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Внешнеэкономическая деятельность

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TOC \o “1-3” 1. No?oeoo?a niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc407682626 PAGEREF _Toc407682626 2

2. No?oeoo?a niaieoiiiai ni?ina. E?ano Ia?oaeea. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc407682627 PAGEREF _Toc407682627 12

3. Oneiaey e iniiaa aiaoiae oi?aiaee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407682628
PAGEREF _Toc407682628 22

4. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia GOTOBUTTON
_Toc407682629 PAGEREF _Toc407682629 25

5. Yenii?oii-eiii?oiua ioiioaiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407682630 PAGEREF
_Toc407682630 29

6. Aaceniay oai?ey oaiiaeaiiuo oa?eoia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc407682631
PAGEREF _Toc407682631 33

Nouanoaothuea iaoiaeu ecia?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo iioa?ue io oa?eoa
GOTOBUTTON _Toc407682632 PAGEREF _Toc407682632 39

IAOIAeU ?AAOEE?IAAIEss AIAOIAYEIIIIE*ANEIE AeAssOAEUeIINOE 43

I?EEIAEAIEA 65

EEOA?AOO?A 71

Oi?aiaey ?anniao?eaaaony eae ?acoeueoao acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey ia eiieo?aioiii ?uiea. Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea aoaeoo
aunooiaoue a naiae i?eau/iie oi?ia, a oaeaea eae acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie e i?aaeii/oaieyie iio?aaeoaeae. Ia/iai
n aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiey e iieaaeai, /oi icia/atho e?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey,
eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea. Aia/aea iiciaeiieiny n
oai?eyie, ii-?aciiio iauyniythueie, ii/aio ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
iaeiiai e oiai aea oiaa?a iiaoo iaiyoueny io no?aiu e no?aia (a neo/aa,
eiaaea oi?aiaey ia yaeyaony niaa?oaiiie).

No?oeoo?a niaieoiiiai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

EC ENOI?EE AII?INA – CAEII N?AAIEOAEUeIUO I?AEIOUANOA Ae. ?EEA?AeI

?acae?aynue n aii?inii aeeyiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ia
aeaaininoiyiea, iu iaecaaaeii iaoaeeeaaainy ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue auyniaiey
i?e/ei, ii?iaeaeathueo yoo oi?aiaeth. Oeie/iue i?eia? oiio – iiiuoee Ae.
?eea?aei a ia/aea XIX a. oaaaeeoue naieo niioa/anoaaiieeia-aiaee/ai a
i?aeiouanoaao naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee. Iienee aeiaiaeia a iieueco naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaee caaa?oeeenue i?inoui e eeanne/aneei eceiaeaieai oiai, eae iaa
no?aiu iiaoo iieo/eoue auea?uo io oi?aiaee ae?oa n ae?oaii. E ana aea,
ianiio?y ia oaaaeeoaeueiinoue a?aoiaioia, naiia oeaiiia a aai
?annoaeaeaieyo i auaiaeiinoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee – iinoaaeaiiua,
oioy e inoaaoeany aac ioaaoa, aii?inu i i?e/eiao, ii?iaeaeathueo
oi?aiaeth.

A ia/aea XIX a. ia?aae noi?iiieeaie naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee noiyea caaea/a
iaiau/aeiie o?oaeiinoe. Oi?aiaey any auea iiooaia ?aciiia?aciaeoeie
iaeiaaie e cai?aoaie, ?aaeaiaioe?othueie eae eiii?o, oae e yenii?o. Ia
iaiaa eciu?aiiuie auee e aeiaiaeu ia?eaioeeenoia, ii?aaaeuaathuea
iaiaoiaeeiinoue yoeo ia?aie/aiee. Iaeiaeaiea eiii?oa iaeiaii iau/ii
?anniao?eaaeinue eae n?aaenoai, aaaeouaa e nicaeaieth ?aai/eo iano e
oaaee/aieth aeioiaea aioo?e no?aiu. N/eoaeinue, /oi eiii?oe?iaaoue
oiaa?u ieioi, iineieueeo ca ieo ioaeii ieaoeoue, a yoi iiaeao i?eaanoe e
iooieo iaoaeee/aneeo aeaiaa (cieioa e na?aa?a) ca a?aieoeo, anee
caeoieaii oiaa?ia e oneoa o eiino?aioeaa aoaeao aieueoa, /ai oaeanony ei
i?iaeaoue. Eiii?oa neaaeiaaei iianaoueny e iioiio, /oi a neo/aa aieiu
niaaaeaiea yoeie oiaa?aie iiaei i?ae?aoeoueny.

?eea?aei ia aue ia?aui, eoi a?inee aucia ainiiaenoaiaaaoae
ia?eaioeeenoneie eaeaieiaee. Oaea Aaeai Nieo a naiai o?oaea «Aiaaonoai
ia?iaeia» (1776) auniaeaae aiyciue aiaoiae oi?aiaee, n?aaieaay iaoeee n
naiaeiuie oicyenoaaie. Iineieueeo eaaeaeia naiaeiia oicyenoai iaoiaeeo
auaiaeiui aeey naay i?iecaiaeeoue eeoue /anoue ec iaiaoiaeeiiai, a
inoaeueiia i?eia?aoaoue ca n/ao i?iaeaaee eceeoeia, oi aea naiia iiaeao
auoue ioianaii e iaoeeyi.

“Iniiaiia i?aaeei eaaeaeiai aeaai?acoiiiai aeaau naiuee ninoieo a oii,
/oiau ia iuoaoueny ecaioiaeyoue aeiia oaeea i?aaeiaou, ecaioiaeaiea
eioi?uo iaieaeaony aei?iaea, /ai i?e iieoiea eo ia noi?iia. Ii?oiie ia
o?aaoao oeoue naaa naiiae, a iieoiaao eo o naiiaeieea…

Oi, /oi i?aaenoaaeyaony ?acoiiui a ia?aca aeaenoaey ethaie /anoiie
naiuee, a?yae ee iiaeao ieacaoueny ia?acoiiui aeey anaai ei?ieaanoaa.
Anee eaeay-eeai /oaeay no?aia iiaeao niaaaeaoue ian eaeei-ieaoaeue
oiaa?ii ii aieaa aeaoaaie oeaia, /ai iu a ninoiyiee ecaioiaeyoue aai,
ai?acaei eo/oa iieoiaoue aai o iaa ia iaeioi?oth /anoue i?iaeoeoa iaoaai
nianoaaiiiai i?iiuoeaiiiai o?oaea, i?eeaaaaiiai a oie iaeanoe, a eioi?ie
iu iaeaaeaai iaeioi?ui i?aeiouanoaii”.

E ana aea ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo aeiaiaeu A. Nieoa auee ianiaa?oaiiuie.
Aio ia oaeaeinue ii?iaa?aiooue ecaanoiia ooaa?aeaeaiea, /oi yeiau
ia?aie/aiea eiii?oa aaaeao e nicaeaieth iiauo ?aai/eo iano. Ii ia
oieueei ia i?ioeainoiye, ii e nai iiaeaea?aeeaae iaiaoiaeeiinoue, ec
niia?aaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie aaciianiinoe, ia?aie/eaaoue aiaoithth
oi?aiaeth n iioaioeeaeueiui i?ioeaieeii. E?iia oiai, ii iieaaae, /oi
eaaeaeay iaoeey a aeinoaoi/iie ia?a iaeaaeaao aaniethoiuie
i?aeiouanoaaie iaae naieie oi?aiauie ia?oia?aie, /oiau iinoaaeyoue ia
yenii?o noieueei aea oiaa?ia, neieueei caeoiaaony ca a?aieoeae, anee
oieueei oi?aiaey aoaeao naiaiaeia io ia?aie/aiee e ?aaeaiaioaoeee. I?e
yoii ii ioiaoioeny io i/aaeaeiuo aii?inia, eioi?ua oaea iiaeieiaeenue
aai i?aaeoanoaaiieeaie. Eae auoue, anee eaeay-oi no?aia ia ?aniieaaaao
i?aeiouanoaaie? Caoioyo ee ae?oaea no?aiu oi?aiaaoue n iae? A anee
caoioyo, ia neaaeoao ee iianaoueny oiai, /oi, a eiioea eiioeia,
caeoiaoue o naieo aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo ninaaeae iia noaiao ai?acaei
aieueoa, /ai niiaeao ei i?iaeaoue? Ia i?eaaaeao ee ia?aciaaaoeeny
oi?aiaue aeaoeoeeo e iooieo aeaiaa ca a?aieoeo? Aaea aa?aioee, /oi
naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey ?ac?aoeo ana yoe i?iaeaiu, aea aua oaeei ia?acii,
/oi no?aia a eoiaa inoaiaony a auea?uoa?

?eea?aei oe?aiee aeiaiaeu a iieueco naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee, inaiaiaeea eo
io i?aaeieo neeoeii aeanoeeo i?aaeiinueie. Ii i?eaae ?yae /eneaiiuo
i?eia?ia, iieacuaathueo auaiaeiinoue aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeey ethaie
iaoeee, aeaaea anee iia ie a /ai ia ?aniieaaaao i?aeiouanoaaie eee,
iaiai?io, eiaao i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae eiino?aioeaie a i?iecaiaenoaa
aaniethoii anao oiaa?ia. A yoeo i?eia?ao, a ioee/ea io ae?oaeo aai
?aaio, ana aieiaiea oaeaeyeinue eiia/iiio aicaeaenoaeth aiaoiae oi?aiaee
ia iaoeeth a oeaeii e ieeae ia cao?aaeaaeenue aii?inu iineaaeothuaai
?ani?aaeaeaiey iieo/aiiuo auaiae aioo?e no?aiu, /oi iau/ii caieiaei aai
a ia?aoth aieiao.

*oiau ioeaieoue aeeaae, naeaeaiiue ?eea?aei a ?ac?aaioeo i?iaeaiu,
aeaaaeoa ?anniio?ei neaaeothuea aeaa i?eia?a, a eioi?uo eceaaathony
eeth/aaua aeiaiaeu a iieueco auaiaeiinoe aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

NEOOAOeEss AANIETHOIIAI I?AEIOUANOAA

Nia/aea ?anniio?ei i?eia? aaniethoiiai i?aeiouanoaa: a eaaeaeie no?aia
anoue oaeie oiaa?, eioi?iai ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao iia iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue
aieueoa, /ai ae?oaea no?aiu. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi a NOA oaeei iaeaieaa
aeaoaaui a i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ii yaeyaony ioaieoea, a a inoaeueiuo
no?aiao – noeii:

A NOA n iiiiuueth aaeeieoeu cao?ao iiaeii i?iecaanoe 50 aooaeae
ioaieoeu, eee 25 y?aeia noeia, eee ethaoth eiiaeiaoeeth iauaiia ioaieoeu
e noeia a oeacaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

A inoaeueiuo no?aiao n iiiiuueth aaeeieoeu cao?ao iiaeii i?iecaanoe 40
aooaeae ioaieoeu, eee 100 y?aeia noeia, eee ethaoth eo eiiaeiaoeeth a
oeacaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

A ionoonoaea oi?aiaee eaaeaeay no?aia iiaea au iio?aaeyoue oieueei oi,
/oi iia i?iecaiaeeo. A yoeo oneiaeyo iaeneiaeueiua iauaiu iio?aaeaiey a
NOA e ai aiaoiai ie?a, i?aaenoaaeaiiua anaaiciiaeiuie ni/aoaieyie
iauaiia ioaieoeu e noeia, iiaeii caaeaoue e?eauie, iaicia/aiiuie ia ?en.
1 aee?iuie eeieyie. Oae, NOA iiaoo iaania/eoue naay ioaieoeae a
eiee/anoaa 50 aooaeae e aiana iaieoenue aac noeia (oi/ea S1), eee aea
oieueei 25 y?aeaie noeia, eee aea eaeie-oi eiiaeiaoeeae yoeo i?iaeoeoia,
iai?eia? 20 aooaeyie ioaieoeu e 15 y?aeaie noeia, eae yoi iieacaii a
oi/ea S0. Neieueei e /aai noaioo i?iecaiaeeoue NOA a oneiaeyo aaoa?eee?
Nieo e ?eea?aei ia iiaee n oi/iinoueth ioaaoeoue ia yoio aii?in. E iu ia
niiaeai, anee ia iiciaeiieiny n i?aaeii/oaieyie, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho
iiaaaeaiea ni?ina a yoie no?aia. Oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee a iiaeaeue
aeeth/aiu e i?aaeeiaeaiea, e ni?in iiaeii aoaeao ii?aaeaeeoue
eiiaeiaoeeth i?iecaiaeeiuo i?iaeoeoia. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi nouanoaothuay
nenoaia i?aaeii/oaiee oaeiaa, /oi ec anao oi/ae ia e?eaie auae?aaony
oi/ea S0. Oi/ii oae aea i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi ana inoaeueiua no?aiu
inoaiiaeeenue a naiai auai?a ia 12 aooaeyo ioaieoeu e 70 y?aeao noeia,
/oi oiaea niioaaonoaoao oi/ea S0, ii ia ninaaeiae ea?oeiea.

A ionoonoaea oi?aiaee oeaiu a iaaeo «no?aiao» (NOA e inoaeueiii ie?a)
?acee/iu. Anee iaa oiaa?a iinoaaeythony ia eiieo?aioiue ?uiie, oi eo
ioiineoaeueiua oeaiu aoaeoo ii?aaeaeyoueny ioiineoaeueiuie ecaea?aeeaie
i?iecaiaenoaa. A NOA noieiinoue aooaey ioaieoeu aoaeao ioeaieaaoueny
i?eia?ii a iie-y?aea noeia. Eee, /oi oiaea naiia, y?ae noeia aoaeao
noieoue ieiei aeaoo aooaeae ioaieoeu. I?e ethaii ae?oaii niioiioaiee
oeai ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia iiaei au i?eianoe
eiio-ieaoaeue aieaa aunieoth i?eaueue. Oae, a ionoonoaea oi?aiaee
niioiioaiea 1 aooaeue = 1 y?ae ia iiaei au aeieai nio?aiyoueny,
iineieueeo nei?i auynieeinue au, /oi, ia?aa?inea ?ano?nu n i?iecaiaenoaa
noeia ia au?aueaaiea ioaieoeu, iiaeii iieo/eoue ia oo aea aaeeieoeo
cao?ao ii aeaa aooaey ioaieoeu aianoi i?iecaiaeeiiai i?aaeaea iaeiiai
y?aea noeia. Ii oie aea i?e/eia ca a?aieoeae a ionoonoaea aiaoiae
oi?aiaee niioiioaiea oeai aoaeao oyaioaoue e i?iii?oeee 2,5 = (100/40)
y?aea noeia ca aooaeue ioaieoeu.

Oaia?ue i?aaenoaaei naaa, /oi onoaiaaeeaathony oi?aiaua ioiioaiey n
ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Iaeoi ia?auaao aieiaiea ia ?acieoeo oeai: a NOA
ethaee i?iaeatho ioaieoeo aeaoaai, iieo/ay anaai iie-y?aea noeia ca
aooaeue ioaieoeu, oiaaea eae ca a?aieoeae ca eaaeaeue aooaeue ioaieoeu
iiaeii iieo/eoue 2,5 y?aea noeia. Anee o?ainii?oiua ?anoiaeu iaaaeeee (a
iu i?aaeiieiaeei, /oi iie ioeaaua), yoio iaeoi ainiieuecoaony neo/aai e
noaiao caeoiaoue ioaieoeo ii iie-y?aea ca aooaeue, ioi?aaeyoue aa ca
a?aieoeo e i?iaeaaaoue oai ii 2,5 y?aea. A nei?ii a?aiaie yoio iaeoi
?acaiaaoaao, oae eae ii, a nouiinoe, ioe?ue niinia i?aa?auaoue iie-y?aea
noeia a aeaa n iieiaeiie y?aea. Aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, inoaioony ee
aiaoiaoi?aiaua naeaeee oeaeeeii a aai ?oeao eee o iaai iiyayony
iacaaeneiua eiieo?aiou, niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi iai?aaeaiey
aiaoiaoi?aiauo iioieia aoaeoo ii?aaeaeyoueny ?acieoeae a niioiioaieyo
ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa. Iineieueeo a NOA ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaay
ioaieoea, a a ae?oaeo no?aiao – ioiineoaeueii aeaoaaia noeii, NOA aoaeoo
yenii?oe?iaaoue ioaieoeo e eiii?oe?iaaoue noeii.

Iaeiaei iu ana aua ia iiaeai aeinoaoi/ii ii?aaeaeaiii ioeaieoue auea?uo
io aiaoiae oi?aiaee, iineieueeo iiea ia ciaai, eae eciaiyony iauai e
no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey iiae aicaeaenoaeai oi?aiaee n
ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Ia ciaai iu, e eaeia a ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeony
niioiioaiea oeai. A nouiinoe, oaeiai ?iaea i?eia?u ia niaea?aeao
aeinoaoi/ii eioi?iaoeee, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue niioiioaiea aiaoieo oeai,
«oneiaey oi?aiaee» iaaeaeo NOA e inoaeueiuie no?aiaie. Yoiai iaeuecy
naeaeaoue ii oie aea i?e/eia, ii/aio iu ia iiaee ?ann/eoaoue no?oeoo?o
i?iecaiaenoaa e iio?aaeaiey a ionoonoaea oi?aiaee: iu ia ?aniieaaaai
eaeeie-eeai aeaiiuie, oa?aeoa?ecothueie ni?in, ia ciaai, eaeiaa
no?oeoo?a i?aaeii/oaiee a NOA e a inoaeueiuo no?aiao. Iineieueeo
?eea?aei ia cao?aaeaae ni?ina, ii oieueei e iia neacaoue, /oi aiaoiyy
oi?aiaey auaiaeia i?e oaeii-oi e oaeii-oi niioiioaiee ie?iauo oeai.

Iaeuecy neacaoue, /oi iu oae nianai ie/aai ia ciaai i niioiioaiee oeai
ia ie?iaii ?uiea. Iai ecaanoii, /oi iii iaoiaeeony aaea-oi iin?aaeeia
iaaeaeo niioiioaieai ecaea?aeae i?iecaiaenoaa a NOA e niioiioaieai
ecaea?aeae a inoaeueiii ie?a aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee –
aieueoa iieo y?aea, ii iaiueoa 2,5 y?aea ca aooaeue ioaieoeu. Yoi
noaiiaeony yniui ec neaaeothuaai ?annoaeaeaiey. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi
Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai i?aaeeaaaaony auaiceoue a ae?oaea no?aiu ioaieoeo
anaai ii 1/5 y?aea noeia ca aooaeue. Eiia/ii, NOA ia noaioo yoiai
aeaeaoue, ?ac iie iiaoo i?iaeaaaoue aa ii iie-y?aea o naay aeiia.
Aieueoa oiai, i?e oeaia 1/5 y?aea noeia ca aooaeue ioaieoeu NOA noaee au
yenii?oe?iaaoue noeii. Iaeiaei ae?oaea no?aiu a?yae ee caoioaee au
ioaeaaaoue ii iyoue aooaeae ioaieoeu ca y?ae aia?eeaineiai noeia, anee o
naay iie iiaoo iieo/eoue oi/ii oaeia aea noeii anaai ca 2,5 aooaey
ioaieoeu. Oi/ii oae aea iiaeii iieacaoue, /oi i?e oeaia ioaieoeu nauoa
2,5 y?aea ca aooaeue e NOA, e ae?oaea no?aiu no?aieeenue au
yenii?oe?iaaoue ioaieoeo e eiii?oe?iaaoue noeii. Oae /oi iaaei noi?iiai
ia aeiaiai?eoueny, eiio /oi yenii?oe?iaaoue, iiea oeaia ia onoaiiaeony a
i?aaeaeao 0,5 – 2,5 y?aea noeia ca aooaeue ioaieoeu.

Iaaethaeaaiue i?e?ino iio?aaeaiey i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa aeaoo
eciaiaiee, eioi?ua noaee aiciiaeiu aeaaiaea?y aiaoiae oi?aiaea:

eciaiaiey no?oeoo? iio?aaeaiey;

yeiiiie/aneiai yooaeoa io niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

?anniio?ei ia?aia ec ieo. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi no?oeoo?a ie?iaiai ni?ina
oaeiaa, /oi niioiioaiea ie?iauo oeai onoaiaaeeaaaony ia i?iiaaeooi/iii
o?iaia: 1 aooaeue ioaieoeu ca 1 y?ae noeia. NOA iieo/atho auaiaeo,
oi?aoy ia oaeeo oneiaeyo, aeaaea anee no?oeoo?a i?iecaiaenoaa inoaaony a
oi/ea S0. Iieo/ay ii y?aeo noeia ca eaaeaeue yenii?oe?iaaiiue aooaeue
ioaieoeu, iie iiaoo aueoe ca i?aaeiea i?aaeaeu iio?aaeaiey – yoi
iaicia/aii ia ?en. 1 aee?iie ioieoe?iie eeieae. Aeano ee yoi i?e?ino
iio?aaeaiey? Aaconeiaii, aeano, i?inoi iioiio, /oi iiaia niioiioaiea
oeai (1 aooaeue = 1 y?ae) ioee/aaony io noa?iai (1aooaeue = 1/2 y?aea).
I?aaeaea, niia?acoy ?anoiaeu n aeioiaeaie, aia?eeaineea iio?aaeoaee
enoiaeeee ec noa?ie oeaiu, iieaaay, /oi a oi/ea S0 ca aooaeue ioaieoeu,
eioi?ui iie iiaea?oaotho, iiaeii aoaeao iieo/eoue anaai iie-y?aea noeia.
Oaia?ue ii oeaiai ie?iaiai ?uiea iie niiaoo iieo/eoue ca eaaeaeue
aooaeue ioaieoeu, aac eioi?iai ?aoao iaieoenue, ii oeaeiio y?aeo noeia.
Yoi i?eianao ei eaeoth ieeaeoth, a auaiaeo.

Aeaeaa, auea?uo iiaeii oaaee/eoue aeaaiaea?y niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai oaia?ue iao niunea i?iecaiaeeoue ia
eaaeaeoth aaeeieoeo cao?ao ii 20 aooaeae ioaieoeu e 15 y?aeia noeia, eae
a oi/ea S0. A oaeeo oneiaeyo NOA aeieaeiu aiiaua ioeacaoueny io
i?iecaiaenoaa noeia. Ca/ai ecaiaeeoue n?aaenoaa ia auaeaeeo noeia, anee
eo iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a naeueneii oicyenoaa, i?iecaiaey ii aeaa
aooaey ioaieoeu aianoi i?aaeiaai y?aea noeia e iieo/ay ii aeaa y?aea
noeia ca eaaeaeua aeaa aooaey yenii?oe?iaaiiie ioaieoeu? Niaaeeiaiiua
Ooaou iiaoo iieiinoueth niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu a
oi/ea S1 e iaiaieaaoue iaeioi?ia aa eiee/anoai ia noeii; yoi ia?aianoeo
iio?aaeaiea eoaea-ieaoaeue a oi/eo N ia a?aoeea. Oi/ii oae aea
inoaeueiua no?aiu iiaee au iieiinoueth niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ia oiaa?a,
i?iecaiaenoai eioi?iai iaoiaeeony ei aeaoaaea, e auioneaoue oieueei
noeii (eae a oi/ea S1 ia ?en. 1), iaiaieaay aai caoai ia ioaieoeo, /oiau
aeinoe/ue iio?aaeaiey a oi/ea N.

Aiciiaeiinoue niaoeeaeecaoeee e iaiaia ii ie?iaie oeaia y?aea noeia ca
aooaeue ioaieoeu iicaieyao NOA e inoaeueiui no?aiai iaeiia?aiaiii
iieo/eoue auea?uo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Oioy iu ii-i?aaeiaio ia ciaai,
eaeia aoaeao iauai oi?aiaee (onoaiiaeoue yoi aiciiaeii eeoue n
aaaaeaieai a neaaeothuae aeaaa i?aaeiinueie ioiineoaeueii ni?ina),
i/aaeaeii, /oi ie?iaay oeaia, iaicia/aiiay ia ?en. 1 ioieoe?iie eeieae,
iicaieyao aanoe iaiai ioaieoeu ia noeii, aeaaiaea?y /aio iaa no?aiu
iiaoo aueoe ia o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey, iaaeinoeaeeiue aac aiaoiae
oi?aiaee. Anee au NOA auee auioaeaeaiu nio?aiyoue aaoa?eeth, inoaaaynue
ia iaoai ?enoiea ia aee?iie eeiee, ei ieeiaaea ia oaeaeinue au iiianoue
a oi/eo N. Eaaeaeie i?aaeaeueii aeiionoeiie eiiaeiaoeee ioaieoeu e
noeia, eaeoueo ia iio?aaeaiea a ionoonoaea aiaoiae oi?aiaee (eo
iiiaeanoai iaicia/aii aee?iie eeieae), niioaaonoaoao oi/ea ia eeiee
ie?iaie oeaiu, a eioi?ie aeaaiaea?y niaoeeaeecaoeee e aiaoiae oi?aiaea
iauai iio?aaeaiey iaieo oiaa?ia ii e?aeiae ia?a ia iaiueoa. Inoaeueiua
no?aiu oaeaea inoathony a auea?uoa. ?acia?u aai ii?aaeaeythony i?e?inoii
iio?aaeaiey, aeinoeaiooui aeaaiaea?y aiaoiae oi?aiaea.

Aei neo ii? iu ?acae?aeenue n i?eia?ii, aaea i?aeiouanoai auei
aaniethoiui: eaaeaeay ec no?ai ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao iiaea i?iecaiaeeoue
eaeiai-oi oiaa?a aieueoa, /ai ae?oaay. NOA iiaee i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoa
ioaieoeu (50 aooaeae ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao i?ioea 40 a inoaeueiuo
no?aiao), a inoaeueiua no?aiu – aieueoa noeia (100 y?aeia ia aaeeieoeo
cao?ao i?ioea 25 a NOA). Iaeiaei yoio i?eia? ia iiaeao iieiinoueth
ono?aieoue niiiaiey, auneacaiiiai aua aei Nieoa e ?eea?aei: eae auoue,
anee iu ie a /ai ia ?aniieaaaai aaniethoiui i?aeiouanoaii e eiino?aioeu
ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao iiaoo i?iecaiaeeoue ethaiai oiaa?a aieueoa, /ai iu?
Caoioyo ee iie oi?aiaaoue n iaie? A anee caoioyo, neaaeoao ee iai
niaeaoaoueny?

NEOOAOeEss N?AAIEOAEUeIIAI I?AEIOUANOAA

?eea?aei iieacae, /oi aeaaea a neo/aa, eiaaea no?aia ie a /ai ia
?aniieaaaao aaniethoiui i?aeiouanoaii, oi?aiaey inoaaony auaiaeiie aeey
iaaeo noi?ii. Aei oao ii? iiea a ionoonoaea oi?aiaee a niioiioaieyo oeai
iaaeaeo no?aiaie nio?aiythony oioue iaeaeoea ?acee/ey, eaaeaeay no?aia
aoaeao ?aniieaaaoue n?aaieoaeueiui i?aeiouanoaii, o. a. o iaa anaaaea
iaeaeaony oaeie oiaa?, i?iecaiaenoai eioi?iai aoaeao aieaa auaiaeii i?e
nouanoaothuai niioiioaiee ecaea?aeae (anee a?aoue ca oi/eo ion/aoa
onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee), /ai i?iecaiaenoai inoaeueiuo. Eiaiii
yoio oiaa? iia e aeieaeia yenii?oe?iaaoue a iaiai ia ae?oaea.

?eea?aei ioe?ue caeii n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa: eaaeaeay no?aia
?aniieaaaao n?aaieoaeueiui i?aeiouanoaii a i?iecaiaenoaa eaeiai-oi
oiaa?a e iieo/aao auea?uo, oi?aoy ei a iaiai ia inoaeueiua. Ii
i?ieeethno?e?iaae yoi neaaeothuei /eneaiiui i?eia?ii. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi
a NOA ii-i?aaeiaio n iiiiuueth aaeeieoeu cao?ao iiaeii i?iecaanoe 50
aooaeae ioaieoeu, eee 25 y?aeia noeia, eee ethaoth eiiaeiaoeeth iauaiia
ioaieoeu e noeia a oeacaiiuo i?aaeaeao, oiaaea eae a inoaeueiuo no?aiao
n iiiiuueth aaeeieoeu cao?ao iiaeii i?iecaanoe 67 aooaeae ioaieoeu, eee
100 y?aeia noeia, eee ethaoth eo eiiaeiaoeeth a oeacaiiuo i?aaeaeao.

*oiau oaaaeeoueny, /oi aeey iaaeo no?ai auaiaeii, anee NOA aoaeoo
iaiaieaaoue naith ioaieoeo ia eiino?aiiia noeii, aeinoaoi/ii aiiaue
ia?aoeoueny e neooaoeee aaniethoiiai i?aeiouanoaa. Iu oaeaeei, /oi
auaiaeiinoue aiaoiae oi?aiaee ieeae ia caaeneo io oiai, /oi NOA iiaoo
i?iecaiaeeoue aieueoa ioaieoeu ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao, /ai inoaeueiua
no?aiu (50 aooaeae i?ioea 40 ia ?en. 1). Auea?uo i?e iaiaia i?ienoaeaao
ia ec aaniethoiiai i?aeiouanoaa, a ec oiai i?inoiai oaeoa, /oi
niioiioaiey ecaea?aeae a ionoonoaea oi?aiaee (iaeeiiu aee?iuo eeiee ia
iaaeo ea?oeieao) ?acee/iu.

Ninoaaeoue aieaa iieiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i auea?uoa, iieo/aaiii a
?acoeueoaoa eniieueciaaiey n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa, iai iiiiaeao
?en. 2, aaea aeaaony aaiiao?e/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea i?eia?a, aiaeiae/iiai
i?eaaaeaiiiio ?eea?aei. ?anniio?ei nianai ianneienoe/aneee aa?eaio,
eiaaea NOA aaciaaeaaeii ionoatho io ae?oaeo no?ai a auionea ioaieoeu e
iniaaiii noeia ia aaeeieoeo cao?ao. Anee aiaoiyy oi?aiaey cai?auaia, NOA
aeieaeiu auoue ia naiiiaania/aiee e iio?aaeyoue i?iaeoeoeeth oieueei
nianoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa a iaeiie ec oi/ae ia aee?iie eeiee, iai?eia?
a oi/ea S0. Oi aea ioiineony e inoaeueiui no?aiai.

Onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee ?anoe?yao aiciiaeiinoe no?aiu, aeaaea,
ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a NOA i?iecaiaenoai iaieo oiaa?ia iaoiaeeony
aei?iaea, /ai a ae?oaeo no?aiao. Eae oieueei iiaeii aoaeao oi?aiaaoue,
eoi-ieaoaeue ia?aoeo aieiaiea ia oi, /oi iiaeii eoieoue aooaeue ioaieoeu
a NOA anaai ca iie-y?aea noeia, ioi?aaeoue aai ca a?aieoeo e i?iaeaoue
oai ca iieoi?a y?aea noeia (3/2 = 100/67). Ia/iaony iooie ioaieoeu ec
NOA a iaiai ia noeii, i?iecaiaeeiia ae?oaeie no?aiaie, aia caaeneiinoe
io oiai, ai /oi iaoiaeeony i?iecaiaenoai eaaeaeiai ec oiaa?ia a oie eee
eiie no?aia. ?acaeoea oi?aiaee anei?a i?eaaaeao e au?aaieaaieth
ioiineoaeueiuo oeai a iaaeo no?aiao. Iu oaea ciaai, /oi oi?aiaey
noaiiaeony acaeiiauaiaeiie, oieueei anee iia i?iecaiaeeony ii
niioiioaieth oeai ie?iaiai ?uiea. Iii iaoiaeeony aaea-oi iin?aaeeia
iaaeaeo nouanoaiaaaoei aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee niioiioaieai
oeai a NOA (1/2 y?aea ca aooaeue) e niioiioaieai oeai a inoaeueiii ie?a
(3/2 y?aea ca aooaeue). Aiiaue, eae e a neooaoeee aaniethoiiai
i?aeiouanoaa, aeey iaaeo noi?ii aoaeao auaiaeii, /oiau iaania/eoue
iaeaunoaa iio?aaeaiea, iieiinoueth niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny ia i?iecaiaenoaa
aaeeinoaaiiiai oiaa?a – ioaieoeu a NOA e noeia a inoaeueiii ie?a. Anee
ieaaeaony, /oi niioiioaiea ie?iauo oeai onoaiiaeony ia o?iaia iaeei y?ae
noeia ca iaeei aooaeue ioaieoeu, eaaeaeay ec no?ai aeinoeaiao oi/ee N a
iio?aaeaiee, i?e yoii NOA aoaeoo yenii?oe?iaaoue 20 aooaeae ioaieoeu a
iaiai ia 20 y?aeia caa?aie/iiai noeia. Auea?uo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee
caeeth/aaony a i?e?inoa iio?aaeaiey aeaaiaea?y aiciiaeiinoe ia?aiauaiey
a oi/ee, iiaeiaiua N. A ionoonoaea oi?aiaee a oi/eao oeia S0 oaeie
o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey aue iaaeinooiai.

