.

Международный Валютный Фонд и его отношения с Россией и Кыргызстаном

Язык: русский
Формат: курсова
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 1638
Скачать документ

IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

Eaiou, ii?aaeaeythuea oeiainiaue aeinooi e eiee/anoai aieinia
no?ai-/eaiia

Anooieaiea a IAO

E?aaeeoiay aeayoaeueiinoue IAO

IAO e ieaoaaeiua aaeainu o/anoaothueo a iai no?ai

Niaoeeaeueiua oiiaeu

?ieue IAO a ?aaoee?iaaiee iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee

IAO – Eu?aucnoai

I acaeiiioiioaieyo n IAO ae?oaeo Oeaio?aeueiiaceaoneeo no?ai

IAO – ?inney: Iyoue iaeaiuo aii?inia i e?aaeeoao IAO

Caeeth/aiea

Nienie eniieuecoaiie eeoa?aoo?u

AAAAeAIEA

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae (IAO) ia/ae naith aeayoaeueiinoue a
1946 a., iinea ?aoeoeeaoeee aeiaiai?ia, ?ac?aaioaiiuo ia
A?aooii-aoaeneie eiioa?aioeee Iauaaeeiaiiuo Iaoeee ii
aaethoii-oeiainiaui aii?inai (1944 a.).

IAO aoiaeeo a nenoaio Iauaaeeiaiiuo iaoeee a ea/anoaa
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiiai o/?aaeaeaiey. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy /eaiaie IAO
yaeythony ieiei 180 no?ai, aeeth/ay ana auaoea nithciua ?anioaeeee.

Ooaa-eaa?oe?a iaoiaeeony a Aaoeiaoiia.

Eaaeaeay no?aia-/eai eiaao 250 aieinia + 1 aiein ca eaaeaeoth /anoue
eaiou, ?aaioth 100 oun. NAe? (NAe? – niaoeeaeueiua i?aaa caeinoaiaaiey
(Special Drawing Rights, SDR) ii?aaeaeythony ia iniiaa noieiinoe ei?ceiu
ec iyoe aaaeoueo ie?iauo aaetho: aeieea?a NOA, iaiaoeeie ia?ee,
o?aioeocneiai o?aiea, ooioa noa?eeiaia e yiiineie eaiu).

Oeaeyie IAO yaeyaony:

iiiu?aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai nio?oaeie/anoaa a iaeanoe aaethoiie
iieeoeee;

niaeaenoaea naaeaine?iaaiiiio ?inoo ie?iaie oi?aiaee aeey noeioee?iaaiey
e iiaeaea?aeaiey aunieiai o?iaiy caiyoinoe e ?aaeueiuo aeioiaeia, aeey
?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai iioaioeeaea anao /eaiia a ea/anoaa aeaaiie
oeaee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee;

iiaeaea?aeaiea noaaeeueiinoe aaetho e oii?yaei/aiea aaethoiuo ioiioaiee
iaaeaeo ainoaea?noaaie-/eaiaie, a oaeaea aini?aiyonoaiaaiea
aeaaaeueaaoeee aaetho ec niia?aaeaiee eiieo?aioeee;

o/anoea a nicaeaiee iiiainoi?iiiae nenoaiu ieaoaaeae, ono?aiaiea
ia?aie/aiee ia o?ainoa?o aaethou;

i?aaeinoaaeaiea n?aaenoa aeey eeeaeaeaoeee ianaaeaine?iaaiiinoe
ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia no?ai-/eaiia.

Iniiaiua iai?aaeaiey aeayoaeueiinoe IAO aeeth/atho oaeaea ?aaoee?iaaiea
ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia no?ai-/eaiia e aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe. Oneeeaaaony
acaeiiaeaenoaea n IAO, IA??, IYN?, I?III, Ia?eaeneei e Eiiaeiineei
eeoaaie e o.ae.

A iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia e aiaoiae caaeieaeaiiinoe
IAO i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeou no?aiai-/eaiai i?e oneiaee i?iaaaeaiey eie
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eciaiaiee a naiae yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeea. Ia?aae
iieo/aieai e?aaeeoia no?aia-caaiuee niaeanoao n Oiiaeii i?ia?aiio
oeiainiai- yeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee. I?aaeinoaaeaiea aaethoiuo
n?aaenoa inouanoaeyaony a caaeneiinoe io auiieiaiey yoie i?ia?aiiu.
Iaee/ea iiaeiaiie i?ia?aiiu e niaeaoaiey n IAO iau/ii ?anniao?eaaaony
eae iaaeaeoia?iaeiia naeaeaoaeuenoai ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe no?aiu.

A noa?a aeieaiaiai ?aaoee?iaaiey IAO aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaoao n
Anaie?iui aaieii.

Aunoei ?oeiaiaeyuei i?aaiii IAO yaeyaony Niaao Oi?aaeythueo, ninoiyuee
eo i?aaenoaaeoaeae no?ai-/eaiia (iau/ii ioaaonoaaiiiai ca i?iaaaeaiea
aaethoiie iieeoeee ieieno?a eee aeaau oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea aianoa n
caianoeoaeai). Ca eneeth/aieai ?yaea iieiiii/ee (ii?aaeaeaiea oneiaee e
i?eai iiauo /eaiia, ia?aniio? eaio, eciaiaiea aaethoiuo ia?eoaoia e o.
i.) ii iiaeao aeaeaae?iaaoue eniieiaiea naieo caaea/ Eniieieoaeueiiio
Niaaoo. Oi?aaeythuea ano?a/athony ?ac a aiae ia aaeaaiaeiuo nanneyo.

A?aiaiiue eiieoao (24 /eaia, iau/ii aeaa canaaeaiey a aiae)
eiinoeueoe?oao Niaao Oi?aaeythueo ii aii?inai, naycaiiui n oaeouei
eiio?ieai ca ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiie e aa aaeaioaoeeae e iaiythueiny
oneiaeyi.

Eniieieoaeueiue niaao ioaa/aao ca oaeouea aeaea IAO. Naiue ec 24
Eniieieoaeueiuo aee?aeoi?ia iacia/athony no?aiaie n iaeaieueoeie eaioaie
(Aa?iaiey, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Eeoae, O?aioeey, Naoaeianeay A?aaey, NOA e
ssiiiey), inoaeueiua ecae?athony io ae?oaeo no?ai ia iniiaa i?eioeeia
?aaeiiaeueiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa. Canaaeaiey Eniieieoaeueiiai niaaoa
i?ioiaeyo ianeieueei ?ac a iaaeaeth iiae i?aaenaaeaoaeuenoaii
Aee?aeoi?a-?anii?yaeeoaey.

Aaaeiaeoaa no?oeoo?iia iiae?acaeaeaiea IAO – A?aiaiiue eiieoao ii
aii?inai ?aoi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaethoiie nenoaiu, oaeoe/anee
iaania/eaaao iieeoe/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai e caieiaaony niaeaniaaiea anao
aii?inia, eanathueony aeayoaeueiinoe Oiiaea, aianaiey eciaiaiee a aai
onoaa, ia?aniio?a eaio, auionea NAe?, i?eioeeiia eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia
IAO e o.ae.

Ia?niiae IAO ian/eouaaao aieaa 2000 yenia?oia, aicaeaaeyaiuo
Aee?aeoi?ii-?anii?yaeeoaeai. Aee?aeoi?-?anii?yaeeoaeue auae?aaony
Eniieieoaeueiui niaaoii (ii o?aaeeoeee yoi – i?aaenoaaeoaeue Aa?iiu). Ii
ia eiaao i?aaa aieina, ca eneeth/aieai oao neo/aaa, eiaaea aieina a
Eniieieoaeueiii niaaoa ?acaeaeythony ii?iaio.

Iniiaiuie enoi/ieeaie oeiaine?iaaiey IAO yaeythony aciinu (eaiou)
ainoaea?noa-/eaiia e caeiu IAO o naieo /eaiia.

Eae i?aaeei, IAO i?aaeinoaaeyao n?aaenoaa naiei /eaiai ?aaiuie
e?aaeeoiuie o?aioaie, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo niioaaonoaoao 25 i?ioeaioai
eaiou ainoaea?noaa-/eaia.

A ?aieao i?ia?aiiu ?anoe?aiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey /eaiai IAO iiaeao
i?aaeinoaaeyoueny n?aaeian?i/iue e?aaeeo (iau/ii ia 3 aiaea) aeey
ono?aiaiey aioo?e- e aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo ia?aeinia.

A oiaea a?aiy, a ?aieao IAO aeaenoaotho oaeaea e niaoeeaeueiua
iaoaieciu:

Oiiae nenoaiiie o?ainoi?iaoeee (Systemic Transformation Facility)
i?aaeinoaaeyao oeiainiaoth iiiiuue no?aiai, eniuouaathuei o?oaeiinoe a
oi?aiaie e ieaoaaeiie nenoaiao a nayce n ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea.

Oiiae eiiiainaoeeiiiiai oeiaine?iaaiey e oeiaine?iaaiey a neo/aa
iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo ianoiyoaeuenoa (Compensatory and Contingency Financing
Facility) ieacuaaao iiiiuue ainoaea?noaai-/eaiai a neo/aa ianaiey eie
oauoeia (yenii?o, cia/eoaeueiue ?ino oeai ia eiii?oe?oaiia ca?ii), anee
yoe oauoee iinyo a?aiaiiue oa?aeoa? e iaoneiaeaiu i?e/eiaie, eaaeaueie
aia noa?u aeeyiey yoeo no?ai; a oaeaea i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe iiaeaea?aeaiey
oaiiia ?aoi?i, i?iaiaeeiuo a niioaaonoaee n iaeia?aiiuie IAO
niaeaoaieyie.

N iiiiuueth Nenoaiu oeiaine?iaaiey aooa?iuo caiania (Buffer Stock
Financing Facility) IAO iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeyoue oeiainiaoth iiiiuue aeey
ainnoaiiaeaiey caiania nu?uey.

N?i/iay iiiiuue (Emergy Assistance) i?aaeinoaaeyaony iooai caeoiee
oiaa?ia no?ai, ieaoaaeiue aaeain eioi?uo eniuouaaao cia/eoaeueiua
o?oaeiinoe a ?acoeueoaoa noeoeeiuo aaaenoaee.

Oiiae no?oeoo?iie aaeaioaoeee (Structural Adjustment Facility) e
?anoe?aiiue oiiae no?oeoo?iie aaeaioaoeee (Enhanced Structural
Adjustment Facility) i?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue ieacuaaoue iiiiuue
aeey i?iaaaeaiey no?oeoo?iuo ?aoi?i a ?acaeaathueony no?aiao n ieceeie
aeioiaeaie, a oaeaea aeey ?aaeecaoeee n?aaeian?i/iuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo
i?ia?aii.

Einoeooo IAO, nicaeaiiue a 1964 a. (Aaoeiaoii, NOA), i?aaiecoao eo?nu e
naieia?u ii iiauoaieth eaaeeoeeaoeee ainoaea?noaaiiuo neoaeaueo ec
no?ai-/eaiia IAO.

EAIOU, II?AAeAEssTHUEA OEIAINIAUE AeINOOI E EIEE*ANOAI AIEINIA
NO?AI-*EAIIA

Eaaeaeue /eai IAO eiaao naith eaioo (aeieth), au?aaeaiioth a NAe?,
eioi?ay ?aaia o/anoeth no?aiu-/eaia a IAO. Eaioa, eioi?ay auea
i?eaeoiaia aeey io?aaeaiey ioiioaiey ?acia?ia yeiiiieee no?ai-/eaiia,
yaeyaony aaciaui yeaiaioii ai acaeiiioiioaieyo oeiainiaiai e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiiai oa?aeoa?a no?ai-/eaiia e Oiiaeii. Iia ii?aaeaeyao
eiee/anoai aieinia, eiathueony o no?aiu-/eaia IAO, e ?aaia 250
“aaceniuo” aieinia, eioi?ua i?aaeinoaaeythony eaaeaeie no?aia,
o/anoaothuae a Oiiaea iethn 1 aiein ca eaaeaeua 1000,000 NAe?. Eaioa
oaeaea ii?aaeaeyao noiio iiaeienee no?aiu ia eaieoae IAO e aiciiaeiinoue
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia Oiiaea. No?aia-o/anoiee iaycaia iieaoeoue 25% io
aaee/eiu naiae iiaeienee a NAe? eee a aaethoa ae?oaeo no?ai-o/anoieoe,
ii?aaeaeyaiie IAO, niaeanii onoaao; inoaoie no?aia iiea/eaaao a naiae
aaethoa.

?acaeoea oi?ioe eaio.

Ia?aiia/aeueii eaiou no?ai-/eaiia IAO ii?aaeaeyeenue, ii ia iai?yioth,
niaeanii A?aooii-Aoaeneie oi?ioea. Iniiaiuie ia?aiaiiuie yoie oi?ioeu
auee oaeea iieacaoaee eae aiaeiaua eiii?o e yenii?o, cieioua caianu e
aeieea?iaua aaeainu, iaoeeiiaeueiue aeioiae. Yoe iieacaoaee neoaeeee
aacenii aeey en/eneaiey eaio aei 60-o aiaeia.

