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Международное разделение труда в системе МЭО

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IEAI

Aaaaeaiea

Aeaaa 1. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a nenoaia IYI.

(1. Nouiinoue e oi?iu iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey

o?oaea.

(2. ?acaeaathueany no?aiu a iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea

o?oaea.

Aeaaa 2. ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiee

o?oaea .

(1. Iieiaeaiea Eacaonoaia a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiia

?acaeaeaiea o?oaea.

(2. I?iaeaiu e ia?niaeoeau Eacaonoaia a

iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea.

Caeeth/aiea.

Nienie eniieueciaaiiie eeoa?aoo?u.

Aaaaeaiea

Nia?aiaiiue yoai ?acaeoey iaoae no?aiu ioee/aaony aeeiaieciii e
ea/anoaaiiuie eciaiaieyie ai anao noa?ao iauanoaaiiie aeecie.
I?ioeann ?aaeeeaeecaoeee, iaiiaeaiey e aeaiie?aoecaoeee cao?iioe
ana aac eneeth/aiey iieeoe/aneea, yeiiiie/aneea e nioeeaeueiua
einoeooou.

I?ienoiaeeo ioeac io aaeieieno?aoeaii – eiiaiaeiie nenoaiu
oi?aaeaiey oicyenoaii, iiyoaiii ono?aiythony aeanoeia oeaio?a-
eeciaaiiia ieaie?iaaiea e iiiiiieey ia aieueoeinoai aeaeia
oicyenoaaiiie aeayoaeueiinoe, i?eia?aoaaony aeaeinoue a yeiii
-ie/aneeo ioiioaieyo e iaiaa?e?iaaiee eiathueieny ?ano?naie.

Ia/aeny ia?aoiae e ?uii/iie yeiiiieea. I?eiyou iaeaou caeiiia e
iinoaiiaeaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee, a
oaeaea noeioee?othueo e ?aaoee?othueo

aeayoaeueiinoue i?aaiecaoeee e i?aaei?eyoee, a oii /enea ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie noa?a.

A yoeo oneiaeyo aic?anoaao ?ieue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiii -ie/aneeo
ioiioaiee iaaeaeo no?aiaie e aiaea/aiea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai a
yoe i?ioeannu. Oae eae a iuiaoiaa a?aiy aeey oiai, /oiau oniaoii
?acaeaaoue naith iaoeeiiaeueioth yeiiiieeo, iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue
nayce a noa?a yeiiiieee e iieeoeee n ae?oaeie ainoaea?noaaie.
Aeoeaii o/anoaoy a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaea, aeaeaeaiee eaieoaea
e o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo aaethoii –
oeiainiauo e e?aaeeoiuo ioiioaiee, Eacaonoai niiaeao iieiinoueth
?aaeeciaaoue naie iioaioeeae e iiaeiyoue yeiiiieeo ia aieaa
aunieee o?iaaiue, /ai nae/an.

Iacaaeneioth aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai
ia/aea i?iaiaeeoue n 1991 aiaea. Ia aeaiiie iiiaio iu eiaai
aieueoia eiee/anoai yeiiiie/aneeo naycae ni iiiaeie ainoaea?noaaie
ie?a. I?iaeoeoeey, auioneaaiay iaoae no?aiie, yenii?oe?oaony ai ana
/anoe naaoa. Yoi aeaao ainoaea?noao aaethoiua aeeaaiea a
yeiiiieeo. E?iia oiai iaoa ?anioaeeea aeoeaii i?eaeaeaao
eiino?aiiua eiaanoeoeee aeey iiaeiyoey yeiiiieee e ?aaioaao ni
iiiaeie iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie aaethoii – oeiainiauie einoeoooaie, oai
naiui aiaeaeaynue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiia aeaeaeaiea eaieoaea. Eiia/ii,
eae e ethaie i?ioeann, aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue i?eiineo
no?aia ia oieueei auaiaeu, ii e ii?aaeaeaiiua iaaaoeau
aicaeaenoaey. Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo io?eoeaoaeueiuo no?ai
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai yeiiiie/aneiai ioiioaiey yaeyaony aeey
?acaeaathueony no?ai oneeaiea aeaaeano?oeoo?ecaie yeiiiieee. Ii ia
niio?y ia yoi aeey ethaie no?aiu aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay
aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony aani?iea?uoiie “ ea?ie ”, i?eiinyuee
aieueoa iethnia, /ai ieionia.