?eea?aei i?eaeae naiaio /eneiaiio i?eia?o aua aieueooth
oaaaeeoaeueiinoue, iieacaa, /oi acaeiiauaiaeiinoue aiaoiae oi?aiaee
nio?aiyaony e oiaaea, eiaaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiue iaiai inouanoaeyaony n
o/anoeai aeaiaa. Aei neo ii? iu i?aaeiieaaaee, /oi ioaieoea
iaiin?aaenoaaiii iaiaieaaaony ia noeii. Yoi ia niioaaonoaoao
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae eae ia naiii aeaea no?aiu oi?aotho ae?oa n
ae?oaii, i?eaaaay e iiiiue aaethoiuo ?uieia, aaea iiaeii iaiaiyoue iaeio
aaethoo ia ae?oaoth, /oiau ?anieaoeoueny ca yenii?o eee eiii?o.
Iieo/aaony, /oi ?eea?aei ei??aeoii aeieacae nio?aiaiea ioiineoaeueiiai
i?aeiouanoaa e auaiaeiinoue aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeey eaaeaeie no?aiu e a
oii neo/aa, eiaaea ai aieiaiea i?eieiaaony nouanoaiaaiea iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethou. Anee i?e aeaiiii iaiaiiii eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ia
oaeaaony iie?uoue ?anoiaeu ia eiii?o iinooieaieyie io yenii?oa, eo
iiaeii o?aaiiaaneoue iooai eciaiaiey ioiineoaeueiuo oeai ia nianoaaiiua
e caa?aie/iua oiaa?u a aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee. A ie?a, aaea nouanoaotho
aeaiueae, oaeia au?aaieaaiea ieaoaaeae aeinoeaaaony eee iin?aaenoaii
onoaiiaeaiey iiaiai ?aaiiaaney iaiaiiiai eo?na aaetho, eee
ei??aeoe?iaeie anao o?iaiae aeaiaaeiuo oeai a iaeiie eee iaaeo no?aiao.

Oaeei ia?acii, oio oaeo, /oi a ?aaeueiii ie?a oi?aiaey aaaeaony
iin?aaenoaii aeaiaa, ieneieueei ia oiaeyao cia/aiey ioe?uoiai ?eea?aei
caeiia n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa.

OAI?Ess OAEOA?A – IEEIA: AEAAIIA – NIIOIIOAIEA OAEOI?IA I?IECAIAeNOAA

Iniiau nia?aiaiiuo i?aaenoaaeaiee i oii, /ai ii?aaeaeythony iai?aaeaiea
e no?oeoo?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oi?aiauo iioieia, auee caeiaeaiu oaaaeneeie
o/aiuie. Yee Oaeoa?, ecaanoiue oaaaeneee niaoeeaeeno ii yeiiiie/aneie
enoi?ee, noi?ioee?iaae enoiaeiua i?eioeeiu a ei?ioeie noaouea,
iioaeeeiaaiiie a 1919 a. A 30-a aiaeu iie auee ?acaeou e iaiauaiu aai
o/aieeii Aa?oeeai Ieeiii. Iaeei, eae e Eaein, oniaoii ni/aoae
aeaaeaie/aneoth ea?uea?o (i?ioanno?a a Noieaieueia e Iiaaeaaneay i?aiey)
n iieeoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth (/eai ?eenaeaaa, ?oeiaiaeeoaeue ia?oee,
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiue /eiiaiee ai a?aiy aieiu). Oai?eth, oaaaeeoaeueii
eceiaeaiioth Ieeiii e iiaee?aieaiioth yiie?e/aneeie aeaiiuie, oi?i/ee
aiineaaenoaee ae?oaie Iiaaeaaneee eao?aao, Iie Naioyeuenii. Ii auaae
iaoaiaoe/aneea oneiaey, i?e eioi?uo ooaa?aeaeaiea Oaeoa?a – Ieeia
(aeaeaa O – I) noaiiaeeinue iieiinoueth ei??aeoiui.

Niune oai?ee O – I caeeth/aaony, aiai?y neiaaie naiiai Ieeia, a
neaaeothuai:

«Oiaa?u, o?aaothuea aeey naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao
(ecauoi/iuo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa) e iaaieueoeo cao?ao (aeaoeoeeoiuo
oaeoi?ia), yenii?oe?othony a iaiai ia oiaa?u, i?iecaiaeeiua n
eniieueciaaieai oaeoi?ia a ia?aoiie i?iii?oeee. Oae, a ne?uoii aeaea
yenii?oe?othony ecauoi/iua oaeoi?u e eiii?oe?othony aeaoeoeeoiua oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa» (Ohlin, 1933, ?.92).

Eee, nianai e?aoei:

No?aiu yenii?oe?otho i?iaeoeou eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey ecauoi/iuo
oaeoi?ia (e eiii?oe?otho i?iaeoeou eioaineaiiai eniieueciaaiey
aeaoeoeeoiuo aeey ieo oaeoi?ia).

Yoi i?aaaeiiiaeiaiia ooaa?aeaeaiea i?iaa?yaii, ii aeey yoiai iai
iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi iiieiaaony iiae ecauoeii oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa e eioaineaiinoueth eo eniieueciaaiey.

No?aia n/eoaaony a ecauoea iaaeaeaiiie ?aai/ae neeie, anee niioiioaiea
iaaeaeo aa eiee/anoaii e inoaeueiuie oaeoi?aie a iae auoa, /ai a
inoaeueiii ie?a.

I?iaeoeo n/eoaaony o?oaeiaieei, anee aeiey cao?ao ia ?aai/oth neeo a aai
noieiinoe auoa, /ai a noieiinoe ae?oaeo i?iaeoeoia.

Oai?ey O – I, iauyniythuay no?oeoo?o iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee,
ia/eiaaony ni niaoeeaeueiiai ?acaeaea, iinayuaiiiai i?e/eiai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?acee/ee a oeaiao aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee.
Ii/aio a ?anniio?aiiii iaie i?eia?a aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee
a NOA noeii auei oaeei aei?iaei (2 aooaey ca y?ae), a a inoaeueiuo
no?aiao oaeei aeaoaaui (2/3 aooaey ca y?ae)?

A i?eioeeia oaeie ?ac?ua a oeaiao iiaeao iauyniyoueny /ai oaiaeii.
Aiciiaeii, ?acee/ia no?oeoo?a ni?ina: a Aia?eea, iai?eia?, aieaa aunieee
ni?in ia noeii ii?aaeaeyaony aieaa no?iaui eeeiaoii, ?aeeaeiciuie
oaaaeaeaieyie eee aieueoae neiaeiinoueth oaniiia iaeaaeaeu. Eeai
?acieoea auea a oaoiieiaee: aia?eeaioeu iao/eeenue iieo/aoue aunieea
o?iaeae, a eiino?aioeu aeiaeeenue aunieie au?aaioee a i?iecaiaenoaa
noeia, i?e/ai yoe ciaiey iie aea?aeaee ae?oa io ae?oaa a nae?aoa.

Ii Oaeoa? e Ieei ia n/eoaee, /oi ?acee/ey a ni?ina eee oaoiieiaee iiaoo
iauynieoue ana iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ?acee/ey a oeaiao, iaaethaeaaiua a
?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Iie ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi enoi/ieeii ?acee/ey
n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeae yaeyaony niioiioaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa.
Anee a Aia?eea 1 y?ae noeia iaoiaeeony a 2 aooaey ioaieoeu, a a
inoaeueiuo no?aiao – iaiueoa aooaey, a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi aeieaeii
iauyniyoueny oai, /oi a Aia?eea ioiineoaeueii aieueoa oaeoi?ia,
eioaineaii eniieuecoaiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu, e ioiineoaeueii
iaiueoa oaeoi?ia, eioaineaii eniieuecoaiuo a i?iecaiaenoaa noeia, /ai a
inoaeueiuo no?aiao. Ionoue «caiey» – oaeoi?, aieaa eioaineaii
eniieuecoaiue a i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu, a «o?oae» – oaeoi?, aieaa
eioaineaii eniieuecoaiue aeey iieo/aiey noeia. Ionoue ana ecaea?aeee
iiaeii naanoe e cao?aoai caiee e o?oaea (iai?eia?, aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
oaeia?aiee, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ioaieoeu, o?aaoaony cao?aoeoue
ii?aaeaeaiiia eiee/anoai caiee e o?oaea, oae aea eae e ia i?iecaiaenoai
i?yaee aeey au?aaioee noeia). Oiaaea, anee NOA yenii?oe?otho ioaieoeo e
eiii?oe?otho noeii, ii oai?ee O – I neaaeoao, /oi yoi i?ienoiaeeo a
?acoeueoaoa o?oaeiaieinoe noeia e «caieaaieinoe» ioaieoeu e:

(i?aaeeiaeaiea caiee a NOA) (i?aaeeiaeaiea caiee a ae?oaeo
no?aiao)

>

(i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea a NOA) (i?aaeeiaeaiea o?oaea a
ae?oaeo no?aiao)

A oaeie neooaoeee (i?e i?i/eo ?aaiuo oneiaeyo) a?aiaea caiee a NOA
aeieaeia iaoiaeeoueny aeaoaaea, /ai a inoaeueiuo no?aiao, a ?aaioieee
aeieaeiu i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia aieaa aunieoth ii n?aaiaieth n ae?oaeie
no?aiaie ca?aaioioth ieaoo. Aeaoaaecia caiee a aieueoae noaiaie nieaeaao
ecaea?aeee a caieaaeaeee, /ai a i?iecaiaenoaa noeia. E iaiai?io,
aeaoeoeeo ?aai/ae neeu aeaeaao noeii a Aia?eea ioiineoaeueii aei?iaei.
Eiaiii yoei, ii oai?ee O – I, iauyniyaony ?acieoea oeai, nouanoaiaaaoay
aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee. E, niaeanii yoie oai?ee, eiaiii
?acee/ey a ioiineoaeueiie iaania/aiiinoe oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa e a
oa?aeoa?enoeeao eo eniieueciaaiey iaoneiaeeaatho yenii?o Aia?eeie
ioaieoeu, a ia noeia (e eiii?o noeia, a ia ioaieoeu) iinea onoaiiaeaiey
oi?aiauo ioiioaiee.

?ANOE?AIEA OAI?EE OAEOA?A – IEEIA

Yeiiiienou aei neo ii? i?iaeieaeatho nii?eoue, eaeei ia?acii iaiiaeoue
eee caiaieoue iniiaiua iinooeaou oai?ee O – I, /oiau iieo/eoue
oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiia iauyniaiea ?acaeoeth iiauo no?oeoo? a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea. Iu ?anniio?ei oieueei aeaa iai?aaeaiey ec
anao i?aaeeiaeaiiuo. Ia?aia aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ?anoe?eoue oai?eth O –
I, ii-iiaiio ii?aaeaeea oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, oae /oiau ?acieoea a
iaania/aiiinoe eie iauyniyea iiaeaaeythuoth /anoue eciaiaiee a no?oeoo?a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee. Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea iieiinoueth io?eoeaao
oai?eth O – I e i?aaeeaaaao niaa?oaiii iiaue iiaeoiae e i?iaeaia.

O*AO AIEUeOAAI *ENEA IAIAA E?OIIUO OAEOI?IA

Iaeia ec aiciiaeiinoae ninoieo a i?eciaiee ia ?aaeenoe/iinoe naaaeaiey
anae niaieoiiinoe oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa oieueei e eaieoaeo, caiea e
ianeieueeei oeiai o?oaea. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, nouanoaoao ianna eo
?aciiaeaeiinoae. E?iia oiai, anoue oaeoi?u, i?enouea oieueei ioaeaeueiui
iiaeio?aneyi eee aeaaea ioaeaeueiui oe?iai. Iaiaeii?iaeiinoue iniaaiii
y?ei i?iyaeyaony ia aunoeo o?iaiyo oi?aaeaiey e a ae?oaeo ?aaeeeo
i?ioanneyo. Oae, eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao ia aaoiiiaeeyo, iiaeii, neaaeai,
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi Y. Oieioa ec oe?iu «Oieioa» iaeaaeaao oi?aaeai/aneeie
oaeaioaie eiaiii a iaeanoe aaoiiiaeeano?iaiey, /oi e i?aa?auaao aai a
oieeaeueiue oaeoi? i?iecaiaenoaa. Oi aea naiia iiaeii neacaoue i
caiaoaioiaaiiuo iiaeaeyo, eioi?uie aeaaeaao oieueei eaeay-oi iaeia
oe?ia, io?aneue, no?aia. Aeaenoaeoaeueii, i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneea
niiniaiinoe, oaoiieiaey, ciaiey iiaoo naie ii naaa ?anniao?eaaoueny eae
oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, iaoiaeyueany a /ueai-oi aeaaeaiee.

?acoe?oiiaiea oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa aieioue aei o/aoa naiuo iaeeeo ec
ieo iiaei au iiauneoue iauyniythuoth niiniaiinoue oai?ee O – I,
i?eaeathuae oaeia cia/aiea i?iii?oeeyi iaaeaeo oaeoi?aie. Eae oieueei iu
iao/einy i?iaiaeeoue aieaa oiieea ?acee/ey iaaeaeo oaeoi?aie
i?iecaiaenoaa, iaania/aiiinoue ?acee/iuo io?aneae eie i?aaenoaiao ia?aae
iaie niaa?oaiii a ae?oaii naaoa. A eiioea eiioeia, iiaeao ieacaoueny,
/oi iaaeno?aiiaua ?acee/ey a iaania/aiiinoe niaoeeoe/aneeie aeey
eaaeaeie io?anee oaeoi?aie noieue aaeeee, a eioaineaiinoue eo
eniieueciaaiey a io?aneaaii i?iecaiaenoaa noieue auniea, /oi yoi n
oniaoii ?ac?aoaao ana iayniinoe a no?oeoo?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee.
?anniio?ei, iai?eia?, eae n iiiiuueth oaeiai iiaeoiaea iiaeii auei au
iauynieoue iaee/ea e?oiiuo ano?a/iuo iioieia a oi?aiaea o?ainii?oiui
iai?oaeiaaieai iaaeaeo NOA e ssiiieae, anee iaa no?aiu a iaeeiaeiauo
i?iii?oeeyo iaaeaeaiu e eaieoaeii, e niioaaonoaothuae ?aai/ae neeie?
Ii/aio ssiiiey caeoiaao oaeia eiee/anoai naiieaoia a NOA, iaeiia?aiaiii
niaaaeay eo e aanue inoaeueiie ie? noaeaie? Oai?ey O – I ia aeano ioaaoa
ia yoio aii?in, anee iu ii-i?aaeiaio aoaeai n/eoaoue, /oi ai anao
i?iecaiaenoaao io?anee o?ainii?oiiai iaoeiino?iaiey eniieuecothony iaeie
e oa aea oaeoi?u e a iaeiie e oie aea i?iii?oeee. Iaeiaei anee
?anoeaieaaoue oi?aaeai/aneee e eiie iiuo, iaeiieaiiue «Aieiaii» e
ae?oaeie aia?eeaineeie aaeano?ieoaeueiuie oe?iaie, eae ia/oi ioee/iia io
iiuoa, iaeiieaiiiai «Ieoeoaene» e ae?oaeie yiiineeie noaeino?ieoaeyie,
oi iieo/ei iauyniaiea yoiai eiie?aoiiai ni/aoaiey n?aaieoaeueiuo
i?aeiouanoa a ?aieao oai?ee n?aaieoaeueiie iaania/aiiinoe oaeoi?aie
i?iecaiaenoaa.

NIEAEATHUEANss ECAeA?AEEE (YOOAEO IANOOAAA)

Niaeanii ae?oaie oi/ea c?aiey, oai?ey O – I ioaeaeaaony ia a aei?aaioea,
a a iieiie caiaia, e yoi iiaiea i?eia?aoaao ana aieueoa noi?iiieeia.
Enoiaeiui yaeyaony cayaeaiea, /oi niioiioaiea oaeoi?ia ii/oe ie/aai ia
iauyniyao, iineieueeo no?aiu eeai iaaeaeaiu iniiaiuie oaeoi?aie a
noiaeiuo i?iii?oeeyo, eeai ?acee/iua io?anee a aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia
noieue oae ?acee/iu a eniieueciaaiee yoeo oaeoi?ia. (Eae iu oaaaeeeenue
auoa, oaeay iaeii?iaeiinoue aeaenoaeoaeueii ana a aieueoae noaiaie
oa?aeoa?ecoao acaeiioth oi?aiaeth ?acaeouo no?ai.) Caoai ooaa?aeaeaaony,
/oi no?aiu n iaeeiaeiaie iaania/aiiinoueth oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa
niiaoo ecaea/ue iaeneiaeueioth auaiaeo ec oi?aiaee ae?oa n ae?oaii, anee
iaa iie aoaeoo niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny a ?aciuo io?aneyo,
oa?aeoa?ecothueony yeiiiieae ia ianooaaao (aic?anoathuei yooaeoii
ianooaaa, eee yooaeoeaiinoueth ianniaiai i?iecaiaenoaa) – nieaeaieai
ecaea?aeae ia aaeeieoeo auionea ii ia?a ia?aueaaiey iauaia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Eae ooieoeeiie?oao oi?aiaey a oneiaeyo yeiiiiee ia ianooaaao, eae iaa
no?aiu ecaeaeatho auaiaeo, iieacaii ia ?en. 3, aaea iu aica?auaainy e
iaoaio i?eia?o n aia?eeaineeie naiieaoaie e yiiineeie noaeaie. A
ionoonoaea oi?aiaee, iiaeaeae eaaeaeay ec no?ai eiaoue e naiieaou, e
noaea, ei i?eoeinue au i?iecaiaeeoue iiiaiiiao oiai e ae?oaiai a
iayooaeoeaiuo oi/eao a?iaea A aeey NOA e A aeey ssiiiee. Iaeiaei e?eaua
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae yaeythony aiaioouie, /oi io?aaeaao
yeiiiieth ia ianooaaao. Eaeei ia?acii – iiaeii iiiyoue, «aeaeaaynue» ia
naaa?i-caiaae ec oi/ee N aaeieue e?eaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae
NOA. Ia?aua ianeieueei naiieaoia iaieaeoony i/aiue aei?iai, anee o/anoue
ia iino?iaiiua noaea (e?eaay yaeyaony aeiaieueii iieiaie). Ii ii ia?a
iaoaai i?eaeeaeaiey e oi/ea A e ia?aueaaiey auionea naiieaoia i?e
nie?auaiee i?iecaiaenoaa noaeia ecaea?aeee ia eaaeaeue iiaue naiieao a
ia?an/aoa ia noaea, io auionea eioi?uo i?eoiaeeony ioeacuaaoueny,
noaiiayony ana ieaea (e?eaay i?eia?aoaao e?ooecio), i?aaeiieiaeeoaeueii
a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi a naiieaoino?iaiee i?iecaiaenoai aaaeaony a
yeiiiie/anee yooaeoeaiuo ianooaaao, a a noaeino?iaiee – iaiai?io e /oi n
eaaeaeui ia iino?iaiiui noaeiii aunaiaiaeaeaaony ana aieueoaa eiee/anoai
?ano?nia, oa aea naiua ?annoaeaeaiey ni?aaaaeeeau aeey e?eaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae ssiiiee.

Caeanue, eae e a i?eia?a ?eea?aei n aic?anoathueie ecaea?aeeaie, o no?ai
iiyaeyaony noeioe e iieiie niaoeeaeecaoeee.

Niaaeeiaiiui Ooaoai iao niunea inoaaaoueny a iayooaeoeaiie oi/ea a?iaea
A. Ec oa?aeoa?a e?eauo ia ?enoiea neaaeoao, /oi NOA ?aniieaaatho –
iacia/eoaeueiui n?aaieoaeueiui i?aeiouanoaii a i?iecaiaenoaa naiieaoia,
a ssiiiey – noaeia. I?e ethaii niioiioaiee oeai oeia nouanoaothuaai a
oi/ea A NOA iiaoo niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny a i?iecaiaenoaa naiieaoia a oi/ea
A e, iaiaieaay eo ia yiiineea noaea, aeinoe/ue iio?aaeaiey a oi/ea
(caeanue ia iieacaiiie), i?aainoiaeyuae oi/eo A. ssiiiey,
niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny a oi/ea? e iaania/eoue naaa
aieaa aunieia iio?aaeaiea, /ai i?aaeaea a oi/eie.

Ianeieueei ?aaeenoe/ia yoa iiaay oai?ey? Yeiiiienou i?iaeieaeatho
enneaaeiaaoue aa aeinoieinoaa e iaaeinoaoee. Eiia/ii, n aa iiiiuueth
oaeaaony iauyniyoue yaeaiey a?iaea oieueei /oi ?anniio?aiiie oi?aiaee
naiieaoaie e noaeaie. Ii ieii/aoaeueiia ?aoaiea, niiaeao ee iia
caiaieoue oai?eth O – I a ea/anoaa iniiaiiai eino?oiaioa aeey iauyniaiey
no?oeoo?u iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, aua ia auianaii.

Iiaeoiae n oi/ee c?aiey yeiiiiee ia ianooaaao, anee ii aa?ai, canoaaeo
ian ii-iiaiio acaeyiooue ia iiiaea aaue. Ec iee?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?ee iu
ciaai, /oi a io?aneyo, aaea yooaeoeaii ianniaia i?iecaiaenoai, eae
i?aaeei, ionoonoaoao niaa?oaiiay eiieo?aioeey. Ia?aay aea oe?ia, eioi?ie
oaeanony oaaee/eoue auione aei iauaia, iicaieythuaai caiyoue
aeiieie?othuaa iieiaeaiea ia ?uiea, niiaeao, aeaaiaea?y yeiiiiee ia
ianooaaao nieceoue oeaiu e oai naiui auoanieoue anao i?yiuo eiieo?aioia
n aioo?aiiaai ?uiea, a iiaeao, e n ie?iaiai. Anee aeaenoaeoaeueii
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ana a aieueoae noaiaie iie?aaony ia yeiiiieth,
naycaiioth n ?anoe?aieai ianooaaia i?iecaiaenoaa, a eiioea eiioeia,
caeanue iia ieaaeaony a ?oeao aeaaioneeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oe?i.
Iio?aaoaony, e?iia oiai, ia?aniio?aoue e aii?in i ?ani?aaeaeaiee auaiae,
iieo/aiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa oi?aiaee. Aianoi i?aaeiieiaeaiey, /oi iaeiei
oaeoi?ai i?iecaiaenoaa aiaoiyy oi?aiaey i?eiineo aeioiae, a ae?oaea i?e
yoii oa?iyo oauoee, iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi aiaoiyy oi?aiaey auaiaeia
aeey aeaaioneeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oe?i e eo eeeaioia (aeaaiaea?y ieceei
oeaiai), e a oi aea a?aiy iao eaeiai-oi ii?aaeaeaiiiai neiy, ianouaai
iioa?e. Anee oae, aeaeueiaeoay eeaa?aeecaoeey oi?aiaee iiaeao
i?ioiaeeoue ioiineoaeueii aacaieaciaiii. Iaeiaei yoe acaeiieneeth/athuea
i?aaeiieiaeaiey aua aeaeoo naiaai iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey.

AUAIAeU

Iu auynieee, /oi ni noi?iiu i?aaeeiaeaiey iniiaie oi?aiaee aunooiaao
?acee/ea a n?aaieoaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao. Aaee n?aaieaaoue cao?aou oaeoi?ia
ia aaeeieoeo auionea, iiaeao ieacaoueny, /oi a eaeie-oi ec no?ai
i?iecaiaenoai aoeaaeueii anao oiaa?ia i?aainoiaeeo ii yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoai a ae?oaeo no?aiao; ii e a yoii neo/aa nio?aiyaony noeioe
aeey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, iineieueeo noaiaiue yoie yooaeoeaiinoe
iaiaeeiaeiaa aeey ?aciuo oiaa?ia. Caeii n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa
ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi yoie no?aia auaiaeiaa nin?aaeioi/eoue oneeey a
i?iecaiaenoaa oao oiaa?ia, aaea iia aeiaeeanue ioiineoaeueii aieueoae
yooaeoeaiinoe, e yenii?oe?iaaoue eo a iaiai ia oiaa?u, ii eioi?ui aa
ioiineoaeueiia i?aeiouanoai ieieiaeueii. Oaeei ia?acii, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey
ia yaeyaony «ea?ie n ioeaaie noiiie», aaea auea?uo iaeiie noi?iiu
ii?aaeaeyaony i?iea?uoai ae?oaie. Oi?aiaey auaiaeia anai, e o/anoea a
iae, ii e?aeiae ia?a, ia oooaeoaao iieiaeaiey ii n?aaiaieth n oai, /oi
auei aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee.

Iniiaiua iieiaeaiey caeiia n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa a
i?aaeiieiaeaiee iinoiyinoaa ecaea?aeae aia?aua auee noi?ioee?iaaiu Ae.
?eea?aei a ia/aea aeaayoiaaeoeaoiai aaea. Ineaaeaiea yoie i?aaeiinueee
aeiiouaieai aic?anoaiey (eee oauaaiey) ecaea?aeae caiauaiey ia
ii?iaa?aaao oai?ee n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa.

Iaaeno?aiiaua ?acee/ey a n?aaieoaeueiuo i?aeiouanoaao eee a oi?ia e?eauo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae iauyniythony aeaaiui ia?acii oai, /oi 1)
a i?iecaiaenoaa ?acee/iuo oiaa?ia oaeoi?u eniieuecothony a ?acee/iuo
niioiioaieyo e 2) iaiaeeiaeiaa ioiineoaeueiay iaania/aiiinoue no?ai
oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa. Iino?iaiiay ia yoii oai?ey O – I ooaa?aeaeaao,
/oi no?aiu aoaeoo no?aieoueny yenii?oe?iaaoue oiaa?u, a i?iecaiaenoaa
eioi?uo iie aieaa eioaineaii eniieuecotho ioiineoaeueii ecauoi/iua
oaeoi?u, a iaiai ia oiaa?u, a /ueai i?iecaiaenoaa i?eoeinue au
eioaineaii eniieueciaaoue aeaoeoeeoiua aeey ieo ?ano?nu.

Oai?ey O – I oniaoii iauyniyao iiiaea caeiiiia?iinoe, iaaethaeaaiua a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea. No?aiu aeaenoaeoaeueii auaicyo
i?aeiouanoaaiii i?iaeoeoeeth, a cao?aoao ia i?iecaiaenoai eioi?ie
aeiieie?otho ioiineoaeueii ecauoi/iua o ieo ?ano?nu. Oo?aoa NOA a
iineaaiaiiue ia?eiae n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa a oaoiiaieie
i?iaeoeoeee nii?iaiaeaeaeanue eioaineaiui ia?aueaaieai eaieoaea e
iao/iiai iioaioeeaea a ssiiiee e ae?oaeo no?aiao.

Iaeiaei ia ana yaeaiey oeeaaeuaathony a noaio, i?aaeeiaeaiioth oai?eae
O-I. Eciaiaiea eiieo?aioiuo iiceoeee iaeioi?uo no?ai, iniaaiii a Aa?iia,
iaaethaeaaoaany a iineaaeiea aiaeu, ia niaeanoaony n eiathueieny
aeaiiuie i naeaeaao a iaania/aiiinoe oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa. Noaoenoeea
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, /oi no?oeoo?a iaania/aiiinoe i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo
no?ai i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie ?ano?naie iinoaiaiii au?aaieaaaony. A yoi
iiaeao icia/aoue, /oi oai?ey O – I, iniiaaiiay ia o/aoa iaaeno?aiiauo
?acee/ee a ioiineoaeueiie iaania/aiiinoe oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa,
iaoeeiiii onoa?aaaao. E?iia oiai, oeaio? oyaeanoe a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaea iinoaiaiii niauaaony e acaeiiie oi?aiaea «iiaeiaiuo» no?ai
«iiaeiaiuie» oiaa?aie, a aiana ia i?iaeoeoeeae niaa?oaiii ?acee/iuo
naeoi?ia i?iiuoeaiiinoe.

I?iaeaiu, aicieeoea a iineaaeiaa a?aiy a ?acoeueoaoa i?ioeai?a/ey
yiie?e/aneeo aeaiiuo oai?ee O – I, iiaeii ?ac?aoeoue iooai eeai aa
?acaeoey, eeai caiaiu. Yeiiiienou iiea ia i?eoee e niaeaoaieth, eaeie
iooue ia?niaeoeaiaa. Iauyniythuoth niiniaiinoue oai?ee O – I iiaeii
iiauneoue aieaa ne?oioeaciui o/aoii anaaiciiaeiuo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa. I?aaeeaaaaony oaeaea caiaieoue oai?eth O – I oai?eae,
niaeanii eioi?ie iniiaie aiaoiae oi?aiaee yaeyaony auea?uo io
niaoeeaeecaoeee a io?aneyo, oa?aeoa?ecothueony yeiiiieae ia ianooaaa
(aic?anoathuei yooaeoii ianooaaa, eee nieaeathueieny ecaea?aeeaie,
i?iecaiaenoaa).

No?oeoo?a niaieoiiiai ni?ina. E?ano Ia?oaeea.

*ENOAss OAI?Ess IAAEAeOIA?IAeIIE OI?AIAEE: NI?IN

Caieiaoueny aiaeecii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, ?acia?aaoenue n
i?aaeeiaeaieai e ia ciay ie/aai i ni?ina, – ana ?aaii /oi ?acaoue iaeiie
iieiaeieie iiaeieoe eee aieiaee?iaaoue iaeiie eaaeiiueth A ioiioaiee
ni?ina eaaeaeue ?ac, aiai?y i iineaaenoaeyo onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee, i?eoiaeeeinue ia?aie/eaaoueny iaaiyoiuie auneacuaaieyie oeia:
«I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi oa?aeoa?enoeee ni?ina oaeiau, /oi iiaay oeaia
ninoaaeea aooaeue ca y?ae e i?e yoie oeaia yenii?o e eiii?o…» e o.ae.
Ia?aaeei aicieeaao eneooaiea a iauyniaiee no?oeoo?u iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee ia?aie/eoueny eneeth/eoaeueii iniaaiiinoyie i?aaeeiaeaiey.
Ioaeaeueiua yeiiiienou i?aeoe/anee oae e iinooiatho, ooaa?aeaeay, /oi
caeii n?aaieoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa ii?aaeaeyao, eaeea eiaiii oiaa?u
aoaeoo yenii?oe?iaaoueny e eiii?oe?iaaoueny oie eee eiie no?aiie, oiaaea
eae ia aeieth ni?ina inoaaony oieueei onoaiiaeaiea oeai ai aiaoiae
oi?aiaea. E ana aea yoi iaaa?ii. Ia ?uiea ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea
niaianoii ii?aaeaeytho eae eiee/anoai iieoiaaiuo e i?iaeaaaaiuo oiaa?ia,
oae e eo ioiineoaeueiua oeaiu. Ni?in e i?aaeeiaeaiea oi/ii oae aea ?oea
ia ?oeo aeaenoaotho a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea, eae e ia ianoiuo,
aioo?aiieo ?uieao.

*oiau oaaaeeoueny a iaiaoiaeeiinoe iieiie iiaeaee e oeai, e iauaiia a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea, aeinoaoi/ii aniiiieoue aaaeiinoue cia/aiey
ie?iaie oeaiu.

Aniiiiei, eaeoth aaaeioth ?ieue ea?atho iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeaiu. Iaeii
yoi aiai?eo i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eiaoue iieioth iiaeaeue, a yaiii aeaea
iienuaathuoth iiaaaeaiea eae oeai, oae e iauaiia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaea. Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey iineaaenoaee onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee, a oii /enea auaiae io iaa, iai iaiaoiaeeii auei ciaoue, ia
eaeii o?iaia onoaiiaeony iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oeaia. A i?eia?a
ioiineoaeueiiai i?aeiouanoaa n iinoiyiiuie ecaea?aeeaie, ii ?eea?aei,
iiaay ie?iaay oeaia aeieaeia auea i?eiyoue iaeia cia/aiea iaaeaeo
i?aaeiae aia?eeaineie oeaeie a 2 aooaey ioaieoeu ca y?ae noeia e
i?aaeiae ca?oaaaeiie oeaiie a 2/3 aooaey ca y?ae. Ii eaeia eiaiii? *oiau
aeieai ia aiceoueny, eia-eoi, iiaeaeoe, i?inoi ?ann/eoae au n?aaeithth –
4/3 aooaey ca y?ae, ii oae aeaei ia iieaeao. Anee au ie?iaay oeaia
onoaiiaeeanue ia o?iaia i?aaeiae aia?eeaineie, o NOA ia auei au noeioea
aeey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, ana auaiaeu io oi?aiaee a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiey
oeai iieo/aee au eo ia?oia?u. Iai?ioea, anee iaeciaiiie inoaaony oeaia a
inoaeueiii ie?a, auea?uaatho io onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee oieueei
NOA, oae eae niiaoo i?iaeaaaoue e iieoiaoue ii iiaui, iaaeinooiiui
i?aaeaea oeaiai. Oae /oi aaaeiaeoee aii?in ?ani?aaeaeaiey auea?uoa io
aiaoiae oi?aiaee i?yii caaeneo io oiai, eaeie aoaeao iiaay oeaia. Ii iu
ia niiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue aa, enoiaey oieueei ec aiaeeca i?aaeeiaeaiey.