A 1963 a. A?aooii-Aoaeneie oi?ioea auea ia?aniio?aia, a oaeaea auee
aeiaaaeaiu iiaua oi?ioeu.

Acyoua aianoa, iie eniieueciaaeenue eae iiiiuieee a ii?aaeaeaiee
ia/aeueiuo eaio iiauo /eaiia e oaaee/aiee eaio noa?uo o/anoieeia. Yoe
oi?ioeu iauaaeeiytho yeiiiie/aneea iieacaoaee, iienaiiua auoa, a oaeaea
oaeouea aeioiaeu, oaeouea ?anoiaeu, a oaeaea iieacaoaee naycaiiua n
yenii?oii e eiii?oii. A ia/aea ainueieaeanyouo IAO oi?inoee i?ioeaaeo?u
?an/aoa eaio e oniaa?oainoaiaae yeiiiie/aneea aeaiiua, eniieuecoaiua a
oi?ioeao.

ANOOIEAIEA A IAO

Eiaaea no?aia niae?aaony noaoue o/anoieoeae IAO ia?niiae oiiaea
?ann/eouaaao aeey iaa eaioo e n?aaieaaao iieo/aiiue ?acoeueoao n eaioaie
oaea ninoiyueo a Oiiaea no?ai n iioiaeeie yeiiiie/aneeie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie. Iieo/aiiia cia/aiea eaiou ianoaeaeaaony eiieoaoii
“O/anoieeia” (membership) Eniieieoaeueiiai niaaoa. Iinea oiai, eae
no?aia niae?athuayny anooieoue a Oiiae niaeaneony n oneiaeyie aeiaiai?a
/eainoaa, Eniieieoaeueiue niaao (a iieiii ninoaaa) aioiaeo ?aciethoeeth
aeey Niaaoa oi?aaeythueo. Ii caaa?oaiee anao oi?iaeueiuo oaaia
i?aaenoaaeaiiay no?aia i?eaeaoaaony a Aaoeiaoii aeey iiaeienaiey Noaoae
Niaeaoaiey.

Ia 1 aaaonoa 1997 aiaea 181 no?aia yaeyeanue /eaiii Oiiaea n noiiie eaio
ii?yaeea 145,3 ie?ae. NAe?.

E?AAeEOIAss AeAssOAEUeIINOUe IAO

A Onoaaa Oiiaea aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee aai e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe
eniieuecothony aeaa iiiyoey: 1) naeaeea (transaction) – i?aaeinoaaeaiea
aaethoiuo n?aaenoa no?aiai ec aai ?ano?nia: 2) iia?aoeey (operation) –
ieacaiea iin?aaeie/aneeo oeiainiauo e oaoie/aneeo oneoa ca n/ao caaiiuo
n?aaenoa. IAO inouanoaeyao e?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee oieueei n ioeoeeaeueiuie
i?aaiaie – eacia/aenoaaie, oeaio?aeueiuie aaieaie, noaaeeecaoeeiiiuie
oiiaeaie. ?acee/athony e?aaeeou ia iie?uoea aeaoeoeeoa ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina e ia iiaeaea?aeeo no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee
no?ai-/eaiia.

No?aia, ioaeaeathuayny a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, i?iecaiaeeo iieoieo
(purchase) eee eia/a caeinoaiaaiea (drawing) eiino?aiiie aaethou eeai
NAe? a iaiai ia yeaeaaeaioiia eiee/anoai nenae iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou,
eioi?ia ca/eneyaony ia n/ao IAO a oeaio?aeueiii aaiea aeaiiie no?aiu.
I?e ?ac?aaioea iaoaiecia IAO i?aaeiieaaaeinue, /oi no?aiu-/eaiu aoaeoo
i?aaeuyaeyoue ?aaiiia?iue ni?in ia aaethou, a iiyoiio eo iaoeeiiaeueiua
aaethou, iinooiathuea a Oiiae, noaioo ia?aoiaeeoue io iaeiie no?aiu e
ae?oaie. Oaeei ia?acii, yoe iia?aoeee ia aeieaeiu auee yaeyoueny
e?aaeeoiuie a no?iaii niunea neiaa. Ia i?aeoeea a Oiiae ia?auathony n
i?inueaaie i i?aaeinoaaeaiee e?aaeeoa aeaaiui ia?acii no?aiu n
iaeiiaa?oe?oaiuie aaethoaie. Aneaaenoaea yoith IAO. eae i?aaeei,
i?aaeinoaaeyao aaethoiua e?aaeeou ainoaea?noaai-/eaiai eae au “iiae
caeia” niioaaonoaothueo noii iaeiiaa?oe?oaiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo aaetho.
Iineieueeo ia ieo iao ni?ina, iie inoathony a Oiiaea aei aueoia eo
no?aiaie-yieoaioaie yoeo aaetho.

Aeinooi no?ai-/eaiia e e?aaeeoiui ?ano?nai IAO ia?aie/ai ii?aaeaeaiiuie
oneiaeyie. Niaeanii ia?aiia/aeueiiio Onoaao iie ninoiyee a neaaeothuai:
ai-ia?auo, noiia aaethou, iieo/aiiie no?aiie-/eaiii ca aeaaiaaeoeaoue
ianyoeaa, i?aaeoanoaiaaaoeo aai iiaiio ia?auaieth a Oiiae, aeeth/ay
eni?aoeaaaioth noiio, ia aeieaeia auea i?aauoaoue 25% aaee/eiu eaiou
no?aiu; ai-aoi?uo, iauay noiia aaethou aeaiiie no?aiu a aeoeaao IAO ia
iiaea i?aauoaoue 200% aaee/eiu aa eaiou (aeeth/ay 75% eaiou, aianaiiuo a
Oiiae ii iiaeienea). A ia?aniio?aiiii a 1978 a. Onoaaa ia?aia
ia?aie/aiea auei ono?aiaii. Yoi iicaieyao no?aiai-/eaiai eniieueciaaoue
eo aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey aaethou a IAO a oa/aiea aieaa ei?ioeiai n?iea,
/ai iyoue eao, eioi?ua ioaeiu auee aeey yoiai i?aaeaea. *oi eanaaony
aoi?iai oneiaey, oi a eneeth/eoaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao e aai aeaenoaea
iiaeao i?einoaiaaeeaaoueny.

IAO aceiaao ni no?ai – caaiueoe ?aciaue eiienneiiiue nai? a ?acia?a 0,5%
io noiiu naeaeee e ii?aaeaeaiioth ieaoo (charge), eee i?ioeaioioth
noaaeo, ca i?aaeinoaaeyaiua ei e?aaeeou, eioi?ay aace?oaony ia ?uii/iuo
noaaeao.

Ii enoa/aiee onoaiiaeaiiiai ia?eiaea a?aiaie no?aia-/eai iaycaia
i?iecaanoe ia?aoioth iia?aoeeth — aueoieoue iaoeeiiaeueioth aaethoo o
Oiiaea, aa?ioa aio n?aaenoaa a NAe? eee eiino?aiiuo aaethoao. Iiieii
oiai, no?aia-caaiuee iaycaia aein?i/ii i?iecaiaeeoue aueoi naiae
eceeoiae aeey Oiiaea aaethou ii ia?a oeo/oaiey aa ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina e
oaaee/aiey aaethoiuo ?aca?aia. Anee iaoiaeyuayny a IAO iaoeeiiaeueiay
aaethoa no?aiu-aeieaeieea iieoiaaony ae?oaei ainoaea?noaii- /eaiii, oi
oai naiui iiaaoaaony aa caaeieaeaiiinoue Oiiaeo.

I?eia?aoaaiay no?aiie-/eaiii a IAO ia?aay ii?oeey eiino?aiiie aaethou a
?acia?a aei 25% eaiou (aei ssiaeneiai niaeaoaiey auaoay cieioay aeiey) n
1978 a. iacuaaaony ?aca?aiie aeieae. Iia ii?aaeaeyaony eae i?aauoaiea
aaee/eiu eaiou no?aiu-/eaia iaae noiiie iaoiaeyuaainy a ?anii?yaeaiee
Oiiaea caiana iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou aeaiiie no?aiu.

N?aaenoaa a eiino?aiiie aaethoa, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue i?eia?aoaiu
no?aiie-/eaiii naa?o ?aca?aiie aeiee (100% aaee/eiu eaiou), aeaeyony ia
/aou?a e?aaeeoiua aeiee (o?aioe) ii 25% eaiou. I?aaeaeueiay noiia
e?aaeeoa, eioi?oth no?aia iiaeao i?eia?anoe o IAO a ?acoeueoaoa iieiiai
eniieueciaaiey ?aca?aiie e e?aaeeoiuo aeieae, ninoaaeyao 125% ?acia?a aa
eaiou. Iaycaoaeuenoaa no?aiu – caaiueoeu, i?aaeoniao?eaathuea
i?iaaaeaiea ath niioaaonoaothueo oeiainiai-yeiiiie/aneeo ia?ii?eyoee,
oeene?othony a “ienueia i iaia?aieyo”, iai?aaeyaiii a IAO. Anee Oiiae
ni/oao, /oi no?aia eniieuecoao e?aaeeo “a i?ioeai?a/ee n oeaeyie Oiiaea”
eee ia auiieiyao aai i?aaeienaiee, ii iiaeao ia?aie/eoue eee iieiinoueth
i?ae?aoeoue e?aaeeoiaaiea no?aiu. Eniieueciaaiea ia?aie e?aaeeoiie aeiee
iiaeao auoue inouanoaeaii eae a oi?ia i?yiie iieoiee eiino?aiiie
aaethou, i?e eioi?ie no?aia iieo/aao anth eni?aoeaaaioth noiio
iaiaaeeaiii iinea iaeia?aiey Oiiaeii aa cai?ina, oae e iooai caeeth/aiey
n IAO niaeaoaiey i ?aca?aiii e?aaeeoa.

Niaeaoaiey i ?aca?aiii e?aaeeoa, eee niaeaoaiey “noyiae-aae” (Stand-by
Arrangements), iaania/eaatho no?aia-/eaio aa?aioeth oiai, /oi iia
niiaeao iieo/aoue eiino?aiioth aaethoo io IAO a iaiai ia iaoeeiiaeueioth
a niioaaonoaee n aeiaiai?aiiinoueth a ethaia a?aiy i?e niaethaeaiee
no?aiie iaiai?aiiuo oneiaee. Iiaeiaiay i?aeoeea i?aaeinoaaeaiey
e?aaeeoia aiaeiae/ia ioe?uoeth e?aaeeoiie eeiee.

Aeaaiui iacia/aieai e?aaeeoia “noyiae-aae” yaeyaony a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
e?aaeeoiaaiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo noaaeeecaoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii no?ai-/eaiia
IAO. Aaethoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiay Oiiaeii a aeaea ?aca?aiiai e?aaeeoa a
?aieao aa?oieo e?aaeeoiuo aeieae, auaeaaony ii?aaeaeaiiuie ii?oeeyie
(o?aioaie) /a?ac onoaiiaeaiiua i?iiaaeooee a?aiaie a oa/aiea n?iea
niaeaoaiey.

Iniiaaieai aeey ia?auaiey no?aiu e IAO n i?inueaie i i?aaeinoaaeaiee
e?aaeeoa a ?aieao nenoaiu ?anoe?aiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey iiaeao auoue
na?ueaciia ia?ooaiea ?aaiiaaney ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina, aucaaiiia
no?oeoo?iuie ?anno?ienoaaie a iaeanoe i?iecaiaenoaa, oi?aiaee eee
oeaiiaiai iaoaiecia. Niaeaoaiey i ?anoe?aiiuo e?aaeeoao iau/ii
ia?aie/aiu n?ieii a o?e aiaea; i?e iaiaoiaeeiinoe e ii i?inueaa
no?ai-/eaiia — aei /aou?ao eao. N iiya?y 1992 a. aeaenoaotho neaaeothuea
eeieou aeinooia no?ai-/eaiia e ?ano?nai IAO a ?aieao ?aca?aiuo e
?anoe?aiiuo e?aaeeoiuo niaeaoaiee (aianoa eee ?acaeaeueii):
i?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia ia i?ioyaeaiee aiaea aei 68 “e eaiou
no?aiu-/eaia: eoioeyoeaiay, aeeth/athuay caaeieaeaiiinoue no?aiu ii
?aiaa iieo/aiiui e?aaeeoai, i?aaeaeueiay aaee/eia – 300″/i eaiou (a
/enoii en/eneaiee, o. a. ca au/aoii noiiu i?aaenoiyuaai aueoia no?aiie
aa iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou a oa/aiea n?iea e?aaeeoiiai niaeaoaiey).