I?e eco/aiee IYI iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi aai iauaeoeaiie
iniiaie yaeyaony eae e aeey iaoeeiiaeueiuo yeiiiiee – ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea e iaiai, ii ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii o?iaia. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea aicieeei a ?acoeueoaoa oiai, /oi a ?aieao
ioaeaeueiie no?aiu i?aeoe/anee noaiiaeony iaaiciiaeiui ia aunieei
oaoie/aneii o?iaia iaania/eoue i?iecaiaenoai anae iiiaieeaoo?u
nia?aiaiiie i?iaeoeoeee. E yoi i?eaaei e oiio, /oi iiiaea
ainoaea?noaa niaoeeaeece?othony a oao io?aneyo, a eioi?uo iie
eiatho i?aeiouanoaa. I?iaeoeoeeth aea ae?oaeo io?aneae, a eioi?uo
iie ia eiatho i?aeiouanoaa, iie i?aaeii/eoatho eiii?oe?iaaoue. Ana
yoi i?eaiaeeo e iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio iaiaio, oi anoue e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui yeiiiie/aneei ioiioaieyi. Oaeei ia?acii iiaeii
ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi oaeoaeaiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea
i?eaiaeeo e ?acaeoeth IYI. Yoo acaeiinaycue iiaeii i?ineaaeeoue a
?aaioao A.Nieoa, Ae.?eea?aei e ae?oaeo o/aiuo, ?ac?aaaouaaaoeo
oai?eth aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

?anioaeeea Eacaonoai oaeaea aeeth/aia i?ioeann iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Aa ianoi e ?ieue ii?aaeaeyaony ?acaeoeai
i?iiuoeaiiinoe , a oaeaea anoanoaaiiuie e i?eia?aoaiiuie
i?aeiouanoaaie ia aeaiiue iiiaio iioea no?aia niaoeeaeece?iaaia
ia aeiau/a ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey, a eioi?ii iu eiaai ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aeiouanoaa, naycaiiua n aai oaoieei – yeiiiie/aneeie
iieacaoaeyie. Ia iniiaa yoiai no?ieony iaoa aiaoiyy oi?aiaey :
yenii?o nu?uey, eiii?o aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee. Ii anee Eacaonoai
oi/ao aeaeueiaeoaai ?acaeoey aioiaie yeiiiieee, oi ae iaiaoiaeeii
iiauneoue o?iaaiue i?iecaiaenoai aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, /oi aeaei au
no?aia aeinoieiia ianoi a IYI, a ia ?ieue nu?ueaaiai “ i?eaeaoea
” i?iiuoeaiii?acaeouo no?ai. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii i?iaanoe
?aoi?io yenii?oii – eiii?oiie iieeoeee, a oaeaea iiauoaoue o?iaaiue
iaoeeiiaeueiiai i?iecaiaenoaa. Aieaa iiae?iaii ?anniio?ei yoi a
aeaiiie eo?niaie ?aaioa.

Aeaaa 1. IAAEAeOIA?IAeIIA ?ACAeAEAIEA O?OAeA A NENOAIA IYI.

IYI – iniaay noa?a aeayoaeueiinoe, iniiaaiiay ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey
iaoiaeyo i?aeoe/aneia au?aaeaiea a iaiaia iaaeaeo no?aiaie,
i?aaenoaaeythueie eo n oiaa?aie e oneoaaie, a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oi?aiaea, iao/ii – oaoie/aneeo e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, eiaanoeoeeiiiuo,
aaethoii – oeiainiauo e e?aaeeoiuo, eioi?iaoeeiiii
eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiuo naycyo, ia?aiauaiea iaaeaeo ieie
o?oaei?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoee, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie.

Aaaeiia ianoi a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaieyo caieiaao
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee eo
?acaeoey, a oaeaea oi?iu i?iyaeaiey. ?anniio?ei yoi.

( 1. NOUIINOUe E OI?IU IAAEAeOIA?IAeIIAI ?ACAeAEAIEss O?OAeA.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ( I?O ) – eoia ?acaeoey
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea aioo?e no?aiu e iaaeaeo ieie. ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea – anoue ?acaeaeaiea eiie?aoiiai o?oaea. ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea –
yoi aai ?an/eaiaiea e iauaaeeiaiea. I?iecaiaenoaaiiue i?ioeann
?an/eaiyaony ia ioiineoaeueii naiinoiyoaeueiua oacu, noaaeee, a
caoai niae?aaony a iaeiie oa??eoi?ee.