ACAEIIAeAENOAEA NI?INA E I?AAeEIAEAIEss AI AIAOIAE OI?AIAEA

Oa?aeoa?enoeee ni?ina ia ethaii ?uiea ii?aaeaeythony aeonaie e
aeioiaeaie iio?aaeoaeae eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee (iethn niia?aaeaieyie
ecaea?aeae o iinoaaueeia eiia/iie i?iaeoeoeee, anee ?a/ue eaeao i ni?ina
ia i?iiaaeooi/iua i?iaeoeou). Aeonu e aeioiaeu onoaiaaeeaatho i?aaeaeu
eciaiaiey a iauaia ni?ina i?e eciaiaiee oeai.

Anee ecaanoiu e?eaua ni?ina, onoaiaaeeaathuea niioiioaiea iaaeaeo
iauaiii ni?ina e oeaiie, oi, iauaaeeiea eo n e?eauie i?aaeeiaeaiey,
?ann/eoaiiuie ia iniiaa ecaea?aeae, iiaeii i?iaeaiiino?e?iaaoue
aicaeaenoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ia i?iecaiaenoai, iio?aaeaiea e
oeaiu. Eiaiii aaiiao?e/aneia i?aaenoaaeaiea e?eauo ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey
iineoaeeo iai iniiaiui eino?oiaioii i?e aiaeeca i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n
auai?ii oi?aiaie iieeoeee. Nia/aea auyniei, ia eaeea aii?inu aeatho
ioaao niaoeeoeoee?iaaiiua e?eaua ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey, a caoai ia?aoeiny
e oiio, eae no?iyony e?eaua ni?ina ia iniiaaiee eioi?iaoeee i aeonao e
aeioiaeao iio?aaeoaeae.

Ia ?en. 4 iieacaii aicaeaenoaea aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia i?iecaiaenoai,
iio?aaeaiea e oeaiu a NOA e a inoaeueiii ie?a. Iaoeeiiaeueiua e?eaua
i?aaeeiaeaiey, eee i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, iieo/aiu ec e?eauo
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae (eae ia ?en. 3), eioi?ua a naith
i/a?aaeue ii?aaeaeythony oaoiieiaeae i?iecaiaenoaa e iaania/aiiinoueth
oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa.

A ionoonoaea aiaoiae oi?aiaee a NOA e inoaeueiii ie?a ?aaiiaanea ni?ina
e i?aaeeiaeaiey ia ?uieao noeia onoaiaaeeaaaony i?e ?acee/iuo oeaiao.
Eae e i?aaeaea, a NOA a oi/ea A noeii noieo 2 aooaey ioaieoeu ca y?ae. A
inoaeueiii ie?a ni?in niioaaonoaoao i?aaeeiaeaieth a oi/ea I i?e aieaa
ieceie oeaia, a 2/3 aooaey ca y?ae.

Onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee inaiaiaeaeaao ianaeaiea NOA e
inoaeueiiai ie?a io iaiaoiaeeiinoe niioiineoue iauai ni?ina n iauaiii
aioo?aiiaai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoi ioe?uaaao iiaua aiciiaeiinoe ia?aae
aia?eeaineeie iieoiaoaeyie noeia e aai eiino?aiiuie iinoaaueeaie.
Aia?eeaineea iieoiaoaee anei?a iaia?oaeao, /oi noeii aeaoaaea
i?eia?aoaoue ca ?oaaaeii, aaea iii i?iaeaaony anaai ii 2/3 aooaey ca
y?ae. A eiino?aiiua iinoaaueee a naith i/a?aaeue iieioo, /oi iao niunea
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny noieue ieceie oeaiu, anee a NOA iiaeii i?iaeaaaoue
noeii ai?acaei aei?iaea. Iinoaiaiii iie aeiaiai?yony e iaeaaeyo iaiai
aia?eeaineie ioaieoeu ia eiino?aiiia noeii ii oeaiai aaea-oi iaaeaeo 2/3
e 2 aooaeyie ca y?ae.

Oaia?ue, eiaaea iu eniieuecoai a iaoai aiaeeca e?eaua ia oieueei
i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii e ni?ina, iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue e ieii/aoaeueioth oeaio,
onoaiaaeeaathuothny a ie?iaie oi?aiaea. Nouanoaoao oieueei iaeii
oeaiiaia niioiioaiea, i?e eioi?ii ie?iaie ni?in iaoiaeeony a ?aaiiaanee
n ie?iaui i?aaeeiaeaieai. Onoaiiaeoue aai iiaeii niiinoaaeaieai eaaie e
i?aaie aeeaa?aii ia ?en. 4. I?aauoaiea ni?ina iaae i?aaeeiaeaieai noeia
a NOA niioaaonoaoao ecauoeo i?aaeeiaeaiey ii n?aaiaieth ni ni?inii ia
noeii ca a?aieoeae oieueei i?e iaeiie oeaia: aooaeue ca y?ae. I?e yoie
oeaia ecauoi/iue aia?eeaineee ni?in, NA, ?aaai ecauoi/iiio ca?oaaaeiiio
i?aaeeiaeaieth, IJ. I?e /ooue aieaa aunieie oeaia, neaaeai 1,2 aooaey ca
y?ae, i?aauoaiea ni?ina iaae i?aaeeiaeaieai a NOA aoaeao iaiueoa /ai 40
ie?ae. y?aeia a aiae, oiaaea eae ecauoie i?aaeeiaeaiey ca a?aieoeae
i?aauneo 40 ie?ae. Yoi ianiioaaonoaea canoaaeo oeaio aa?iooueny e
?aaiiaaniiio cia/aieth – aooaeue ca y?ae. Aieaa ieceay oeaia oaeaea ia
oaea?aeeony, oae eae ie?iaia (aia?eeaineia aianoa n caa?aie/iui)
i?aaeeiaeaiea noeia ieaaeaony ieaea niaieoiiiai ie?iaiai ni?ina.

Au?aaieaaiea ie?iaiai ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeii iieiinoueth
i?aaenoaaeoue e ia iaeiii a?aoeea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee noeiii, eae
yoi iieacaii ia oeaio?aeueiie aeeaa?aiia ?en. 4. Ecia?aaeaiiua caeanue
e?eaua ni?ina ia yenii?o e i?aaeeiaeaiey eiii?oa iieo/aiu ec
iaoeeiiaeueiuo e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey. E?eaay, ecia?aaeathuay
aia?eeaineee ni?in ia eiii?oiia noeii, anoue ia /oi eiia, eae e?eaay
ecauoi/iiai ni?ina NOA, iieacuaathuay, neieueei e i?e eaeii cia/aiee
oeaiu ninoaaeo ?acieoea iaaeaeo ni?inii e i?aaeeiaeaieai noeia a NOA.
Aiaeiae/ii, e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey yenii?oa inoaeueiui ie?ii anoue e?eaay
ecauoi/iiai i?aaeeiaeaiey, iino?iaiiay eae ?aciinoue iaaeaeo
i?aaeeiaeaieai e ni?inii ia noeii a inoaeueiii ie?a. E?eaua ni?ina ia
eiii?o e i?aaeeiaeaiey yenii?oa ia?anaeathony a oi/ea A, /oi i?eaiaeeo e
oi/ii oaeiio aea iauaio oi?aiaee noeiii (DE=CB=IJ) e oaeie aea ie?iaie
oeaia, eae e ia ninaaeieo aeeaa?aiiao. Ieaea iu aoaeai eniieueciaaoue
n?aaeithth aeeaa?aiio anyeee ?ac, eiaaea iai ioaeii aoaeao
neiioeaio?e?iaaoue aieiaiea ia nianoaaiii iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea, e
aieiaua aeeaa?aiiu aeey aiaeeca aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee e oi?aiauo
ia?aie/aiee ia ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae. Iaa
niiniaa i?aaenoaaeaiey iaeaaeatho oai ianiiiaiiui aeinoieinoaii, /oi,
ai-ia?auo, i?eau/iu aeey anao, ciaeiiuo n iniiaaie aiaeeca
ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey, a ai-aoi?uo, iiaeaeathony yiie?e/aneie ioeaiea.

*OI NOIEO CA E?EAUIE NI?INA: E?EAUA AAC?ACEE*Ess

?aaioay n e?eauie ni?ina, iieacii ciaoue, eaeea aniaeou iiaaaeaiey e
aeaaininoiyiey iie aiieiuatho.

*oiau auaanoe iniiaiua, yiie?e/anee iaaethaeaaiua ia?aiao?u e?eauo
ni?ina ec noiyuaai ca ieie iiaaaeaiey iio?aaeoaeae, iao ioaeaeu a
eaeeo-oi iniauo aeiiouaieyo. Aeey iauyniaiey, ii/aio e?eaua ni?ina, eae
i?aaeei, yaeythony oauaathueie, ii/aio oiaa?u iau/ii aunooiatho iaeei
aeey ae?oaiai noanoeoooaie, ii/aio a n?aaeiai ni?in aic?anoaao n
oaaee/aieai aeioiaea, aeinoaoi/ii oiai, /oi iio?aaeoaee auioaeaeaiu
n/eoaoueny n ia?aie/aiiinoueth naieo aeioiaeia. A yoii ieaia
nouanoaiaaiea e?eauo ni?ina eaaei iauynieii. Neiaeiaa ianoieo aeaei n
io?aaeaieai a e?eauo ni?ina iiiaioia, naycaiiuo n iiiyoeai
aeaaininoiyiey.

O?aaeeoeeiiii (oioy e iaiaycaoaeueii) yeiiiienou n/eoatho, /oi e?eaua
ni?ina no?iyony enoiaey ec i?aaeiieiaeaiey i iaeneiecaoeee noauaeoeaiie
iieaciinoe iio?aaeoaeyi i?e oii ia?aie/aiee, /oi naiaeiue athaeaeao
aeieaeai inoaaaoueny a i?aaeaeao iauae noiiu aeioiaeia. Oaeia eo
iino?iaiea o?aaoao i?eaea/aiey a?aoe/aneiai iaoiaea, ecaanoiiai eae
e?eaay aac?acee/ey (indifference curve). Iia iieacuaaao ana oa ni/aoaiey
?acee/iuo eiee/anoa eiathueony oiaa?ia, eioi?ua iaania/eaatho eiaeeaeaeo
iaeeiaeiaue o?iaaiue iieaciinoe.

E?eaua aac?acee/ey iiaeiaiu ai?eciioaeyi (eciaeinai) ia ea?oa ianoiinoe,
niaaeeiythuei oi/ee n iaeeiaeiaie aunioie iaae o?iaiai ii?y. Eaaeaeay
e?eaay aac?acee/ey niioaaonoaoao ii?aaeaeaiiiio o?iaith oaeiaeaoai?aiey
iio?aaiinoae (eee iieaciinoe), iieo/aiiiio io ?acee/iuo ni/aoaiee aeaoo
oiaa?ia. Ia?aoeiny e ciaeiiui iai noeio e ioaieoea. E?eaay aac?acee/ey
a-a ia ?en. 5a yaeyaony i?eia?ii, eiaaea iio?aaeoaeth aac?acee/ii,
?aniieaaaao ii naiueth aooaeyie ioaieoeu e /aou?ueiy y?aeaie noeia (v),
eee o?aiy aooaeyie ioaieoeu e ainaiueth y?aeaie noeia (w), eee ethaie
ae?oaie eiiaeiaoeeae yoeo oiaa?ia, i?aaenoaaeaiiie ia oie aea naiie
e?eaie.

Eae e ai?eciioaee, e?eaua aac?acee/ey ia?acotho «ea?ou», aaea
ia?aeeaeueiua e?eaua oeacuaatho aeaeaeaiea a caaeaiiii iai?aaeaiee io
iaiueoaai o?iaiy oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae (eee auniou) e aieueoaio.
Oae, ia ?en. 5a oi/ea b ia e?eaie aac?acee/ey III i?aaenoaaeyao aieaa
aunieee o?iaaiue oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae, eee aeaaininoiyiey, /ai
oi/ea a ia e?eaie I, ianiio?y ia oi /oi a yoie oi/ea iio?aaeyaony
aieueoa. Aeiaaai/iia eiee/anoai ioaieoeu n ecauoeii eiiiaine?oao
nieaeaiea eiee/anoaa noeia. Oi/ea n, a eioi?ie aieueoa e oiai e
ae?oaiai, aaconeiaii, iaania/eaaao aieaa aunieee o?iaaiue
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae, /ai a, e, iaeiiaoe, aeey iio?aaeoaey iao
?acieoeu iaaeaeo oi/eaie n e b.

Ia aieaa aunieeo o?iaiyo yeiiiie/aneie oai?ee ianoaeaeaaony neiaeiue
aii?in ia iauanoaaiiuo e?eauo aac?acee/ey (community indifference
curve). I?eiyoi n/eoaoue, /oi ea?oa e?eaie aac?acee/ey aeey eiaeeaeaea
eiioeaiooaeueii i?eaieaia e aa iiaeii auei au aeaaea iino?ieoue,
iaeaeenue /aeiaae, ia eiaeeo e noaaeeueiinoue aeonia eioi?iai iiaeii
auei au iieiaeeoueny aeey i?iaaaeaiey ianeaaeiaaiey. Anee iaeoi n/eoaao,
/oi noae aiaa/a, i?e/ai nouanoaaiii, i?eia?aoy 5 aeiaaai/iuo aooaeae
ioaieoeu e eeoeaoenue 2 y?aeia noeia, eoi, iiaeao yoi io?eoeaoue?
Iaeiaei n/eoaaony, /oi iiaeii aic?aaeaoue i?ioea ooaa?aeaeaiey, aoaeoi
iauanoai noaei aiaa/a, anee a n?aaeiai ia eaaeaeiai noaei i?eoiaeeoueny
ia 5 aooaeae ioaieoeu aieueoa e ia 2 y?aea noeia iaiueoa. Iaeie iieo/ao
aieueoa, ae?oaea, iaiai?io, iiianoo iioa?e. Eoi iiaeao ooaa?aeaeaoue,
/oi ?ino oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae iaeieo ia?aaaoeaaao iaaeaiea
o?iaiy o ae?oaeo? Aeaaea anee eciaiaiey ?ani?aaeaeythony ?aaiiia?ii,
inoaaony oa i?iaeaia, /oi iaeie i?aaeii/eoatho noeii ioaieoea, o ae?oaeo
aeonu i?yii i?ioeaiiieiaeiua. A yoii neo/aa iaaiciiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue,
/oi auea?uo ethaeoaeae ioaieoeu ia?aaaneo oua?a, iaianaiiue
i?eaa?aeaioeai noeia. Iaeuecy iaiin?aaenoaaiii n?aaieaaoue o?iaie
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae, eee aeaaininoiyiey, ioaeaeueiuo eeoe. Eae
iu oaaaeeiny ieaea, ?acae?ay aii?inu oi?aiaie iieeoeee, yoi ?aaeueiua, a
ia iaaeoiaiiua o?oaeiinoe. Anee a ?acoeueoaoa iaeioi?iai ia?ii?eyoey
oeo/oaaony iieiaeaiea iaeieo a?oii a iauanoaa, a ae?oaei noaiiaeony io
yoiai ooaea, ?acoeueoe?othuee yooaeo aeey aeaaininoiyiey iauanoaa a
oeaeii ioeaieoue iaaiciiaeii. Anee o ethaeae ?acee/iua i?aaeii/oaiey, oi
eciaiaiey a ?ani?aaeaeaiee aeioiaeia ii?iaeaeatho iiaoth ea?oo e?eaie
aac?acee/ey, aaea iiaua e?eaua ia?anaeathony ni noa?uie. Ii aaaeue niune
e?eauo aac?acee/ey eiaiii a oii, /oi iie ia ia?anaeathony.
Ia?anaeathueany e?eaua icia/atho, /oi iieaciinoue ia o?iaia I iiaeao
ieacuaaoueny oi aieueoa, oi iaiueoa iieaciinoe ia o?iaia II, /oi
niaa?oaiii iaaeiionoeii. Iaeiaei, ianiio?y ia yoe o?oaeiinoe, iu
i?iaeieaeaai eniieueciaaoue e?eaua aac?acee/ey, oioy e n iaeyaeeie.
Iniiaaieai neoaeao oi?iuathuea aeiiouaiey, /oi i?aaeii/oaiey iauanoaa
iiaoo auoue i?aaenoaaeaiu i?aaeii/oaieyie eiaeeaeaeooia, /oi iie
onoie/eau ai a?aiaie e /oi ia i?ienoiaeeo eciaiaiee a ?ani?aaeaeaiee
aeioiaeia. Eiia/ii, yoe aeiiouaiey i?ioeai?a/ao ?aaeueiinoe. Ae?oaia
iainiiaaiea, i?aaeeaaaaiia enneaaeiaaoaeyie i?iaeai aeaaininoiyiey,
caeeth/aaony a oae iacuaaaiii «i?eioeeia eiiiainaoeee»: anee ecaanoii,
/oi yeiiiie/aneea auaiaeu io eciaiaiey oeai aeinoaoi/ii auniee, /oiau
iieo/aoaee aic?inoeo aeioiaeia iiaee aac oua?aa aeey naay
eiiiaine?iaaoue iioa?e (eee iiaeeoieoue) inoaeueiuo, oi iiaia ninoiyiea
?anniao?eaaaony eae oeo/oaiea. Anee eiiiainaoeey aeaenoaeoaeueii eiaao
ianoi, oi i?iea?aaoeo iao e aeaenoaeoaeueii i?iecioei eciaiaiea e
eo/oaio (i?e oneiaee, /oi ieeoi ia no?aaeaao i?inoi io caaenoe, /oi
ae?oaei noaei eo/oa). Iaeiaei i?iea?uo ii/oe ieeiaaea ia eiiiaine?oaony.
Aac yoiai i?eioeei, ninoiyuee a oii, /oi eciaiaiea a oeaeii
?anoeaieaaaony eae iieiaeeoaeueiia, anee iieo/aoaee auaiae iiaee au (ia
aeaea yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo) eiiiaine?iaaoue oua?a i?iea?aaoei, ia
auaeyaeeo oaaaeeoaeueiui, anee ia i?eiyoue iaeioi?ua yaiua ioeaii/iua
noaeaeaiey [noaeaeaiey, au?aaeathuea ii?aaeaeaiioth nenoaio
nioeeaeueii-oeeinioneeo e ii?aeueii-yoe/aneeo oeaiiinoae. – Ia?aa.], i
/ai iu iiaiai?ei, eiaaea aa?iainy a aii?ino i auaiaeiinoe aiaoiae
oi?aiaee.

Iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey, oaeei ia?acii, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue
eeoue n inoi?iaeiinoueth e, eae iu oaeaeei, ia caauaay, /oi a eo iniiaa
eaaeao iaeioi?ua ioeaii/iua noaeaeaiey, eioi?ua e aac naiiai yoiai
aiia?aoa iiaee i?eaanoe e oai aea iieeoe/aneei ?aoaieyi. E ana aea
iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey neoaeao oaeiaiui n?aaenoaii
enneaaeiaaiey. Iiieii anaai i?i/aai, iie aeatho aiciiaeiinoue iino?iaiey
e?eauo ni?ina e oai naiui – ii?aaeaeaiey oeai e iauaiia. Nia/aea iu
?anniio?ei, eae e?eaua aac?acee/ey i?eiaiythony aeey iienaiey oneiaee,
nouanoaothueo aei e iinea onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee, a caoai – eae
n eo iiiiuueth iino?ieoue e?eaua ni?ina.

I?IECAIAeNOAI E IIO?AAEAIEA AIANOA

A IONOONOAEA OI?AIAEE

Ia ?en. 6 iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey aeatho iaiauaiiia
i?aaenoaaeaiea i i?aaeii/oaieyo a yeiiiieea no?aiu, ia oi?aothuae n
inoaeueiui ie?ii. A yoii i?eia?a NOA aeieaeiu iaoiaeeoueny ia
naiiiaania/aiee e iaeoe oaeia ni/aoaiea aioo?aiiaai i?iecaiaenoaa
ioaieoeu e noeia, eioi?ia iaeneiece?iaaei au iaoa?eaeueiia
aeaaininoiyiea iauanoaa. Ec anao oi/ae ia e?eaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae eeoue S0 aeinoeaaao e?eaie aac?acee/ey I1. A oaeeo oi/eao,
eae S1, aeinoeaathony eeoue e?eaua aieaa ieceiai ii?yaeea a?iaea I0. A
oi/ea S1 eeai iio?aaeoaee, eeai i?iecaiaeeoaee, eeai e oa e ae?oaea
aianoa iaia?oaeao, /oi nouanoaothuee o?iaaiue oeai iicaieyao ei
oeo/oeoue naia iieiaeaiea, ia?aiauaynue a iai?aaeaiee e oi/ea S0. Anee
niioiioaiea oeai a yoio iiiaio au?aaeaaony eanaoaeueiie e e?eaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae a oi/ea S1, iio?aaeoaee iaia?oaeao, /oi
noeii i?e yoii noieue aeaoaai, /oi ei eo/oa caeoiaoue aai a eiee/anoaa,
i?aauoathuai 20 ie?ae. y?aeia, a ioaieoeu iieoiaoue iaiueoa /ai 80
ie?ae. aooaeae. Naeaea a ni?ina canoaaeo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
i?eniinaaeeaaoueny e ia?aa?ineoue aieueoa ?ano?nia ec i?iecaiaenoaa
ioaieoeu a i?iecaiaenoai noeia. Yoa oaiaeaioeey e ia?aiauaieth ii e?eaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae nio?aieony aei oao ii?, iiea
i?iecaiaenoai e iio?aaeaiea a yeiiiieea ia onoaiiayony a oi/ea S0.

A oneiaeyo aic?anoathueo ecaea?aeae iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue iaeia, e
oieueei iaeia, oaeay iioeiaeueiay oi/ea. Anee e?eaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoae oieueei iaeia, oi e?eauo aac?acee/ey iiaeii i?iaanoe
aan/eneaiiia iiiaeanoai, a niioaaonoaee n aaneiia/ii iaeuie eciaiaieyie
a ?aaeueiii aeioiaea. Anee yoe e?eaua ia ia?anaeathony, a eiaiii yoi iu
e i?aaeiieaaaai, ethaay e?eaay i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae eiaao
aaeeinoaaiioth oi/eo eanaiey n naiaenoaii e?eauo aac?acee/ey. A oi/ea
?aaiiaaney S0 niioiioaiea oeai oaeiai, /oi e i?iecaiaeeoaee, e
iio?aaeoaee iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee ?aaiiaaney.6

IINEA ONOAIIAEAIEss OI?AIAUO IOIIOAIEE

Iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey aeatho oaeaea aiciiaeiinoue iieacaoue,
eae caaeaiiay nenoaia i?aaeii/oaiee acaeiiaeaenoaoao n ecaanoiuie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, ii?aaeaeyy ?acoeueoao onoaiiaeaiey
oi?aiauo ioiioaiee. Ia ?en. 7a i?aaenoaaeaii, eae iioeiecaoeeiiiue
i?ioeann iicaieyao iaoeee aueoe ia e?eaoth aac?acee/ey aieaa aunieiai
o?iaiy, oi?aoy n ae?oaeie no?aiaie. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ia?aiauaao eae NOA,
oae e inoaeueiie ie? ia e?eaua aac?acee/ey aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy a
oi/eao N1 eioi?ua ii?aaeaeythony nouanoaothueie i?aaeii/oaieyie, a
oaeaea oneiaeai, /oi iaa noi?iiu i?eaeoo e niaeaoaieth ioiineoaeueii
niaea?aeaiey oi?aiauo naeaeie. NOA ia iiaoo /a?ac aiaoithth oi?aiaeth
aueoe ia ethaoth aieaa aunieoth oi/eo a iio?aaeaiee: nouanoaoao oieueei
iaeia oaeay oi/ea, N1, aaea ?acia?u aia?eeaineiai eiii?oa noeia e
yenii?oa ioaieoeu i?e aeaiiie oeaia niaiaaeatho n iaia?aieyie
inoaeueiiai ie?a a ioiioaiee oi?aiaee. *oiau oaaaeeoueny a yoii,
i?aaenoaaei naaa aua aieaa iieiaoth eeieth oeaiu (o.a. aieaa aeaoaaia
noeii), /ai i?e iaeiii aooaea ca y?ae. I?e oaeie oeaia NOA niiaee au
aueoe ia aua aieaa aunieoth e?eaoth aac?acee/ey (ia ?enoiea iia ia
iieacaia), oaaee/ea i?iecaiaenoai ioaieoeu aaa?o e aeaai io oi/ee S1 e
auaicy aa a ia?iiiuo eiee/anoaao, /oiau aueoe ia o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey,
i?aauoathuee N1. Oeo?inoue, iaeiaei, caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi inoaeueiie
ie? aiana ia ?aniieiaeai oi?aiaaoue a oaeii iauaia ii noieue ieceie
oeaia. Yoi oi?ioi aeaeii, anee iaeoe oi/eo eanaiey iiaie eeiee oeaiu e
e?eauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae e aac?acee/ey aeey inoaeueiiai
ie?a ia i?aaie aeeaa?aiia ?en. 7a. Iia ?aniieiaeaia aaeece S0, oi/ee,
aaea aiaoiyy oi?aiaey ionoonoaoao. A oneiaeyo, eiaaea inoaeueiie ie?
ii/oe ie/aai ia niae?aaony i?iaeaaaoue ii oaeie oeaia, Niaaeeiaiiui
Ooaoai anei?a i?eaeaony onooieoue o?aaiaaieyi ?uiea e i?eaanoe oi?aiaeth
a niioaaonoaea n aeaeaieyie iaaeo noi?ii. Aaeeinoaaiiie ?aaiiaaniie
oeaiie aoaeao 1 y?ae = 1 aooaeue, eae iieacaii ia ?en. 7.

Iiaeii oaeaea, iauaaeeiea iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey n e?eauie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, iieo/eoue e?eaua ni?ina ia noeii e
ioaieoeo. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi e?eaay ni?ina ia noeii iieacuaaao, eae
iauai ni?ina ia noeii caaeneo io aai oeaiu. *oiau iieo/eoue e?eaoth
ni?ina ia noeii a NOA, ia?aoeiny nia/aea e oeaiiaui niioiioaieyi ia ?en.
7a e auyniei, neieueei e i?e eaeie oeaia NOA aoaeoo i?iecaiaeeoue e
iio?aaeyoue noeia. I?e 2 aooaeyo ca y?ae NOA iiaoo e aioiau iio?aaeyoue
40 ie?ae. y?aeia a aiae (a oi/ea S0). I?e oeaia a 1 aooaeue ca y?ae NOA
iio?aaeyee au 60 ie?ae. y?aeia (N1). Yoe oi/ee iiaeii ia?aianoe ia ?en.
7a, aaea ii aa?oeeaeueiie ine ioeiaeaiu oeaiu ia noeii. Oi/ea S0
aa?oiaai a?aoeea niioaaonoaoao oi/ea A ia ieaeiai; oi/ea C1 – oi/ea A e
o.ae. Oi aea naiia iiaeii naeaeaoue n a?aoeeaie aeey inoaeueiiai ie?a.
Oaeei ia?acii, oaeiaiue aiia?ao ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey iiaeao (oioy e ia
iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai) auaiaeeoueny ec iauanoaaiiuo e?eauo aac?acee/ey e
e?eauo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae.

AUEA?UO IO AIAOIAE OI?AIAEE

Ana oa iaoiaeu, eaeeie iu iieueciaaeenue aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aicaeaenoaey
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ia oeaiu e iauaiu, iiaeii i?eiaiyoue e aeey
aiaeeca auaiaeiinoe aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Niiinoaaeaiea iauanoaaiiuo e?eauo
aac?acee/ey ia ?en. 7a iicaieyao iaiin?aaenoaaiii ii?aaeaeeoue auea?uo
iaaeo noi?ii. Iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi e NOA, e inoaeueiie ie?
iieo/atho eiaiii noieueei, neieueei aeaao ia?aoiae io e?eaie aac?acee/ey
I1 e I2. Naii ii naaa yoi aeaao iaiiiai, oae eae iauanoaaiiay
iieaciinoue ia iiaeaeaaony eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea. Iie?aynue oieueei ia
e?eaua aac?acee/ey, iiaeii naeaeaoue eeoue ea/anoaaiiue auaiae,
auea?uaaao eee oa?yao no?aia a ?acoeueoaoa aiaoiae oi?aiaee, ii ieeae ia
ioeaieoue ?acia?u yoiai auea?uoa eee oua?aa.

Aua iaeei iaaeinoaoie eniieueciaaiey e?eauo aac?acee/ey aeey
ii?aaeaeaiey auea?uoa io aiaoiae oi?aiaee caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi iie
iieacuaatho niaieoiiue yooaeo aeey aeaaininoiyiey anae iaoeee. Eae iu
oaea ioia/aee, yoi oi?iuaiea ne?uaaao oi iaiaeiaaaeiia ianoiyoaeuenoai,
/oi onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee, i?eiiny auaiaeo iaeiei a?oiiai
ianaeaiey, i?ioeai?a/eo eioa?anai ae?oaeo. Aeaaea naiue aaaeue acaeyae a
enoi?eth iaia?oaeeaaao, /oi anaaaea iaoiaeeeenue a?oiiu, aunooiaaoea
i?ioea eeaa?aeecaoeee aiaoiae oi?aiaee ec iianaiey, /oi eiieo?aioeey ni
noi?iiu eiii?oa eeoeo eo aeioiaeia e ?aai/eo iano. Oae /oi ethaay oai?ey
i auaiaeiinoe aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeieaeia eae ieieioi niaea?aeaoue niinia
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee oua?aa aeey oao, eoi eiieo?e?oao n eiii?oii,
/oiau niiinoaaeyoue aa n iineaaenoaeyie eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee aeey
inoaeueiuo.

Aiia?ao e?eauo ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey iicaieyao ioaeaeueii ?anniio?aoue
aicaeaenoaea eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee ia i?iecaiaeeoaeae oiaa?ia,
eiieo?e?othueo n eiii?oii, e ia oao, eoi oieueei iio?aaeyao
eiii?oe?oaiua oiaa?u. Eiia/ii, ia i?aeoeea ianna ethaeae i?eiaaeeaaeeo e
iaaei a?oiiai. Aia?eeaineea i?iecaiaeeoaee noeia e naie iio?aaeytho
noeii, a eiino?aioeu, i?iecaiaeyuea eiieo?e?othuoth n aia?eeaineei
yenii?oii ioaieoeo, oaeaea eniieuecotho eaeia-oi aa eiee/anoai ia
nianoaaiiua ioaeaeu. Oai ia iaiaa oaeay aauue, eae niaoeeaeecaoeey
ianaeaiey ii io?aneyi, nouanoaoao, e, ?anniao?eaay a?oiiu
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e iio?aaeoaeae eae iacaaeneiua, iu ia ?eneoai oionoeoue
/oi-oi a ?acoeueoaoa iaaa?iuo enoiaeiuo iinueie.

?en. 8 iieacuaaao, /oi aeaao aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aia?eeaineei
i?iecaiaeeoaeyi e iio?aaeoaeyi noeia ii ioaeaeueiinoe. *oiau
?acia?aoueny a yoeo ?acoeueoaoao, neaaeoao aniiiieoue, eae n iiiiuueth
e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey ecia?ythony (/anoiua) i?aaeaeueiua auaiaeu
e ecaea?aeee.

EIOA?ANU IIO?AAEOAEAE

Ia?aoeiny nia/aea e iio?aaeoaeyi noeia. Iaiiiiei, /oi e?eaay eo ni?ina
ia noeii onoaiaaeeaaao niioaaonoaea iaaeaeo aiaeiaui iauaiii caeoiie e
iaeneiaeueiie noiiie (eiee/anoaii ioaieoeu), eioi?ie eoi-oi a no?aia
aioia iiaea?oaiaaoue, /oiau iieo/aoue aeiaaai/iue y?ae noeia aaeaaiaeii.
A oi/ea A, aaea aaeaaiaeii caeoiaaony 40 ie?ae. y?aeia, e?eaay ni?ina
iieacuaaao iai, /oi iaeaeaony eoi-ieaoaeue, niaeaniue ca 2 aooaey
ioaieoeu i?eia?anoe aua 1 y?ae noeia. Yoio /aeiaae ie a eiai neo/aa ia
niaeaneony caieaoeoue aieueoa, a i?e aieaa aunieie oeaia e oa, eoi eoiee
ia?aua 40 ie?ae. y?aeia, ni/ooo, /oi aeiaaai/iia noeii oiai ia noieo e
aac iaai iiaeii iaieoenue, e ia aoaeoo aai aieueoa iieoiaoue. Oaeei
ia?acii, e?eaay ni?ina, anee acaeyiooue ia iaa n oi/ee c?aiey iiaaaeaiey
iio?aaeoaeae, yaeyaony e?eaie /anoiie i?aaeaeueiie auaiaeu: ia
aa?oeeaeueiie ine iaianaiu ?acia?u i?aaeaeueiie auaiaeu io aeiaaai/iiai
y?aea noeia, a ia ai?eciioaeueiie – iauaiu aai caeoiie (ni. ?en. 8).
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, ieiuaaeue iiae e?eaie ni?ina aei aa?oeeaee, ioia/athuae
iauai iio?aaeaiey, ecia?yao, eae ?anoeaieaatho iio?aaeoaee naio
aiciiaeiinoue i?eia?aoaiey noeia.