IAO E IEAOAAEIUA AAEAINU O*ANOAOTHUEO A IAI NO?AI

IAO nicaeai aeey oiai, /oiau iin?aaenoaii /anoe/iie
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee cieiouo e aaethoiuo ?aca?aia o/anoaothueo a iai
no?ai nicaeaoue ioe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo eeeaeaeiuo ?ano?nia, eioi?ue
aeieaeai neoaeeoue enoi/ieeii a?aiaiiiai iie?uoey ianneaiiai naeueaei
ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia no?ai, ia ?aniieaaathueo iaiaoiaeeiuie aeey yoiai
nianoaaiiuie eeeaeaeiuie ?ano?naie e ia eiathueo aiciiaeiinoe iieo/eoue
iau/iue aaieianeee e?aaeeo ca a?aieoeae.

Oiiae i?aaeinoaaeyao naie ?ano?nu o/anoaothuei a iai no?aiai a oi?ia
i?iaeaaee iaiaoiaeeiie ei eiino?aiiie aaethou ia iaoeeiiaeueioth
aaethoo.

Aiaeu nouanoaiaaiey IAO iieacaee, /oi iooai /anoe/iie
eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee cieiouo e aaethoiuo ?aca?aia iaeuecy ?ac?aoeoue
i?iaeaio iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eeeaeaeiinoe. ?ano?nu oiiaea ieacaeenue yaii
ia aeinoaoi/iuie aeey oiai, /oiau o?aaoee?iaaoue ianneaiia naeueaei
ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia ninoiyueo a iai ainoaea?noa. Iaeiaei ?ano?nu oiiaea
oe?iei eniieueciaaeenue NOA e ae?oaeie no?aiaie a ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec
n?aaenoa aeaaeaiey ia iaiaa iiaouanoaaiiuo e ?acaeaathueony no?ai. Ieaea
i?eaaaeaia oeaea i?ioeaioiuo noaaie, ia/eneyaiuo IAO n iay 1963 aiaea.

A?aiy

Iieueciaaiey

E?aaeeoii

Noiia e?aaeeoia a i?ioeaioao e eaioa

io 0% aei 50% io 51% aei 100% io 100% e aieaa

Aei 3 ianyoeaa I?ioeaiou ia aceiathony

Io 3 aei 6 ian. 2,0 2,0 2,0

Io 6 ian. aei 1a. 2,0 2,0 2,5

Io 1 aei 1,5 eao 2,0 2,5 3,0

Io 1,5 aei 2 eao 2,5 3,0 3,5

Io 2 aei 2,5 eao 3,0 3,5 4,0

Io 2,5 aei 3 eao 3,5 4,0 4,5

Io 3 aei 3,5 eao 4,0 4,5 5,0

Io 3,5 aei 4 eao 4,5 5,0 —

Io 4 aei 4,5 eao 5,0 — —

E?aaeeoiua iia?aoeee IAO iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa ia?eiaea: ia?aue
ia?eiae- n 1947 ii 1956 e aoi?ie- n 1957 ii 1966 aiae.

A 1947 aiaeo IAO i?aaeinoaaee e?aaeeou 8 no?aiai ia iauoth noiio 467,7
iei. aeieea?ia, a oii /enea Aiaeee- 240 iei. aeieea?ia, O?aioeee- 125,
Aieeaiaeee- 52 iei.

Iaeiaei oaea a 1948 aiaeo e?aaeeoiue iaoaieci oiiaea, ia eioi?ue
aiceaaaeenue aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu, ia/ae ?aaioaoue n ia?aaiyie.
Ieaoaaeiua aaeainu Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu ieacaeenue ianneaiuie. Iiyoiio iie
ia oieueei ia iiaee iiaaneoue caaeieaeaiiinoue, ii e ioaeaeaeenue a
iiauo e?aaeeoao.

?oeiaiaeeoaee IAO oaea a 1948 aiaeo auee auioaeaeaiu i?eciaoue, /oi
oiiae ia iiaeao ni?aaeoueny n iinoaaeaiiuie caaea/aie, oae eae e?ecen
aaethoii-oeiainiauo ioiioaiee ieacaeny cia/eoaeueii aeoaaea, /ai yoi
iaeeaeaeinue i?e nicaeaiee oiiaea.

Oi?aaeai/aneay no?oeoo?a IAO – Niaao oi?aaeythueo, a eioi?ii eaaeaeay
no?aia-/eai i?aaenoaaeaia oi?aaeythuei e aai caianoeoaeai, iacia/aaiuie
ia iyoue eao. Iau/ii yoi ieieno?u oeiainia eee ?oeiaiaeeoaee
oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia.

IAO ono?iai ii ia?acoeo aeoeeiia?iiai i?aaei?eyoey. Iiyoiio
aiciiaeiinoue eaaeaeiai o/anoieea ieacuaaoue aicaeaenoaea ia aai
aeayoaeueiinoue n iiiiuueth aieiniaaiey ii?aaeaeyaony aeieae a eaieoaea.
Iaeaieueoei eiee/anoaii aieinia a IAO iaeaaeatho:

“NOA- 17,7%

Aa?iaiey- 5,5%

ssiiiey- 5,5%

Aaeeeia?eoaiey- 4,9%

Naoaeianeay A?aaey- 3,4%

Eoaeey- 3,1%

?inney- 2,9%

Aeiey no?ai AN- 26,2%

24 i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo ainoaea?noa eiatho 59,6% aieinia a IAO. Ia
aeieth inoaeueiuo no?ai, ninoaaeythueo ii/oe 86% eiee/anoaa /eaiia
Oiiaea, i?eoiaeeony eeoue 40,4 aieinia”.

Aee?aeoi?-?anii?yaeeoaeue ( n 1987 a. )- Ieoaeue Eaiaeannth ( O?aioeey
), aai caianoeoaee ( n 1994 a. )- Noyiee Oeoa? e ae?oaea ( NOA ).

Ia ia?auo ii?ao IAO eae e?aaeeoi? ea?ae ne?iiioth ?ieue. Iaeiaei a 70-o
e iniaaiii a 80-o aiaeao i?iecioei cia/eoaeueiia ?anoe?aiea aai
e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaeiaiaa ?acaeoui no?aiai i?aaeinoaaeyeenue eueaioiua e?aaeeou ca n/ao
niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia.

IAO ia oieueei iaiin?aaenoaaiii e?aaeeooao no?aiu-/eaiu, ii e iiiiaaao
ei iieo/eoue e?aaeeou o i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai,
oeaio?aeueiuo aaieia, a?oiiu IA??, Aaiea Iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo ?an/aoia, a
oaeaea o /anoiuo eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Aeaaea iaaieueoie e?aaeeo IAO
iaeaa/aao aeinooi no?aia ia /anoiue ie?iaie ?uiie nnoaeiuo eaieoaeia.
I?aaeinoaaeyy e?aaeeo, IAO eae au oaeinoiaa?yao ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoue
aeaiiie no?aiu, aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aa aa?aioa. ?anoe?aiea a 70-80-a
aiaeu e?aaeeoiaaiey Oiiaeii ?acaeaathueony no?ai auei naycaii n
nouanoaaiiui oooaeoaieai eo aaethoiiai iieiaeaiey a ?acoeueoaoa aeaoo
?aoiaeia iiauoaiey ie?iauo oeai ia aeeaeeia oiieeai. A 1977-1991 aa.
?acaeaathueany no?aiu-eiii?oa?u iaooe iieo/eee 85,7% e?aaeeoia IAO.
Aia?aua iinea 1985 aiaea noiia e?aaeeoia i?aauneea iiaaoaiea
caaeieaeaiiinoe.

?anoe?aiea e?aaeeoiie aeayoaeueiinoe Oiiaea iaoneiaeaii o?aiy iniiaiuie
oaeoi?aie.

1. Niauoey ia Aeeaeiai Ainoiea, aieia a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa i?eaaee e
nie?auaieth iinoaaie iaooe ia ie?iaie ?uiie e ?inoo oeai ia iaa, /oi
oooaeoeei ieaoaaeiua aaeainu ?yaea no?ai.

2. IAO aeoeaece?iaae oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai,
i?enooieaoei e iae?iyeiiiie/aneei e no?oeoo?iui ?aoi?iai, a oaeaea
aeeth/eeny a o?aaoee?iaaiea aiaoiaai aeieaa yoeo no?ai.

3. N 90-o aic?inee e?aaeeou IAO no?aiai Ainoi/iie Aa?iiu e auaoaai NNN?
a nayce n aeoaieeie nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneeie i?aia?aciaaieyie e
ia?aoiaeii e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea.

Anai ynii, /oi noaaeeueiinoue iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou iaania/eaaao e
noaaeeueiinoue ia ie?iaii ?uiea. Aeieea? yaeyaony oaeie aaethoie a
oa/aiea iiiaeo eao.

NIAOeEAEUeIUA OIIAeU

A oeaeyo ?anoe?aiey naieo e?aaeeoiuo aiciiaeiinoae IAO i?aeoeeoao
nicaeaiea niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia (aiae. facility – ono?ienoai, iaoaieci,
oiiae). Iie ?acee/athony ii oeaeyi, oneiaeyi e noieiinoe e?aaeeoa.

1. Oiiae eiiiainaoeeiiiiai e iai?aaeaeaeaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey
i?aaeiacia/ai aeey e?aaeeoiaaiey no?ai-/eaiia IAO, o eioi?uo aeaoeoeeo
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina iaoneiaeai aiaoieie, ia caaenyueie io ieo oaeoi?aie.
A eo /enea: noeoeeiua aaaenoaey, iai?aaeaeaeaiiia iaaeaiea ie?iauo oeai,
i?iiuoeaiiue niaae e aaaaeaiea i?ioaeoeeiienoneeo ia?aie/aiee a
no?aiao-eiii?oa?ao. iiyaeaiea oiaa?ia-caiaieoaeae e o. i. Yoio oiiae
aeeth/aao o?e eiiiiiaioa:

1) n 1963 a. e?aaeeoiaaiea (a ianoiyuaa a?aiy aei 30% eaiou) no?ai,
iniaaiii yenii?oa?ia nu?uey, aaethoiua iinooieaiey eioi?uo nie?auathony
a ?acoeueoaoa iaaeaiey ie?iauo oeai ia nu?uea;

2) n 1981 a. e?aaeeoiaaiea (aei 15″/i eaiou) no?ai-eiii?oa?ia ca?ia,
eniuouaathueo o?oaeiinoe a nayce n ?inoii ie?iauo oeai ia ca?ii: n
aeaeaa?y 1990 a. ii ethiue 1992 a. e?aaeeoiaaiea no?ai-eiii?oa?ia iaooe,
iaooai?iaeoeoia e i?e?iaeiiai aaca:

3) n 1988 a. eiiiainaoeeiiiia oeiaine?iaaiea iai?aaeaeaeaiiuo iioa?ue
aeey iiiiue no?aiai, eniuouaathuei aeeyiea iai?aaeneacoaiuo aiaoieo
oaeoi?ia (aei 30% eaiou).

E?iia oiai, no?aia eiaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aoeoueny e IAO n i?inueaie i
auaeaeaiee n?aaenoa a n/ao iniaie e?aaeeoiie aeiee (aei 20% eaiou),
eioi?ay iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia ii auai?o a aeiiieiaiea e ethaiio ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo o?ao aeaeia e?aaeeoiaaiey. Anee o?oaeiinoe ieaoaaeiiai
aaeaina aucaaiu eeoue nieaeaieai yenii?oiie au?o/ee eeai oaaee/aieai
?anoiaeia ia eiii?o ca?iiauo, eeieo eiiiainaoeeiiiuo e?aaeeoia
ia?aie/eaaaony 65% eaiou no?aiu. I?e eniieueciaaiee no?aiaie e?aaeeoia
Oiiaea aeey aiciauaiey oauoeia, naycaiiuo iaeiia?aiaiii n iaaeaieai
yenii?oiie au?o/ee e oaaee/aieai ?anoiaeia ia eiii?o ca?ia, a oaeaea a
neo/aa iaeiia?aiaiiiai i?eiaiaiey aeaoo ec o?ao eiiiiiaioia iaoaiecia
eiiiainaoeeiiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey onoaiaaeeaaaony eiiaeie?iaaiiue eeieo a
?acia?a 80% eaiou. Iauee eeieo aeinooia e e?aaeeoai Oiiaea
eiiiainaoeeiiiiai e iai?aaeaeaeaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey n o/aoii anao aai
eiiiiiaioia ninoaaeyao 9 5 “/i eaiou no?aiu.

2. A ethia 1969 a. nicaeai Oiiae e?aaeeoiaaiey aooa?iuo (?aca?aiuo)
caiania aeey ieacaiey iiiiue no?aiai, o/anoaothuei a nicaeaiee iiaeiaiuo
caiania nu?ueaauo oiaa?ia a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
niaeaoaieyie, anee yoi oooaeoaao eo ieaoaaeiue aaeain. Eeieo — 30%
eaiou.