Yoi iiaeao auoue iauaaeeiaieai iainiaeaoeony i?iecaiaenoa a
oa??eoi?eaeueii – i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia, onoaiiaeaiea
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo no?aiaie, caaeaenoaiaaiiuie a nenoaia I?O.
Nooue ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea – anoue niinia niaaeeiaiey, aai ?acoeueoao
– ?ino i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe o?oaea a oii /enea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea inouanoaeyaony a oeaeyo
iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe i?iecaiaenoaa, neoaeeo n?aaenoaii yeiiiiee
cao?ao iauanoaaiiiai o?oaea, anooiaao n?aaenoaii ?aoeeiiaeecaoeee
iauanoaaiiuo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee.

Iauanoaaiiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ?acee/aaony a caaeneiinoe io
?iaea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe.

1) iauaa ( i?iiuoeaiiinoue, naeueneia oicyenoai, o?ainii?o, naycue,
no?ieoaeuenoai, oneoae, cae?aaiio?aiaiea, ia?aciaaiea )

2) /anoiia ( aioo?e e?oiiuo noa? ii io?aneyi e iiaeio?aneyi
i?iecaiaenoaa );

3) aaeeie/iua ( aioo?e i?aaei?eyoee ).

Aeeooa?aioeeaoeey o?oaea iniaui ?iaeai aeayoaeueiinoe i?aeoe/anee
aaca?aie/ia. Oa??eoi?eaeueiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea nouanoaoao aioo?e
no?ai e iaaeaeo ieie.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue eae
aunooth nooiaiue ?acaeoey iauanoaaiiiai oa??eoi?eaeueiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea iaaeaeo no?aiaie, eioi?ia iie?aaony ia
onoie/eaoth, yeiiiie/anee auaiaeioth niaoeeaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoa
ioaeaeueiuo no?ai ia oao eee eiuo aeaeao i?iaeoeoeee iaaeaeo
ieie acaeiiiio iaiaio ?acoeueoaoaie i?iecaiaenoaa iaaeaeo ieie
ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo niioiioaieyo.

I?O ea?aao aaaeioth ?ieue a ?anoe?aiiii aini?iecaiaenoaa a
no?aiao ie?a, iaania/eaaao acaeiinaycue i?iecaiaenoaa, oi?ie?oao
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua i?iii?oeee a io?aneaaii e oa??eoi?eaeueii –
no?aiiaii aniaeoao.

I?O caieiaao iniaia ianoi a eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee i?iecaiaenoaa
e ?anoe?aiee iaiaia.

Nouanoaotho niaieoiiinoue oaeoi?ia, eioi?ia niinianoaotho
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiio ?acaeaeaieth o?oaea :

1) ?acee/ey a ?ani?aaeaeaiee i?e?iaeiuo aiaaonoa – iniiaiay
i?e/eia IO?

2) ?acee/ey a ii/aaiii – eeeiaoe/aneeo oneiaeyo

3) aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea no?aiu

4) ?acee/ey a ?acia?ao o?oaeiauo ?ano?nia

5) enoi?e/aneea o?aaeeoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

IO? e yeiiiie/aneea oaeoi?u IO? inaiaiaeaeatho io i?e?iaeiuo
oneiaee. Oaia?ue aeaaiuo oaeoi?ii IO? noaiiaeony IOI: niaa?oaiiua
iaoeiu, iai?oaeiaaiea, i?eai?u, ?acaeoea iaoee.

ANAIE?IIA ?ACAeAEAIEA O?OAeA – IAOA?EAEUeIAss INIIAA
IAAEAeOIA?IAeIUO YEIIIIE*ANEEO NAssCAE

Anaie?iia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iauaeoeaiay iniiaa
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai, iao/ii – oaoie/aneiai, oi?aiaiai e eiiai
nio?oaeie/anoaa iaaeaeo no?aiaie ie?a. Anaie?iia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea
( A?O ) – iniiaa acaeiiaeaenoaey ainoaea?noa anae ieaiaou.
Anaie?iia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea – iniiaa anaie?iiai oicyenoaa.