?acoiaaony, caaea?ii noeia ia ?uiea ia iieo/eoue. Iieoiaoaee aeieaeiu
ieaoeoue ca noeii ?uii/ioth oeaio, oa?yy, oaeei ia?acii, /anoue auaiae,
naycaiiuo n aai i?eia?aoaieai. Iaeiaei oeaiu oaeiau, /oi iieiinoueth
auaiaea ia en/acaao, ?acaa /oi i?e oaeie aunieie oeaia, i?e eaeie ieeoi
e ia noaiao iieoiaoue. A oi/ea A a ionoonoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee
iio?aaeoaee aeieaeiu aaeaaiaeii o?aoeoue 80 ie?ae. aooaeae ioaieoeu,
/oiau eiaoue naie 40 ie?ae. y?aeia noeia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi eo /enoue
iio?aaeoaeueneee auea?uo io iieoiee noeia ?aaiyaony ia anae ieiuaaee
iiae e?eaie ni?ina, a ca au/aoii i?yiioaieueieea a 80 ie?ae. aooaeae,
ionaeaaiiai eeieae oeaiu, oiea/aiiie ca noeii. Oaeei ia?acii, /enoue
auea?uo iio?aaeoaeae io iieoiee noeia a ionoonoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee naiaeeony eeoue e o?aoaieueieeo n. Yoa iaeanoue /enoiai
auea?uoa iiae e?eaie ni?ina, ia?aie/aiiay nieco eeieae oeaiu, iacuaaaony
aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeie iio?aaeoaey (consumer surplus). Aa ieiuaaeue
iieacuaaao, eae ?anoeaieaatho iio?aaeoaee aiciiaeiinoue iieoiaoue noeii
ii oeaia aieaa ieceie, /ai iaeioi?ua ec ieo auee au aioiau caieaoeoue.

Onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee i?eiineo /enoue auea?uo iio?aaeoaeyi
noeia. Cae?aaue niune iiaeneacuaaao, /oi yoi i?ienoiaeeo a ?acoeueoaoa
nieaeaiey oeai. Iiiyoea aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeu aeey iio?aaeoaeae
iicaieyao eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieoue, /oi aeaao aieaa auaiaeiay oeaia
iio?aaeoaeyi noeia. A oi/ea A iio?aaeoaee noiia?ii iieo/atho auaiaeu,
i?aaenoaaeaiiua anae iaeanoueth iiae e?eaie ni?ina aieioue aei oi/ee A,
a eo ?anoiaeu ia noeii ninoaaeytho anaai eeoue iaeanoue, eaaeauoth iiae
eeieae ieceie oeaiu 1 aooaeue ca y?ae, o.a. 60 ie?ae. aooaeae ioaieoeu a
aiae. Yoi icia/aao, /oi a oneiaeyo naiaiaeiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee
aeiiieieoaeueiay auaiaea iio?aaeoaeae neeaaeuaaaony ec iaeanoae a+b+n+d.
Oaeei ia?acii, onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee i?eiineo iio?aaeoaeyi
/enoue auea?uo a ?acia?a a+b+d. Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea, /oi yoio auea?uo
i?eoiaeeony ia iiiaeanoai ethaeae, aieueoeinoai eioi?uo i?iecaiaeeo
ioaieoeo, ii anoue e i?iecaiaeeoaee noeia.

EIOA?ANU I?IECAIAeEOAEAE

Nianai eiie ?acoeueoao aeaao onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee aeey
i?iecaiaeeoaeae noeia. *oiau ?acia?aoueny a yoii, aa?iainy e e?eaui
i?aaeeiaeaiey e aniiiiei, /oi iie iieacuaatho aaee/eio (/anoiuo)
aiaiaiiuo ecaea?aeae caiauaiey i?iecaiaenoaa e i?iaeaaee
aeiiieieoaeueiiai y?aea noeia. A ionoonoaea oi?aiaee a oi/ea A
i?iecaiaeeony 40 ie?ae. y?aeia noeia a aiae, e e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey
aiai?eo, /oi aeey ecaioiaeaiey aeiiieieoaeueii iaeiiai y?aea a aiae
iio?aaiaaeinue au aeey aunaiaiaeaeaiey iaiaoiaeeiuo ?ano?nia ioeacaoueny
io i?iecaiaenoaa 2 aooaeae ioaieoeu (ia aa?oeeaeueiie ine). Oi, /oi
ni?aaaaeeeai a ioiioaiee aeiiieieoaeueiiai y?aea i?e aiaeiaii iauaia
auionea a 40 ie?ae. y?aeia, nio?aiyao neeo e ii ioiioaieth ei anaio
?aiaa i?iecaaaeaiiiio noeio: i?inoiie?iaaa ana auniou aaeieue e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey, /oiau iieo/eoue noiia?ioth ieiuaaeue iaeanoe iiae e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey iaaeaeo 0 e 40 ie?ae. y?aeia, iu iieo/ei iauea ecaea?aeee
caiauaiey aeey anaai auioneaaiiai noeia.

A ionoonoaea aiaoiae oi?aiaee, i?iaeaaay noeii a oi/ea A, i?iecaiaeeoaee
iieo/atho au?o/eo, ?aaioth i?iecaaaeaieth eiee/anoaa noeia ia aai oeaio,
o.a. 2 aooaey ca y?ae x 40 ie?ae. y?aeia = 80 ie?ae. aooaeae a aiae.
Iieaoea ec yoie au?o/ee ana ecaea?aeee (ieiuaaeue iiae e?eaie
i?aaeeiaeaiey), iie iieo/atho, a ionoonoaea oi?aiaee, a naia
?anii?yaeaiea iaeanoue, eaaeauoth aaa?o io e?eaie ni?ina aei eeiee
oeaiu, o.a. a+a. Yoio /enoue auea?uo, ?acieoeo iaaeaeo au?o/eie e
ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaeeoaeae, /anoi iacuaatho aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeie
i?iecaiaeeoaey (producer surplus). Aai aaee/eia iieacuaaao, eae
?anoeaieaatho i?iecaiaeeoaee aiciiaeiinoue iaiaieaaoue noeii ia
ioaieoeo.

I?iecaiaeeoaee noeia iaeiia?aiaiii yaeythony iio?aaeoaeyie eae noeia,
oae e ioaieoeu, e eo aeiiieieoaeueioth auaiaeo neaaeoao i?eiethniaaoue e
aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaea iio?aaeoaeae, /oiau ioeaieoue ?acoeueoe?othuaa
aicaeaenoaea ?uii/iuo eciaiaiee ia iaa a?oiiu.

A ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee i?iecaiaeeoaee noeia
iieo/atho aieaa ieceoth oeaio ca naith i?iaeoeoeeth. Iaoa oai?ey,
niaeanii cae?aaiio niuneo, n/eoaao, /oi yoi aaaeao e nie?auaieth
aeioiaea o eaeie-oi /anoe ianaeaiey, i?iecaiaeeaoaai noeii e iiiaioo
ia/aea oi?aiaee. Nie?auaiea aeioiaeiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa noeia aeieaeii
iiaea/ue ca niaie iooie ?ano?nia ec aai i?iecaiaenoaa (e i?eoie eo a
i?iecaiaenoai ioaieoeu). Ia ?en. 8 a oi/ea N i?iecaiaeeony iaiueoa
noeia, /ai a oi/ea A. Yoi i?ienoiaeeo iioiio, /oi aieaa ieceay oeaia
aeaeaao iai?eaueueiui i?iecaiaenoai aeiaaai/iuo y?aeia noeia, anee
naycaiiua n yoei aeiiieieoaeueiua ecaea?aeee i?aauoatho aooaeue ioaieoeu
ca eaaeaeue y?ae. Oae /oi a oneiaeyo aiaoiae oi?aiaee a oi/ea N
i?iecaiaeeoaee noeia auioaeaeaiu inoaiiaeoueny ia iaiueoai iauaia
auionea e i?iaeaae, a oaeaea iaiueoeo oeaia e i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeeao
caiauaiey. Eo aeiiieieoaeueiay auaiaea nie?auaaony aei ?acia?ia iaeiie
oieueei iaeanoe a. ?ac?aoaiea naiaiaeiie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee
iaioeinue ei a iioa?th iaeanoe a, o.a. aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeu ia
oieueei io auionea 20 ie?ae. y?aeia ii-i?aaeiaio i?iecaiaeeiiai noeia,
ii e oao 20 ie?ae., /oi n auaiaeie i?iecaiaeeeenue a ionoonoaea
oi?aiaee, a oaia?ue auoaniaiu eiii?oii.

EIOA?ANU NO?AIU A OeAEII

Anee iio?aaeoaee a ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee iieo/atho
iaeanoe a+b+d, a i?iecaiaeeoaee oa?ytho a, /oi iiaeii neacaoue i /enoii
auea?uoa aeey NOA, aaea aeeaoo eae iio?aaeoaee, oae e i?iecaiaeeoaee
noeia? Iai ieeae ia oeoe io oiai ianoiyoaeuenoaa, /oi iu ia iiaeai
n?aaieaaoue eciaiaiey a aeaaininoiyiee ?acee/iuo a?oii, ia aeaaay
noauaeoeaiie ioeaiee cia/eiinoe auaiae eee iioa?ue eaaeaeie ec ieo. Iao
aiaeec iicaieyao ioaeaeueii ecia?eoue iineaaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeey
?aciuo a?oii, ii ie/aai ia aiai?eo i oii, ianeieueei eaaeaeay aaaeia
aeey ian. Iai?eia?, ec ?en. 8 iu iiaeai ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi iio?aaeoaee
noeia iieo/atho aeiiieieoaeueii 50 ie?ae. aooaeae ioaieoeu a aiae (eee
yeaeaaeaio yoiai eiee/anoaa ioaieoeu a noeia ii n?aaeiei oeaiai), /oi
neeaaeuaaaony ec noiia?iie ieiuaaee iaeanoae a+b+d, ia?acothueo
o?aiaoeeth. E?iia oiai, iu iiaeai neacaoue, /oi n oo?aoie iaeanoe a
i?iecaiaeeoaee noeia oa?ytho 30 ie?ae. aooaeae ioaieoeu. E ana aea eaeay
(a iaoai i?aaenoaaeaiee) /anoue auea?uoa iio?aaeoaeae «nuaaeaaony» yoeie
30 ieeeea?aeaie iioa?ue noeiiaeaeia? Ioaao oeaeeeii caaeneo io iaoeo
ioeaii/iuo noaeaeaiee. Iu noieeioeenue n yoie i?iaeaiie, eiaaea aaaee a
aiaeec e?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey, e nae/an iia aiiaue anoaea ia?aae iaie a
eiioaenoa ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Yeiiiienou iau/ii ?ac?aoatho yoio aii?in, i?eaaaioa e ioeaii/iiio
noaeaeaieth, eioi?ia iu iaciaai e?eoa?eai «?aaiioeaiiinoe aeaiaa»
(one-dollar, one-vote yardstick). Niaeanii yoiio e?eoa?eth, e eaaeaeiio
aeieea?o auea?uoa eee oauoea neaaeoao ioiineoueny iaeeiaeiai, aia
caaeneiinoe, /uee iie. A iniiaa yoiai e?eoa?ey eaaeeo no?aieaiea
ioeaieaaoue iineaaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee n iiceoeee oieueei iauaai
aeaaininoiyiey, ia o/eouaay ?ani?aaeaeeoaeueiua aniaeou. Yoi ia cia/eo,
/oi iie inoathony aac aieiaiey. I?inoi n/eoaaony, /oi aii?inu
?ani?aaeaeaiey aeaaininoiyiey i?iua ?aoeoue, eiiiaine?oy oua?a
iioa?iaaoei eee eniieuecoy ae?oaea iaoiaeu ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiey aeioiaeia,
eaaeauea aia iaeanoe oi?aiaie iieeoeee, ii ioiioaieth e oai a?oiiai
ianaeaiey (iai?eia?, aaaeiaeoei neiyi), aeaaininoiyieth eioi?uo iu
i?eaeaai iniaia cia/aiea. Anee iiaeoiaeeoue e ?ani?aaeaeaieth
aeaaininoiyiey n yoeo iiceoeee, oi ?aoaiey a noa?a oi?aiaee e oi?aiaie
iieeoeee iiaeii ioeaieaaoue n oi/ee c?aiey oieueei niaieoiiiai auea?uoa
eee oauoea.

Au ia iaycaiu ?acaeaeyoue yoi ioeaii/iia, noaeaeaiea. Au iiaeaoa
n/eoaoue, iai?eia?, /oi oauoee i?iecaiaeeoaeae noeia cia/ao aeey aan
ai?acaei aieueoa (aeieea? ca aeieea? eee aooaeue ca aooaeue), /ai
auea?uo io iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee iio?aaeoaeae noeia. Iai?eia?, au
iiaeaoa oae n/eoaoue iioiio, /oi ciaaoa, /oi noeii ia naiii aeaea
i?iecaiaeeony ieueie iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie ?aai/eie, eioi?ua nooeaie
iai?ieao oeoo e i?yaeoo a naieo aaaeiuo aeiieoeao, a iieoiatho noeii
aiaa/e-oa?ia?u, au?aueaathuea ioaieoeo. E au iiieiaaoa, /oi ieeaeeie
iieeoe/aneeie n?aaenoaaie ia oaeanony eiiiaine?iaaoue oauoee aaaeiuo
noeiiaeaeia, i?e/eiaiiua ei aiaoiae oi?aiaeae. Anee yoi oae, iiaeii
cayaeoue, /oi eaaeaeue aooaeue ioaieoeu, oo?a/aiiue i?iecaiaeeoaeai
noeia, aeey aan a 5 eee 6 ?ac aei?iaea eaaeaeiai aooaey, iieo/aiiiai
iio?aaeoaeai noeia. Anoaa ia oaeoth iiceoeeth, au iiaeaoa cayaeoue, /oi
onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee n caa?aieoeae i?ioeai?a/eo aaoei
i?aaenoaaeaieyi i iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?anao. Ii aeaaea a yoii neo/aa
aiaeec n iiiiuueth e?eauo ni?ina-i?aaeeiaeaiey i?eaiaeeony aai aeey
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee eciaiaiey yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey a a?oiiao
ianaeaiey, eioa?anu eioi?uo aeey aan ia?aaiicia/iu.

E?eoa?ee «?aaiioeaiiinoe aeaiaa» aeaao /aoeoth oi?ioeo aeey iiaen/aoa
/enoiai auea?uoa anae iaoeee io aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Aoaeai iiea
iieueciaaoueny aooaeyie ioaieoeu a ea/anoaa ia?u oiai, /oi aiineaaenoaee
noaiao «aeieea?aie» iieoiaoaeueiie niiniaiinoe a ioiioaiee anao oiaa?ia
e oneoa, ca eneeth/aieai iaeiiai, i eioi?ii iieaeao ?a/ue (a iaoai
neo/aa – noeia). I/aaeaeii, /oi anee iio?aaeoaee noeia i?eia?aoatho
iaeanoe a+b+d, a i?iecaiaeeoaee oa?ytho i, oi /enoue auea?uo iaoeee a
?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee ninoaaeony ec iaeanoae b +
d, o?aoaieueieea, ieiuaaeue eioi?iai ?aaia 20 ie?ae. aooaeae a aiae { =
1/2 x [eiii?o (60 – 20) ie?ae. y?aeia] x (2 -1 )aooaey ca y?ae}.
Iieo/aaony, /oi aeey eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee /enoiai auea?uoa iaoeee
o?aaoaony nianai ia oae iiiai eioi?iaoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii oieueei
?ann/eoaoue iauai oi?aiaee (caeanue ii i?aaenoaaeai eiii?oii noeia) e
eciaiaiea oeaiu a ?acoeueoaoa aiaoiae oi?aiaee. ?aniieaaay yoeie
aeaiiuie, iiaeii au/eneeoue ieiuaaeue b+d ia ethaie ec aeeaa?aii ?en. 8.

IINEAAeNOAEss ONOAIIAEAIEss OI?AIAUO IOIIOAIEE AeEss INOAEUeIIAI IE?A

Oio aea naiue eino?oiaioa?ee iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey aeaiiino?aoeee
oiai, /oi /enoue auea?uo inoaeueiiai ie?a ?aaiyaony ieiuaaee iaeanoe f
ia ?en. 8a, eioi?ay i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?aciinoue iaaeaeo auea?uoai
eiino?aiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae noeia (a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee ii aieaa
aunieie ie?iaie oeaia) e iioa?yie eiino?aiiuo iio?aaeoaeae noeia (a
?acoeueoaoa oiai aea ?inoa oeai). Aeey iieo/aiey eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee
/enoiai yooaeoa aeey inoaeueiiai ie?a aeinoaoi/ii ciaoue iauai oi?aiaee
e eciaiaiea oeai. Aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, ?anniao?eaaaony oi?aiaey
noeiii eee ioaieoeae, ?acoeueoao aoaeao iaeei e oio aea. Iineieueeo
inoaeueiie ie? iieo/aao aeiiieieoaeueii iaeanoue f, a NOA – iaeanoe b+d,
ec iaoaai aiaeeca ynii neaaeoao, /oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey auaiaeia
aeey anaai ie?a.

?en. 8a iicaieyao ia oieueei oaaaeeoueny a oii, /oi aiaoiyy oi?aiaey
auaiaeia aeey iaaeo noi?ii, ii e oaeaeaoue, eae yoe auaiaeu
?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo no?aiaie. Ieacuaaaony, /oi ?ani?aaeaeaiea
auaiae caaeneo oieueei io oiai, /uee oeaiu i?aoa?iaee iaeaieueoea
eciaiaiey, iineieueeo iauai aiaoiae oi?aiaee o iaaeo noi?ii iaeeiaeia. A
iaoai i?eia?a NOA auea?uaatho aieueoa (ieiuaaeue b+d aieueoa, /ai f),
iineieueeo a i?ioeaioao e iiaiio n?aaeiaio o?iaith aia?eeaineea oeaiu ia
noeii nie?aoeeenue aieueoa, /ai aic?inee eiino?aiiua oeaiu. Oae /oi aeey
auyniaiey, eae ?ani?aaeaeythony auaiaeu io aiaoiae oi?aiaee, neaaeoao
ia/aoue n enneaaeiaaiey, /uee oeaiu eciaieeenue a iaeaieueoae noaiaie.
Aieiaoaeueii eco/ea ?en. 8, iu iieo/ei neaaeothuaa i?aaeei
?ani?aaeaeaiey auaiae:

Auaiaeu io aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?ani?aaeaeythony i?yii i?iii?oeeiiaeueii
eciaiaieyi oeai o iaaeo noi?ii. Anee niioiioaiea oeai a eaeie-oi no?aia
eciaieeinue ia x i?ioeaioia (a i?ioeaioao io oeaiu naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee),
a a inoaeueiii ie?a – ia o i?ioeaioia, oi

Auea?uo ?anniao?eaaaiie no?aiu — x

Auea?uo inoaeueiiai ie?a — o

Aieueoa auea?uaaao oa noi?iia, aeey eioi?ie yeanoe/iinoue e?eauo
oi?aiaee ieaea.

Ia ?en. 8a aieueoee auea?uo i?eoaeny ia aeieth Niaaeeiaiiuo Ooaoia. NOA,
o eioi?uo oeaia oiaea ia 100% ii ioiioaieth e iiaie ie?iaie oeaia (n 2
aei 1), iieo/eee aeiiieieoaeueii 20 ie?ae. aooaeae a aiae (iaeanoe b+d);
inoaeueiie ie?, aaea oeaia au?inea ia 100/3 %ii n?aaiaieth n oeaiie
naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee (io 2/3 aei 1), iieo/eee 20/3 ie?ae. aooaeae a aiae.

Oneiaey e iniiaa aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

I/aaeaeii, /oi aicaeaenoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ia i?iecaiaenoai,
iio?aaeaiea e aeaaininoiyiea ai iiiaii ii?aaeaeyaony onoaiiaeaoeiny
niioiioaieai ie?iauo oeai. Iiyoiio yeiiiienou oaeaeytho oaeia aieiaiea
oneiaeyi oi?aiaee, eee ioiioaieth yenii?oiuo oeai ?anniao?eaaaiie no?aiu
e aa eiii?oiui oeaiai. A iaoai i?inoii i?eia?a i?i noeii e ioaieoeo
oneiaeyie oi?aiaee aeey NOA aunooiaao oeaia ioaieoeu a y?aeao noeia ca
aooaeue. Oneiaey oi?aiaee iieacuaatho, eaeia eiee/anoai noeia iieo/atho
NOA ca eaaeaeue i?iaeaiiue eiino?aioeai aooaeue ioaieoeu. Niioaaonoaaiii
oneiaey oi?aiaee aeey inoaeueiiai ie?a ?aaiu ioiineoaeueiie oeaia ia eo
yenii?oioth i?iaeoeoeeth, noeii. Aei neo ii? ia iaoeo ?enoieao iu
oaeoe/anee ecia?aaeaee oneiaey oi?aiaee aeey inoaeueiiai ie?a a aooaeyo
ca y?ae.

Anee iiiyoea «oneiaey oi?aiaee» ioiineony aieaa /ai e aeaoi oiaa?ai, iii
aeieaeii ii?aaeaeyoueny eae niioiioaiea eiaeaenia yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo
oeai. Aeey ?an/aoa oneiaee oi?aiaee ia ?aaeueiie noaoenoeea nia/aea
no?ieony eiaeaen yenii?oiuo oeai (a aaeeieoeao iaoeeiiaeueiie eee
ae?oaie aaethou) aeaea:

,

– ioiioaiea oaeouae oeaiu ia yoio oiaa? e aai oeaia a aaceniii aiaeo.
Oaeie aea eiaeaen iiaeii ?ann/eoaoue aeey eiii?oiuo oeai. Ionoue

,

ii?aaeaeyaony oae aea, eae e ?aiueoa. Oaeea eiaeaenu yenii?oiuo e
eiii?oiuo oeai ?aaoey?ii ?ann/eouaathony i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuie i?aaiaie e
ioaeeeothony, iai?eia?, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aaethoiui oiiaeii a
aaeaiany/ieea International financial Statistics. Oaeei ia?acii, oneiaey
oi?aiaee ?aaiu ioiioaieth aeaoo eiaeaenia:

.

?ino yoiai iieacaoaey iau/ii iacuaatho «oeo/oaieai» oneiaee oi?aiaee.
Iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi, anee eiino?aioeu eaaeaeoth i?iaeaaaaioth ei
aaeeieoeo yenii?oa iiea/eaatho iai aieueoei eiee/anoaii eiii?oa, iu
yeiau noaiiaeiny aiaa/a. Iaeiaei yoi ia iaycaoaeueii oae. Naie ii naaa
oneiaey oi?aiaee ia aeatho ieeaeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ie ia eciaiaiee
aeaaininoiyiey, ie i auaiaeiinoe oi?aiaee, a aeaeaeaiea yoiai iieacaoaey
niaiaaeaao n eciaiaieai a oii aea iai?aaeaiee o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey
eeoue i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao. Anee oneiaey oi?aiaee
«oeo/oathony» a ?acoeueoaoa eciaiaiee o iaoeo ca?oaaaeiuo ia?oia?ia, iu
io yoiai aeaenoaeoaeueii auea?uaaai. Anee e?eaua aiaoiaai ni?ina ia iao
yenii?o e i?aaeeiaeaiey eiii?oa inoaeueiui ie?ii naeaeaathony aiaia, iu
aeaenoaeoaeueii iieo/aai aieueoa auaiae io aiaoiae oi?aiaee e noaiiaeiny
aiaa/a. Ii i?aaeiieiaeei oaia?ue, /oi oneiaey oi?aiaee eciaieeenue a
?acoeueoaoa eaeeo-oi naeaeaia a iaoai iiaaaeaiee. Ionoue NOA a iaoai
i?eia?a iaoee ai?acaei aieaa yooaeoeaiue niinia au?aueaaiey ioaieoeu e
ecauoi/iia i?aaeeiaeaiea aia?eeaineie ioaieoeu i?eaaei e nieaeaieth oeai
e «oooaeoaieth» oneiaee oi?aiaee. Ionthaea ioithaeue ia neaaeoao, /oi
NOA /oi-oi oa?ytho eee oi?aiaey noaiiaeony aeey ieo iaiaa auaiaeiie.
No?aia iaeiia?aiaiii iiaeao iieo/aoue auea?uo eae io ?inoa yooaeoeaiinoe
i?iecaiaenoaa, oae e io oaaee/aiey iauaia yenii?oa ioaieoeu ii aieaa
ieceie oeaia. Oaeei ia?acii, oneiaey oi?aiaee aeatho aaaeioth
eioi?iaoeeth aeey ioeaiee eciaiaiee a aeaaininoiyiee, ii eniieueciaaoue
aa neaaeoao oieueei ia?yaeo n ae?oaeie aeaiiuie – ia iauaiao oi?aiaee e
i?e/eiao eciaiaiey oeai.

?ACEE*Ess A I?AAeII*OAIEssO IIO?AAEOAEAE EAE INIIAA AIAOIAE OI?AIAEE

Oaia?ue, eiaaea a enoiaeioth iiaeaeue iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee aeeth/ai
ni?in, eaaei oaaaeeoueny, /oi iniiaie aeey acaeiiauaiaeiie oi?aiaee
iiaoo iineoaeeoue naie ii naaa ?acee/ey a i?aaeii/oaieyo iio?aaeoaeae,
aeaaea i?e ionoonoaee o ia?oia?ia ?acee/ee a i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
aiciiaeiinoyo, o.a. ?acee/ee a oneiaeyo i?aaeeiaeaiey. Yoi iiaeii
iieacaoue n iiiiuueth eae iauanoaaiiuo e?eauo aac?acee/ey, oae e e?eauo
ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

?anniio?ei i?eia? aeaoo no?ai, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo n iaeeiaeiaui oniaoii
iiaeao i?iecaiaeeoue eae ?en, oae e ioaieoeo. O yoeo no?ai iaeeiaeiaua
e?eaua i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae, ii ?aciua aeonu a ioiioaiee e?oi
e oeaaiaoei/iuo ecaeaeee. A ionoonoaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee
i?aaeii/oaiea oeaaa a ia?aie no?aia /a?ac acaeiiaeaenoaea ni?ina e
i?aaeeiaeaiey iaoneiaeeaaao aieaa aunieoth oeaio ia ioaieoeo, /ai ai
aoi?ie no?aia, ianaeaiiie ethaeoaeyie ?ena. Onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee aeaeaao auaiaeiui auaic ioaieoeu a no?aio ethaeoaeae oeaaa a
iaiai ia ?en. Eiaaea a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee onoaiiaeony
iiaia ?aaiiaaniia niioiioaiea oeai, i?iecaiaeeoaee a iaaeo no?aiao
eciaiyo iauaiu auionea oaeei ia?acii, /oi eo i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee
n?aaiythony n yoie iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oeaiie. Iineieueeo i?aaeiieaaaaony,
/oi e?eaua i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae aeey yoeo no?ai niaiaaeatho,
oi i?iecaiaenoai o ieo nianoeeinue au ia a?aoeea a iaeio e oo aea oi/eo.
No?aia, i?aaeii/eoathuay oeaa, oaeiaeaoai?eo naia i?eno?anoea e
ioaie/iui aoeeai, eiii?oe?oy ioaieoeo e aueaey ia e?eaoth aac?acee/ey
aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy. Oa aea naiua aiaoiaoi?aiaua naeaeee iicaieyo
ethaeoaeyi ?ena aeinoe/ue aieueoaai oaeiaeaoai?aiey. A oii neo/aa,
eiaaea ?acee/athony ia oneiaey i?aaeeiaeaiey, a aeonu iio?aaeoaeae,
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey i?eaaaeao e ?inoo «niaoeeaeecaoeee» iio?aaeaiey e
nieaeaieth i?iecaiaenoaa. Oa aea naiua auaiaeu iiaeii iieo/eoue n
iiiiuueth e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, anee i?eaeaoue iaaei no?aiai
iaeeiaeiaua e?eaua i?aaeeiaeaiey, ii ?aciua e?eaua ni?ina.

OAAEE*EI *ENEI NO?AI E OIAA?IA

A yoie aeaaa aiaeec iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee iu ia?aie/eee aeaoiy
no?aiaie e aeaoiy oiaa?aie. Iaeiaei n iiiiuueth iaeioi?uo iaoiaeia
iiaeaeue «2 o 2» iiaeii ?anoe?eoue aei iiaeaeae aieueoae ?acia?iinoe.

Iai?eia?, i?e iyoe oiaa?ao, i?iecaiaeeiuo a eaaeaeie ec aeaoo no?ai, yoe
oiaa?u iiaeii oii?yaei/eoue ii n?aaieoaeueiiio i?aeiouanoao (aia
caaeneiinoe io ni?ina) a eaaeaeie no?aia. Aia/aea iiaeii ooaa?aeaeaoue
oieueei, /oi no?aia aoaeao yenii?oe?iaaoue oiaa?, a i?iecaiaenoaa
eioi?iai iia ?aniieaaaao iaeaieueoei i?aeiouanoaii, e eiii?oe?iaaoue
oio, oneiaey i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iai iaeneiaeueii iaaeaaii?eyoiu. Aoaeao
ee iia yenii?oe?iaaoue eee eiii?oe?iaaoue o?e inoaeueiuo oiaa?a, aoaeao
caaenaoue io ninoiyiey aa oi?aiaiai aaeaina. Anee ni?in ia eiii?oe?oaiue
oiaa? (n iaaeaaii?eyoiuie oneiaeyie i?iecaiaenoaa) ieaaeaony i/aiue
aieueoei, ia eneeth/aii, /oi aeey au?aaieaaiey oi?aiauo ?an/aoia yoie
no?aia i?eaeaony yenii?oe?iaaoue ana /aou?a inoaeueiuo oiaa?a, anee ia
ieo aoaeao ni?in ia aiaoiai ?uiea.

A aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa oeaeyi enneaaeiaaiey aiieia oaeiaeaoai?yao
iauaaeeiaiea anao, e?iia iaeiie, no?ai a «inoaeueiie ie?». Iaeiaei
eiiaaea yoi iiiiaaao ia noieueei auaeaeeoue eaeea-oi i?iaeaiu, neieueei
caoooaaaoue eo.

AUAIAeU

Ii?aaeaeeoue iniiaiua iineaaenoaey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee iiaeii
oieueei iinea oiai, eae e eioi?iaoeee i naienoaao i?aaeeiaeaiey iu
aeiaaaei eioi?iaoeeth i i?aaeii/oaieyo iio?aaeoaeae e oa?aeoa?enoeeao
ni?ina. Iaiaoiaeeiinoue o/aoa i?aaeii/oaiee ianaeaiey iiaeii iieacaoue,
ai-ia?auo, /a?ac iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey, ai-aoi?uo, /a?ac
e?eaua ni?ina, eioi?ua iiaeii (ii ia iaycaoaeueii) no?ieoue ia iniiaa
iauanoaaiiuo e?eauo aac?acee/ey.

Onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee a oeaeii auaiaeii aeey iaaeo noi?ii.
Iauanoaaiiua e?eaua aac?acee/ey iieacuaatho, eae aiaoiyy oi?aiaey
iicaieyao eaaeaeie ec noi?ii aeinoe/ue aieaa aunieiai o?iaiy
oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoae. Eniieuecoy e?eaua ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey,
iiaeii ia oieueei iieo/eoue oaeie aea ?acoeueoao, ii e aeaoue aio
eiee/anoaaiioth ioeaieo, ecia?ea iineaaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee
ioaeaeueii aeey iio?aaeoaeae eiii?oe?oaiiai oiaa?a e aeey aai ianoiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Yoe eciaiaiey a aeaaininoiyiee ioeaieaathony i?e iiiiue
iiiyoee aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeu iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae, n oie
iaiai?eie, /oi yoe auaiaeu iaeuecy oeaeeeii ioianoe e eaeie-oi
ii?aaeaeaiiie a?oiia ethaeae. Ieacuaaaony, /oi auaiaeu iio?aaeoaeae
eiii?oe?oaiiai oiaa?a iaiiiai i?aainoiaeyo iioa?e i?iecaiaeeoaeae,
eiieo?e?othueo n eiii?oii i?iaeoeoeee. Anee ?anoeaieaaoue eaaeaeue
aeieea? auea?uoa e oauoeia iaeeiaeiai, aia caaeneiinoe io oiai, ia /ueth
aeieth iie i?eoeenue, oi niaieoiiue /enoue auea?uo iaoeee io aiaoiae
oi?aiaee i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?inooth ooieoeeth iauaia oi?aiaee e
iaoneiaeaiiiai ath eciaiaiey oeai.

Oioy iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey e yaeyaony auaiaeiie aeey iaaeo noi?ii,
auaiaeu io iaa ?ani?aaeaeythony iaaeaeo no?aiaie ia ?aaiiia?ii, a a
caaeneiinoe io oiai, aaea oeaiu eciaieeenue a aieueoae noaiaie. Aieueoa
iieo/aao oa no?aia, o eioi?ie aieueoa eciaieeenue oneiaey oi?aiaee
(ioiioaiea yenii?oiuo oeai e eiii?oiui).