3. N 1989 a. ooieoeeiie?oao Oiiae oeiainiaie iiaeaea?aeee iia?aoeee ii
nie?auaieth e ianeoaeeaaieth aiaoiaai aeieaa. Yoi iauyniyaony aeoeaiie
?ieueth IAO a o?aaoee?iaaiee aeieaiaiai e?ecena ?acaeaathueony no?ai a
80-o aiaeao. I?e i?aaeinoaaeaiee ?aca?aiuo eee ?anoe?aiiuo e?aaeeoia
no?aiai-aeieaeieeai /anoue noiiu yoeo e?aaeeoia (aei 25%) iiaeao auoue
ca?aca?ae?iaaia a oeaeyo nie?auaiey iniiaiiai aeieaa. E?iia oiai, a
oeaeyo /anoe/iie eiiiainaoeee i?ioeaioiuo ieaoaaeae eeai
aeiiieieoaeueiiai iaania/aiey iniiaiiai aeieaa i?e iaiaia ii ia?eoaoiie
noieiinoe aeieaiauo iaycaoaeuenoa ia iaeeaaoeee n aieaa ieceie
i?ioeaioiie noaaeie IAO iiaeao auaeaeyoue aeiiieieoaeueiua n?aaenoaa
naa?o ?aca?aiuo eee ?anoe?aiiuo e?aaeeoia. Eeieo e?aaeeoia ninoaaeyao n
iiya?y 1992 a. 30% eaiou no?aiu. Oaeoe/anee aaee/eiu aeiiieieoaeueiiai
e?aaeeoa ii?aaeaeythony Oiiaeii a ?acoeueoaoa ?anniio?aiey eaaeaeiai
eiie?aoiiai neo/ay, n o/aoii “noaiaie ?aaeeeaeueiinoe” i?ia?aiiu
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee e no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee
niioaaonoaothuae no?aiu.

4. A ai?aea 1993 a. IAO o/?aaeee Oiiae iiaeaea?aeee no?oeoo?iuo
i?aia?aciaaiee. Yoio oiiae i?eaioe?iaai ia no?aiu, inouanoaeythuea
ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea iooai ?aaeeeaeueiuo yeiiiie/aneeo e
iieeoe/aneeo ?aoi?i. Iiaiaeii aeey aai eniieueciaaiey iiaeao auoue,
ai-ia?auo, ?aceia iaaeaiea iinooieaiee io yenii?oa aneaaenoaea ia?aoiaea
e iiiainoi?iiiae, iniiaaiiie ia ?uii/iuo oeaiao oi?aiaea, ai-aoi?uo,
cia/eoaeueiia e onoie/eaia oaaee/aiea noieiinoe eiii?oa ec-ca ie?iauo
oeai, iniaaiii ia yia?aiiineoaee, e. a-o?aoueeo, ni/aoaiea iaieo yoeo
yaeaiee. I?aaeinoaaeaiea e?aaeeoia a aeaiiii neo/aa iaoneiaeeaaaony
auiieiaieai no?aiie – caaiueoeae iaai?a aieaa “iyaeeo”
iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iaycaoaeuenoa, /ai oa, n eioi?uie naycaii iieo/aiea
noaiaea?oiuo iieiiianooaaiuo ?aca?aiuo e?aaeeoia. No?aiu-/eaiu iiaoo
iieo/aoue n?aaenoaa a ?aieao “i?iiaaeooi/iiai”, eee “ia?aoiaeiiai”,
e?aaeeoiaaiey aei 50% eo eaiou. E?aaeeou i?aaeinoaaeythony aeaoiy
?aaiuie aeieyie ii 50% eaaeaeay n eioa?aaeii a iieaiaea. I?aeoe/anee
yoio oiiae ia?aciaai aeaaiui ia?acii aeey no?ai auaoaai NNN?,
ia?aaeeaathueo ia?iiiua o?oaeiinoe a oneiaeyo ia?aoiaea e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea e ia niiniaiuo iiea auiieiyoue iau/iua aeanoeea o?aaiaaiey
IAO.

Iieo/aiea no?aiaie /eaiaie IAO n?aaenoa ec niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia – yoi
aeiiieiaiea e eo e?aaeeoiui aeieyi. Eniieueciaaiea no?aiie ?ano?nia
niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia iiaeao oaaee/eaaoue iaoiaeyueeny a ?anii?yaeaiee
IAO caian aa iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou naa?o eoioeyoeaiuo i?aaeaeia,
onoaiiaeaiiuo aeey iieo/aiey e?aaeeoiuo aeieae.

E?iia ooieoeeiie?othueo iuia /aou?ao niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia IAO
ia?eiaee/anee nicaeaao a?aiaiiua e?aaeeoiua oiiaeu a oeaeyo ?aoaiey
ino?uo i?iaeai iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoiuo ioiioaiee. Aeey eo
oi?ie?iaaiey i?eaeaeathony caaiiua n?aaenoaa ec ?acee/iuo aiaoieo
ioeoeeaeueiuo enoi/ieeia. E a?aiaiiui niaoeeaeueiui oiiaeai ioiinyony:

1) Iaooyiie oiiae a iauaia 6,9 ie?ae. NAe?, eee 8 ie?ae. aeiee.
(1974—1976 aa.). i?aaeinoaaeye e?aaeeou no?aiai-/eaiai IAO aeey iie?uoey
aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia, aucaaiiuo oaaee/aieai noieiinoe eiii?oa
iaooe e iaooai?iaeoeoia. Iaiaoiaeeiua aeey yoiai ?ano?nu nnoaeeee
i?aeiouanoaaiii no?aiu—yenii?oa?u iaooe. ?acaeaathueany no?aiu
eiee/anoaaiii i?aiaeaaeaee n?aaee iieo/aoaeae e?aaeeoia, ii eo aeiey
auea iaaaeeea (1/3) ii n?aaiaieth n ?acaeouie ainoaea?noaaie. Oneiaey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey e?aaeeoia ec iaooyiiai oiiaea auee aeanoeea:
n?aaieoaeueii aunieea i?ioeaioiua noaaee (ia iaiaa 7,2% aiaeiauo);
iaycaoaeueiia auiieiaiea ?aeiiaiaeaoeee IAO i?e i?iaaaeaiee
iaoeeiiaeueiie yia?aaoe/aneie e aaethoiie iieeoeee. Aneaaenoaea yoiai
aeinooi ?acaeaathueony no?ai e ?ano?nai iaooyiiai oiiaea aue ia?aie/ai:
ca n/ao aai e?aaeeoia iie iie?uee eeoue 1/3 aeiiieieoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia
ia eiii?o iiaei?iaeaaoae iaooe;

2) Aeiaa?eoaeueiue oiiae — a iauaia 4 ie?ae. NAe?, eee 4,9 ie?ae. aeiee.
(1976– -1981 aa.); nicaeai a iniiaiii ca n/ao i?eauee io i?iaeaaee ia
aoeoeeiiao /anoe cieioiai caiana IAO. Iieo/aoaeyie e?aaeeoia ec yoiai
oiiaea yaeyeenue iaeiaiaa ?acaeoua no?aiu. Oneiaey aeaiiuo e?aaeeoia
auee n?aaieoaeueii eueaioiua: no?aiu-caaiueee ia aiineee a IAO
yeaeaaeaio iieo/aaiuo n?aaenoa a iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa, i?ioeaioiay
noaaea iaaunieay 0,5%, n?ie e?aaeeoa 10 eao. Yoe oneiaey a
iaeaieueoae noaiaie ioaa/aee o?aaiaaieyi ?acaeaathueony no?ai. 55 no?ai
iieo/eee ec aeiaa?eoaeueiiai oiiaea 3 ie?ae. NAe?. Inoaeueiay /anoue
auea ia?aaeaia ?acaeaathueiny ainoaea?noaai i?iii?oeeiiaeueii eo eaioai:

3) Oiiae aeiiieieoaeueiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey eee oiiae Aeooaaaaia – ii
eiaie aee?aeoi?a-?anii?yaeeoaey IAO; a?aiy aeaenoaey 1979-1984 aa.
Oeaeue yoiai oiiaea — i?aaeinoaaeyoue ca n/ao caaiiuo n?aaenoa
aeiiieieoaeueiua e?aaeeou no?aiai, eniuouaathuei iniaaiii ?aceea e
caoyaeiua e?ecenu ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia e en/a?iaaoei eeieou iau/iuo
e?aaeeoia IAO. ?ano?nu oiiaea Aeooaaaaia (7,8 ie?ae. NAe?, nauoa 10
ie?ae. aeiee.) noi?ie?iaaiu ca n/ao e?aaeeoia 13 no?ai-/eaiia IAO, a
oaeaea Oaaeoea?neiai iaoeeiiaeueiiai aaiea. E?aaeeou ec yoiai oiiaea
iieo/eee 26 no?ai:

4) Oiiae ?anoe?aiiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai IAO; i?aaiiee oiiaea
aeiiieieoaeueiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey, ooieoeeiie?iaae a 19811992 aa. Oeaeue
oiiaea i?aaeinoaaeyoue aeiiieieoaeueiua e?aaeeou no?aiai-/eaiai, o
eioi?uo ianooaau ia?aaiiaanee ieaoaaeiuo aaeainia iaiiia?ii aaeeee ii
n?aaiaieth n ?acia?aie eo eaio. Yoio oiiae eniieueciaaeny a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea no?aia ioaeaeaeanue a n?aaenoaao a aieueoeo ?acia?ao, /ai iia
iiaea iieo/eoue a IAO a ?aieao /aou?ao e?aaeeoiuo aeieae e nenoaiu
?anoe?aiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey, e ia aieaa i?iaeieaeeoaeueiue n?ie aeey
inouanoaeaiey ei??aeoe?othueo yeiiiie/aneeo ia? i?e aieueoai ia?eiaea
iiaaoaiey e?aaeeoa. Enoi/ieeii ?ano?nia oiiaea yaeyeenue nianoaaiiua
n?aaenoaa IAO, i?eaea/aiiua a oi?ia iiaeienee, e caeinoaiaaiey o ae?oaeo
no?ai. A nayce n oaaee/aieai eaio no?ai-/eaiia IAO oeacaiiue oiiae
i?ae?aoee naith aeayoaeueiinoue a iiya?a 1992 a.; 5) Oiiae no?oeoo?iie
ia?ano?ieee (n ia?oa 1986 a.): i?aaeinoaaeyao eueaioiua e?aaeeou
aaaeiaeoei ?acaeaathueiny no?aiai, eniuouaathuei o?iie/aneee e?ecen
ieaoaaeiiai aaeaina a oeaeyo inouanoaeaiey n?aaeian?i/iuo i?ia?aii
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie e no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee. Ii ninoiyieth ia naioya?ue
1993 a. 36 no?ai (ec 61 no?aiu, eiathuae ia ieo i?aai) iieo/eee yoe
eueaioiua e?aaeeou a noiia 1,5 ie?ae. NAe?, eee ieiei 2,1 ie?ae. aeiee.
Oneiaey caeiia: 0,5% aiaeiauo: iiaaoaiea a oa/aiea 10 eao; o ?aoeeiiiue
ia?eiae aei 5’/2 eao. Eeieo e?aaeeoia — aei 50% eaiou. Enoi/iee ?ano?nia
(2,7 ie?ae. NAe?) — iiaaoaiea e?aaeeoia, i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo
aeiaa?eoaeueiui oiiaeii;

6) ?anoe?aiiue oiiae no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee; n aeaeaa?y 1987 a.
i?aaeinoaaeyao e?aaeeou ca n/ao eae iaeniieueciaaiiuo ?ano?nia oiiaea
no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee, oae e niaoeeaeueiuo caeiia e iiaea?oaiaaiee (6
ie?ae. NAe?). Ii naiei oeaeyi e iaoaiecio ooieoeeiie?iaaiey yoio oiiae
yaeyaony i?aaiieeii oiiaea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee. Iiieii 61 no?aiu
i?aai iieo/aiey e?aaeeoia io yoiai oiiaea a ai?aea 1992 a. auei
i?aaeinoaaeaii aua 11 no?aiai, aeeth/ay Aeaaieth e Iiiaieeth. 29 no?ai
eniieueciaaee yoi i?aai e naioya?th 1993 a. ia noiio 3,2 ie?ae. NAe?
(oaeoe/anee – 2,4 ie?ae. NAe?). No?aia-/eai eiaao aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/aoue yoe e?aaeeou n?ieii ia 3 aiaea aei 190% eaiou, eiiaaea i?e
eneeth/eoaeueiuo ianoiyoaeuenoaao aei 255% eaiou. Ia?aiia/aeueii n?ie
aeey caeeth/aiey niaeaoaiee i caeiao aue onoaiiaeai ii iiya?ue 1990 a.,
a aeaeueiaeoai ii iaiaeiie?aoii i?iaeeaaaeny (aei 28 oaa?aey 1994 a.).

