaao ae?ocae, aee?eaee?oao, o/anoaoao a iinoaiiaeao
niaeoaeeae. Ii oaea 21-ai aai caei?iauea ?acei oooaeoeeinue. I?eaoaaoea
a?a/e ii?aaeaeeee oiea?o. Ca o?e aeiy aieaciue iieiinoueth caaeaaeaea
ei, nianoe *aeeianeiai auei iaaiciiaeii. 25 ieoya?y 1893 aiaea a 3 /ana
ii/e ana auei eii/aii…

Nae/an iaii?eaeueiay aeinea ia yoii aeiia iaiiieiaao iai i aaeeeii
eiiiiceoi?a : “Iao? Eeuee/ *aeeianeee ?iaeeeny 25 ai?aey 1840 aiaea a
Ayoneie aoaa?iee ia Aioeeineii caaiaea. Oia? 25 ieoya?y 1893 aiaea a
yoii aeiia”.

Eii/eeanue aeeciue – ia/aeinue aannia?oea . . .

8. Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

1.E.I. Eiienneay . *aeeianeee a Iaoa?ao?aa . E-ae , Eaiecaeao , 1974 a.

2. A.A. I?eaaaeia . Iao? Eeuee/ *aeeianeee .I., Iocuea , 1982
a.

E.N. O?aoueyeiaa . No?aieoeu ?onneie iocuee . I., Ciaiea , 1979 a.

I.A. Aaeaeiai , E.TH. Aeaauaeiaa , E.A. Nieieeineay . “Iao? Eeuee/
*aeeianeee” .

I., Iocuea , 1977 a.

5. Aeueaii “Aeii-iocae *aeeianeiai a Eeeio” , I., Niaaoneay
?inney , 1979 a.

1 E.I.Eiienneay, “*aeeianeee a Iaoa?ao?aa” ,E-ae ,Eaiecaeao 1974 a. No?
20.

1 Oai aea no?. 27-28 .

1 Oai aea no?. 35-36 .

2 Oai aea no?. 41 .

Oai aea , no?. 74.

Oai aea , no?. 75.

“I.E. *aeeianeee “ , I, Iocuea, 1977a., no?.98

E.I. Eiienneay , no?. 80.

Ec ainiiieiaiee ae?oaa *aeeianeiai A. Ea?ioa.

E.I. Eiienneay , no?. 20.

Oai aea , no?. 92.

Ec ainiiieiaiee o/aieea eiina?aaoi?ee A.E. ?oaoea.

A.A. I?eaaaeia , “I.E. *aeeianeee” , I, Iocuea , 1882a. , no?. 8-9.

A.A. I?eaaaeia , no?. 200.

E.I. Eiienneay , no?. 224

A.A. I?eaaaeia , no?. 144.

A.A. I?eaaaeia , no?. 143.

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