?acee/ey ai aeonao ianaeaiey naie ii naaa iiaoo neoaeeoue iniiaie
acaeiiauaiaeiie oi?aiaee. Anee eaeay-oi no?aia ioee/aaony io inoaeueiuo
oieueei no?oeoo?ie i?aaeii/oaiee iio?aaeoaeae, a i?iecaiaenoaaiiua
aiciiaeiinoe o iaa oa aea naiua, aiaoiyy oi?aiaey iiaea/ao ca niaie
iaeioi?oth iaaeaeoia?iaeioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth a iio?aaeaiee, a ia a
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia

Aii?in i eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee ii?iaeaeae e anaaaea aoaeao
ii?iaeaeaoue iaeanoi/aiiua nii?u, nooue eioi?uo iaaiciiaeii iiiyoue,
anee ?anniao?eaaoue iineaaenoaey oi?aiaee oieueei n oi/ee c?aiey oiai,
/oi iia aeaao iaoeee a oeaeii. ?ac auea?uo io onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee ianoieueei i/aaeaeai, ii/aio o iieeoeee naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee
oae iiiai i?ioeaieeia? Ioaao, eae auynieony, aiana ia a oii, /oi
iauanoaaiiia iiaiea ia iiaeic?aaaao, /oi aeaao aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. Iau/ii
a ethaie no?aia aiaoiyy oi?aiaey iaiin?aaenoaaiii cao?aaeaaao eioa?anu
iiiaeo a?oii ianaeaiey, e iiiaea i?ioeaieee eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee, iiaeaeoe, eae ?ac i/aiue oi?ioi i?aaenoaaeytho naaa aa
iineaaenoaey. *oiau oai?ey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee i?aa?aoeeanue a
aeaenoaaiiue eino?oiaio i?eiyoey ?aoaiee, iai iaiaoiaeeii auynieoue,
/uee aea eioa?anu ouaieythony a ?acoeueoaoa i?iaaaeaiey iieeoeee
naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee.

EAE AIAOIssss OI?AIAEss AEEssAO IA ?ANI?AAeAEAIEA AeIOIAeIA A ?AIEAO
OAI?EE OAEOA?A – IEEIA

E /eneo ianiiiaiiuo aeinoieinoa oai?ee Oaeoa?a – Ieeia (X – I) neaaeoao
ioianoe ?aaeenoe/aneia iienaiea aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaea iaaeaeo a?oiiaie ianaeaiey, i?aaenoaaeythueie
?acee/iua oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?eia? caieaaeaaeaeueoeaie,
nianoaaiieeaie eaieoaea, iaiaaeaea?aie, niaoeeaeenoaie, oa?ia?aie e
iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuie ?aai/eie. Oai?ey O – I niaeanoaony n oaeoaie a
aeaaiii: iaaeaeoia?iaeiay oi?aiaey, eae i?aaeei, aeaeeo iauanoai ia oao,
eoi a ?acoeueoaoa auea?uaaao, e oao, eoi oa?yao, iineieueeo eciaiaiey
ioiineoaeueiuo oeai ia oiaa?u ca/anooth i?eaiaeyo e ?inoo
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey iaeieo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa ca n/ao ae?oaeo.. *oiau
iiniio?aoue, eae yoi iieo/aaony, iai i?eaeaony aa?iooueny e i?eia?o
«2o2o2» (ioaieoea e noeii, o?oae e caiey, NOA e inoaeueiie ie?) e
i?ineaaeeoue anth oeaii/eo acaeiiaeaenoaee.

AEEssIEA AIAOIAE OI?AIAEE IA OeAIU E IAUAI AUIONEA

Aeaeaeaiea ii iooe eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee aaaeao ei ana aieueoaio
naeeaeaieth o?iaiae oeai a oi?aothueo no?aiao. Naii ii naaa nio?aiaiea
?acee/ee a oeaiao (n o/aoii o?ainii?oiuo ecaea?aeae) eae ?ac e
canoaaeyao oi?aiaoeaa aeaenoaiaaoue oaeei ia?acii, /oiau iii en/acei.
Oae /oi anee a NOA, aaea iiiai iaoioiuo caiaeue, aeaoaaay ioaieoea, a a
inoaeueiii ie?a iieii ?aai/ae neeu e aeaoaaia noeii, iiaeii, eniieuecoy
?acieoeo oeai, ecaeaeaoue i?eaueue, yenii?oe?oy aia?eeaineoth ioaieoeo a
iaiai ia noeii. Iauai aiaoiae oi?aiaee aoaeao ?anoe?youeny aei oao ii?,
iiea ia en/aciao ?acieoea a oeaiao. A NOA ioaieoea iiaei?iaeaao, a a
inoaeueiii ie?a iiaeaoaaaao (ioiineoaeueii noeia). Ia iiaua oeaiu
io?aaae?otho e i?iecaiaeeoaee.

ECIAIAIEA NI?INA IA OAEOI?U I?IECAIAeNOAA

Eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u auionea icia/aao eciaiaiea no?oeoo?u ni?ina ia
oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa. ?anoouei naeoi?ai (caeanue – i?iecaiaenoai
ioaieoeu a NOA e noeia a inoaeueiii ie?a) iiiaaeiayony aeiiieieoaeueii e
o?oae, e caiey. Naeoi?a, aaea iauai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?auaaony, aoaeoo
aunaiaiaeaeaoue ?aai/eo e a?aiaeiaaoue iaiueoa caiee.

E?aoeia?aiaiiua e aeieaia?aiaiiua iineaaenoaey eciaiaiee a ni?ina ia
oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa aanueia ?acee/iu.

A e?aoein?i/iii ieaia, iiea ?aai/ea, caiaeueiua o/anoee e ae?oaea
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ?ano?nu ana aua caiyou a i?aaeieo i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ioeannao, ?uiee oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa auaaaeaiu ec ?aaiiaaney. Oa,
eoi iiaeao i?aaeeiaeeoue oaeoi?u, iieuecothueany iiauoaiiui ni?inii,
auea?uaatho. Aia?eeaineea caieaaeaaeaeueoeu a iaeanoyo aicaeaeuaaiey
ioaieoeu iiaoo iacia/aoue aieaa aunieoth a?aiaeioth ieaoo, iineieueeo
aunie ni?in ia caieth. Aia?eeaineea naeueneioicyenoaaiiua ?aai/ea a yoeo
iaeanoyo iiaoo (iaeioi?ia a?aiy) iieo/eoue aieaa aunieea ca?aaioee. Ca
?oaaaeii ?aai/ea, caiyoua a i?iecaiaenoaa noeia, oaeaea iiaoo
iio?aaiaaoue – e iieo/eoue – i?eaaaeo e ca?ieaoa. E?iia oiai, a
inoaeueiii ie?a iiaoo iiaeiyoue a?aiaeioth ieaoo caieaaeaaeaeueoeu, /uee
caiee oae eee eia/a eniieuecothony a i?iecaiaenoaa nu?uey aeey noeiiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iai?eia? eae ianoaeua aeey iaaoe. A oi aea a?aiy a
?acoeueoaoa aac?aaioeoeu, iaaeieniieueciaaiey e nieaeaiey oeai ia oneoae
oaeoi?ia iaaeatho aeioiaeu aeaaeaeueoeaa oaeoi?ia a io?aneyo,
nie?auathueo iauai i?iecaiaenoaa, – aia?eeaineeo ?aai/eo e aeaaeaeueoeaa
ianoaeuiie caiee, eiino?aiiuo aeaaeaeueoeaa iaoioiuo caiaeue e
oeaai?iaia.

Oaeei ia?acii, a e?aoein?i/iii ieaia auea?uoe e oauoee ii?aaeaeythony
i?eiaaeeaaeiinoueth e oiio eee eiiio naeoi?o: auea?uaatho ana, eoi
naycai n ?anooueie naeoi?aie, ianoo oauoee oa, eoi naycai n naeoi?aie,
aaea iauai i?iecaiaenoaa nie?auaaony. Auei au eiae/ii, anee au
i?aaei?eieiaoaee, caieaaeaaeaeueoeu e ?aai/ea a naeoi?ao, ia?aaeeaathueo
oiaaeie, iauaaeeieeenue e aunooieee n i?ioanoii.

?AAEOeEss OeAI IA OAEOI?U I?IECAIAeNOAA A AeIEAIN?I*III IEAIA

Iaeiaei a eiioea eiioeia aeaaeaeueoeu iaeeiaeiauo oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa
i?eii?iayony e eciaieaoaeny neooaoeee. Iaeioi?ua aia?eeaineea
?aai/ea-noeiiueee ia?aeaeoo ia aieaa aunieiiiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo a
naeueneii oicyenoaa, /oi iiaaaeao oai e nieaeaieth noaaie ca?aaioiie
ieaou e ?inoo eo a noeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. *anoue ianoaeu aoaeoo
ia?auaia a iaoioiua caiee, oae /oi a?aiaeiay ieaoa a ?acee/iuo ?aeiiao
no?aiu niiaa n?aaiyaony. Oi/ii oae aea ca ?oaaaeii naeueneioicyenoaaiiua
?aai/ea e caieaaeaaeaeueoeu ia?aoyony e noeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aaea
aeioiaeu auoa, e a ?acoeueoaoa iieaoa oneoa oaeoi?ia caeanue nieceony, a
a i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu – aic?anoao.

Anee oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa ioaa/atho ia?aiauaieai a naeoi?a, aaea ieaoa
ca ieo auoa, aa?ioony ee ana noaaee ca?aaioiie e a?aiaeiie ieaou e
i?aaeiaio, nouanoaiaaaoaio aei ia/aea oi?aiaee o?iaith? Iao, ia
aa?ioony. A eiioea eiioeia noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou anao aia?eeaineeo
?aai/eo, aaea au iie ie ?aaioaee, niecyony ii n?aaiaieth n i?aaeiei
o?iaiai, a noaaee anao ?aai/eo a inoaeueiii ie?a – aic?anooo; a oi aea
a?aiy a?aiaeiay ieaoa iianaianoii oaaee/eony a NOA e nieceony a
inoaeueiii ie?a.

Yoio aaaeiaeoee eoia i?ienoaeaao ec ia?aaiiia?iinoe eciaiaiee ni?ina ia
oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa. I?iecaiaenoai ioaieoeu o?aaoao aieueoa caiee e
iaiaa o?oaeiaiei, /ai i?iecaiaenoai noeia. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, iauai
oaeoi?ia, iaiaoiaeeiue aeey ?anoe?aiey auionea a ?anoouai naeoi?a, ieeae
ia iiaeao niioaaonoaiaaoue oiio, /oi aunaiaiaeaeaaony a ae?oaii naeoi?a,
iiea ia i?iecieaeao ei??aeoe?iaea oeai. A NOA, iai?eia?, ?anoouaa
i?iecaiaenoai ioaieoeu ii?iaeaeaao ni?in ia aieueoia eiee/anoai caiee e
ia nianai iaaieueoia eiee/anoai ?aai/ae neeu, oiaaea eae nie?auaiea
auionea noeia aaaeao e aunieie aac?aaioeoea e i/aiue iaaieueoiio
aunaiaiaeaeaieth caiee.

*ai-oi i?eoiaeeony iinooieoueny. Nouanoaoao oieueei iaeei niinia
i?eaanoe ianooaau eniieueciaaiey ?aai/ae neeu e caiee a niioaaonoaea n
eo i?aaeeiaeaieai ia iaoeeiiaeueiii ?uiea: eciaiaiea oeai ia oaeoi?u
i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaoeeaeecaoeey ia ioaieoea, o?aaothuae ioiineoaeueii
aieueoa caiee e iaiueoa o?oaeiauo cao?ao, iianaianoii a NOA aaaeao e
iiauoaieth a?aiaeiie e nieaeaieth ca?aaioiie ieaou. ?ino a?aiaeiie ieaou
e nie?auaiea iieaou o?oaea aoaeoo i?iaeieaeaoueny aei oao ii?, iiea
i?iecaiaeeoaee ia iaeaeoo iiauo niiniaia i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu e noeia
– aieaa yeiiiiiuo a ioiioaiee caiee e aieaa o?oaeiaieeo. Eiaaea yoi
i?iecieaeao, ?ino a?aiaeiie ieaou e iaaeaiea ca?aaioiie ieaou iinoaiaiii
i?ae?aoyony. Oai ia iaiaa a NOA a?aiaeiay ieaoa inoaiaony auoa, a
ca?aaioiay ieaoa – ieaea, /ai aei onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee.
Aiaeiae/iua ?annoaeaeaiey iieacuaatho, /oi a inoaeueiii ie?a eoia aoaeao
i?ioeaiiieiaeiui: ?ino ca?aaioiie ieaou e nieaeaiea a?aiaeiie ieaou.

Oaeei ia?acii, a iaaeo no?aiao aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aaaeao e aaniethoiiio
iaiaauaieth iaeieo e aaniethoiiio oooaeoaieth iieiaeaiey ae?oaeo.

OAI?AIA NOIEIA?A – NAIOYEUeNIIA

Aieueoaaia O. Noieia? e Iie Naioyeuenii aeieacaee, /oi i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaeiinueeao aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aeaenoaeoaeueii aeaeeo iauanoai ia oao,
eoi a ?acoeueoaoa inoaaony a /enoii auea?uoa, e oao, eoi ianao iioa?e.

I?aaeiinueee: no?aia i?iecaiaeeo aeaa oiaa?a (iai?eia?, ioaieoeo e
noeii), eniieuecoy aeaa oaeoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa (iai?eia?, caieth e
o?oae); ie iaeei ec oiaa?ia ia eniieuecoaony aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
ae?oaiai; nouanoaoao aaniethoiay eiieo?aioeey; i?aaeeiaeaiea oaeoi?ia
caaeaii; aeey i?iecaiaenoaa iaeiiai ec oiaa?ia (ioaieoea) eioaineaii
eniieuecoaony caiey, a aoi?ie (noeii) yaeyaony o?oaeiaieei eae a
oneiaeyo aiaoiae oi?aiaee, oae e aac aa; iaa oaeoi?a iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny
iaaeaeo naeoi?aie (ii ia iaaeaeo no?aiaie); onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee i?eaiaeeo e ?inoo ioiineoaeueiie oeaiu ia ioaieoeo.

Oai?aia Noieia?a—Naioyeueniia: i?e ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa i?aaeiinueeao
onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee e naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey iaecaaaeii aaaeoo
e ?inoo aiciaa?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?a, eioaineaii eniieuecoaiiai a
i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?a, oeaia ia eioi?ue ?anoao (caiey), e nieaeaieth
aiciaa?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?a, eioaineaii eniieuecoaiiai a i?iecaiaenoaa
oiaa?a, oeaia ia eioi?ue iaaeaao (o?oae), aia caaeneiinoe io oiai,
eaeiaa no?oeoo?a iio?aaeaiey yoeo oiaa?ia aeaaeaeueoeaie oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa.

Caneoaa Noieia?a e Naioyeueniia ia oieueei a oii, /oi iie no?iai, a ia
i?e iiiiue ioaeaeueiuo i?eia?ia aeieacaee yoi neaaenoaea, ii e a oii,
/oi iie iieacaee: ?acoeueoao ieneieueei ia caaeneo io oiai, eaeea oiaa?u
i?eia?aoathony aeey ee/iiai iio?aaeaiey naiueyie caieaaeaaeaeueoeaa e
?aai/eo. Yoio auaiae i?ioeai?a/ee eiooeoeaiiio i?aaenoaaeaieth iiiaeo
yeiiiienoia, /oi anee au ?aai/ea o?aoeee cia/eoaeueioth /anoue naieo
aeioiaeia ia noeii, oi aai oaeaoaaeaiea a ?acoeueoaoa aiaoiae Oi?aiaee
ana-oaee i?eaaei au e ?inoo eo ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia. Oai?aia iieacaea,
/oi yoiai ia i?ienoiaeeo. Ii/aio – iauyniyaony a iaiauaiee oai?aiu
Noieia?a – Naioyeueniia, i?iaaaeaiiii a 1965 a. ?iiaeueaeii Aeaeiinii. A
?aieao ianoiyuae iiaeaee eiaao ianoi yooaeo oneeaiey (magnification
effect): 10%-iia iiauoaiea ioiineoaeueiie oeaiu ia iaeei ec oiaa?ia
(iai?eia?, ioaieoeo) aucuaaao aua aieueoee (a i?ioeaioiii ioiioaiee)
?ino aiciaa?aaeaeaiey eioaineaii eniieuecoaiiai oaeoi?a (caiee) a
ia?an/aoa ia noeii, e e nie?auaieth aiciaa?aaeaeaiey ae?oaiai oaeoi?a
(o?oaea), oae /oi iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue o?oaea a ioiioaiee noeia
nieaeaaony, ianiio?y ia oaeaoaaeaiea iineaaeiaai. Oaeei ia?acii, a eoiaa
eciaiaiea a niioiioaiee iaaeaeo aiciaa?aaeaeaieai oaeoi?ia oneeeaaaony
ii n?aaiaieth n iaoneiaeaoei aai eciaiaieai a niioiioaiee oeai ia noeii
e ioaieoeo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii, noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou nieaeathony a
ia?an/aoa eae ia ioaieoeo, oae e ia ca?ii.

OAI?AIA I AU?AAIEAAIEE OeAI IA OAEOI?U I?IECAIAeNOAA

Oa aea naiay enoiaeiay iiaeaeue «2o2o2» (aeaa oaeoi?a, aeaa oiaa?a, aeaa
no?aiu), iieacuaathuay, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo
ioiioaiee iaeei ec oaeoi?ia oa?ieo oauoee, iicaieyao naeaeaoue aua aieaa
oaeeaeoaeueiua auaiaeu ioiineoaeueii aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia
oeaiu oaeoi?ia e ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia. A eiioea 40-o aiaeia I.
Naioyeuenii aeieacae iieiaeaiea, eioi?ia iicaeiaa eaaei a iniiao oai?aiu
i aeeyiee aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia iaaeno?aiiaua ?acee/ey a oeaiao oaeoi?ia.

I?aaeiinueee: 1) eiaaony aeaa oaeoi?a i?iecaiaenoaa (iai?eia?, caiey e
o?oae), aeaa oiaa?a (ioaieoea e noeii) e aeaa no?aiu (NOA e inoaeueiie
ie?); 2) ana ?uiee yaeythony eiieo?aioiuie; 3) i?aaeeiaeaiea eaaeaeiai
oaeoi?a aeanoei caaeaii; 4) a iaaeo no?aiao eaaeaeue oaeoi?
eniieuecoaony n iieiie caa?oceie eae a oneiaeyo iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee, oae e a aa ionoonoaea; 5) o?ainii?oiua e eioi?iaoeeiiiua
ecaea?aeee ionoonoaotho; 6) oi?aiaey yaeyaony naiaiaeiie – ainoaea?noaa
ia i?eaaaatho e oa?eoai eee ae?oaei oi?aiaui ia?aie/aieyi; 7)
i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee aeey eaaeaeiai oiaa?a, onoaiaaeeaathuea
naycue iaaeaeo iauaiii aai auionea e cao?aoaie oaeoi?ia, eaeaioe/iu a
iaaeo no?aiao; 8) i?iecaiaenoaaiiua ooieoeee yaeythony
eeiaeii-iaeii?iaeiuie (anee cao?aou eaaeaeiai ec oaeoi?ia aic?anooo ia
10%, oi auione oaeaea oaaee/eony ia 10%) e 9) ia iaeaaeatho naienoaii
«ia?aoeiinoe oaeoi?iie eioaineaiinoe» (anee noeii aunooiaao
ioiineoaeueii o?oaeiaieei oiaa?ii i?e iaeiii niioiioaiee ca?aaioiie e
a?aiaeiie ieaou, oi iii inoaiaony ei e i?e ae?oaeo niioiioaieyo); 10)
iaa no?aiu iinea onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo ioiioaiee i?iaeieaeatho
i?iecaiaeeoue iaa oiaa?a.

Oai?aia i au?aaieaaiee oeai ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa: i?e auiieiaiee
anao ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa i?aaeiinueie aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aaaeao e
au?aaieaaieth oeai ia oieueei ia oiaa?u, ii e ia oaeoi?u i?iecaiaenoaa,
oae /oi a iaaeo no?aiao noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou o anao ?aai/eo aoaeoo
iaeeiaeiau, oae aea eae e noaaee a?aiaeiie ieaou ca ana caiaeueiua
o/anoee, aia caaeneiinoe io nouanoaothuae no?oeoo?u ni?ina eee
iaania/aiiinoe oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa a eaaeaeie ec no?ai.

Yoi i/aiue eioa?aniue auaiae. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi a eoiaa noaaee
ca?aaioiie ieaou ?aai/eo ai anao no?aiao n?aaiythony aeaaea aac
iea?aoeee ?aai/ae neeu iaaeaeo no?aiaie. I?e iaee/ee iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaee yoi noaiiaeony aiciiaeiui e a ?aieao aeaiiie iiaeaee,
iineieueeo oaeoi?u, eioi?ua naie ia iiaoo ia?aiauaoueny ec no?aiu a
no?aio, a eiioea eiioeia einaaiiui ia?acii yenii?oe?othony e
eiii?oe?othony a aeaea oiaa?ia. Aiaoiyy oi?aiaey canoaaeyao NOA
i?iaeaaaoue ioaieoeo e caeoiaoue noeii. Aeey i?iecaiaenoaa ioaieoeu
eioaineaii eniieuecoaony caiey, e oaeoe/anee iin?aaenoaii
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai iaiaia oiaa?, «ianuuaiiue caieae», auaiceony a ae?oaea
no?aiu a iaiai ia noeii, «ianuuaiiia o?oaeii». Eae anee au eaaeaeue
oaeoi? nai auaiceeny a oo no?aio, eioi?ay ?aiueoa eniuouaaea a iai
iaaeinoaoie.

Aeaaea naiia aaaeia ciaeiinoai n ?aaeueiui ninoiyieai aeae a ie?a
iicaieyao ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi yoe auaiaeu ia niioaaonoaotho
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe. Eae ?ac iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ae?aiaoe/iuo ?acoeueoaoia
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey yaeyaony oi ianoiyoaeuenoai, /oi iaeei e oio aea
oaeoi? i?iecaiaenoaa, iai?eia? o?oae iaeeiaeiaie eaaeeoeeaoeee, a ?aciuo
no?aiao iiea/eaaaony ii-?aciiio. Iaaeno?aiiaua ?acee/ey a ca?aaioiie
ieaoa ca iaeeiaeiaue o?oae aeiaieueii aaeeee e, ii anae aeaeeiinoe,
i?iaeieaeatho ?anoe. I/aaeaeii, /oi enoi/ieeii ?anoiaeaeaiey iiaeaee n
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth yaeythony i?aaeiinueee, naeaeaiiua aeey
aeieacaoaeuenoaa oeacaiiie oai?aiu. O?oaeii neacaoue, eaeay eiaiii ec
i?aaeiinueie «aeiiaaoa aieueoa». Enoeiiue i?eaa?aeaiaoe naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaee aue au neeiiai ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oeaiu ia oaeoi?u ia
au?aaieaathony iioiio, /oi oi?aiaey ia yaeyaony naiaiaeiie. Iaeiaei
aeaaea a yiioo naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee a XIX a. iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua ?aai/ea
a Aiaeee iieo/aee caiaoii aieueoa, /ai a E?eaiaeee eee Eiaeee, ianiio?y
ia oi /oi oi?aiaua ia?aie/aiey i?aeoe/anee ionoonoaiaaee, a o?ainii?oiua
ecaea?aeee auee iacia/eoaeueiu. Nei?aa anaai, aanue iaai? i?aaeiinueie
niaea?aeeo iiiaeanoai nouanoaaiiuo ionooieaiee io ?aaeueiinoe. E oai ia
iaiaa oai?aia i au?aaieaaiee oeai oaeoi?ia inoaaony eioa?aniui i?eia?ii
eniieueciaaiey aeanoeeo iiaeaeae aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

AIEAA IAUEE ACAEssAe IA AIAOITHTH OI?AIAETH E AICIAA?AAEAeAIEA OAEOI?IA

Oai?aia Noieia?a – Naioyeueniia e oai?aia i au?aaieaaiee oeai oaeoi?ia
naie ii naaa iaei /oi aeieacuaatho, oae eae iniiaaiu ia neeoeii
oi?iuathueo i?aaeiinueeao. Iaeiaei ?aaioa n oi?iuaiiuie iiaeaeyie oi?ioa
oai, /oi iie /anoi iiiiaatho niaa?oaiii ii-iiaiio oaeaeaoue i?iaeaio e
iieo/eoue iao?eaeaeueiua auaiaeu, aeaaea anee eo oi?iaeueiia
aeieacaoaeuenoai i?aaenoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiua o?oaeiinoe. Eiaiii oae
ianoieo aeaei n oai?eae aiciaa?aaeaeaiey oaeoi?ia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaea. Yeiiiienou ni a?aiaiai iaiaueee yoe enneaaeiaaiey, ineaaeyy
iaeioi?ua i?aaeiinueee e inoaaeyy ae?oaea aac eciaiaiey, /oiau
i?iaa?eoue, eaeea ec iieo/aiiuo oaeei ia?acii auaiaeia nio?aiytho neeo e
a ai?acaei aieaa neiaeiii ?aaeueiii ie?a. Nia?aiaiiua enneaaeiaaiey ii
oai?ee aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia
iicaieeee auaeaeiooue (ii ia aeieacaoue) ianeieueei eioa?aniuo
i?aaeiieiaeaiee ioiineoaeueii aeaenoaothueo a yoie iaeanoe
caeiiiia?iinoae.

Yenii?oii-eiii?oiua ioiioaiey.

NIAOeEAEECAOeEss OAEOI?IA I?IECAIAeNOAA

Iaeia ec iaeaeaiiuo caeiiiia?iinoae ninoieo a oii, /oi

/ai aieueoa oio eee eiie oaeoi? niaoeeaeece?iaai (eee neiioeaio?e?iaai)
a yenii?oiii i?iecaiaenoaa, oai aieueoa ii auea?uaaao a ?acoeueoaoa
aiaoiae oi?aiaee. E iaiai?io, /ai auoa eiioeaio?aoeey oaeoi?a a
i?iecaiaenoaa eiieo?e?othuae n eiii?oii i?iaeoeoeee, oai aieueoa ii
oa?yao a ?acoeueoaoa aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

A i?inoii i?eia?a i?i ioaieoeo e noeii yoa caeiiiia?iinoue i/aaeaeia:
aiaoiyy oi?aiaey yaii aeaaii?eyonoaoao aia?eeaineei caieaaeaaeaeueoeai e
iaiineo oua?a ?aai/ei. Ana aeaeueiaeoea oai?aoe/aneea ?ac?aaioee
enoiaeiie iiaeaee aeatho oio aea ?acoeueoao. Aieueoa oiai, ia yoii aea
aiai?eo e cae?aaue niune.

Ia i?aeoeea, eiaaea nouanoaoao iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa e
aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, aeey ioeaiee o?iaiy niaoeeaeecaoeee oaeoi?a a
yenii?oiii eee eiieo?e?othuai n eiii?oii i?iecaiaenoaa iaiaoiaeeii
?aniieaaaoue aieueoei eiee/anoaii aeaiiuo. Aeey niecia?aiey yenii?oiie e
eiii?oiie niaoeeaeecaoeee oaeoi?ia iiaeii auei au eniieueciaaoue
neaaeothuee iieacaoaeue, ioeaieaathuee ?acieoeo a ?ano?niaieinoe
yenii?oa e eiii?oa ii eaaeaeiio ec oaeoi?ia:

,

– aeiey aeioiaea oaeoi?a i a noiia?iii iaoeeiiaeueiii aeioiaea. *oiau
?ann/eoaoue yoi ioiioaiea, iaaeinoaoi/ii ciaiey oieueei aeieae aeioiaea
?anniao?eaaaiiai oaeoi?a a aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe yenii?oiuo e
eiieo?e?othueo n eiii?oii i?iecaiaenoa. Iio?aaoaony aanue neiaeiue
aiia?ao iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina, /oiau ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeoth /anoue a
noieiinoe yenii?oiie e eiieo?e?othuae n eiii?oii i?iaeoeoeee ninoaaeyao
iieaoa i-ai oaeoi?a ia oieueei a naieo yoeo io?aneyo, ii e a
io?aneyo-iinoaaueeao. Iai?eia?, aeey ?an/aoa oaeaeueiiai aana aeioiaea
ia naeueneioicyenoaaiiua oaiaeuey a noieiinoe eaiaaeneiai yenii?oa
i?eoeinue au o/anoue aeeaae caiee a noieiinoue yenii?oe?oaiuo aenee e
oa?noyiuo naeoa?ia, a ia oieueei i/aaeaeiue aeeaae a i?iecaiaenoai
yenii?oiie ioaieoeu.

N iiiiuueth oaeeo yiie?e/aneeo iieacaoaeae iaoe ianeiaeiua oai?aoe/aneea
iinueee iicaieytho iieacaoue, /oi io eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee aieueoa
auea?uaatho oaeoi?u, caaeaenoaiaaiiua a yenii?oiuo, a ia eiieo?e?othueo
n eiii?oii i?iecaiaenoaao. Iu aua aa?iainy e yoiio auaiaeo, ?anniao?eaay
iineaaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeey ?aai/eo e aeaaeaeueoeaa ae?oaeo
oaeoi?ia i?iecaiaenoaa a NOA e Eaiaaea.

NO?OEOO?A IIO?AAEAIEss

A i?inoie aeaoooaeoi?iie iiaeaee Noieia?o e Naioyeueniio oaeaeinue
iieacaoue, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa aiaoiae oi?aiaee aeaaeaeueoeu iaeiiai ec
oaeoi?ia auea?uaatho, a ae?oaiai – ianoo oauoee, iacaaeneii io oiai,
eaeea oiaa?u iie auae?atho aeey iio?aaeaiey. Ii ionthaea aiana ia
neaaeoao, /oi aicaeaenoaea aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea
?acee/iuo a?oii ianaeaiey ieeae ia naycaii ni no?oeoo?ie eo iio?aaeaiey.
Aeaaea a ?aieao i?inoie iiaeaee «2 o 2» (aeaa oaeoi?a, aeaa oiaa?a)
no?oeoo?a iio?aaeaiey aia?eeaineeo ?aai/eo ii?aaeaeyao, neieueei eiaiii
iie oa?ytho. *ai aieueooth /anoue aeioiaeia iie o?aoyo ia noeii, oai
iaiueoay eo /anoue iaanoeaieaaaony (oioy a ethaii neo/aa oauoee
inoathony). Iao?oaeii oaeaeaoue, /oi a ?aaeueiii ie?a, aaea nouanoaoao
iiiaeanoai oaeoi?ia, n?aaee ieo iaeaeaony ianna «i?iiaaeooi/iuo», ia
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo ie a yenii?oa, ie a eiii?oa; e eo auea?uo eee iioa?e
io aiaoiae oi?aiaee ii?aaeaeythony eiaiii /a?ac ioiioaiea eo
aeaaeaeueoeaa e iio?aaeaieth yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia.

Ia/aoeinoue iiceoeee aeaaeaeueoeaa i?iiaaeooi/iuo oaeoi?ia
i?iecaiaenoaa, oe?iei eniieuecoaiuo ai anao io?aneyo, i?ae?anii
eeethno?e?oaony eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii iieeoe/aneie ai?ueau aie?oa
aii?ina i naiaiaea oi?aiaee. A ia/aea XIX a. A?eoaiey, aoaeo/e
«ianoa?neie ie?a», yenii?oe?iaaea eaieoaeiaieoth i?iiuoeaiioth
i?iaeoeoeeth e eiii?oe?iaaea ca?ii, a noieiinoe eioi?iai auniea aeiey
cao?ao ia a?aiaeo caiee. Yoa oi?aiaey, oai ia iaiaa, a cia/eoaeueiie
ia?a ia?aie/eaaeanue oae iacuaaaiuie «oeaaiuie caeiiaie» (Corn Laws),
niaeanii eioi?ui eiii?o ca?ia iaeaaaeny iaeiaaie a oeaeyo iiaeaea?aeaiey
aunieeo aioo?aiieo oeai ia ca?ii. Yoi ioaa/aei eioa?anai eaiaeei?aeia,
ii aucuaaei no?aoiia iaaeiaieuenoai eaieoaeenoia, aeey eioi?uo «oeaaiua
caeiiu» icia/aee eeoue ia?aie/aiea niiniaiinoe eiino?aioeaa, i?iaeathueo
ca?ii, caeoiaoue aiaeeeneoth iaiooaeoo?o aea aua iaiaoiaeeiinoue
ieaoeoue aieueoa naiei ?aai/ei, /oiau eiiiaine?iaaoue aunieoth
noieiinoue i?iaeiaieuenoaey. Oae /oi eaiaeei?aeu iiaeaea?aeeaaee
«oeaaiua caeiiu», a eaieoaeenou aunooiaee i?ioea ieo, caueuay
naiaiaeioth oi?aiaeth.

Ia /ueth noi?iio a yoii nii?a aeieaeiu auee au anoaoue ?aai/ea? Eae
i?aaeei, o ieo ia auei i?aaa aieina, ii ana aea auea aiciiaeiinoue
ieacaoue eaeia-oi aeeyiea ia oiae niauoee /a?ac ianniaua aeaiiino?aoeee
e iaoeoeee.