A eiioea 1993 a. ia?aciaai iiaue ?anoe?aiiue oiiae no?oeoo?iie
ia?ano?ieee — i?aaii?aaiiee i?aaeuaeouaai. Iauai iiaiai oiiaea — 5
ie?ae. NAe? (ieiei 7 ie?ae. aeiee.) aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey eueaioiuo
caeiia n?ieii o?e aiaea e 2 ie?ae. NAe? (ieiei 3 ie?ae. aeiee.) aeey
noaneaee?iaaiey i?ioeaioiuo noaaie ii yoei caeiai. E iath 1994 a. 43
no?aiu niaeaneeenue o/anoaiaaoue a oi?ie?iaaiee yoiai oiiaea. A
i?ia?aiiao no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee, eioi?ua noaioo
inouanoaeyoueny i?e niaeaenoaee iiaiai oiiaea, aoaeao oaeaeyoueny
aieueoa aieiaiey nioeeaeueiie caueoa ianaeaiey e niaa?oainoaiaaieth
no?oeoo?u ainoaea?noaaiiuo ?anoiaeia. N?ie aeaenoaey iiaiai ?anoe?aiiiai
oiiaea no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee — aei eiioea 1996 a., a n?aaenoaa ii
caeeth/aiiui niaeaoaieyi aoaeoo i?aaeinoaaeyoueny no?aiai-caaiueeai aei
eiioea 1999 a.

Ia?aciaaiea aeiiieieoaeueiuo niaoeeaeueiuo oiiaeia a ?aieao IAO iooai
caeinoaiaaiey ?ano?nia o ae?oaeo no?ai-/eaiia – yoi iaeii ec i?iyaeaiee
i?ioeanna aaeaioaoeee nenoaiu iaaeainoaea?noaaiiiai e?aaeeoiaaiey e
aaethoiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey e iaiythueiny oneiaeyi ie?iaie yeiiiieee. IAO
auiieiyao ?ieue iin?aaeieea i?e ia?a?ani?aaeaeaiee nnoaeiiai eaieoaea io
aieaa aeaaiiieo/iuo no?ai-e?aaeeoi?ia e no?aiai, eniuouaathuei
iio?aaiinoue a e?aaeeoao. Iaeiia?aiaiii, ieacuaay neeiaia aicaeaenoaea
ia yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo no?ai – caaiueoe. ii aunooiaao a ea/anoaa
aa?aioa aica?auaiey yoeo n?aaenoa.

?IEUe IAO A ?AAOEE?IAAIEE IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUO AAETHOII-E?AAeEOIUO IOIIOAIEE

IAO inouanoaeyao iaaethaeaiea e eiio?ieue ca niaethaeaieai
no?aiaie-/eaiaie naiaai Onoaaa, eioi?ue oeene?oao iniiaiua no?oeoo?iua
i?eioeeiu ie?iaie aaethoiie nenoaiu.

Ca a?aiy naiaai nouanoaiaaiey IAO i?aa?aoeeny a iiaeeeiii
oieaa?naeueioth i?aaiecaoeeth, aeiaeeny oe?ieiai i?eciaiey a ea/anoaa
aeaaiiai iaaeiaoeeiiaeueiiai i?aaia ?aaoee?iaaiey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
aaethoii-e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, aaoi?eoaoiiai oeaio?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
e?aaeeoiaaiey, eii?aeeiaoi?a iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo e?aaeeoiuo iioieia e
aa?aioa ieaoaaeaniiniaiinoe no?ai – caaiueoe. Iaeiia?aiaiii ii ia/eiaao
ea?aoue aaaeioth ?ieue a ?aaeecaoeee ?aoaiee “naia?ee” aaaeoueo
ainoaea?noa Caiaaea, noaiiaeony eeth/aaui caaiii oi?ie?othuaeny nenoaiu
?aaoee?iaaiey ie?iaie yeiiiieee, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eii?aeeiaoeee,
niaeaniaaiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo iae?iyeiiiie/aneeo iieeoee. Oiiae
ca?aeiiaiaeiaae naay aeoeaii ooieoeeiie?othuei ie?iaui aaethoiui
einoeoooii, iaeiiee aieueoie e iieaciue iiuo.

IAO – EU?AUCNOAI

A Oeaio?aeueiie Acee Eu?aucnoai auaeaeyaony oai, /oi eca?ae caiaaeioth
iiaeaeue iieeoe/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey. A ionoaeie,
neaai?acaeoie aceaoneie ?anioaeeea auaoaai NNN? i?aaei?eiyoa iiiuoea
iino?ieoue iauanoai, iniiaaiiia ia caiaaeiuo oeaiiinoyo. N 1993 ii 1996
aiae ?anioaeeea iieo/aea ia aeooo ianaeaiey a aeaea e?aaeeoia aieueoa
aeieea?ia /ai ethaay ae?oaay no?aia NIA. Oieueei ia iiaeaea?aeaiea
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou – niia – Eu?aucnoaia aaeaaiaeii auaeaeaeinue
i?eia?ii ii 100 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia. A 1996 aiaeo IAO i?aaeinoaaee
Eu?aucnoaio ?aaeei iaeaieueoaai aeaaii?eyonoaiaaiey e oaaee/ee ?acia?u
iiiiue. Ianiio?y ia yoi yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu iai?a?uaii
oooaeoaeinue. Iinooiaaiua a E? n?aaenoaa eniieuecothony aeaaiui ia?acii
aeey inaiaiey ?ano?nia no?aiu, nicaeaiey eio?ano?oeoo?u aeey auaica
nu?uey e iiaeieoeo ianoiie yeeou.

Ieceee ieaoaaeaniiniaiue ni?in, ineaaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo naycae,
iaeiieo?aioiiniiniaiinoue ioaeaeueiuo aeaeia auioneaaiie i?iaeoeoeee,
ionoonoaea iaoa?eaeueiuo e oeiainiauo ?ano?nia, ?ino e?aaeeoi?neie e
aeaaeoi?neie caaeieaeaiiinoe – ana yoi iiaei?aaei iniiau e aac oiai
aanueia neaaie yeiiiieee no?aiu. Oaiiu niaaea i?iiuoeaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa a 1992 a. ninoaaeee 26,4 %, a 1993 – 24,6, a 1994 – 27,9.
(ii ae?oaei aeaiiui aei 50%), a 1995 -50% A 1997 a.
aeaeiaeono?eaeeeecaoeey a E? caaa?oeeanue.

A iauanoaa i?iecioei ?aceia eiouanoaaiiia ?anneiaiea. A no?aia
onoaiiaeeny cia/eoaeueiue ?ac?ua iaaeaeo aiaaouie (3% ianaeaiey) e
aaaeiuie (97%). Ianoiua eiiia?naiou auaacee ec no?aiu ana /oi iiaeii –
oeaaoiua iaoaeeu, iaoeiu, noaiee, naeioeiai-oeeieiaoth ?oaeo, oa?noue,
eiaeo e o.ae. A ionoonoaea iaee/iinoe aa?aiu i?aa?aoeeenue a aeaiaaeioth
aaeeieoeo. ?an/aou ia ia?eoa?ee, iniaaiii a ioaeaeaiiuo ianaeaiiuo
ioieoao, ia?aaeei i?iecaiaeyony n iiiiuueth aa?aiia. Aiaae?aiea
caiaaeiie iiaeaee, i?iaaaeaiiia i?yiieeiaeii, aac o/aoa ianoiuo
o?aaeeoeee e iniaaiiinoae, i?eaaei e iaino?aieth aioo?aiieo i?ioeai?a/ee
e i?iaeai. Iaeaieaa iianiie ec ieo yaeyaony ?aaeiiaeeci.

Iieeoe/aneay e oicyenoaaiiay yeeoa Ee?aecee n aeaaieo ii? auea
?acaeaeaia ia aeaa ?aaeiiaeueiuo eeaia – naaa?iue e thaeiue. A 70-80
aiaeao iaaeaeo ieie onoaiiaeeinue ?aaiiaanea. Noa?u aeeyiey auee
?acaeaeaiu e neiaeeaoaany iieiaeaiea ono?aeaaei iaa noi?iiu.
Iineaaeiaaaoee a 1992-1995 aiaeao ia?aaeae nianoaaiiinoe i?eaae e
ia?ooaieth ?aaiiaaney. I?e A.Aeaaaa naaa?iue eeai noae auno?i iaae?aoue
neeo. Ii e ?aiueoa i?aainoiaeee thaeiue ii /eneaiiinoe e iioaioeeaeo. Ii
a ianoiyuaa a?aiy yoi iieiaeaiea cae?aieeinue aua aieueoa.
I?aaenoaaeoaee naaa?a aea?aeao a naieo ?oeao iniiaiua ?u/aae aeanoe e
nianoaaiiinoue.

I?ioeai?a/ey iaaeaeo naaa?ii e thaii oaea noaee i?e/eiie
aioo?eiieeoe/aneiai e?ecena a 1994 aiaeo. Naaiaeiy i?eoiaeeony
eiinoaoe?iaaoue, /oi A.Aeaaa e aai ie?oaeaiea ia eiio?iee?otho a iieiii
iauaia ianoaiiaeo ia thaa no?aiu. Ai?iae Io naaiaeiy yaeyaony
ia?aaaei/iui oeaio?ii ia?eioi?aiaee. Aai iacuaatho ?aaeiiaeueiie
noieeoeae ia?eiaeciana. A?aiy io a?aiaie iiyaeythony niiauaiey i
aeaenoaothueo a o?oaeiiaeinooiiuo, ai?iuo ?aeiiao thaeiie /anoe
Eu?aucnoaia eaaa?ae aiaaeeia aoaaineeo e oaaeaeeeneeo iiiiceoeeiia?ia.

Ae?oaei neaaenoaeai i?iaiaeeiiai a E? yenia?eiaioa yaeyaony iieiay
caaeneiinoue no?aiu io oeiainiauo aeeaaiee caiaaea. Aac aeioaoeee
yeiiiieea E? oaea ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue. Caiaae nnoaeaao iiae caeia
iacaiiuo e iiaecaiiuo ?ano?nia (cieioi, na?aa?i, no?ueia, ?oooue e
i?i/aa). Oaeei ia?acii iaeaieaa aa?iyoiia aoaeouaa E? – yoi iiaoi?aiea
iooe iaeaieaa ionoaeuo ainoaea?noa Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee.

I acaeiiioiioaieyo E? n IAO iiae?iaiaa:

AEOEAE, 27 iay. Aee?aeoi?-?anii?yaeeoaeue Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai
oiiaea auniei ioeaiee aeaenoaey Eu?aucnoaia ii ia?aoiaeo e ?uii/iie
yeiiiieea. Ieoaeue Eaiaeannth aunooiee 27 iay ia i?acaeiiaaiee iyoie
aiaeiaueiu aaaaeaiey iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou Eu?aucnoaia – niia ia
i?ioiaeyuae a Aeoeaea eiioa?aioeee “Caaea/e e ia?niaeoeau ia?aoiaeiuo
yeiiiiee”. A ?aaioa eiioa?aioeee o/anoaotho oaeaea yenia?ou ec
Anaie?iiai e Aceaoneiai aaieia. Ieoaeue Eaiaeannth ioiaoee, /oi
Eu?aucnoai ni a?aiaie anooieaiey a IAO /iae 1992 aiaea/ iieo/ee ii aai
e?aaeeoiui eeieyi aieaa 420 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia NOA, iia?aaeea ae?oaea
no?aiu NIA a aaaeaiee iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou /iae 1993 aiaea/. E
i?ioeiio aiaeo ?anioaeeea nieceea eioeyoeeth n 1259 i?ioeaioia aei
o?iaiy iaeiicia/iuo aaee/ei /14,8 i?ioeaioa/, a o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoaa
i?i/ii caiye 7-i?ioeaioioth ioiaoeo. IAO e aeaeaa aioia nii?iaiaeaeaoue
Eu?aucnoai ia iooe e nicaeaieth yooaeoeaiie ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e
eioaa?aoeee a aeiaaeueioth yeiiiieeo, iiae/a?eioe Ieoaeue Eaiaeannth. A
naith i/a?aaeue i?aceaeaio Eu?aucnoaia Anea? Aeaaa cayaee, /oi “n
iiiiuueth IAO e ae?oaeo iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee ii n?aaiaieth n
15-i?ioeaioiui iaaeaieai AAI a 1993 aiaeo a 1997 aiaeo ?ino aaeiaiai
aioo?aiiaai i?iaeoeoa a Eu?aucnoaia ninoaaee 10 i?ioe. O?iaaiue
eioeyoeee, eioi?ue a 1993 aiaeo ecia?yeny a 1333 i?ioe., a i?ioeii aiaeo
ninoaaee 14 i?ioe. A 1997 aiaeo, neacae Anea? Aeaaa, Ee?aecey caaa?oeea
ia?aue aioee?eceniue yoai ?aoi?i n iiiiuueth i?ia?aiiu IAO. N 1998 ii
2001 aiae ia/iao ?aaioo aoi?ay i?ia?aiia IAO, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao
cae?aieaiea onoie/eaiai yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa a Ee?aecee. A oi aea a?aiy,
ioiaoee Anea? Aeaaa, “i?aaeoaeuenoai ?anioaeeee ia iiaeao iinoiyiii
i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia aiaoiea caeinoaiaaiey. Iaycaoaeuenoaa ?anooo.
Aaee/eia aiaoiaai aeieaa e 2000 aiaeo oaaee/eony n 974 ieeeeiiia
aeieea?ia aei 1 ieeeea?aea 345 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia”. Anea? Aeaaa iacaae
iyoue iniiaiuo caaea/ aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey ee?aecneie yeiiiieee:
i?eaaoecaoeey aei 2000 aiaea no?aoaae/aneeo aaciauo io?aneae
/yia?aaoeea, o?ainii?o, naycue, ?acaeoea eio?ano?oeoo?u ?uiea, ?acaeoea
iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana, i?eaea/aiea i?yiuo eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee/.