?aai/ea a iieaieea ii iiaiaeo «oeaaiuo caeiiia» aieioue aei eo ioiaiu a
1846 a. oae e ia caiyee /aoeie iiceoeee. O ieo ia auei iniiaaiey
i?eaaonoaiaaoue caeiiu, aeaaiaea?y eioi?ui oeaa inoaaaeny aei?iaei. A oi
aea a?aiy iie aac yiooceacia ioaa/aee e ia i?ecuau i?ieaieoaeenoe/aneie
«Eeae i?ioea oeaaiuo caeiiia» iiaeaea?aeaoue aa ai?ueao ca naiaiaeioth
oi?aiaeth. Nae/an, nionoy aieaa /ai noieaoea, aeaaea naiua eciu?aiiua
iiaeaee aiaoiae oi?aiaee nioeenue au ia oii, /oi o ?aai/eo anoue ana
iniiaaiey ia caieiaoue ii?aaeaeaiioth iiceoeeth a ioiioaiee
eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee (ia n/eoay, eiia/ii, eo iaaeaeaiey eaeoe ia
ethaie aeueyin n aeaaeaeueoeaie i?aaei?eyoee, n eioi?uie iie aaaeoo
ai?ueao ca iiauoaiea ca?ieaou e oeo/oaiea oneiaee o?oaea). Eiia/ii,
naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey i?eaaea au e nieaeaieth oeai ia oeaa aeey eo naiae –
ii iaeiia?aiaiii iiauneeenue au oeaiu ia iaiooaeoo?o a ?acoeueoaoa ?inoa
eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu aiaoiaai ni?ina ia oeaie e ae?oaea i?iiuoeaiiua
oiaa?u. Eaeie ec aeaoo yooaeoia ieacae au ii?aaeaeythuaa aicaeaenoaea ia
o?iaaiue aeecie, caaenaei io oiai, eaeoth /anoue aeioiaeia naiuee
?aai/eo o?aoeee ia i?iaeiaieuenoaea (iniaaiii oeaa) e eaeoth – ia
i?iiuoeaiiua oiaa?u, aiaeiae/iua yenii?oe?oaiui. Aicaeaenoaea naiaiaeiie
oi?aiaee ia noaaee ca?aaioiie ieaou oaeaea inoaaaeinue iayniui. Anee a
?acoeueoaoa naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee oaaee/eaaeny yenii?o i?iiuoeaiiuo
oiaa?ia e nie?auaeinue nianoaaiiia i?iecaiaenoai ca?ia, oi yoi aeieaeii
auei i?eaanoe e ?inoo ni?ina ia o?oae a i?iiuoeaiiuo ?aeiiao e e
nie?auaieth – a naeueneioicyenoaaiiuo, iiyoue aea n iayniui eiia/iui
?acoeueoaoii. Aoaeo/e aeaaeaeueoeaie «i?iiaaeooi/iiai» oaeoi?a, ia
noieue yaii niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai ii naeoi?ai, eae caiey . eee eaieoae,
?aai/ea e nae/an auee au niaa?oaiii i?aau, eniuouaay aiaeaaeaioiua
/oanoaa e naiaiaeiie oi?aiaea, aeaaea anee iiiuoaeenue au iainiiaaoue
naith iiceoeeth a iiiiuueth nia?aiaiiuo oai?ee.

yoie a?oiiu ?aaai 0), a a iio?aaeaiee iie o?aoyo iaeeiaeiaua noiiu eae
ia oiaa?u, aiaeiae/iua yenii?oe?oaiui, oae e ia eiii?oioth e iiaeiaioth
ae i?iaeoeoeeth ianoiiai i?iecaiaenoaa Aeey ieo aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aoaeao
auaiaeia, iineieueeo niaieoiiue auea?uo iaoeee io aiaoiae oi?aiaee
iiaea/ao ca niaie ?ino ni?ina ia oaeea iaeo?aeueiua oaeoi?u. A
?acoeueoaoa iieoiaoaeueiay niiniaiinoue eo aeaaeaeueoeaa a ioiioaiee
i?aaeii/eoaaiiai eie naaeaine?iaaiiiai iaai?a oiaa?ia aic?anoao. Eae
iieacaee ?ie ?oooei e ?iiaeueae O. Aeaeiin, ec yoiai iaiin?aaenoaaiii
neaaeoao, /oi i?e iaeioi?uo i?aaeiinueeao aa?iyoii nouanoaiaaiea oaeeo
a?oii oaeoi?ia, aeioiaeu eioi?uo /ooue aieueoa oyaioatho e
eiieo?e?othuei n eiii?oii io?aneyi, /ai iio?aaeaiea eo aeaaeaeueoeaa, e
eioi?ua ana ?aaii inoathony a auea?uoa io eeaa?aeecaoeee oi?aiaee,
iniaaiii a aeieain?i/iii ieaia, i?eieiay ai aieiaiea aiciiaeiinoue eo
ia?aiauaiey iaaeaeo naeoi?aie.

EAEEA OAEOI?U CAIssOU A YENII?OIII I?IECAIAeNOAA. A EAEEA – EIIEO?E?OTHO
N EIII?OII ?

, iicaieythueo niiinoaaeyoue o?iaie yenii?oiie e eiii?oiie i?eaioaoeee.
Iie iai i/aiue iiiiaoo a ?acaeaeaiee aeaaeaeueoeaa oaeoi?ia ia
ioaeaeueiua a?oiiu, a niioaaonoaee n oai, auea?atho iie eee iiianoo
iioa?e a ?acoeueoaoa inouanoaeaiey eiie?aoiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee ii
eeaa?aeecaoeee eee ia?aie/aieth aiaoiae oi?aiaee. Ciay, /oi yoi ca
oaeoi?u, aeanoyi eaa/a i?aaeaeaeaoue ?aaeoeeth eo aeaaeaeueoeaa ia
oi?aiaoth iieeoeeo, a oaeaea i?aaeoniio?aoue niiniau eiiiainaoeee
aiciiaeiuo iioa?ue, anee iauanoai ni/oao yoi iaiaoiaeeiui. Ciaiea
no?oeoo?u yenii?oiie e eiii?oiie i?eaioaoeee iiiiaaao e caeioa?aniaaiiui
a?oiiai ianaeaiey ii?aaeaeeoue naith iiceoeeth a aii?ina i aiaoiae
oi?aiaea. Ii i?iaeaiai ioeaiee (n iiiiuueth iaaeio?aneaaiai aaeaina)
n?aaieoaeueiie oaeoi?iaieinoe (factor content) yenii?oa e eiii?oa
nouanoaoao iaoe?iay eeoa?aoo?a, iniaaiii i NOA.

NIE?AUAIEA EIII?OA ?AAII NIE?AUAIETH YENII?OA

Ioeaieaay aiciiaeiua iineaaenoaey aaaaeaiey iiauo oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia,
i?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii iniciaoue, /oi nie?auaiea noieiinoe eiii?oa,
nei?aa anaai, iiaea/ao ca niaie oaeia aea nie?auaiea noieiinoe yenii?oa.
Oioy yoio auaiae ia i/aaeaeai, ia iaai iaoaeeeaatho neaaeothuea
?annoaeaeaiey:

1. A yenii?oiii i?iecaiaenoaa eniieuecoaony eiii?oe?oaiay i?iaeoeoeey.
Oi?aiaua aa?uea?u, aaaeouea e ?inoo oeai ia eiii?oiua oiaa?u e eo
ioa/anoaaiiua caiaieoaee, iiauoatho ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa yenii?oiuo
oiaa?ia. Oae /oi ia?aie/aiea eiii?oa aaaeao e ii?aaeaeaiiiio nieaeaieth
oeaiiaie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe aia?eeaineeo oiaa?ia e auoaniaieth eo n
ie?iaiai ?uiea.

2. Nie?auaiea eiino?aioeaie i?iaeaae ia iaoai ?uiea ia?aie/eaaao eo
aiciiaeiinoe iieoiaoue iaoe oiaa?u. Anee ?ino eiii?oiuo aa?uea?ia aaaeao
e nie?auaieth i?iaeaae e aeioiaeia eiino?aiiuo yenii?oa?ia, yoi iiaeao
iiaea/ue ca niaie nieaeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeioiaea a iaeioi?uo
no?aiao. Yoi oai aieaa aa?iyoii, /ai auoa aeiey iaoae no?aiu a ie?iaie
oi?aiaea e cia/eoaeueiaa i?aaeiieaaaaiia nie?auaiea eiii?oa. Oooaeoaiea
yeiiiie/aneiai iieiaeaiey ca ?oaaaeii i?eaaaeao e nie?auaieth eo
?anoiaeia ia yenii?oe?oaiua iaie oiaa?u.

3. Inoaeueiua no?aiu iiaoo i?eiyoue ioaaoiua ia?u. I?aaeoaeuenoaa anao
no?ai eniuouaatho aeaaeaiea ni noi?iiu ioaeaeueiuo io?aneae, o?aaothueo
caueou io eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu eiii?oa.

Naie ii naaa i?eaaaeaiiua a?aoiaiou ia aeatho /aoeie eiee/anoaaiiie
ioeaiee. Ec ieo aiana ia neaaeoao, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa i?aaei?eiyouo
aeaenoaee yenii?o iaycaoaeueii nie?aoeony a oie aea ia?a, /oi e eiii?o.
Iaeiaei ethaie inoaaoeeny «caci?» iaaa?iyea en/aciao ii neaaeothuae
i?e/eia.

4. Nie?auaiea eiii?oa i?eaaaeao e ?aaiiio ii noieiinoe nie?auaieth
yenii?oa a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey iaoaiecia au?aaieaaiey aaethoiiai
eo?na. Aei neo ii? a iaoeo oi?aiauo iiaeaeyo iu ia ooi/iyee, eaeei
eiaiii ia?acii inouanoaeyaony aiaoiyy oi?aiaey. A ?aaeueiii ie?a oiaa?u
ia iaiaieaathony iaeei ia ae?oaie, a i?iaeathony e iieoiathony ca
iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo, e eeoea, aeaeathuea iaiaiyoue aaethoo – iinea
caaa?oaiey oi?aiaie naeaeee, aeaeatho yoi ia aaethoiii ?uiea. Ni?in e
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia ethaoth iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
?uieao aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny a i?eia?iii ?aaiiaanee. Anee
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo aia?eeaineei aeieea?ii e ae?oaeie aaethoaie ia
yaeyaony oeene?iaaiiui, a ii?aaeaeyaony iaoaieciii ?uiea, oi
i?aaeeiaeaiea aeieea?ia (aeey caeoiee eiino?aiiuo oiaa?ia, oneoa e
aeoeaia) aoaeao i?eia?ii niioaaonoaiaaoue ni?ino ia ieo aeaaea a naiii
e?aoein?i/iii ieaia. Anee ioeoeeaeueiua i?aaiu no?aiyony
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue oeene?iaaiiua aaethoiua eo?nu, ni?in ia aeieea?u e eo
i?aaeeiaeaiea o?aaiiaanyony oieueei a aeieain?i/iii ieaia. Ii ana ?aaii
o?aaiiaanyony.

Aicaaaeaiea oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia nieceo iauai i?aaeeiaeaiey aeieea?ia,
iaiaieaaaiuo ia eiino?aiioth aaethoo aeey caeoiee oiaa?ia ia aiaoiai
?uiea. Nie?auaiea ni?ina NOA ia eiino?aiioth aaethoo i?eaaaeao e ?inoo
noieiinoe aeieea?a e iaaeaieth noieiinoe eiino?aiiuo aaetho ia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo ?uieao. Eiino?aioeai i?eaeaony ia?aniio?aoue
naie ieaiu ia i?eia?aoaiea aeieea?ia aeey caeoiee aia?eeaineeo oiaa?ia,
oneoa e aeoeaia. ?ac aeieea? aeey eiino?aioeaa iiaei?iaeae, ana
au?aaeaiiua a aeieea?ao oeaiu ia aia?eeaineee yenii?o auaeyaeyo a eo
aeacao aieaa aei?iaeie. Iiyoiio iie aoaeoo no?aieoueny nie?aoeoue eo
caeoiee. A eaeie ia?a? I?eia?ii aei oao ii?, iiea aaee/eia eo ni?ina ia
aeieea?u aeey i?eia?aoaiey iaoeo oiaa?ia ia oiaaeao aei o?iaiy iaoaai
i?aaeeiaeaiey aeieea?ia, i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey caeoiee eiii?oiie
i?iaeoeoeee (aaic eioi?ie oaia?ue ia?aie/ai). Ae?oaeie neiaaie, iaoaieci
aaethoiiai ?uiea canoaaeo iao yenii?o nie?aoeoueny ?iaii ia noieueei, ia
neieueei nie?aoeeny eiii?o, aicaeaenoaoy /a?ac eciaiaiea aaethoiiai
eo?na ia iieoiaoaeueioth niiniaiinoue iaoeo oi?aiauo ia?oia?ia.
Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a eiioea eiioeia nie?auaiea eiii?oa aeieaeii i?eaanoe e
oi/ii oaeiio aea nie?auaieth noieiinoe aeieea?a.

INIIAIUA AUAIAeU

*oiau ?acia?aoueny, eoi auea?uaaao, a eoi oa?yao a ?acoeueoaoa
eeaa?aeecaoeee eee ia?aie/aiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee, iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue, eae
eciaiaiea ioiineoaeueiuo oeai ia oiaa?u io?aaeaaony ia aeioiaeao
aeaaeaeueoeaa oaeoi?ia. Oai?aia Noieia?a – Naioyeueniia aeey i?inoie
aeaoooaeoi?iie iiaeaee n aeaoiy oiaa?aie iieacaea, /oi onoaiiaeaiea
oi?aiauo ioiioaiee e ?ino ioiineoaeueiuo oeai ia yenii?oioth
i?iaeoeoeeth aaaeoo e caiaoiiio oaaee/aieth aeioiaea ia oaeoi?,
eioaineaii eniieuecoaiue a yenii?oiii naeoi?a, e nieaeaieth aeioiaea ia
oaeoi?, eioaineaii eniieuecoaiue a eiii?ocaiauathuai i?iecaiaenoaa. A
?aieao yoie aea iiaeaee, i?e aaaaeaiee ?yaea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
i?aaeiinueie, oai?aia i au?aaieaaiee oeai oaeoi?ia iieacuaaao, /oi
naiaiaeiay oi?aiaey iaania/eaaao iaeeiaeiaui oaeoi?ai i?iecaiaenoaa a
iaaeo no?aiao ?aaiia iaoa?eaeueiia aiciaa?aaeaeaiea.

*oiau eniieueciaaoue ia i?aeoeea oai?eth aicaeaenoaey aiaoiae oi?aiaee e
oiaa?iuo oeai ia ?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia, neaaeoao aueoe ca ?aiee
i?inoie aeaoooaeoi?iie iiaeaee aeey aeaoo oiaa?ia. Iaiauaiea yoie
iiaeaee ia aeaao noieue ei??aeoiuo a iaoaiaoe/aneii ioiioaiee
?acoeueoaoia, caoi iicaieyao iieo/eoue ?yae iieaciuo auaiaeia. Iaeei ec
ieo caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aicaeaenoaea aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia
yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea aeaaeaeueoeaa ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia caaeneo io
niioiioaiey yenii?oiuo e eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia a eo iio?aaeaiee. Ai-aoi?uo,
aia caaeneiinoe io yoiai aeaaeaeueoeu oaeoi?ia,
aunieiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo a yenii?oiii i?iecaiaenoaa, auea?uaatho, a a
eiii?ocaiauathuai – i?iea?uaatho io ?anoe?aiey oi?aiaee.

Yeiiiienou cao?aoeee iaiaei oneeee ia ooi/iaiea, eaeea eiaiii oaeoi?u
ioiinyony e yenii?oiui, a eaeea – e eiii?ocaiauathuei io?aneyi.

Aaceniay oai?ey oaiiaeaiiuo oa?eoia.

Aieueoeinoai o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia iineaaeiaaoaeueii aunooiatho ca
eeaa?aeecaoeeth aiaoiae oi?aiaee, nieaeaiea oa?eoia e ae?oaeo oi?aiauo
aa?uea?ia. E oioy eiaiii yeiiiienou i?eeiaeeee iaiaei o?oaea, /oiau
auyaeoue oa neo/ae, eiaaea aaaaeaiea oa?eoia, ii eo iiaieth, yaeyaony
ii?aaaeaiiui, a oeaeii iie ioiinyony e oi?aiaui aa?uea?ai aieaa
e?eoe/anee, /ai ae?oaea a?oiiu ianaeaiey. Iiaeiaiia aaeeiiiuneea –
?aaeeinoue a yoie i?ioannee.

Aeiaiaeu a iieueco naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee iniiaaiu ia yeiiiie/aneii
aiaeeca, aeaiiino?e?othuai aa auaiaeu eae aeey eaaeaeie ec noi?ii, oae e
aeey anaai ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Auaiae, e eioi?iio i?eoiaeyo
enneaaeiaaoaee a ?acoeueoaoa yoiai aieaa aeaoaeueiiai aiaeeca oi?aiaie
iieeoeee, ii-i?aaeiaio ninoieo a oii, /oi a iauai neo/aa naiaiaeiay
oi?aiaey inoaaony aieaa i?aaeii/oeoaeueiie ii n?aaiaieth n iieeoeeie
/anoe/iuo ia?aie/aiee. Aieeioa a niune i?aaeeaaaaiiai aiaeeca, iu
iieiai, ii/aio iiaiea aieueoeinoaa o/aiuo-yeiiiienoia ioee/aaony io
iiceoeee oao, eoi ?aooao ca nio?aiaiea oi?aiauo ia?aie/aiee.

AeIIOUAIEss

Yeiiiie/aneee aiaeec auea?uoae e iioa?ue io aicaaaeaiey aa?uea?ia ia
iooe iioieia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee ia/eiaaony n enneaaeiaaiey oaeiai
eeanne/aneiai aeaea oi?aiaiai i?ioaeoeeiiecia, eae eiii?oiua iioeeiu,
eee oaiiaeaiiua oa?eou.

Ia/iai iaoa enneaaeiaaiea n ia?a/eneaiey eoiaia, e eioi?ui iu i?eaeai a
aai eiioea, aeaoaeueii ianoaeea ana «ca» e «i?ioea».

1. Oaiiaeaiiua oa?eou ii/oe anaaaea nieaeatho o?iaaiue aeaaininoiyiey a
oi?aothueo no?aiao.

2. Oaiiaeaiiua oa?eou /aua anaai nieaeatho aeaaininoiyiea eaaeaeie ec
oi?aothueo no?ai, a oii /enea e oie, eioi?ay yaeyaony eo eieoeeaoi?ii.

3. Eae i?aaeei, e oeaee, aeinoeaiooie n iiiiuueth o/?aaeaeaiey oa?eoia,
iiaeii i?eeoe ae?oaei iooai, i?e/ai n eo/oeie ?acoeueoaoaie.

4. Ioeeiiaiey io iieeoeee naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee ii?aaaeaiiu a neaaeothueo
neo/ayo:

a) eniieueciaaiea «iioeiaeueiiai oa?eoa»: a neo/aa, anee no?aia niiniaia
ieacuaaoue aeeyiea ia ie?iaua oeaiu, iiaeii iaeoe oaeie o?iaaiue noaaee
oa?eoa, eioi?ue i?eianao ae /enoue auea?uo;

a) oa?eo eae noaiioeiaeueiia ?aoaiea: eiaaea a yeiiiieea no?aiu
nouanoaotho aioo?aiiea ia?ac?aoeiua i?iaeaiu, aaaaeaiea oa?eoa iiaeao
ieacaoueny ii?ie iieaciaa, /ai yeiiiie/aneay ianneaiinoue;

a) i?e ?aoaiee ioaeaeueiuo /enoi aiaoiaoi?aiauo i?iaeai aaaaeaiea
oaiiaeaiiuo oa?eoia eiiaaea yaeyaony yooaeoeaiaa ethauo ae?oaeo
yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee;

a) oaiiaeaiiue oa?eo anaaaea auaiaeai i?iecaiaeeoaeyi oiaa?ia,
eiieo?e?othueo n eiii?oii, aeaaea anee niaieoiiia aeaaininoiyiea iaoeee
i?e yoii nieaeaaony.

AEEssIEA OAIIAEAIIIAI OA?EOA IA IIO?AAEOAEAE

Eiooeoeaii ynii, /oi a ?acoeueoaoa aaaaeaiey oaiiaeaiiiai oa?eoa a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue no?aaeatho iio?aaeoaee eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia. Nai oaeo
aaica iaeioi?iai oiaa?a ec-ca a?aieoeu naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i oii, /oi
iio?aaeoaeue i?aaeii/eoaao aai ioa/anoaaiiiio. Aneaaenoaea iaeiaeaiey
yoiai oiaa?a eiii?oiie iioeeiie iio?aaeoaeue aoaeao auioaeaeai eeai
o?aoeoue ia aai i?eia?aoaiea aieueooth noiio aeaiaa, eeai i?eia?aoaoue
aai a iaiueoeo eiee/anoaao, eeai e oi e ae?oaia iaeiia?aiaiii.
Oaiiaeaiiue oa?eo, ia?aie/eaay eiii?o, i?eaiaeeo e oooaeoaieth
iio?aaeoaeueneeo aiciiaeiinoae. Enneaaeiaaiea oaiiaeaiiiai oa?eoa a
?aieao aiaeeca ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey aiieia niaeanoaony n iaoae
eiooeoeeae. Iaeiaei aiaeec, a ioee/ea io eiooeoeee, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
au?aceoue a aeaiaaeiuo aaeeieoeao, ai neieueei iaoiaeeony iio?aaeoaeth
aaaaeaiea oa?eoa.

?en. 9 i?aaenoaaeyao niaie enoiaeioth noaio ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, n
iiiiuueth eioi?ie iiaeii auyaeoue iineaaenoaey aaaaeaiey oa?eoa ia
eaeie-eeai oiaa?, a aeaiiii neo/aa – eiii?oiua aaeineiaaeu. A ionoonoaea
oa?eoa eiii?o aaeineiaaeia inouanoaeyeny au naiaiaeii ii ie?iaie oeaia –
200 aeiee. Eiieo?aioeey iaaeaeo eiino?aiiie e ioa/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeeae
i?eaaea au e oiio, /oi oeaia ioa/anoaaiiuo aaeineiaaeia oaeaea
onoaiiaeeanue au ia o?iaia 200 aeiee. Iio?aaeoaee iieoiaee au ii yoie
oeaia o ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae So, a eiii?o ninoaaee au Mo
aaeineiaaeia a aiae, aeiaaaey iauee iauai iio?aaeaiey aei Do = So+ Mo
aaeineiaaeia.

Anee aieeiooue a niune e?eaie ni?ina, oi iiaeii iiaen/eoaoue, neieueei
auea?uaatho iio?aaeoaee io aiciiaeiinoe eoieoue aaeineiaae e eae
aaaaeaiea oa?eoa yoio auea?uo nieaeaao. E?eaay ni?ina i?aaeaea anaai
oeacuaaao, eaeia eiee/anoai oiaa?a aoaeao i?eia?aoaii ii aeaiiie oeaia.
E?iia oiai, a iae aeey eaaeaeiai i?eia?aoaaiiai eiee/anoaa ii?aaeaeaia
iaeneiaeueiay oeaia, ii eioi?ie iaeee iieoiaoaeue niaeaneony i?eia?anoe
aua iaeei aaeineiaae. Ec e?eaie ni?ina ia ?en. 9 neaaeoao, /oi i?e oeaia
naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee 200 aeiee. a oi/ea A iaeaeaony iieoiaoaeue,
niaeaniue i?eia?anoe aua iaeei aaeineiaae eiaiii ca oaeoth oeaio. A oi
aea a?aiy a oi/ea A eoi-oi niaeaneony eoieoue aaeineiaae ca 220 aeiee.,
/oi a eoiaa auaiaeeo ian ia iauai iio?aaeaiey, ?aaiue D1 aaeineiaaeia a
aiae. Aiaeiae/ii, anee au ii eaeei-oi i?e/eiai a aeaiiie no?aia
aaeineiaaeu eoieoue auei au iaaiciiaeii, oi, i/aaeaeii, iaoaeny au
iio?aaeoaeue, aioiaue caieaoeoue ca ia?aue aaeineiaae i/aiue aunieoth
oeaio, neaaeai 1000 aeiee., /aio niioaaonoaoao oi/ea N.

Oaeay o?aeoiaea e?eaie ni?ina iicaieyao ioeaieoue a aeaiaaeiii
au?aaeaiee auea?uo iio?aaeoaeae io naiie aiciiaeiinoe i?eia?aoaiey
aaeineiaaeia. I?eia?aoaiea aaeineiaaea ii oeaia ie?iaiai ?uiea 200
aeiee. iio?aaeoaeai, eioi?ue aue aioia caieaoeoue ca iaai 1000 aeiee.
(oi/ea N ), nyeiiiieo aio aaeaaiaeii 800 aeiee. Nioneaynue ieaea ii
e?eaie ni?ina io oi/ee N e oi/ea A, iu caia/aai, /oi e ae?oaea
iio?aaeoaee auea?uaatho io aiciiaeiinoe eoieoue aaeineiaae ii oeaia
aieaa ieceie, /ai oa, ia eioi?oth iie i?aaeaea auee aioiau. Ia yoii
naeaeaoaeuenoaoao aa?oeeaeueiue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo oi/eaie e?eaie ni?ina e
eeieae ie?iaie oeaiu a 200 aeiee. Oaeei ia?acii, any ieiuaaeue
o?aoaieueieea, ia?aie/aiiiai e?eaie ni?ina e eeieae ie?iaie oeaiu,
iieacuaaao auea?uo io i?eia?aoaiey aaeineiaaeia ii aeaiiie oeaia.
Niaea?aeaoaeueii yoio auea?uo i?aaenoaaeyao niaie ?acieoeo iaaeaeo oai,
/oi iio?aaeoaeue aioia aue iio?aoeoue ia iieoieo, e oai, eaeeie a
?aaeueiinoe ieacaeenue aai cao?aou. O?aoaieueiee ANA, niioaaonoaothuee
iio?aaeoaeueneiio auea?uoo, anoue i?eaeeaeaiiia cia/aiea oiai, ai /oi
iaoiaeeony iio?aaeoaeth aiciiaeiinoue iieoiee aaeineiaaeia.

Oa?eo a 20 aeiee., oaaee/eaay noieiinoue aaeineiaaea ia 10%, nie?auaao
auea?uo iio?aaeoaey io iieoiee aaeineiaaea. Iiaeieiay oeaio aei 220
aeiee., oa?eo, eae neaaeoao ec ?en. 9, auioaeaeaao iaeieo iio?aaeoaeae
ieaoeoue ia 20 aeiee. aieueoa ca eaaeaeue aaeineiaae, /oiau i?eia?anoe
oi aea eiee/anoai D1 , eioi?ia iie i?eia?aee au ii oeaia 200 aeiee.,
ae?oaeo – aiiaua ioeacaoueny io iieoiee aaeineiaaeia, ia noiyueo, ii eo
iiaieth, oiai, /oiau ieaoeoue ca ieo 220 aeiee. A ?acoeueoaoa niaieoiiue
ni?in nieaeaaony n Do aei D1. *enoua iioa?e iio?aaeoaey io aaaaeaiey
oa?eoa ia?acotho, oaeei ia?acii, caoo?eoiaaiioth iaeanoue a+b+n+d. Yoi
oi, /oi oa?ytho iieoiaoaee a ?acoeueoaoa nie?auaiey iio?aaeoaeueneiai
auea?uoa n aaee/eiu, ?aaiie ieiuaaee o?aoaieueieea ANA, aei ieiuaaee
o?aoaieueieea BCD.

?acia? iioa?ue iio?aaeoaeae io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa iiaeii ioeaieoue
eiee/anoaaiii, e yoa aaee/eia ii?ie ieacuaaaony aanueia cia/eoaeueiie.
Oa?eo i?eaiaeeo e oaaee/aieth ia oieueei oeai eiii?oiuo ecaeaeee, ii e
ioa/anoaaiiuo. N?aco iinea aaaaeaiey oa?eoa ioaeaeueiua iio?aaeoaee
iiaoo iuoaoueny ecaaaeaoue ia?aieaou a 20 aeiee. iooai ia?aianaiey
ni?ina n eiii?oiuo ia ioa/anoaaiiua aaeineiaaeu. Iaeiaei aioo?aiiaa
i?aaeeiaeaiea ia iiaeao ?anoe aac ia?aeeaeueiiai oaaee/aiey ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa naa?o 200 aeiee. (eia/a ioa/anoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee ia
ioaeaeaeenue au a oa?eoiie caueoa). A ?acoeueoaoa i?iaeaaee
ioa/anoaaiiuo aaeineiaaeia aeinoeaatho aaee/eiu So, i?e eioi?ie eo
i?aaeaeueiua ecaea?aeee, e niioaaonoaaiii oeaia, ?aaiythony oai aea 220
aeiee., e iio?aaeoaeue auioaeaeai oaea ia?aiea/eaaoue ca ana
aaeineiaaeu, a ia oieueei eiino?aiiua. Aeey oiai /oiau ecia?eoue
ieiuaaeue caoo?eoiaaiiie ciiu – iio?aaeoaeueneeo iioa?ue, – iaiaoiaeeii
ciaoue noieiinoue aaeineiaaeia n o/aoii e aac o/aoa oa?eoa, eiee/anoai
aaeineiaaeia n o/aoii e aac o/aoa oa?eoa, a oaeaea eiee/anoai
aaeineiaaeia, eioi?ia auei au i?eia?aoaii aei e iinea aaaaeaiey oa?eoa
(Do e D1). Ciay yoe aaee/eiu, iiaeii au/eneeoue ieiuaaeue o?aoaieueieea
a+b+n e o?aoaieueieea d. Aeaaea anee oaie iaeeiia e?eaie ni?ina a
oi/iinoe iaecaanoai, iiaeao auoue iieo/aia i?eaeeceoaeueiay ioeaiea
aaee/eiu iio?aaeoaeueneeo iioa?ue: iia aieueoa, /ai i?iecaaaeaiea
?acia?a oa?eoa (20 aeiee.) e eiee/anoaa i?eia?aoaaiuo i?e yoii
aaeineiaaeia (D1), ii iaiueoa, /ai i?iecaaaeaiea ?acia?a oa?eoa e
eiee/anoaa aaeineiaaeia, i?eia?aoaaoeony aei aai aaaaeaiey.

AEEssIEA OAIIAEAIIIAI OA?EOA IA I?IECAIAeEOAEAE

Ioa/anoaaiiua i?iecaiaeeoaee, auioneathuea eiieo?e?othuoth n eiii?oii
i?iaeoeoeeth, auea?uaatho io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa oieueei a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea aai neaaenoaeai yaeyaony aeaenoaeoaeueiia ia?aie/aiea eiii?oa.
*ai aei?iaea iaoiaeeony iio?aaeoaeth eiino?aiiue oiaa?, oai n aieueoae
ioioie ia?auathony iie e ioa/anoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeyi, eioi?ua a
?acoeueoaoa auea?uaatho eae ca n/ao ?inoa i?iaeaae, oae e io aieaa
aunieeo oeai, onoaiiaeaoeony aeaaiaea?y aaaaeaiiiio oa?eoo.

Auea?uo i?iecaiaeeoaey io aaaaeaiey oa?eoia iiaeii ioeaieoue
eiee/anoaaiii n iiiiuueth ?en. 10, aaea aeaaony ea?oeia oiai aea
aaeineiaaeiiai ?uiea, /oi e ia ?en. 9, ii oieueei n oi/ee c?aiey
i?iecaiaeeoaey. Eoae, oa?eo oaaee/eaaao oeaio ioa/anoaaiiuo aaeineiaaeia
n 200 aei 220 aeiee. Ioa/anoaaiiua eiiiaiee ioaa/atho ia yoi ?inoii
auionea e i?iaeaae aaeineiaaeia aei oao ii?, iiea yoi ei auaiaeii, o.a.
n oi/ee S0 aei oi/ee S1. Eiaiii i?e auionea S1 ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai aaeineiaaea, eae aeaeii ec e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey,
aeinoeaatho ?uii/iie oeaiu n o/aoii oa?eoa, eee 220 aeiee. Naa?o yoiai
ei iaauaiaeii oaaee/eaaoue auione oiaa?ia, iineieueeo i?aaeaeueiua
ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa aoaeoo i?aauoaoue 220 aeiee. Eee oeaio
iieo/aaioth eie i?e i?iaeaaea aaeineiaaeia a ?acoeueoaoa eiieo?aioeee n
eiino?aiiuie iinoaaueeaie ia aioo?aiiai ?uiea.

I?eaueue i?iecaiaeeoaeae ?aaia ?acieoea iaaeaeo niaieoiiie au?o/eie e
ecaea?aeeaie i?iecaiaenoaa. Niaieoiiue aeioiae ioa/anoaaiiuo
i?iecaiaeeoaeae yeaeaaeaioai i?iecaaaeaieth oeaiu oiaa?a iauaia aai
i?iaeaae, eee 200 aeiee. o So aac o/aoa oa?eoa e 220 aeiee. o S1 n aai
o/aoii. Niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi aaaaeaiea oa?eoa oaaee/eei aeioiae io
niaieoiiuo i?iaeaae ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iaeiaei ia aanue
aeioiae yaeyaony i?eaueueth. Aeiey niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, eaaeauay ieaea
e?eaie i?aaeeiaeaiey, eee e?eaie i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie ia?aiaiiua ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa aaeineiaaeia. E oieueei oa
/anoue, eioi?ay iaoiaeeony auoa yoie e?eaie, ii a i?aaeaeao iaeanoe
niaieoiiiai aeioiaea, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?eaueue, eee i?aauoaiea
aeioiaeia iaae ecaea?aeeaie. Oaeei ia?acii, oa?eo oaaee/eaaao i?eaueue
ioa/anoaaiiie aaeineiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe oieueei ia aaee/eio iaeanoe
a.