AAOEIAOII. 30 ethiy. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae iaeia?ee
auaeaeaiea Ee?aecee iiaiai o?aoeaoiaai caeia a ?acia?a 86 iei. aeieea?ia
a ?aieao i?ia?aiiu no?oeoo?iuo yeiiiie/aneeo i?aia?aciaaiee. Iieiaeia
ia?aiai o?aioa a ?acia?a 29 iei. aeieea?ia auaeaeyaony iaiaaeeaiii, a
aoi?ay aoaeao ia?aaeaia /a?ac iieaiaea. Ii ioeaiea IAO, a ?acoeueoaoa
ia?aiai o?aoeaoiaai yoaia no?oeoo?iuo i?aia?aciaaiee, eioi?ue caeii/eeny
31 ia?oa oaeouaai aiaea, Ee?aecey aeiaeeanue cia/eoaeueiiai i?ia?anna a
iae?iyeiiiie/aneie noaaeeecaoeee e ia/aea no?ieoaeuenoai iiauo ?uii/iuo
ioiioaiee. A ?ani?ino?aiaiiii cayaeaiee oiiaea ioia/aaony, a /anoiinoe,
/oi a ?anioaeeea “a oa/aiea 2-o iineaaeieo eao iaaethaeaeny ?ino
yeiiiieee, a oi a?aiy, eae eioeyoeey iionoeeanue ieaea o?iaiy a 15
i?ioe. Auee i?iaaaeaiu eeth/aaua no?oeoo?iua ?aoi?iu a oeiainiaii
naeoi?a e athaeaeaoiuo i?ioeaaeo?ao”.

AEOEAE, 12 iiya?y. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae auaeaeyao Ee?aecee
11 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia aeey i?aiaeieaiey iineaaenoaee e?ecena a ?innee.
Ia yoii niiauee 12 iiya?y aeo?iaeenoai i?aiuea?-ieieno? no?aiu
Eoaaiu/aae AEoiaeeaa. I?yiua iineaaenoaey ?inneeneiai e?ecena a Ee?aecee
ioeaieaathony a 35 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia. Iieiaeio ec ieo, eae niiauaee
?aiueoa a ee?aecneii i?aaeoaeuenoaa, ?anioaeeea iiiaauae iie?uoue
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae.

I ACAEIIIOIIOAIEssO N IAO Ae?OAEO OeAIO?AEUeIIACEAONEEO NO?AI

AAOEIAOII, 2 ai?aey. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae iaeia?ee
auaeaeaiea aoi?iai e?aaeeoa Oaaeaeeeenoaio a 10 iei aeieea?ia ia
i?aiaeieaiea iineaaenoaee aii?oaeaiiiai eiioeeeoa. Ia?aue e?aaeeo ia
oaeoth aea noiio IAO auaeaeee Oaaeaeeeenoaio 19 aeaeaa?y i?ioeiai aiaea.
A i?ann-?aeeca IAO iiae/a?eeaaaony, /oi a aeaeaa?a Aeooaiaa iieo/ee io
IAO iiiiuue a niioaaonoaee n i?ia?aiiie, eioi?ay noaaeea oeaeueth
“oe?aieaiea iae?iyeiiiie/aneie aeenoeeieeiu, onei?aiea no?oeoo?iuo
?aoi?i e aeoeaecaoeeth oneeee ii ion?i/ea auieaou aeieaia aiaoiei
e?aaeeoi?ai”. IAO ooaa?aeaeaao, /oi “oaaeaeeeneay yeiiiieea aeaaii?eyoii
ioeeeeaaony ia oneeey ii aa noaaeeecaoeee, i /ai naeaeaoaeuenoaotho
oiaiueoaiea oaiiia eioeyoeee e iiauoaiea aeiaa?ey e iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaethoa”. “A 1997 aiaeo a Oaaeaeeeenoaia aia?aua n iiiaioa i?eia?aoaiey
ei iacaaeneiinoe i?iecioae ?ino ?aaeueiiai aaeiaiai aioo?aiiaai
i?iaeoeoa”, – iiae/a?eeaaaony a i?ann-?aeeca. Iuia auaeaeyaiue e?aaeeo
iai?aaeai ia iiaeaea?aeeo i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu ia
1998 aiae, eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao ?ino AAI ia 4-5 i?ioe, nieaeaiea
oaiiia eioeyoeee aei 18 i?ioe a aiaeiaii en/eneaiee e ?ino aaethoiuo
?aca?aia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey eiii?oa. *oiau aeinoe/ue yoeo oeaeae,
i?aaeoaeuenoai iaia?aii nieceoue aeaoeoeeo athaeaeaoa n oai, /oiau ii ia
i?aauoae 3 i?ioe AAI, e oneeeoue iioie iinooieaiee a athaeaeao i?e
iaeiia?aiaiiii nie?auaiee e?aaeeoa oeaio?aeueiiai aaiea i?aaeoaeuenoao.
Oaaeaeeeenoai anooiee a IAO a 1993 aiaeo, a noiia i?aaeinoaaeaiiuo aio n
oao ii? e?aaeeoia ninoaaeyao 30 iei aeieea?ia. Iuiaoiee e?aaeeo
i?aaeinoaaeai iiae iiei?ioeaioa aiaeiauo ia 10 eao n ion?i/eie ia/aea
auieao ia iyoue n iieiaeiie eao.

AeOOAIAA, 10 ethiy. Iaauaiea, aeaiiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiui niiauanoaii a iaa
ia ia?eaeneie ano?a/a Eiinoeueoaoeaiie a?oiiu ii Oaaeaeeeenoaio ia
ieacaiee no?aia oeiainiaie iiiiue a ?acia?a 280 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia NOA,
aoaeao auiieiaii oieueei i?e i?iaeaeaeaiee ie?iiai i?ioeanna. Ia yoii
naaiaeiy cayaee a oiaea ano?a/e n i?aaenaaeaoaeai Eiiennee ii
iaoeeiiaeueiiio i?eie?aieth, eeaea?ii Iauaaeeiaiiie oaaeaeeeneie
iiiiceoeee Naeaeii Aaaeoeeei Io?e caianoeoaeue niaoeeaeueiiai
i?aaenoaaeoaey Aainaea III a yoie oeaio?aeueiiaceaoneie ?anioaeeea Iaiei
Eaiai. Ii niiauee, /oi iiaeaea?aeeaaao ?aaoey?ioth naycue n
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aaethoiui oiiaeii e Anaie?iui aaieii, eioi?ue
i?aaieciaae ano?a/o Eiinoeueoaoeaiie a?oiiu. Ii neiaai Eaiai, yoe
aeeyoaeueiua oeiainiaua einoeooou n i?enoaeueiui aieiaieai neaaeyo ca
oiaeii ?aaeecaoeee iauaai niaeaoaiey ia onoaiiaeaiee ie?a e
iaoeeiiaeueiiai niaeaney a Oaaeaeeeenoaia. IAO e Anaie?iue aaie
iaaeaoniuneaiii aeatho iiiyoue i aaconeiaiii e nei?aeoai auiieiaiee
oaeeo iieiaeaiee iauaai niaeaoaiey, eae ?aeioaa?aoeey aii?oaeaiiuo
oi?ie?iaaiee iiiiceoeee a i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua neeiaua no?oeoo?u,
caaa?oaiea eioaa?aoeee i?aaenoaaeoaeae iiiiceoeee a i?aaeoaeuenoai
niaeanii i?aaeoniio?aiiie 30-i?ioeaioiie eaioa. E?iia oiai, eae
iiae/a?eioe Eaiai, iaiaoiaeeii e iieiaeeoaeueiia ?aoaiea aii?ina ii
caeiio i iieeoe/aneeo ia?oeyo. A i?ioeaiii neo/aa, neacae
i?aaenoaaeoaeue III, iaa?yae ee neaaeoao iaeeaeaoue io iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
niiauanoaa e, a /anoiinoe, IAO e Anaie?iiai aaiea iiiiue a iieiii
iauaia. Ii iiaieth Eaiai, ai ecaaaeaiea ai?aaeue ?aciiaeanee iaaeaeo
i?aaeoaeuenoaii Oaaeaeeeenoaia e iiiiceoeeae Eiiennee ii iaoeeiiaeueiiio
i?eie?aieth iaiaoiaeeii onei?eoue ?aaioo iaae aianaieai aeiiieiaiee e
eciaiaiee a iuia aeaenoaothuoth Eiinoeoooeeth.

AAOEIAOII, 25 ethiy. Caai ia no?oeoo?ioth ia?ano?ieeo yeiiiieee a
?acia?a 128 iei aeieea?ia i?aaeinoaaee Oaaeaeeeenoaio Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
aaethoiue oiiae. Aeaiueae aeieaeiu auoue eno?a/aiu ia iiaeaea?aeeo
yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa a 1998-2001 aiaeao. Ia?aue
aiaeiaie o?aio a 48 iei aeieea?ia ?acaeaeai ia aeaa ?aaiua noiiu. Ia?aay
iieiaeia auaeaeyaony iaiaaeeaiii, a aoi?oth iiaeii aoaeao iieo/eoue
/a?ac iieaiaea. Niiauay i i?aaeinoaaeaiee caeia, IAO oeacuaaao, /oi ni
a?aiaie iiaeienaiey a ethia 1997 aiaea niaeaoaiey ia ieii/aiee
a?aaeaeaineie aieiu a Oaaeaeeeenoaia i?aaeoaeuenoai yoie no?aiu iuoaaony
oe?aieyoue iae?iyeiiiie/aneoth aeenoeeieeio, onei?youe inouanoaeaiea
?aoi?i e ?ano?oeoo?e?iaaoue naie aeieaiaua iaycaoaeuenoaa. Ia yoii iooe
oaea aeinoeaioou ii?aaeaeaiiua oniaoe: oiaiueoeeenue oaiiu ?inoa
eioeyoeee, iiaeaea?aeeaaaony noaaeeueiue eo?n oaaeaeeeneiai ?oaey,
aia?aua ni a?aiaie i?iaicaeaoaiey iacaaeneiinoe aiciaiiaeeny
yeiiiie/aneee ?ino. Onei?eeanue i?eaaoecaoeey, naeaeaiu ia?aua aaaeiua
oaae e ?aoi?ie?iaaieth aaieianeiai naeoi?a. Aeaeueiaeoea ieaiu
i?aaeoaeuenoaa i?aaeoniao?eaatho ?ino AII a 1999-2001 aa ia o?iaia 4-4,5
i?ioe a aiae, nieaeaiea eioeyoeee e 2001 aiaeo aei 8 i?ioe i?ioea ii/oe
164 i?ioe a 1997 aiaeo. Oeneaeueiue aeaoeoeeo aeieaeai a oa aea n?iee
nie?aoeoueny n 3,3 i?ioe aei 0,3 i?ioe, i?e/ai a oeaeyo oaeanoi/aiey
oeiainiai-athaeaeaoiie aeenoeeieeiu n na?aaeeiu 1999 aiaea
i?aaeoniao?eaaaony ioeac io oeiaine?iaaiey athaeaeaoa oeaio?aeueiui
aaieii. Aeanoe iaia?aiu e ai?aaeue i?iaiaeeoue aneiiao?e/ioth aaethoioth
iieeoeeo, ?aaae?othuoth ia oaiaeaioeee e nieaeaieth eo?na, ii
aeiioneathuoth naiaiaeiia aai iiauoaiea. Athaeaeaoicaiauathuee e?aaeeo
i?aaeinoaaeai Oaaeaeeeenoaio ia eueaioiuo oneiaeyo: iiae 0,5 i?ioe
aiaeiauo n?ieii ia 10 eao n ion?i/eie ieaoaaeae ia 5,5 eao.