Auea?uo ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa ia ia?ae?uaaao
iioa?ue iio?aaeoaeae. I?e/eia i?inoa: i?iecaiaeeoaee iieo/atho
i?aeiouanoai ca n/ao iiauoaiey oeai oieueei a ioiioaiee ioa/anoaaiiuo
oiaa?ia, oiaaea eae iio?aaeoaee auioaeaeaiu ieaoeoue iaeeiaeiai aunieoth
oeaio eae ca ioa/anoaaiiua, oae e ca eiii?oiua oiaa?u. ?en. 9 e 10
iiyniytho yoio yooaeo ia i?eia?a aaeineiaaeiiai ?uiea. Aaaaeaiea oa?eoa
aeaei auea?uo i?iecaiaeeoaeyi aaeineiaaeia a ?acia?a iaeanoe a, ii
iaioeinue iio?aaeoaeyi a iauaia, ai-ia?auo, oie aea iaeanoe a iethn
iaeanoue b+n+d. Oaeei ia?acii, anee aiai?eoue oieueei i i?iecaiaeeoaeyo
e iio?aaeoaeyo aaeineiaaeia; oi aaaaeaiea oa?eoa a oeaeii i?eaaei e
iioa?yi.

OAEOE*ANEEE O?IAAIUe CAUEOIIAI OA?EOA

I/aaeaeii, /oi /ai auoa o?iaaiue oa?eoa, oai n aieueoae iaaeaaeiinoueth
caueuaao ii eiieo?e?othuea n eiii?oii ioa/anoaaiiua oe?iu. Iaeiaei aeey
oiai, /oiau oynieoue, eiai ia?niiaeueii caueuatho eiii?oiua oa?eou,
iaiaoiaeeii aieiaoaeueiaa ?anniio?aoue no?oeoo?o i?iecaiaenoaa.

Oa?eo ia i?iaeoeo eaeie-eeai io?anee yaeyaony caueoie ia oieueei ii
ioiioaieth e naiei oe?iai, i?iecaiaeyuei yoio oiaa? ia oa??eoi?ee
no?aiu. Ii caueuaao oaeaea aeioiaeu ?aai/eo e neoaeaueo, caiyouo ia yoeo
oe?iao e o/anoaothueo a i?iecaiaenoaa «aeiaaaeaiiie noieiinoe». E?iia
oiai, oa?eo caueuaao oaeaea aeioiaeu io?aneae, iinoaaeythueo aeaiiie
io?anee nu?uea e iaoa?eaeu. Oaeei ia?acii, ?anniio?aiiue iaie oa?eo ia
aaeineiaaeu ieacuaaao iiaeaea?aeeo ia oieueei aaeineiaaeiui oe?iai, ii e
?aai/ei, caiyoui ia aeaiiii i?iecaiaenoaa, e oe?iai, iinoaaeythuei yoie
io?anee noaeueiua aeaoaee, ?aceio e i?i/ea i?iiaaeooi/iua oiaa?u. Ana
yoi ianeieueei ineiaeiyao caaea/o ecia?aiey aeeyiey oa?eoa ia oe?iu,
i?iecaiaeyuea aaeineiaaeu. Ia iieiaeaiea oe?i aeaiiie io?anee aeeytho
oaeaea oa?eou, onoaiiaeaiiua ia eiii?o oiaa?ia, i?aaenoaaeythueo aeey
iaa yeaiaiou cao?ao. Iai?eia?, ia oe?iu, auioneathuea aaeineiaaeu,
ieaaeao aeeyiea aaaaeaiea eiii?oiuo iioeei ia noaeue eee ?aceio. Yoi aua
aieaa ineiaeiyao i?ioeaaeo?o ecia?aiey aicaeaenoaey anae oa?eoiie
nenoaiu ia ioaeaeueioth i?iiuoeaiioth eiiiaieth.

Aeey oiai /oiau ?aoeoue yoe aii?inu ia aeieaeiii o?iaia, o?aaoaony aieaa
iieiay iiaeaeue acaeiiaeaenoaey ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey, iaeiia?aiaiii
ioaaouaathuay ianeieueei io?aneaauo ?uieia. A oeaeyo nie?auaiey ianooaaa
iiaeaee o/aiua-yeiiiienou ?ac?aaioaee aieaa i?inoie niinia ecia?aiey,
oi?iuathuee caaea/o. I?aaeeiaeaiiue iieacaoaeue eiee/anoaaiii ioeaieaaao
aicaeaenoaea anae oa?eoiie nenoaiu ia aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoeee, auiouaiiie aeaiiie io?aneueth. I?e yoii ia aeaeaaony
iiiuoee ioeaieoue aiciiaeiia eciaiaiea i?iecaiaenoaa aeaiiie eee
eiiieaiaioa?iuo ae io?aneae, a oaeaea naeaeaa oeai.

Oaeoe/aneee o?iaaiue caueoiiai oa?eoa (the effective rate of protection)
a ioaeaeueiie io?anee ii?aaeaeyaony eae aaee/eia (a i?ioeaioao), ia
eioi?oth oaaee/eaaaony a ?acoeueoaoa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey anae oa?eoiie
nenoaiu nicaeaiiay a yoie io?anee aeiaaaeaiiay noieiinoue aaeeieoeu
i?iaeoeoeee.

Oaeoe/anee o?iaaiue caueoiiai oa?eoa a ioaeaeueiie io?anee iiaeao
cia/eoaeueii ioee/aoueny io ?acia?a oa?eoa, oiea/eaaaiiai iio?aaeoaeai
«iiieiaeueiiai o?iaiy caueoiiai oa?eoa».

Aeaa iniiaiuo i?eioeeia, eaaeaueo a iniiaa eiioeaioeee niaieoiiiai
yooaeoa i?ioaeoeeiiecia: aeioiaeu io?anee, eee aa aeiaaaeaiiay
noieiinoue, aoaeoo iiaeaa?aeaiu aicaeaenoaeth oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia,
aicaiaeeiuo ia oieueei ia iooe eiieo?e?othuae eiii?oiie i?iaeoeoeee, ii
e aeaenoaothueo ia ?uiea iaoa?eaeia, eniieuecoaiuo a i?ioeanna
i?iecaiaenoaa yoie io?aneueth. I?e yoii, anee eiia/iay i?iaeoeoeey
io?anee caueuaia aieaa aunieie iioeeiie, /ai aa i?iiaaeooi/iay
i?iaeoeoeey, oaeoe/anee o?iaaiue caueoiiai oa?eoa i?aauneo aai
iiieiaeueiue o?iaaiue. Oaeei ia?acii, aeey oiai /oiau oynieoue naaa,
eiai eiaiii caueuaao ioaeaeueiue oa?eo, a oaeaea oa?eoiay nenoaia a
oeaeii, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue oicyenoaaiioth nenoaio a eiioaenoa
aiaeeca cao?aou – auione.

OA?EO EAE AeIOIAe AINOAeA?NOAA

Aeeyiea oa?eoa ia eiii?oe?othuoth no?aio ioithaeue ia en/a?iuaaaony
eciaiaieai o?iaiy aeaaininoiyiey iio?aaeoaeae e i?iecaiaeeoaeae. Iiea
oa?eo ia?aie/eaaao eiii?o eeoue /anoe/ii, o.a. ia yaeyaony
cai?aoeoaeueiui, ii i?eiineo aeioiae ainoaea?noao. ?acia? yoiai aeioiaea
?aaiyaony i?iecaaaeaieth noaaee oa?eoa e iauaia eiii?oa, ei iaeaaaaiiai
(eee iaeanoe n ia ?en. 9).

Aeioiaeu io oaiiaeaiiuo oa?eoia, aaconeiaii, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
auea?uo aeey no?aiu a oeaeii. Noiia, iieo/aiiay ainoaea?noaii io
aceiaiey iioeei, iiaeao aiineaaenoaee neoaeeoue ?acee/iui oeaeyi:
i?aa?aoeoueny a aeiiieieoaeueiua ?anoiaeu ia nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu,
niinianoaiaaoue nieaeaieth oaeeo, e i?eia?o, iaeiaia, eae iiaeioiaeiue,
eee i?inoi iiaeiyoue ieeaaeu iaianuoiui ainoaea?noaaiiui neoaeauei. Oioy
iai e iaaac?acee/ia oa oi?ia, eioi?oth aiineaaenoaee i?eiao aeioiae
ainoaea?noaa io aceiaiey oa?eoia, iaeiaei aeaaiia – yoi oi, /oi ii
inoaiaony a i?aaeaeao no?aiu e, neaaeiaaoaeueii, aeieaeai i?eieiaoueny
ai aieiaiea i?e ?an/aoa iineaaenoaee io oa?eoiiai caneiia ia?yaeo n
auea?uoai i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e iioa?yie iio?aaeoaeae.

*ENOUA IIOA?E NO?AIU IO OA?EOIIE CAUEOU

Iauaaeeiea ?acoeueoaou aicaeaenoaey oa?eoa ia iio?aaeoaeae,
i?iecaiaeeoaeae e ainoaea?noaaiioth eacio, iiaeii iiaeaanoe noiia?iue
eoia aeeyiey oa?eoiie caueou ia eiii?oe?othuoth no?aio a oeaeii. Aeey
yoiai iiiaaeiaeony aaanoe iaeioi?ua noaeaeaiey. I?aaeaea anaai neaaeoao
onoaiiaeoue, oae ee oae ?aaiicia/iu aeey ian aeieea?u, a eioi?uo
ecia?yaony yooaeo oa?eoa aeey eaaeaeie ec cao?aaeaaaiuo a?oii. A naiii
aeaea, ethaia ?annoaeaeaiea i oii, oi?ioa eee ieioa aeaiiay oa?eoiay
nenoaia, iaecaaaeii iniiaaii ia noauaeoeaiie ioeaiea cia/eiinoe eaaeaeie
ec yoeo a?oii.

Enoiaeiue aiaeec ia/eiaaony n i?aaeiinueee i ?aaiioeaiiinoe aeaiaa.
Eaaeaeue aeieea?, iacaaeneii io oiai, oeao?e?oao ee ii a auea?uoa eee
oauoeao, i?aaenoaaeyao iaeeiaeiaoth oeaiiinoue eae aeey auea?uoae, oae e
aeey i?iea?uoae noi?iiu.

Anee i?eiaiyoue e?eoa?ee ?aaiioeaiiinoe aeaiaa, oi oa?eo, ?anniio?aiiue
ia ?en. 9 e 10, aoaeao neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii /enouo iioa?ue ia oieueei
aeey eiii?oe?othuae no?aiu, ii e anaai ie?iaiai oicyenoaa. Yoi aeaeii ec
?en. 11, aaea niiaa i?aaenoaaeai i?eia? n aaeineiaaeaie. Iu oaea
aeaeaee, /oi au?aaeaiiua a aeieea?ao iioa?e iio?aaeoaeae i?aauoatho
auea?uo i?iecaiaeeoaeae. E?iia oiai, auei onoaiiaeaii, /oi ainoaea?noai
iieo/aao iaeioi?ue aeioiae io aaaaeaiey oa?eoia, eioi?ue noaiiaeony
auea?uoai aeey no?aiu a oeaeii. Eaaay /anoue ?en. 11 naeaeaoaeuenoaoao i
oii, /oi au?aaeaiiua a aeieea?ao oauoee iio?aaeoaeae ana ?aaii
i?aauoatho noiia?ioth aaee/eio auea?uoa i?iecaiaeeoaeae e eiii?oiuo
nai?ia, eaeoueo a aeioiae ainoaea?noaa.

Oauoee, i?e/eiyaiua no?aia, iiaoo auoue iieacaiu e eia/a. A i?aaie /anoe
?en.11 ecia?aaeai ?uiie eiii?oiuo aaeineiaaeia. E?eaay ni?ina ia yoii
?uiea iieacuaaao, ia eaeoth aaee/eio ni?in i?aauoaao i?aaeeiaeaiea i?e
eaaeaeii o?iaia oeai. Oaeei ia?acii, yoa e?eaay iieo/aia iooai au/eoaiey
aioo?aiiaai i?aaeeiaeaiey ec aioo?aiiaai ni?ina i?e eaaeaeii o?iaia oeai
(o.a. ii ai?eciioaee), iineieueeo eiii?o eae ?ac ?aaai ni?ino ieion
aioo?aiiaa i?aaeeiaeaiea. Yoi iicaieyao ecia?aceoue aaniethoiua iioa?e
no?aiu eae a eaaie /anoe ?en. 11, oae e a i?aaie. Iineieueeo iaeanoe b e
d ia?acothony i?e iaeiii e oii aea o?iaia oa?eoa e io?aaeatho
niioaaonoaaiii caiauaiea eiii?oa ioa/anoaaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii e iauaa
nieaeaiea ni?ina, iaeanoue (b+d) i?aaenoaaeyao -niaie o?aoaieueiee,
aunioa eioi?iai ?aaia ?acia?o oa?eoa, a iniiaaiea – iauaio nie?auaieth
eiii?oa (ni. i?aaoth /anoue ?enoiea).

*enoua iioa?e no?aiu io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa, iieacaiiua ia ?en. 11,
iao?oaeii ioeaieoue e yiie?e/anee. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii ciaoue eeoue
?acia? naiiai oa?eoa e ioeaieo aaee/eiu nie?auaiey eiii?oa aneaaenoaea
aaaaeaiey oa?eoa ((I). Iau/ii yoi aeaeaaony iooai ii?aaeaeaiey
ioiineoaeueiiai ?inoa oeaiu, iineaaeiaaaoaai iinea aaaaeaiey oa?eoa,
enoiaeiiai o?iaiy oeaiu eiii?oa e yeanoe/iinoe eiii?oa ii oeaia. Oaeea
?an/aou iao?oaeii i?iecaanoe, i?e/ai ieacuaaaony, /oi /enoua iioa?e
no?aiu io oa?eoa iiaeii ioeaieoue, eae yoi naeaeaii a i?aaie /anoe ?en.
11, iieuecoynue eioi?iaoeeae, eanathuaeny oieueei eiii?oa, e ia i?eaaaay
e iino?iaieth e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Eaeie aea yeiiiie/aneee niune niaea?aeeony a ooaa?aeaeaiee, /oi
aaiiao?e/anee /enoua iioa?e no?aiu caeeth/aiu a iaeanoe b+d?
Ii?aciuneea, iiaeii i?eeoe e auaiaeo i oii, /oi yoa iaeanoue
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie i?aeiouanoaa io iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee e
niaoeeaeecaoeee, iioa?yiiua n aaaaeaieai oa?eoa. Iaeanoue d, eioi?oth
/anoi iacuaatho iio?aaeoaeueneei yooaeoii (consumption effect) oa?eoa,
aeaiiino?e?oao oua?a, iaianaiiue iio?aaeoaeyi eiii?oe?othuae no?aiu a
?acoeueoaoa auioaeaeaiiiai nieaeaiey iio?aaeaiey aaeineiaaeia. Iie
niaeaniu caieaoeoue ca aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai eiii?oiuo
aaeineiaaeia, eaaeaueo a iaeanoe d, noiio a i?aaeaeao 220 aeiee., ii
oa?eo ia iicaieyao eo i?eia?anoe ii oeaia aeaoaaea 220 aeiee., oioy
eaaeaeue aaeineiaae ec yoiai aeiiieieoaeueiiai eiee/anoaa i?e ?an/aoa n
eiino?aiiuie iinoaaueeaie noiee au no?aia oieueei 200 aeiee. Iioa?e
iio?aaeoaeae, caeeth/aiiua a iaeanoe d, ia iai?a/eaathony ie/ueei
auea?uoai. Iaeanoue d – aaniethoiue oauoie, yeaiaio iauae
iayooaeoeaiinoe, aucaaiiie o/?aaeaeaieai oa?eoa.

Iaeanoue b io?aaeaao nie?auaiea aeaaininoiyiey, naycaiiia n oai, /oi
iio?aaeoaeueneee ni?in ia?aeeth/aaony n aieaa aeaoaaie eiii?oiie ia
aieaa aei?iaoth ioa/anoaaiioth i?iaeoeoeeth. Oa?eo noeioee?oao ?ino
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, caiauathuaai eiii?o, ia aaee/eio S0S1.
I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi aioo?aiiyy e?eaay i?aaeeiaeaiey, eee e?eaay
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae, eiaao iieiaeeoaeueiue oaie iaeeiia, oi anoue
aic?anoaao. Ec yoiai neaaeoao, /oi i?iecaiaenoai eaaeaeiai neaaeothuaai
aaeineiaaea iaoiaeeony ana aei?iaea, oaaee/eaay ecaea?aeee i?iecaiaenoaa
n 200 aei 220 aeiee. Iauanoai ieaoeo ca aaeineiaaeu aieueoa 200 aeiee.,
ca eioi?ua eo iiaeii auei au i?eia?anoe ca a?aieoeae. Yoe
aeiiieieoaeueiua ecaea?aeee, aucaaiiua niauaieai a noi?iio aieaa
aei?iaiai ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iacuaatho i?iecaiaenoaaiiui
yooaeoii (production effect) oa?eoa: ia ?enoiea ii i?aaenoaaeai
iaeanoueth b. Eae e iaeanoue d, iia oiaea i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aaniethoiua iioa?e, eee /anoue oiai, /oi ieaoeo iio?aaeoaeue, ii /oi ia
aeinoaaony ie i?aaeoaeuenoao, ie i?iecaiaeeoaeth. Yoi ?acieoea iaaeaeo
ecaea?aeeaie, iaoneiaeaiiuie ioaea/aieai aioo?aiieo ?ano?nia io ae?oaie
oi?iu eo eniieueciaaiey, e yeiiiieae io oiai, /oi eiino?aiiui
iinoaaueeai ia auei oiea/aii ca aeiiieieoaeueiia eiee/anoai aaeineiaaeia
S0S1, iaaeiiinoaaeaiiuo a ?acoeueoaoa aeaenoaey oa?eoa. Oaeei ia?acii,
auea?uo io aiaoiae oi?aiaee, oo?a/aiiue n aaaaeaieai oi?aiauo
ia?aie/aiee, aunooiaao a aeaoo aeaeao: yooaeoa iio?aaeoaeae (iaeanoue d)
e yooaeoa i?iecaiaeeoaeae (iaeanoue b).

Enoiaeiue aiaeec oa?eoa ?ac?aoaao ?anniao?eaaoue iaeanoe b e d a
ea/anoaa /enouo iioa?ue io oa?eoa oieueei i?e ii?aaeaeaiiuo
i?aaeiinueeao. Naiay i/aaeaeiay eeth/aaay i?aaeiinueea caeeth/aaony a
oii, /oi i?e niiinoaaeaiee eioa?ania ?acee/iuo a?oii eniieuecoaony
e?eoa?ee ?aaiioeaiiinoe aeaiaa. Eiaiii i?e iiiiue yoiai e?eoa?ey a
i?aaeoanoaothuai aiaeeca iu i?eoee e caeeth/aieth, /oi iaeanoe a e n,
niioaaonoaothuea iio?aaeoaeueneei iioa?yi, iieiinoueth ia?ae?uaatho
auea?uo i?iecaiaeeoaeae (iaeanoue a) e aaee/eio oaiiaeaiiuo nai?ia
ainoaea?noaa (iaeanoue n). Oaeei ia?acii, iu auoiaeei ia o?iaaiue /enouo
iaoeeiiaeueiuo iioa?ue – iaeanoue (b+d).

A iaoai aiaeeca iu iie?aeenue oaeaea e ia ?yae ae?oaeo i?aaeiinueie,
aeeythueo ia ioeaieo yooaeoa io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa. Aio aaaeiaeoea ec ieo.

1. I?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi eiii?oe?othuay no?aia naia ia iiaeao
aicaeaenoaiaaoue ia o?iaaiue ie?iauo oeai.

2. Aei neo ii? iao aiaeec ia eanaeny aaeaina ieaoaaeae iaaeaeo
?anniao?eaaaiuie no?aiaie, oae eae ia o/eouaaeinue, /oi aaaaeaiea oa?eoa
i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth auieao eiino?aiiui iinoaaueeai. A
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe nieaeaiea aeaiaaeiuo cao?ao ia i?eia?aoaiea eiii?oiie
i?iaeoeoeee aea/ao ca niaie eeai eciaiaiea eo?na aaetho, eeai naeaea
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina a iai?aaeaiee iieiaeeoaeueiiai naeueaei. Yoe
iineaaenoaey, naycaiiua n ieaoaaeiui aaeainii, eiatho aniaeou, eioi?ua
ia aoaeoo ?anniao?eaaoueny a aeaiiii eiioaenoa.

3. A oiaea aiaeeca iiae?acoiaaaeinue, /oi iu eiaai aeaei n iioeiaeueiui
ie?ii, aaea i?e naiaiaeiie oi?aiaea auea?uoe e iioa?e ioaeaeueiuo
noauaeoia yaeythony iaeiia?aiaiii auea?uoaie e iioa?yie anaai iauanoaa.
Oieueei aaaaeaiea oa?eoa noaiiaeony oaeoi?ii, onoaiaaeeaathuei ?acee/ea
iaaeaeo iauanoaaiiuie e ee/iuie eioa?anaie.

Iicaea iu aa?iainy e yoiio aii?ino, ii?aaeaeyy eaaeaeue ?ac, /oi aoaeao
iaiyoueny, anee a oeaeyo aieueoaai i?aaaeiiiaeiaey i?eaeaony ioeacaoueny
io oie eee eiie i?aaeiinueee.

Nouanoaothuea iaoiaeu ecia?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo iioa?ue io oa?eoa

N eiioea 50-o aiaeia iaeioi?ua yeiiiienou noaee ia i?aeoeea i?eiaiyoue
?acee/iua iaoiaeu ioeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiuo iioa?ue io eniieueciaaiey
aiaoiaoi?aiauo oa?eoia e ae?oaeo oi?aiauo ia?aie/aiee. Aeey yoeo oeaeae
eniieueciaaeenue aeinoaoi/ii oiieea iaoiaeu, ?a/ue i eioi?uo iieaeao
ieaea. Ii naia i?ioeaaeo?a aace?oaony ia onoaiiaeaiee ?acia?a iaeanoe,
aiaeiae/iie b +d ia ?en. 11. Iiaeiaiua iaoiaeu iie?athony ia
eioi?iaoeeth, eanathuothny iauaia eiii?oa, eiii?oiuo iioeei eee ae?oaeo
oaiiaeaiiuo aa?uea?ia, a oaeaea ioeaieo yeanoe/iinoe ni?ina ii oeaia
aeey eaaeaeiai eiii?oe?oaiiai i?iaeoeoa.

Oae, aeaeay aeieacaoue, /oi iioa?e io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa ninoaaeytho
iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue iauaia aaeiaiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iaeoeoa, Aa??e
Aeaeiinii a 1960 a. i?aaeeiaeee neaaeothuee niinia ecia?aiey yoie
aaee/eiu. Ii onoaiiaee, /oi aeey ethaiai oiaa?a

(

AII (

.

Ec yoiai ?aaainoaa noaiiaeony iiiyoii, ii/aio iiaeiaiue niinia ecia?aiey
aeaao iacia/eoaeueiua ii aaee/eia ?acoeueoaou. I?aaeiieiaeei, iai?eia?,
/oi ana eiii?oiua iioeeiu ?aaiu 10% e /oi iie aucuaatho 20%-iia
nie?auaiea eiii?oa. Ionoue noiia?iue eiii?o ninoaaee 10% AII. A yoii
neo/aa (eioi?ue, enoaoe, aiieia ?aaeai) /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue oua?a io
eiii?oiuo iioeei ninoaaeo 1/2 o 0,10 o 0,20 o 0,10, eee 0,1% AII!
Aeaeiinii, oaeei ia?acii, ooaa?aeaeae, /oi iaoeeiiaeueiue oua?a io
oa?eoa ia ninoaaeyao cia/eoaeueiie aaee/eiu, ai anyeii neo/aa, yoi
aeieaeii auoue ni?aaaaeeeai aeey e?oiiie no?aiu, ia caaenyuae
nouanoaaiiui ia?acii io eiii?oa, eae, iai?eia?, NOA.

Iineaaeothuea yiie?e/aneea enneaaeiaaiey aieaa eee iaiaa iiaeoaa?aeeee
i?aaeiieiaeaiea Aeaeiiniia. N?aaee ieo ia?auie auee «ioeaiee auea?uoa ii
Ia?oaeeo», caeeth/aaoeany a onoaiiaeaiee ?acia?a o?aoaieueieeia /enoiai
iaoeeiiaeueiiai auea?uoa, aiaeiae/iuo ecia?aaeaiiui ia ?en. 11. Caoai, n
na?aaeeiu 70-o aiaeia, i?eiaiyeenue aieaa neiaeiua iaoiaeu «?an/aoa
iauaai ?aaiiaaney» (POP). Ioeaiee POP iniiaaiu ia aieueoie
yeiiiieei-iaoaiaoe/aneie iiaeaee yeiiiieee, iicaieythuae oeaaeeaaoue
aeaaea iacia/eoaeueiua eieaaaiey aeioiaeia e oeai, eioi?ua iaaiciiaeii
?acaeyaeaoue n iiiiuueth eeethno?aoeaiuo noai, i?eaaaeaiiuo a yoie
aeaaa. Iaa iaoiaea naeaeaoaeuenoaotho i oii, /oi i?e?ino aeaaininoiyiey
io oi?acaeiaiey oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia eaaeeo iaaeaeo -1% e +10% AII.
Iaeaunoee ?acoeueoao aeinoeaaeny a oii neo/aa, anee: a) oi?acaeiyaiua
aa?uea?u auee aaeeee e a) aa?uea?u oi?acaeiyeenue iieiinoueth.

Iaeioi?ua aaoi?u enneaaeiaaiee i?eoee e auaiaeo, /oi ecia?aiiue eie
yooaeo ninoaaeyao iacia/eoaeueioth /anoue AII. Anee yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii
oae, oi iu ai?aaa caaeaoueny aii?inii, noieo ee oae iiiai aieiaiey
oaeaeyoue i?iaeaiai, naycaiiui n iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaie iieeoeeie.

NIAA?OAINOAIAAIEA IAOIAeIA ECIA?AIEss OA?EOIIAI YOOAEOA

Nouanoaoao ianna i?e/ei, ia iicaieythueo i?eieiaoue noaiaea?oiia
ecia?aiea ieiuaaee iaeanoe b+d ca enoeiiia cia/aiea eciaiaiey
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aeaaininoiyiey, naycaiiiai n oa?eoiie iieeoeeie. Iiaeii
i?eaanoe ianeieueei iai?aaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiie ei??aeoe?iaee iiaeiaiuo
eciaiaiee. E oioy oeacaoue ia iaiaoiaeeiinoue iii?aaie nouanoaaiii
eaa/a, /ai eo inouanoaeoue, iciaeiieaiea n aucuaathueie eo i?e/eiaie
aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioeaieoue oioy au iai?aaeaiea niauaiey ?acoeueoaoa
noaiaea?oiiai ecia?aiey io enoeiiie aaee/eiu. Oae, ieacuaaaony, /oi
aieueoeinoai niauaiee aicieeaao ec-ca iaaeiioeaiee iineaaenoaee
onoaiiaeaiey oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia.

1. *oi n/eoaoue «iacia/eoaeueiie aaee/eiie»? Oa aaoi?u, eioi?ua
ooaa?aeaeaee, /oi /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue oua?a io oa?eoa ninoaaeyao
iacia/eoaeueioth aaee/eio, i?eoiaeeee e yoiio auaiaeo ia iniiaaiee
niiinoaaeaiey aa n aaeiaui iaoeeiiaeueiui i?iaeoeoii. AII i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie noieiinoiue iieacaoaeue ia?iiiuo ?acia?ia, ii n?aaiaieth n eioi?ui
ae?oaea, aaconeiaii, auaeyaeyo «iacia/eoaeueiuie».

2. Iioa?e iio?aaeoaeae i?aauoatho /enoua iaoeeiiaeueiua iioa?e. *oiau
iiiyoue, ii/aio ai?y/e aeaaaou aie?oa oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia, ia neaaeoao
oa?youe ec aeaeo, /oi ioaeaeueiui a?oiiai iie iaoiaeyony nouanoaaiii
aei?iaea, /ai no?aia a oeaeii. ?en. 11 iiyniyao yoi ia i?eia?a eiii?oiuo
iioeei: iioa?e iio?aaeoaeae ninoaaeytho iaeanoe a, b, n, d, oiaaea eae
/enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue oua?a ninoaaee anaai eeoue iaeanoue (b+d). *aua
anaai oi?aiaua aa?uea?u ieacuaatho iaiaeiicia/iia aicaeaenoaea ia
iaoa?eaeueiia iieiaeaiea ioaeaeueiuo a?oii ianaeaiey; i?e yoii
niaieoiiue yooaeo iiaeao ieacaoueny iaiai/eai iaaieueoei. Ae?oaeie
neiaaie, aicaeaenoaea oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia, caeeth/athuaany a
ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee aeioiaeia aioo?e no?aiu, i?aauoaao eo aicaeaenoaea ia
aeaaininoiyiea iaoeee a oeaeii.

3. Eaaeaeue oi?aiaue aa?uea? eiaao naith aaeieieno?aoeaioth
(administrative) noieiinoue. Enoiaeiue aiaeec oa?eoa aue au iaiieiui,
anee au ii ia iicaieye ioeaieoue ?acia? oao ?ano?nia, eioi?ua aeaaiaea?y
aio «eneeth/athony» ec oicyenoaaiiie nenoaiu, o.a. ia iiaoo auoue
eniieueciaaiu eaeei-eeai ae?oaei niiniaii. O/?aaeaeaiea oa?eoa
i?aaeiieaaaao i?enoonoaea ia a?aieoea oaiiaeaiiuo neoaeaueo, o?aaothueo
niioaaonoaothuae ca?ieaou. Oaeei ia?acii, /anoue aeioiaea io aaaaeaiey
oa?eoa, iieacaiiay ia ?en. 11 a aeaea iaeanoe n, noaiiaeony ieaoie ca
naii nouanoaiaaiea yoiai oi?aiaiai ia?aie/aiey. Iaeiaei o?oae ethaeae,
caiyouo ia oaiiaeia, iia auoue i?eiaiai e aieaa i?iecaiaeeoaeueii.
Iiyoiio /anoue n?aaenoa, ia?aoiaeyueo io iio?aaeoaeae ainoaea?noao,
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iauanoaaiiua iioa?e iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?ano?nia. Yoi
icia/aao, /oi i?e ?an/aoa /enouo iaoeeiiaeueiuo iioa?ue io oa?eoa
eaeay-oi aeiey iaeanoe n aeieaeia auoue aeiaaaeaia e iaeanoyi b e d,
oioy iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee yoiai ia o/eouaatho.

4. I?ioaeoeeiieci naea?aeeaaao iao/ii-oaoie/aneee i?ia?ann. Iau/ii i?e
ioeaiea iineaaenoaee oa?eoa iiae?acoiaaaaony, /oi ii ieeae ia aeeyao ia
no?aieaiea ioa/anoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae e nie?auaieth ecaea?aeae
i?iecaiaenoaa e naeaeao e?eaie i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae aiec. Yoa
i?aaeiinueea iiaeao ieacaoueny iaaa?iie. Iiiaea enneaaeiaaoaee n/eoatho,
/oi ethaay caueoa i?iecaiaeeoaeae nieaeaao iiaoaeeoaeueiua iioeau iienea
oaoiieiae/aneeo oniaa?oainoaiaaiee, eioi?ua iicaieeee au nie?aoeoue
ecaea?aeee. Yoie oi/ea c?aiey auea i?ioeaiiinoaaeaia ae?oaay,
eceiaeaiiay a o?oaeao Ooiiaoa?a e Ayea?aeoa: aieueoee iauai aaeiaie
i?eauee, iiiaaeathuae a ?anii?yaeaiea e?oiiuo oe?i, i?aaenoaaeyao niaie
aeiiieieoaeueiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu aeey inouanoaeaiey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio e onei?aiey aiaae?aiey oaoiieiae/aneeo
iiaiaaaaeaiee. Iaeiaei yoi ooaa?aeaeaiea ia auei iiaeoaa?aeaeaii
yiie?e/aneeie ?an/aoaie. Anee aea a i?ioeanna aeaeueiaeoeo enneaaeiaaiee
aa?iui ieaaeaony ia?aoiia i?aaeiieiaeaiea, oi oua?a io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa
i?aauneo i?aaeaa?eoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiue iaie o?iaaiue ia aaee/eio,
niioaaonoaothuoth ecaea?aeeai ionoaaaiey io ia?aaeiaie oaoiieiaee.