AeOOAIAA, 7 ieoya?y. Aaaeouea ie?iaua oeiainiaua einoeooou iaia?aiu e
ai?aaeue ieacuaaoue iiaeaea?aeeo Oaaeaeeeenoaio a i?iaaaeaiee
yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i, – caaa?aiey a yoii auee iieo/aiu ia ia?aaiai?ao
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiie aeaeaaaoeee ?anioaeeee n auniiinoaaeaiiuie
/eiiaieeaie Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaea e Anaie?iiai aaiea /AA/
a Aaoeiaoiia. Ia yoii niiaueee ei??.EOA?-OANN a i?ann-neoaeaa aeaau
ainoaea?noaa Ia?aaiai?u auee i?iaaaeaiu iaeaioia i/a?aaeiie nannee
?oeiaiaeeoaeae IAO e Anaie?iiai aaiea. Oaaeaeeeenoai ia ia?aaiaa?ao
i?aaenoaaeyee i?aiuea?-ieieno? ssoua Aceiia, ieieno? oeiainia Aiaa?oi
Iocaoa?ia e ainoaea?noaaiiue niaaoiee i?aceaeaioa ii aii?inai yeiiiieee
Aoeiiaeii Aaaaaa. Auee ianoaeaeaiu aii?inu, naycaiiua n ?aaeecaoeeae
o?aoeaoiae yeiiiie/aneie i?ia?aiiu i?aaeoaeuenoaa Oaaeaeeeenoaia. Ia aa
iiaeaea?aeeo IAO e AA auaeaeeee e?aaeeou a ?acia?a 340 iei aeiee.,
i?e/ai ia?aua o?aioe oaea iinooieee a Iaoeaaie ?anioaeeee.
I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiay aeaeaaaoeey i?ieioi?ie?iaaea e?aaeeoi?ia i i?iaeoa
athaeaeaoa-99 e iaia?aiee a aeeaeaeoaa a?aiy aaanoe a aeaenoaea iiaue
Iaeiaiaue eiaeaen. A oeaeii, eae ioiaoeee a i?ann-neoaeaa i?aceaeaioa
Oaaeaeeeenoaia, i?aaenoaaeoaee oeiainiauo einoeoooia au?aceee
oaeiaeaoai?aiea oaaaie i?aaeoaeuenoaa ?anioaeeee e auneacaeenue ca
?anoe?aiea nio?oaeie/anoaa. A /anoiinoe ?a/ue oea i iiaeaea?aeea
/anoiiai i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa – iaeiai e n?aaeiaai aeciana.

AeOOAIAA, 22 ieoya?y. Ioeaieo ninoiyiey nioeeaeueii-yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey Oaaeaeeeenoaia ca aeaayoue ianyoeaa 1998 aiaea aeieaeia aeaoue
ienney Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaea, ia/aaoay ?aaioaoue a
Aeooaiaa. A i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoaa IAO a Oaaeaeeeenoaia, ienneth 2-ai
aa?iiaeneiai oi?aaeaiey IAO aicaeaaeyao Oaiei Naaaaeaeiai. Aei aoi?iai
iiya?y, iia niaa?ao iaoa?eae aeey yeiiiie/aneiai iaci?a n o/aoii
?aaeecaoeee caaea/ n?aaeian?i/iie yeiiiie/aneie no?aoaaee i?aaeoaeuenoaa
Oaaeaeeeenoaia ia 1998-2001 aiaeu, ?ac?aaioaiiie i?e o/anoee yenia?oia
IAO. No?aoaaey i?eaioe?iaaia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ia nicaeaiea
aeaaii?eyoiuo oneiaee aeey yeiiiie/aneiai ?inoa ca n/ao yenii?oa iooai
niaeaenoaey ?acaeoeth /anoiiai naeoi?a e eiino?aiiui eiaanoeoeeyi. IAO
i?eiye ?aoaiea i i?aaeinoaaeaieth Oaaeaeeeenoaio aeey yoeo oeaeae
e?aaeeo a noiia 120 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia NOA, ii 40 ieeeeiiia aaeaaiaeii.
Ia?aue o?aio a 20 ieeeeiiia aia?eeaineeo aeieea?ia aue auaeaeai a ethea
1998 aiaea. Aii?in i auaeaeaiee aoi?iai o?aioa ai iiiaii aoaeao
caaeneoue io auaiaeia e caeeth/aiey, eioi?ia aeano ienney IAO.

EIIAeII, 8 aeaeaa?y. N i?ecuaii e eiino?aiiui eiaanoi?ai ia?auaoueny
iaiin?aaenoaaiii e aunoei aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai eacaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa
a neo/aa i?iyaeaiee ei??oioeee ni noi?iiu ainoaea?noaaiiuo /eiiaieeia
ia?aoeeny ia?aue caianoeoaeue i?aiuea?-ieieno?a Eacaonoaia O?ac
Aeaeaiaeinia. Ii aunooiee ia ioe?uaoaeny 8 aeaeaa?y a Eiiaeiia
aaeaaiaeiie eiioa?aioeee “Eiaanoeoeeiiiua aiciiaeiinoe a Eacaonoaia”. Ii
neiaai ia?aiai aeoea-i?aiuea?a, a oaeouai aiaeo yeiiiieea ?anioaeeee
noieeioeanue n na?ueaciuie o?oaeiinoyie, aucaaiiuie aeiaaeueiui
oeiainiaui e?ecenii e iaaeaieai oeai ia nu?uea. “A ?acoeueoaoa
i?aaei?eyoey oaeoe/anee ieacaeenue io?acaiiuie io ?uiea naiaiaeiiai
/anoiiai eaieoaea”, – ioiaoee ii. A oeaeyo aui?aaeaiey neooaoeee
iaaeaaii auei i?eiyoi ?aoaiea i cia/eoaeueiii ?anoe?aiee i?aaeinoaaeaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo aa?aioee iiae ?acee/iua i?iaeou. “Anee a oaeouai aiaeo
iiae ainoaea?noaaiiua aa?aioee i?aaeoaeuenoaa Eacaonoaia auei iieo/aii
200 iei aeieea?ia, oi a aoaeouai yoa noiia ninoaaeo 500 iei”, –
iiae/a?eioe Aeaeaiaeinia. Ii niiauee, /oi a eiioea iuiaoiae iaaeaee
ia?eaiaio ?anioaeeee aeieaeai iaeia?eoue ainathaeaeao ia aoaeouee aiae.
“Aeaoeoeeo ainoaea?noaaiiiai athaeaeaoa onoaiiaeai ia o?iaia o?ao
i?ioeaioia. Oeiaine?iaaoueny ii aoaeao a iniiaiii ca n/ao e?aaeeoia
Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaea e ?yaea ae?oaeo oeiainiauo
einoeoooia”, – ioiaoee Aeaeaiaeinia. Ii aai neiaai, 15 aeaeaa?y a
Aaoeiaoiia i?ieaeao canaaeaiea niaaoa aee?aeoi?ia IAO, ia eioi?ii aoaeao
?anniio?aia i?ia?aiia eacaoneiai i?aaeoaeuenoaa ia aoaeouee aiae. “Iu
oaa?aiu, /oi i?ia?aiia aoaeao iaeia?aia e Eacaonoai iieo/eo iaiaoiaeeiua
n?aaenoaa”, – cayaee ia?aue aeoea-i?aiuea?. Ii oaeaea niiauee, /oi
nae/an a oeaio?a aieiaiey i?aaeoaeuenoaa iaoiaeeony i?iiuoeaiiay
iieeoeea e oa ia?u caeiiiaeaoaeueiiai oa?aeoa?a, eioi?ua niiniaiu
i?eaea/ue eiaanoeoeee a ?aaeueiue naeoi? yeiiiieee. “Iu iaia?aiu
i?iaeieaeaoue i?aaeinoaaeyoue iaeiaiaua eueaiou aeey i?iiuoeaiiiai
eaieoaea, a oaeaea cia/eoaeueii oi?inoei i?eaaoecaoeeth, eioi?ay aoaeao
a iniiaiii inouanoaeyoueny ca “aeeaua aeaiueae”, – ioiaoee Aeaeaiaeinia.
A ?aaioa eiaanoeoeeiiiie eiioa?aioeee i?eieiatho o/anoea e?oiiaeoea
a?eoaineea iaooaaeiauaathuea e no?ieoaeueiua eiiiaiee, a oaeaea
i?aaenoaaeoaee aaieia. Eae cayaee ei??.EOA?-OANN nio?oaeiee eiiiaiee
“A?eoeo iao?ieaoi”, “Eacaonoai noiae ecaaaeaoue ?acaaea oeiainiaiai
?uiea e aaieianeie nenoaiu, /oi naaiaeiy aeaeaao ?anioaeeeo iaeiei ec
iaeaieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiuo ?uieia aioo?e NIA”.

IAO – ?INNEss: IssOUe IAEAIUO AII?INIA I E?AAeEOAO IAO

1. Ii/aio ?O ia iiaeao iaieoenue aac iiiiue Caiaaea?

?inney a aeieaiaie yia. ?O, eae ainoaea?noai, o?aoeo ia aeeciue aieueoa,
/ai ca?aaaouaaai. Nia?aoue ana iaeiae ia iieo/aaony. Oeaiu ia iaooue e
aac, io yenii?oa eioi?uo eacia iieo/aea aieueooth /anoue aaethou, ia
ie?iaii ?uiea neeueii oiaee. Aoeoeeii ii i?iaeaaea “?iniaooe”
i?iaaeeeny. A ?acoeueoaoa ia/ai ieaoeoue ca?ieaoo athaeaeaoieeai,
eaoano?ioe/anee ia oaaoaao aeaiaa ia nioeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiu, ia auieaoo
i?ioeaioia e aica?ao aeieaia eiino?aiiui e?aaeeoi?ai. Caionoea ia/aoiue
noaiie, i?aaeoaeuenoai ia oieueei ia auaaaeao no?aio ec e?ecena, a
iaiai?io, “ionoay” aeaiaaeiay ianna i?eaaaeao eeoue e ?aceiio nea/eo
oeai, iaaa?iyoiie eioeyoeee e a eiia/iii n/aoa e nioeeaeueiiio ac?uao.
Iiaeii, eiia/ii, iiiuoaoueny i?iaeaaaoue ia ie?iaii ?uiea cieioi. Ii,
eae aiai?yo yenia?ou, ieeoi nae/an oai ia caeoiaao neeoee oiiiaie.
Auoiae iiea iaeei — acyoue aeaiaa acaeiu ia aiaaoii Caiaaea. Oae
aeaeatho ana no?aiu, ia?aaeeaathuea oeiainiaue e?ecen.

2. Neieueei aeaiaa aeatho e ia eaeeo oneiaeyo?

Nae/an ?a/ue eaeao i aeaoo noiiao. Ia?aay — IAO aeieaeai auaeaoue ?innee
i/a?aaeiua 670 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia ec oaea auaeaeaiiiai e?aaeeoa.
Aoi?ie, oae iacuaaaiue noaaeeecaoeeiiiue caai a ?acia?a 10 ieeeea?aeia
aeieea?ia aua iiea ia i?aaeinoaaeai. I?eauaoee a Iineao ia?aue
caianoeoaeue aee?aeoi?a-?anii?yaeeoaey IAO Noaiee Oeoa? eae ?ac e
i?iaaaeao ia?aaiai?u n ?inneeneei i?aaeoaeuenoaii ia oneiaeyo aai
auaeaeaiey. A ioee/ea io ia?aie noiiu, eioi?ay aoaeao iio?a/aia ia
iaioeiaeiua ainoaea?noaaiiua ioaeaeu, yoe 10 ieeeea?aeia aeieea?ia
aa?oony i?i caian ia iieoi?a aiaea. *oiau a neo/aa i/a?aaeiiai iaaaea
oeiainiaiai ?uiea ioaeoue ana aoaee ae?aeaauo niaeoeyioia e oaea?aeaoue
?oaeue.

3. *oi o?aaoao Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue oiiae acaiai?

Ai-ia?auo, caiaaeiui eaieoaeenoai ioaeiu aa?aioee aica?aoa e?aaeeoia.
Iacia/aiea Aiaoieey *oaaena niaoeeaeueiui i?aaenoaaeoaeai i?aceaeaioa
aeey eiioaeoia n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie oeiainiauie einoeoooaie ia neo/aeii.
Ia Caiaaea o *oaaena ?aiooaoeey eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiiai oeiainenoa, aio
aeiaa?ytho. Iiae iaai aioiau auaeaeyoue e?aaeeou. Ai-aoi?uo, eae
ecaanoii, aanieaoiui auaaao eeoue nu? a iuoaeiaea. Aeaaea iiae *oaaena
caiaaeiua e?aaeeoi?u aioiau auienaoue /ae oieueei ia ii?aaeaeaiiuo
oneiaeyo. Auaeaeyy noaaeeecaoeeiiiue e?aaeeo, IAO o?aaoao io ?inneeneiai
i?aaeoaeuenoaa aeaiiiiiieecaoeee anoanoaaiiuo iaooaaaciauo iiiiiieee,
aeanoeie iaeiaiaie iieeoeee, nie?auaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa.

4. Iiaeao ee ?inney i?eiyoue ana oneiaey IAO?

Eae oaea cayaeee i?ann-nae?aoa?ue i?aceaeaioa Na?aae ssno?aeaianeee,
Aiaoieee *oaaen, ia ana oneiaey IAO i?eaieaiu aeey ?innee. ?a/ue a
ia?aoth i/a?aaeue i aeaiiiiiieecaoeee anoanoaaiiuo eiiiaiee — iaooue,
aac aeieaeiu aeiauaaoue iaeie, a caieiaoueny o?ainii?oe?iaeie e
yenii?oii nu?uey ae?oaea. Ii iiaieth ?inneeneeo yenia?oia, a iuiaoieo
oneiaeyo, eiaaea oio aea Aaci?ii yaeyaony, ii nouanoao, “cieioie
eo?eoeae” aeey iiiieiaiey athaeaeaoa, oaeay ia?a iiaeao aeaoue ia?aoiue
?acoeueoao. Ii anee oeiainiaua iioiee iiiiiieee aoaeoo naeaeaiu
i?ic?a/iuie, oi IAO iiaeao iieoe ia onooiee. A aio ia o?acaiee
athaeaeaoiuo ?anoiaeia yenia?ou IAO, aeaeeii, aoaeoo ana aea
ianoaeaaoue.

5. Ii/aio IAO caii?icee iaauaiiua ?aiaa 670 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia?

Eae ecaanoii, IAO o?aaoao anaaaea aeanoeiai eniieiaiey iaycaoaeuenoa.
Caii?aaeeaaiea i/a?aaeiiai o?aioa a ?acia?a 670 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia eae
?ac naycaii n oai, /oi ?inneeneia i?aaeoaeuenoai oae e ia ia?aie/eei
aeinooi e yenii?oo iaooe eiiiaiee — aeieaeieeia athaeaeaoa, niae?aaony
ineaaeoue iaeiaiaue i?ann ia ieo. E aiiaua Niaaoo aee?aeoi?ia oiiaea ia
i?aaeony /oi cayaeaiiue i?eioeei — aeeoue ii n?aaenoaai — ia aiaae?ai a
aeeciue iieiinoueth.

I acaeiiioiioaieyo ?O n IAO iiae?iaiaa:

12 aeaeaa?y aeaeaaaoeey IAO caeii/eea ia?aaiai?u a Iineaa.
I?aaeoaeuenoai ?O i?ineei IAO i?aaeinoaaeoue aio oaea a yoii aiaeo
i/a?aaeiie o?aio e?aaeeoa a 700 iei. aeieea?ia, eioi?ue aue au i/aiue
enoaoe I?aaeoaeuenoao, eioi?ia no?aieony caeii/eoue ia?aoth iyoeeaoeo
naiae ?aaiou a iuiaoiai ninoaaa aac aeieaia ii ca?ieaoa. A cayaeaiee ii
eoiaai ia?aaiai?ia yenia?ou IAO iieiaeeoaeueii ioeaieee ia?niaeoeau
yeiiiieee ?O ia aoaeouee aiae i?e oneiaee aeanoeiai niaethaeaiey
iaeiaiaie, athaeaeaoiie e e?aaeeoiie iieeoeee. Yenia?ou oiiaea
i?iaiaeeee i/a?aaeiie iiieoi?eia ?acoeueoaoia auiieiaiey ?inneae
o?aaiaaiee IAO, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey iieo/aiey aeaeueiaeoeo o?aioae
?anoe?aiiiai 10-ieeeea?aeiiai e?aaeeoa. Iineaaeiee e?aaeeo a ?acia?a 700
iei. aeieea?ia ?inney iieo/eea a iaa. Caoai a naioya?a IAO iaeia?ee
i/a?aaeiie 700-ieeeeiiiue o?aio, ii a iiya?a i?einoaiiaee auaeaeaiea
aeaiaa ec-ca iaauiieiaiey ?inneeneie noi?iiie ia?aiao?ia ?anoiaeia e
aeioiaeia athaeaeaoiuo n?aaenoa.

Yenia?ou oiiaea e ia yoio ?ac inoaeenue iaaeiaieueiu, e ieii/aoaeueiia
?aoaiea i i?aaeinoaaeaiee i/a?aaeiiai o?aioa e?aaeeoa a ?acia?a 700 iei.
aeieea?ia aoaeao i?eiyoi niaaoii aee?aeoi?ia IAO oieueei a yiaa?a.
?aoaiea IAO i?eioeeieaeueii iiiaia ia eciaieo, ii iiaeao eiaoue
iaaaoeaiue ineoieiae/aneee yooaeo: a?iaea au I?aceaeaio aeae /anoiia
aeaai?iaeiia neiai e iaycae I?aaeoaeuenoai ?anieaoeoueny ni anaie
aeieaaie ii iaineyi e ca?ieaoa aei 1 yiaa?y. Aaoi?eoao I?aceaeaioa e
I?aaeoaeuenoaa ia i?eioeeieaeueii, ii ana-oaee iino?aaeaao io oiai, /oi
yoi iaauaiea ia aoaeao auiieiaii. Anee a i/a?aaeiii o?aioa ?innee niiaa
aoaeao ioeacaii, I?aaeoaeuenoai ieaaeaony a neiaeiii iieiaeaiee. E iii
n?i/ii euao ethaua enoi/ieee, /oiau anee ia e 1 yiaa?y, oi e aeith
io/aoa ia?aae I?aceaeaioii ana aeieae ii ca?ieaoa athaeaeaoieeai auee
auiea/aiu.

Oai ia iaiaa ia?aae iouacaeii yenia?ou IAO aeaee iiceoeaiue i?iaiic
?acaeoey yeiiiieee ?O ia 1998 aiae e iniaaiii auaeaeeee
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiioth i?ia?aiio ia? ii icaei?iaeaieth oeiainiaie nenoaiu.
Iaeiaei yoio i?iaiic eceeoia iioeienoe/ai. Iaeeaeaoue ?aaeeeaeueiiai
oeo/oaiey ia neaaeothuee aiae iaeuecy ii ?yaeo i?e/ei, naiie aeaaiie ec
eioi?uo yaeyaony i?iaeieaeathueeny e?ecen iaieaoaaeae, ia?aeecothuee ana
aeeiaie/iua neeu ?inneeneie yeiiiieee. E iiea yoio e?ecen ia oaeanony
i?aiaeieaoue, iaaeaaeae ia auno?ue iiaeuai ia iiaeao auoue.

CAEETH*AIEA

Eoae iiaeaiaey eoiae iiaeii neacaoue /oi, Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aaethoiue
oiiae – aieueoay ath?ie?aoe/aneay iaaeaeoia?iaeiay i?aaiecaoeey n
aeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiui ia?niiaeii, eiathuay oceee e aanueia
/aoei ii?aaeaeaiiue e e?oa caaea/. A IAO ia ia?auathony no?aiu, o
eioi?uo ana n oeiainaie oi?ioi. A IAO ia?auathony no?aiu, o eioi?uo n
oeiainaie ia ana a ii?yaeea, eioi?ua a oie eee eiie oi?ia noaeeeaathony
n iineaaenoaeyie oeiainiaiai e?ecena. A iauai, anee o aan
aeanoaaeeece?iaaiu oeiainu e aai yoi ia i?aaeony, anee au oaea
iaoeaaaeenue aunieie eioeyoeee, “aea?aayiiie” iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou,
iinoiyiii iaaeathuaai eo?na iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethou ii ioiioaieth e
aeieea?o, ca?ieaou a naiue aeieea?ia a ianyoe e oae aeaeaa – anee anai
yoei au oaea nuou ii ai?ei e oaia?ue oioeoa iaaanoe ii?yaeie a
nianoaaiiuo aeaeao, ii iaiaoiaeeiuo ?aca?aia aeey yoiai o aan iao,
oiaaea au ia?auaaoanue ca iiiiuueth a IAO. IAO ?ac?aaaouaaao aeey
no?aiu, eioi?ay noieeioeanue ni aniuoeie aunieie eioeyoeee, oeiainiaie
ianoaaeeueiinoe – eae i?aaeei, aneaaenoaea aacioaaonoaaiiie oeiainiaie
iieeoeee – iaai? noaiaea?oiuo ?aaaeeeoaoeeiiiuo ia?ii?eyoee.

Ea/aiea aieacie iineo aeinoaoi/ii oeiiaie oa?aeoa?. ?a/ue eaeao ia i
caiauaiee yeiiiie/aneie iieeoeee no?aiu, ia i au?aaioea iaeie iiaie
no?aoaaee. Noaiaea?oiua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai
oiiaea aeinoaoi/ii iiiyoiu e aeinoaoi/ii i?inoi ono?iaiu. Caaea/a IAO a
oii, /oiau i?eaeaoue ?ac?aaioaiiie naiei i?aaeoaeuenoaii aeaiiie no?aiu
i?ia?aiia auoiaea ec e?ecena iaiaoiaeeiue ?uieo aeae.

IAO – i?aaiecaoeey, ca iea/aie eioi?ie enoi?ey inouanoaeaiey aiieia
oniaoiuo noaaeeecaoeeiiiuo i?ia?aii. “Oniaoiuo” – yoi ia cia/eo, /oi a
?acoeueoaoa acaeiiaeaenoaey n Iaaeaeoia?iaeiui aaethoiui oiiaeii no?aia
iaiiaaiii noaiiaeony n/anoeeaie e oai aioea?yaony eiiioieci. Yoi cia/eo,
/oi eiaaea noaaeony i?inoay oaoie/aneay caaea/a inoaiiaeoue oeiainiaue
oain e iaaanoe ii?yaeie a nianoaaiiuo oeiainao, ainnoaiiaeoue aeiaa?ea e
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa – n yoie oi/ee c?aiey i?ia?aiiu IAO, eiaaea iie
?aaeecothony, i?eaiaeyo, eae i?aaeei, e oniaoo.

O IAO anoue, oaeei ia?acii, nianoaaiiue o?iaaiue aeiaa?ey. E, ai-aoi?uo,
o iaai anoue iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oeiainiaua ?ano?nu, eioi?ua iicaieytho
iiaee?aieoue yoi aeiaa?ea aeaeii. A yoi, a naith i/a?aaeue, aeaoaaua
e?aaeeou, eioi?ua aeathony no?aia eiaiii iioiio, /oi iia au?aaaouaaao
i?ia?aiio, iieuecothuothny aeiaa?eai IAO.

A aeaiiie nayce aieueoay /anoue o?aaiaaiee IAO iineo aeinoaoi/ii
noaiaea?oiue e i/aiue i?inoie oa?aeoa?. Aunieea eioeyoeee (ae?oaay
enoi?ey n ieceeie eioeyoeeyie) – yoi anaaaea aeaiaaeiue oaiiiai. Aunieea
eioeyoeee anaaaea naycaiu n ao?iie yeniaineae aeaiaaeiie iannu, a ao?iay
yeniainey aeaiaaeiie iannu – i?aeoe/anee anaaaea n iiiuoeaie
oeiaine?iaaoue oaeei ia?acii athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo. Ei?i/a aiai?y,
aeeoue ia ii n?aaenoaai e iie?uaaoue aeeouea ia ii n?aaenoaai ca n/ao
ia/aoiiai noaiea. Yoi anaaaea eiaao iaeee iaai? neaaenoaee – aunieoth
eioeyoeeth, iaaeaiea aeiaa?ey e iaoeeiiaeueiui aeaiueaai e oae aeaeaa.
Anee no?aia oi/ao iiaa?iooue iacaae e oi/ao ainnoaiiaeoue yoi aeiaa?ea,
iia aeieaeia oiaiueoeoue athaeaeaoiue aeaoeoeeo, iieacaoue, ec eaeeo
iaeioeyoeeiiiuo enoi/ieeia niiniaia aai iie?uoue, – oiaaea iia noiaao
ioeacaoueny io ia/aoiiai noaiea, noiaao nie?aoeoue oaiiu ?inoa
aeaiaaeiie iannu, n oa/aieai a?aiaie onoaiiaeoue aeiaa?ea e
iaoeeiiaeueiie aaethoa. E?aaeeo IAO – yoi oi, /oi iicaieyao no?aia ca
n/ao iaeioeyoeeiiiuo aiciiaeiinoae i?ioeiaine?iaaoue aeaoeoeeo
athaeaeaoa, nie?auaiiue aei ?acoiiiai i?aaeaea.

Eiuie neiaaie, iia niiinoaaeyao aeioiaeu, ?anoiaeu; niaeaoaynue ia ia?u,
eioi?ua iicaieytho iiauneoue aeioiaeu e nie?aoeoue ?anoiaeu,
ainoaea?noai aeiaeaaaony nie?auaiey athaeaeaoiiai aeaoeoeeoa aei o?iaiy,
eioi?ue iiaeii iie?uoue ca n/ao iaeioeyoeeiiiuo n?aaenoa – /anoe/ii ca
n/ao aeaiaa Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai aaethoiiai oiiaea. Ai anai yoii iao
ieeaeiai aunieiai eneonnoaa – i?inoi i/aiue iiiai yeaiaioa?iiai iiuoa e
cae?aaiai niunea…

No?aieoea PAGE 3

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат!
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2020