5. Aeeyiea oa?eoa ia ecia?aiea iauaia eiii?oa iiaeao iaaeiioeaieaaoueny.
Ioeaiea aeeyiey oa?eoa caaeneo a eiia/iii n/aoa io ?acia?a
niioonoaothuaai aio nie?auaiey iauaia eiii?oa. Iaeiaei yoa iineaaeiyy
aaee/eia /anoi ieacuaaaony caieaeaiiie. Iiaeii iacaaoue ianeieueei
i?e/ei iinoiyiiie iaaeiioeaiee ?aaeoeee eiii?oa ia eciaiaiea oeai: 1)
iau/iua noaoenoe/aneea ioeaiee yeanoe/iinoe eiii?oa ii oeaia yaeythony,
eae i?aaeei, e?aoein?i/iuie, eioi?ua ieaea aeieain?i/iuo; 2) iau/ii yoe
iieacaoaee iniiauaathony ia aiaeeca e?oiiuo oiaa?iuo a?oii, /oi
i?eaiaeeo e iaaeiioeaiea oeaiiaie /oanoaeoaeueiinoe eiii?oa ioaeaeueiuo
niaoeeoe/aneeo i?iaeoeoia, iaeaaeathueo aunieei eiyooeoeeaioii
acaeiicaiaiyaiinoe; 3) i?ioeaaeo?a onoaiiaeaiey aeaenoaeoaeueiiai o?iaiy
eiii?oiuo oeai /anoi ieacuaaaony iaei??aeoiie, /oi iiyoue-oaee i?eaiaeeo
e caieaeaieth oeaiiaie (e oa?eoiie) yeanoe/iinoe eiii?oa; e iaeiiaoe, 4)
neiaeiinoue onoaiiaeaiey enoeiiiai cia/aiey yeanoe/iinoe naycaia n
iaiaoiaeeiinoueth iaeiia?aiaiiiai o/aoa ?acee/iuo oaeoi?ia, /oi niiaa
iiaeao iiaea/ue ca niaie iaaeiioeaieo aeeyiey oa?eoia e oeai ia iauai
eiii?oa. Iu ia aoaeai aaeaaaoueny a aeaeueiaeoea iiae?iaiinoe, naycaiiua
n aeaiiie i?iaeaiie, iineieueeo iie eanathony oaoie/aneie noi?iiu
aii?ina. Aeaaiia, /oi iaaei oynieoue naaa, – yoi oi, /oi aeeyiea oa?eoia
ia iauai eiii?oa iau/ii iaaeiioeaieaaaony, a yoi i?eaiaeeo a naith
i/a?aaeue e caieaeaieth ?acia?a /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa io
oa?eoia.

Aei neo ii? ana i?eaiaeeiua iaie caia/aiey ioiineoaeueii
niaa?oainoaiaaiey ecia?aiee /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa aeaenoaiaaee
a iai?aaeaiee oaaee/aiey ioeaiee oa?eoiiai yooaeoa ii n?aaiaieth n
eiaaoeie ianoi ?aiaa. Iaeiaei iiaeii i?eaanoe ?yae i?eia?ia, eiaaea a
?acoeueoaoa ei??aeoe?iaee oa?eoiue yooaeo nieaeaaony.

6. Ia aaethoiue eo?n oa?eo iiaeao aicaeaenoaiaaoue oaeei ia?acii, /oi
niaieoiiue oua?a io iaai nieceony. Eae oaea ioia/aeinue, enoiaeiue
aiaeec ia o/eouaaao aeeyiey oa?eoa ia iaiaiiue eo?n iaaeaeo aaethoaie
oi?aothueo no?ai. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi, ai-ia?auo, naycue iaaeaeo
iaiaiiui eo?nii e oa?eoii ii/oe iaoeiaeia, a ai-aoi?uo. i?iaeaiu
aaethoiie e oi?aiaie iieeoeee eiaao niune ?aca?aie/eoue. Oai ia iaiaa
niaa?oaiii i/aaeaeii, /oi naycue iaaeaeo aaethoiui eo?nii e oa?eoii
nouanoaoao.

I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi oa?eo i?eaae e nie?auaieth eiii?oa. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
oiaiueoaony e aaethoiua ieaoaaee, iineieueeo eiii?oiay oeaia eeai
inoaeanue i?aaeiae (eae i?aaeiieaaaaony a aeaiiie aeaaa), eeai
nieceeanue. Yoi icia/aao, /oi ?acia? ni?ina ia eiino?aiioth aaethoo,
iaiaoiaeeioth aeey i?eia?aoaiey eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia, oaeaea nie?aoeony.
Eiuie neiaaie, ia eaaeaeue aeieea? iiaeii aoaeao eoieoue aieueoaa
eiee/anoai eiino?aiiie aaethou. Ii oaeia eciaiaiea aaethoiiai eo?na a
naith i/a?aaeue iiaeeyao ia ?acia? e oeaio a aeieea?ao iaoaai yenii?oa e
eiii?oa. Anee eiino?aioeai aeey iieaou iaoaai yenii?oa i?eaeaony ca
eaaeaeue aeieea? ieaoeoue aieueooth noiio naiae aaethou, oi ni?in ia
iaai nie?aoeony e oeaia a aeieea?ao iaoeo yenii?oiuo oiaa?ia iiaeao
aeaaea ianeieueei nieceoueny. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii iaoe iio?aaeoaee
oaeaeyo, /oi eiino?aiiua oiaa?u iaoiaeyony ei a aeieea?ao aeaoaaea, /ai
iie noieee aia/aea, iineieueeo ia eaaeaeue aeieea? iiaeii oaia?ue
eoieoue aieueoa aaeeieoe eiino?aiiie aaethou. Oaeei ia?acii, oa?eo
iiaeao ia?aie/eoue ?ino oeaiu eiii?oa a aeieea?ao aaee/eiie iaiueoae,
/ai ?acia? naiiai oa?eoa. Anee, iai?eia?, neaaenoaeai aaaaeaiey 10%-iiai
oa?eoa yaeony oaaee/aiea noieiinoe aeieea?a a aaeeieoeao eiino?aiiie
aaethou ia 3%, oi aioo?aiiyy oeaia eiii?oe?oaiiai oiaa?a a aeieea?ao
au?anoao oieueei ia 7%.

Iiaeii i?eeeiooue ?acia? nieaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa, aucaaiiiai
iiaeiaiie acaeiinaycueth oa?eoa e aaethoiiai eo?na. Ioeaiea yoie
aaee/eiu, i?aaeeiaeaiiay Aeaei?aeaeei Aanaae, iieacuaaao, /oi /enoue
yooaeo io oa?eoa nieaeaaony i?iii?oeeiiaeueii o/anoeth aaethoiiai eo?na
a oa?eoiii yooaeoa. Iai?eia?, anee 10%-iue oa?eo niecee oeaio
eiino?aiiie aaethou a aeieea?ao ia 3%, oi eiia/iue oua?a io oa?eoa
aoaeao ?aaai 70% io aaee/eiu /enoiai oua?aa, ?ann/eoaiiiai iau/iui
niiniaii (o.a. eae ieiuaaeue iaeanoae b e d). *ai iaiueoa aeiey a
noiia?iii eiii?oa oiaa?ia, iiaeeaaeaueo iaeiaeaieth iiaui oa?eoii, oai
iaiueoei aoaeao niioaaonoaothuaa eciaiaiea iaiaiiiai eo?na e oai
niieieiaa iiaeii aoaeao i?aiaa?a/ue oiieinoyie au/eneaiee, naycaiiuie n
iaiaiiui eo?nii.

7. Eciaiaiea o?iaiy oa?eoa /?aaaoi ecaea?aeeaie, aucaaiiuie ia?aiauaieai
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo ?ano?nia. ?acia? /enoiai oua?aa io oa?eoa i?eaeaony
nei??aeoe?iaaoue, anee i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea ia?aaeenoe/iinoue aua iaeiie
i?aaeiinueee, caeiaeaiiie a o?aaeeoeeiiiii aiaeeca. Aei neo ii? iu
iieaaaee, /oi e?eaay aioo?aiiaai ni?ina niaiaaeaao n e?eaie i?aaeaeueiuo
ecaea?aeae eae aeey ioaeaeueiuo aaeineiaaeiuo oe?i, oae e aeey anaai
ioa/anoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Yoa i?aaeiinueea auea naeaeaia ia
iniiaaiee i?aaeiieiaeaiey i oii, /oi ethaua o?oaeiaua eee i?i/ea
cao?aou, eniieuecoaiua a aaeineiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ia yaeyeenue
cia/eoaeueiui ioaea/aieai io eaeiai-eeai ae?oaiai eo eniieueciaaiey,
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue eioi?iai i?eia?ii ?aaiyeanue i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
a aaeineiaaeiie eiaeono?ee e iiea/eaaeanue ia oii aea o?iaia. Oae,
iiae?acoiaaaeinue, /oi ?aai/ea, caiyoua a i?iecaiaenoaa aaeineiaaeia e
ca?aaaouaathuea 9 aeiee. a /an, iiaee au iaeoe ae?oaoth, ie/ooue ia
ooaea iiea/eaaaioth ?aaioo. Ia iniiaaiee yoiai aeaeaeny auaiae, /oi
ecaea?aeee aaeineiaaeiuo oe?i auee ?aaiu n?aaeiei iauanoaaiiui
ecaea?aeeai.

Iaeiaei oae auaaao aeaeaei ia anaaaea. Anee au a aaeineiaaeiie eee
eaeie-eeai ae?oaie io?anee iiyaeeanue iaiaoiaeeiinoue i?ae?auaiey iaeia
?aai/ae neeu e aeiaeaiey iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, oi yoei ?aai/ei ia
oae-oi i?inoi ieacaeinue au iaeoe naaa oaeoth iiaoth ?aaioo, aaea
i?aaeaeueiue i?iaeoeo ?aaiyeny au oie aea aaee/eia. Oi, /oi iie
iieo/atho acaiai, eae i?aaeei, ono?aeaaao eo ai?acaei iaiueoa, iniaaiii
anee iiaay ?aaioa naycaia n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth niaiu ianoa aeeoaeuenoaa e
niaoeeaeueiinoe. Eae i?aaeei, oaieaiiua ?aai/ea ianoo cia/eoaeueiua
iaoa?eaeueiua oauoee a i?ioeanna iienea iiaie ?aaiou. Iiaeiaiua
ecaea?aeee, naycaiiua n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth ia?aiauaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
?ano?nia (aoaeai iacuaaoue eo no?oeoo?iuie ecaea?aeeaie), oaeaea
aeieaeiu i?eieiaoueny ai aieiaiea i?e en/eneaiee /enoiai yooaeoa io
eciaiaiey o?iaiy oa?eoa.

Aeeyiea no?oeoo?iuo ecaea?aeae ia /enoue iaoeeiiaeueiue oua?a io oa?eoa
caaeneo i?aaeaea anaai io oiai, aaiaeeony ee iiaue oaiiaeaiiue oa?eo eee
ii oi?acaeiyaony. Oi?acaeiaiea aeaenoaiaaaoae i?aaeaea eiii?oiie
iioeeiu, aaconeiaii, i?eaaaeao e oaieueiaieth ?aai/eo ec io?aneae,
eiieo?e?othueo n eiii?oii, a iaoai i?eia?a – ec aaeineiaaeiie. ?aai/ea
yoie io?anee aoaeoo no?aaeaoue iaoa?eaeueii aei oao ii?, iiea ia iaeaeoo
iiaie ?aaiou. Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii i?aaei?eieiaoaee e aea?aeaoaee aeoeee
aaeineiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe iiianoo iioa?e eaieoaea aneaaenoaea aieaa
aunieie eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe eiii?oa. Oua?a, iaiineiue aaeineiaaeiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe niyoeai oa?eoa, yaeyaony ?aaeueiui nieaeaieai
iauanoaaiiiai aeaaininoiyiey. Aeaaea anee iaeiaiieaoaeueueee /a?ac
ainoaea?noaaiiue athaeaeao e niiaoo iaeaa/eoue (a iiaeao, e iieiinoueth
eiiiaine?iaaoue) nieaeaiea aeioiaeia a aaeineiaaeiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe,
iioa?e ana aea inoaioony, ia yoio ?ac a aeaea iaeiaiaiai a?aiaie.
I/aaeaeii, /oi ?acia? yoeo ecaea?aeae iaiaoiaeeii au/anoue ec auea?uoa,
iieo/aiiiai iauanoaii a ?acoeueoaoa oi?acaeiaiey oa?eoa. Iaaeaaiea
enneaaeiaaiey iieacaee, /oi a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo no?oeoo?iua ecaea?aeee
iiaoo iieiinoueth iaeo?aeeciaaoue iieiaeeoaeueiue yooaeo io niyoey
oa?eoa.

A oi aea a?aiy o/ao no?oeoo?iuo ecaea?aeae ia aaaeao e nieaeaieth
iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa io aaaaeaiey iiaiai oa?eoa. Iiaue oa?eo ia
eiii?oiua aaeineiaaeu ia auciaao, eiia/ii, oaieueiaiey ?aai/eo.
Iai?ioea, a ioaao ia iiaue aeo i?ioaeoeeiiecia aaeineiaaeiay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue ?anoe?eo auione i?iaeoeoeee e oaaee/eo /enei caiyouo. A
yoii neo/aa no?oeoo?iua ecaea?aeee iiaoo aicieeiooue oieueei a ae?oaeo
naeoi?ao yeiiiieee. Iaeiei ec ieo yaeyaony yenii?oiia i?iecaiaenoai,
eioi?ia a ?acoeueoaoa iiaeao nie?aoeoueny. I?e/ei oiio ianeieueei.
Ai-ia?auo, iiaue eiii?oiue oa?eo aucuaaao ?ino iaiaiiiai eo?na iaoae
aaethou e i?eaiaeeo e nie?auaieth iio?aaeaiey eiino?aioeaie iaoaai
yenii?oa, eae ia yoii oaea aiai?eeinue. Ai-aoi?uo, ii iiaeao
ni?iaioee?iaaoue eiino?aiiua ainoaea?noaa e aaaaeaieth ioaaoiuo
i?ioaeoeeiienoneeo ia?, iai?aaeaiiuo i?ioea iaoaai yenii?oa. Ii yoei, a
oaeaea ?yaeo ae?oaeo i?e/ei iiaue eiii?oiue oa?eo iiaeao i?eaanoe e
iioa?a ?aai/eo iano e aeioiaeia a yenii?oiuo io?aneyo. Oaeei ia?acii, n
o/aoii no?oeoo?iuo ecaea?aeae ioeaiea iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa io
aaaaeaiey iiaiai oa?eoa aeieaeia. oaaee/eoueny.

Enneaaeiaaoaee aeieai aeeenue iaae i?iaeaiie o/aoa anao ia?a/eneaiiuo
«oiieinoae» i?e en/eneaiee iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa io oa?eoia e ae?oaeo
oi?aiauo aa?uea?ia. Iaeie ec yoeo «oiieinoae» iiaeaeaaaeenue
eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiea eaa/a, ae?oaea – o?oaeiaa. Ai anyeii neo/aa,
iineaaeiea aeaa ioieoa iiaeaeathony aiieia i?eaieaiiio eiee/anoaaiiiio
o/aoo. Aeey ae?oaeo ia?an/ao a aeaiaaeiua aaeeieoeu ieacaeny nouanoaaiii
aieaa neiaeiui aeaeii. Iaeiaei i?iaeaia ioeaiee a?aaea, iaiineiiai
no?aia oi?aiauie aa?uea?aie, ana aea ia yaeyaony aaciaaeaaeiie,
iineieueeo anaaaea iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ionoue a?oaoth, caoi aiieia
iainiiaaiioth ei??aeoe?iaeo. Ii aeaaea anee ia oaeaaony ioeaieoue a
aeaiaaeiii au?aaeaiee iii?aaee, i?aaeeiaeaiiua iaie ai anao naie
ioieoao, noi?iiieee naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee anaaaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoue
i?oiaeienaeueiue niinia ecia?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa io oa?eoa, ia
caauaay, iaeiaei, /oi iiiaea iaoe caia/aiey (iai?eia?, niaea?aeaueany a
ioieoao n 1 ii 5) iiaoo eanaoueny iaiaoiaeeiinoe oaaee/aiey ioeaiee
iaaaoeaiiai yooaeoa io aaaaeaiey oa?eoa.

AUAIAeU

I?e i?aaeiinueeao, i?eiyouo a aeaiiie aeaaa, eiii?oiue oa?eo,
aaconeiaii, nieaeaao aeaaininoiyiea iaoeee. Iio?aaeoaee oa?ytho aieueoa,
/ai iieo/atho a noiia i?iecaiaeeoaee e ainoaea?noai, a /ae aeioiae eaeoo
oa?eoiua nai?u. Oa?eo ia?a?ani?aaeaeyao aeioiaeu iio?aaeoaeae
eiii?oe?oaiie i?iaeoeoeee a iieueco ae?oaeo iauanoaaiiuo a?oii.

Iau/iua yiie?e/aneea ioeaiee /enoiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai oua?aa aeatho
iieiaeeoaeueioth, ii «iaeaiueeoth» aaee/eio. Iaeiaei yoe ioeaiee
ioaeaeathony a ?yaea ooi/iaiee, eioi?ua yoo aaee/eio /aua anaai
oaaee/eaatho.

Aeeyiea oa?eoa ia eioa?anu i?iecaiaeeoaeae noaiiaeony aieaa yniui n
aaaaeaieai iiiyoey oaeoe/aneiai o?iaiy caueoiiai oa?eoa, eioi?ue
yaeyaony i?ioeaioiui iieacaoaeai aicaeaenoaey anae oa?eoiie nenoaiu ia
oaeaeueioth aeiaaaeaiioth noieiinoue auionea eaaeaeie io?anee. Caeanue
aaaeii eiaoue a aeaeo, /oi oa?eo, aaaaeaiiue a ioiioaiee i?iaeoeoeee
iaeiie io?anee, ieacuaaao aeeyiea ia oeaeue ?yae niaaeiuo i?iecaiaenoa.
A oi aea a?aiy aeioiaeu ioaeaeueiie io?anee ieacuaathony iiae aeeyieai
oa?eoia, aeaenoaothueo a ae?oaeo io?aneyo.

EEOA?AOO?A

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea nayce: Na. ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia. – O. 1-3.- I.:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1990.

Eaaoei O. I. e ae?. Ie?iaua ?uiee: Eiiuthieoo?a e oeaiu. – I.:
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua ioiioaiey, 1987.

Oiea? A. A. Eae aeaeaoue aecian a Aa?iia: Iiniaea. – I.: I?ia?ann, 1990.

Oeoa? N., Aei?iaoo ?., Oiaeaice ?. Yeiiiieea: Ia?. n aiae. ni 2-ai ecae.
– I.: “Aeaei EOAe”, 1993. – 864 n.

Eeiaea?o I. O. Yeiiiieea ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae: Ia?. n aiae. – I.:
Ecaeaoaeueneay a?oiia “I?ia?ann – Oieaa?n”, 1992.

Nieo A. Enneaaeiaaiey i i?e?iaea e i?e/eiao aiaaonoaa ia?iaeia. I.
,1962, C.333

?eea?aei ?anniao?eaaao ?aai/aa a?aiy, iaiaoiaeeiia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa
caaeaiiuo eiee/anoa aeia e oeaie a Aiaeee e Ii?ooaaeee. Iu, iaiai?io,
iiniio?ei, eaeia eiee/anoai oeacaiiuo oiaa?ia iiaeao auoue i?iecaaaeaii
a yoeo aeaoo no?aiao i?e caaeaiiuo ?ano?nao, i?e/ai ?ano?nu ia
iaycaoaeueii naiaeyony eeoue e o?oaeiaui. Enoiaeioth aa?neth au iiaeaoa
iaeoe a aai ?aaioa «Ia/aea iieeoe/aneie yeiiiiee e iaeiaiaiai
iaeiaeaiey». – ?eea?aei Ae. Ni/., o.1,n.112-128.

Ieei iiaee?aiee oai?eth O – I iaaethaeaieyie ca ?aaeueiie
aeaenoaeoaeueiinoueth e ?annoaeaeaieyie, iniiaaiiuie ia eiooeoeee.
Naioyeuenii iioae ii iooe iaoaiaoe/aneiai aeieacaoaeuenoaa. Ii aaae
aeanoeea i?aaeiinueee, eioi?ua iicaieeee no?iai aeieacaoue iniiaiua
iieiaeaiey oai?ee. Naioyeuenii i?aaeiieiaeee, /oi: a) ?a/ue eaeao i
aeaoo no?aiao, aeaoo oiaa?ao e aeaoo oaeoi?ao (iau/iia oi?iuaiea
«2o2o2»); a) i?aaeeiaeaiea oaeoi?ia a eaaeaeie no?aia oeene?iaaii e eo
ia?aiauaiea aeiioneaaony iaaeaeo naeoi?aie aioo?e no?aiu, ii ia iaaeaeo
no?aiaie; a) no?aiu ioee/athony iaeia io ae?oaie eeoue iaania/aiiinoueth
oaeoi?aie i?iecaiaenoaa e a) a iaaeo no?aiao oaoiieiaey oaeiaa, /oi
iaania/eaaaony iaeciaiiue yooaeo ianooaaa. Auaiaeu oai?ee O – I
neaaeotho ec /anoiiai neo/ay, ?anniio?aiiiai Naioyeueniiii, e a oeaeii
ia i?ioeai?a/ao aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe

Ia neaaeoao niaoeaaoue ioiineoaeueioth iaania/aiiinoue oaeoi?aie e
ia?aaainoai a iaania/aiiinoe eie. Iu ia aiai?ei, /oi a Aia?eea aieueoa
caiee, /ai a inoaeueiii ie?a. Ia aiai?ei, /oi a Aia?eea iaiueoa ?aai/ae
neeu. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe a Aia?eea e oiai, e ae?oaiai iaiueoa, /ai ai
anai inoaeueiii ie?a. Oi/ii oae aea ia i?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi a Aia?eea
aieueoa caiee, /ai ?aai/ae neeu, – yoi aiiaua aanniuneaiiia
ooaa?aeaeaiea (eae iiaeii niiinoaaeyoue ae?u caiee n io?aaioaiiuie
/aeiaaei–/anaie?).Nei?aa yoi ia?aaainoai a ioiineoaeueiie iaania/aiiinoe
oaeoi?aie. Ei??aeoii au?aceoue yoi iiaeii aeaiyeei ia?acii: 1) a NOA ia
iaeiiai ?aaioathuaai i?eoiaeeony aieueoa i?eaiaeiie aeey ia?aaioee
caiee, /ai a inoaeueiii ie?a; 2) aeiey NOA a iauae ieiuaaee caiee a ie?a
auoa, /ai aa aeiey a noiia?iii iauaia ?aai/ae neeu.

E?iia oiai, a eaaeaeie io?anee i?iecaiaenoai aoaeao eiaoue oaiaeaioeeth
e eiioeaio?aoeee a ?oeao iiiiiieenoa eee iaaieueoie a?oiiu
ieeaiiieenoia. A eo?nao ii iee?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?ee /anoi ioia/aaony,
/oi aic?anoathuee yooaeo ianooaaa ianiaianoei n eiieo?aioeeae iaaeaeo
iiiaeie oe?iaie–i?iecaiaeeoaeyie a i?aaeaeao iaeiie oceie io?anee:
ia?aay aea oe?ia, eioi?ie oaeaaony aeiaeoueny yeiiiiee io i?iecaiaenoaa
a aeinoaoi/ii aieueoeo ianooaaao, oaeiaeaoai?ythueo cia/eoaeueioth
/anoue ni?ina ia i?iaeoeoeeth io?anee, iiaeao nieceoue oeaiu eae ?ac
ianoieueei, /oiau auoanieoue anao inoaeueiuo i?iaeooeaioia.

6 Oiio?aaeyy au?aaeaiea iee?iyeiiiie/aneie oai?ee, iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
a oi/ea So niaiaaeatho o?e eanaoaeueiua:

oeaia = i?aaeaeueiie ii?ia o?ainoi?iaoeee (eanaoaeueiay e e?eaie
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae)

= i?aaeaeueiie ii?ia caiauaiey (eanaoaeueiay e e?eaie aac?acee/ey).

I?aaeaeueiay ii?ia o?ainoi?iaoeee iaaeaeo aeaoiy oiaa?aie (au?aaeaaony
eanaoaeueiie e e?eaie i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo aiciiaeiinoae) ii?aaeaeyaony eae
eiee/anoai ia?aiai oiaa?a, io i?iecaiaenoaa eioi?iai iaaei ioeacaoueny,
/oiau aunaiaiaeeoue aeinoaoi/ii ?ano?nia aeey i?iecaiaenoaa aua iaeiie
aaeeieoeu aoi?iai oiaa?a. (Iia iiaeao ecia?youeny eae a aooaeyo ioaieoeu
ca y?ae noeia, oae e a y?aeao noeia ca aooaeue ioaieoeu.)

Eiaaea i?aaeaeueiay ii?ia o?ainoi?iaoeee ?aaia nouanoaothuaio
niioiioaieth oeai, eae a oi/ea S0, i?iecaiaeeoaee iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee
?aaiiaaney.

I?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey iaaeaeo aeaoiy oiaa?aie ?aaia
iaeneiaeueiiio eiee/anoao ia?aiai oiaa?a, io eioi?iai iio?aaeoaeue aioia
ioeacaoueny, /oiau iieo/eoue aeiiieieoaeueioth aaeeieoeo aoi?iai oiaa?a.
(Iiyoue aea ?a/ue iiaeao eaeoe eae ia ioeaca io ioaieoeu a iieueco
noeia, oae e iaiai?io.)

Eiaaea i?aaeaeueiay ii?ia caiauaiey ?aaia nouanoaothuaio niioiioaieth
oeai, eae a oi/ea So, iio?aaeoaee iaoiaeyony a ninoiyiee ?aaiiaaney.

Eiee/anoaaiioth ioeaieo auaiaeiinoe iiaeii iieo/eoue iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ec aeeaa?aii ia ?en, 7a. Iieuecoynue niioiioaieai oeai, neaaeoao
au?aceoue i?e?inou iio?aaeaiey a aaeeieoeao eee noeia, eee ioaieoeu —
aeey niiinoaaeiinoe. Ia ?en. 7a aeey yoiai iaaei eeiee oeai, i?ioiaeyuea
/a?ac oi/ee S0 e C1, i?iaeeeoue aei eo ia?ana/aiey n niioaaonoaothuae
inueth e niiinoaaeoue iieo/aiiua eiee/anoaa ioaieoeu eee noeia.
Iaia?oaeeony, /oi aeey NOA ii noa?ie oeaia (2 aooaey ca y?ae) auea?uo io
aiaoiae oi?aiaee ?aaiyaony 30 ie?ae. aooaeae ioaieoeu a aiae ii
aa?oeeaeueiie ine, oiaaea eae ii oeaia naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee (iaeei
aooaeue ca y?ae) auea?uo nieaeaaony aei 10 ie?ae. aooaeae. Ii n?aaeiae
oeaia auea?uo ninoaaeo 20 ie?ae. aooaeae a aiae — noieueei aea, neieueei
aeaaeoo iai ieaea ?an/aou n iiiiuueth e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

No?iai aiai?y, iaeanoue aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeu i?iecaiaeeoaeae
aeieaeia iieacuaaoue /enoue auea?uo io aiciiaeiinoe i?iecaiaeeoue e
i?iaeaaaoue noeii ca au/aoii iaeioi?ie oeene?iaaiiie noiiu ecaea?aeae,
naycaiiie n iaiaoiaeeiinoueth i?iaeaaee noeia aiiaua. Yoe oeene?iaaiiua
ecaea?aeee iu iau/ii ia aoaeai i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea, ca eneeth/aieai
?anniio?aiey oae iacuaaaiuo “ecaea?aeae auoaniaiey” (diplacement costs).

Neaaeoao iiae/a?eiooue, /oi ?en. 8 ia iicaieyao iai ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea
eiaiii «i?iecaiaeeoaee» iiianoo oauoee a ?acoeueoaoa onoaiiaeaiey
oi?aiauo ioiioaiee e eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu ecaioiaeoaeae eiino?aiiiai
noeia. Anee ?anniao?eaaoue e?eaoth i?aaeeiaeaiey eae e?eaoth
i?aaeaeueiuo ecaea?aeae eiieo?e?othueo i?aaei?eieiaoaeae, aeey eioi?uo
oeaiu aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee e yeaiaioia cao?ao yaeythony oeene?iaaiiuie,
anoanoaaiii ?annoaeaeaoue oae, eae aoaeoi ethaia eciaiaiea ?acia?ia
aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeu io?aaeaaony oieueei ia i?aaei?eieiaoaeyo e ia
eanaaony aeioiaeia ?aai/eo eee iinoaaueeia iai?oaeiaaiey e nu?uey aeey
noeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Oaeie iiaeoiae iayaii iiae?acoiaaaao, /oi ia
iieiaeaiea ?aai/eo e iinoaaueeia ieeae ia aeeyao ianoaiiaea a noeiiiie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iineieueeo a ethaie iiiaio iie iiaoo iaeoe iaieiaoaeae e
caeac/eeia a ae?oaii ianoa e nio?aieoue oa aea aeioiaeu. E ana aea oaeie
iee?iyeiiiie/aneee iiaeoiae ia yaeyaony ii?aaaeaiiui n oi/ee c?aiey
niioaaonoaey eae ?aaeueiie aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe, oae e aieaa iaoe?iui
iiaeaeyi, eaaeauei a iniiaa e?eauo ni?ina e i?aaeeiaeaiey.

Oioy ia iaoeo ?enoieao iaeuecy n?aco i?aaenoaaeoue anth iiaeaeue
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee, iie iniiaaiu ia iiaeaee iauaai ?aaiiaaney,
eioi?ay iieacuaaao, eae aiaoiyy oi?aiaey aeeyao ia iieacaoaee
ecaea?aeae, a oaeaea ia oeaiu e iauaiu i?iecaiaenoaa oiaa?ia. Ana, /oi
cao?aaeaaao ioiineoaeueioth oeaio a oeaeii naeoi?a yeiiiieee (eae a
i?iecaiaenoaa noeia a iaoai i?eia?a), aeieaeii i?eaanoe e eciaiaieth a
?ani?aaeaeaiee aeioiaeia a ianooaaa anae no?aiu. Anee, iai?eia?,
i?iecaiaenoai noeia yaeyaony o?oaeieioaineaiie io?aneueth, oi
onoaiiaeaiea oi?aiauo ioiioaiee aaaeao e nieaeaieth noaaie ca?aaioiie
ieaou, iineieueeo ec noeiiiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe aunaiaiaeaeaaony aieueoia
eiee/anoai ?aaioieeia. Iieo/eoue iiaoth ?aaioo a iaiaa o?oaeiaieii
i?iecaiaenoaa iie iiaoo, oieueei naeaay nouanoaothuea oai ?anoeaiee ia
?aai/oth neeo. Iiaoi?yai, aii?inu aeeyiey aiaoiae oi?aiaee ia
?ani?aaeaeaiea aeioiaeia aoaeoo ?anniio?aiu ieaea. Nae/an aeaaiia –
iiiyoue, /oi ii ia?a nieaeaiey oeaiu e niauaiey yeiiiieee ec oi/ee A a
oi/eo N nie?auaiea aeiiieieoaeueiie auaiaeu i?iecaiaeeoaeae icia/aao
oaeaea oauoee aeey ?aai/eo e iinoaaueeia ae?oaeo yeaiaioia cao?ao a yoo
io?aneue, a ia i?inoi iioa?e aeaaeaeueoeaa noeiiiuo oaa?ee.
Ii?aaeaeeoue, eae ?ani?aaeaeyaony iaaeaeo yoeie a?oiiaie nie?auaiea
auaiaeu i?iecaiaeeoaeae, iiaeii oieueei ia iniiaa iieiie iiaeaee

A yoii aacaoea iu oiio?aaeyai oaeiaiua, ii ia oi/iua a ii?aaeaeaiee
eiee/anoaa au?aaeaiey oeia «aieueoa» caiee, «nianai iaaieueoia
eiee/anoai» ?aai/ae neeu e o.ae., no?aiynue au?aceoue iniiaioth iuneue
eae iiaeii iaiueoei eiee/anoaii neia.

Auai? aaeineiaaeia a ea/anoaa eiii?oe?oaiiai oiaa?a ia neo/aai. A 1985
a aia?eeaineay Annioeeaoeey i?iecaiaeeoaeae aaeineiaaeia ia/aea
eiaae?iaaiea a eiia?anna aaaaeaiey oaiiaeaiiiai oa?eoa ia eiieo?e?othuee
eiii?o a i?aaeaeao io 5–11 aei 19% (a caaeneiinoe io ?acia?a eieana)
Oeaeueth yoie eaiiaiee auei ia?aie/aiea i?iaeaae eiino?aiiuo
aaeineiaaeia, ia eioi?ua i?eoiaeeeinue e oiio a?aiaie 42% aia?eeaineiai
?uiea.

*anoue aai iiaeao ieacaoueny aacaica?aoii iioa?yiiie aeey no?aiu e
anaai ie?iaiai oicyenoaa a aeaea ecaea?aeae, naycaiiuo n
ath?ie?aoe/aneie aeayoaeueiinoueth aaeieieno?aoeee e i?ioaneeaaieai a
ia?eaiaioa oa?eoia a eioa?anao ioaeaeueiuo a?oii.

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