O/anoea A?O aeey ethaiai ainoaea?noaa yaeyaony iaecaaaeiui, o.e.
iii iicaieyao iieo/aoue aeioiae ia ?acee/ee iaaeaeo
iaoeeiiaeueiie e eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiie noieiinoueth i?iecaiaenoaa.
Oaeei ia?acii, caeii noieiinoe – aeaeaeouay neea anaie?iiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea a oneiaeyo oiaa?iiai i?iecaiaenoaa, o.e. oiaa?u
ia?acotho eioa?iaoeeiiaeueioth noieiinoue e iaiaieaathony a
i?iii?oeeyo, iiae/eiythueony caeiiai anaie?iiai ?uiea, a oii /enea
e caeiio noieiinoe. Iiaoaeeoaeueiui iioeaii a o/anoee ai
anaie?iii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea yaeyaony e eniieueciaaiea aai
aiciiaeiinoae a ?aoaiee aeiaaeueiuo i?iaeai /aeiaa/anoaa
niaianoiui oneeeyie anao no?ai ie?a : io?aia ie?oaeathuae N?aaeu,
?aoaiea i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiie i?iaeaiu a ieaiaoa?iii ianooaaa,
inaiaiea einiina e o.ae.

Anaie?iia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea oneiaeiyao a eiiieaenioth nenoaio
ie?ioicyenoaaiiuo naycae, aaea oi?aiaey, oioy e caieiaao aaaeouaa
ianoi, ii iinoaiaiii oa?yao naia cia/aiea.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay noa?a anaie?iiai oicyenoaa iaeaaeaao neiaeiie
no?oeoo?ie e aeeth/aao a naay :

1. iaaeaeoia?iaeioth oi?aiaeth.

2. iaaeaeoia?iaeioth niaoeeaeecaoeeth e eiiia?e?iaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa.

3. iao/ii – oaoie/aneia nio?oaeie/anoaa.

niaianoii no?ieoaeuenoai i?aaei?eyoee e eo iineaaeothuoth
yenieoaoaoeeth ia iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo oneiaeyo.

iaaeaeoia?iaeiua oicyenoaiiua i?aaiecaoeee, ?acee/iiai ?iaea oneoae
e ae?oaia.

I?iecaiaeeoaeueiua neeu noaiiayony anaie?iuie, aeaaiaea?y a
ieaiaoa?iii ianooaaa niaoeeaeecaoeee e eiiia?aoeee i?iecaiaenoaa.

Iiae eo aicaeaenoaeai ?iaeaeaaony « aeiiieieoaeueiay » neea,
eioi?ay eae au yaeyaony aea?iaie e aeaenoaoao iaeiia?aiaiii
iaoa?eaeueii – aauanoaaiiuie e ee/iinoiuie oaeoi?aie iauanoaaiiiai
i?iecaiaenoaa. ?acoeueoaou aeayoaeueiinoe eaaeaeiai caaia
i?iecaiaenoaaiiie nenoaiu aeoeaiaa eniieuecothony n ?inoii
o/anoieeia eiiia?aoeee, /oi aaaeao oeaeinoiinoe anae nenoaiu.

I?e anae neiaeiinoe e i?ioeai?a/eaiinoe nai?aiaiiie ie? a
yeiiiie/aneii ioiioaiee anoue oeaeinia?aciay neoaia, iauaaeeiyaiay
iaaeaeoia?iaeiui iaiauanoaeaiiui i?iecaiaenoaii, aeinoeaoei
ioiineoaeueii aunieiai o?iaiy ?acaeoey.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea-yoi oi « eioaa?aoi?»,

eioi?ue ia?aciaaeny ec ioaeaeueiuo yeaiaioia anaie?ioth
yeiiiie/aneoth nenoaio. Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea, yaeyynue
ooieoeeae ?acaeoey i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee e i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
ioiioaiee, nicaeaei iauaeoeaiua i?aaeiinueee aeey ?anoouae
acaeiinayce e acaeiicaaeneiinoe oicyenoa ?acee/iuo no?ai,
?anoe?eei i?aaeaeu eioa?iaoeeaiaeecaoeee aei iauaie?iauo.

Ii i?iaiicai yenia?oia anaie?iia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea a ia?niaeoeaa
aoaeao iaoeeiiii oaeoaeyoueny. A ia?niaeoeaa i?iecaiaenoai ?acaeouo
no?ai aoaeao i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia aiaoieo iio?aaeoaeae, a
aioo?aiiee ni?in – ia eiii?o.

IIAeAEE NIAOeEAEECAOeEE IAOeEIIAEUeIUO OICssENOA

Aeey oa?aeoa?enoeee o/anoey no?ai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiea
o?oaea i?eiyoa eeanneoeeaoeee io?aneae iauanoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa
a caaeneiinoe io niioiioaiey i?eiaiyaiuo ?ano?nia. Ni/aoaiea yoeo
io?neae a oie eee eiie no?aia oa?aeoa?ecoao niaoeeaeecaoeeth
iaoeeiiaeueiia oicyenoa. A ea/anoaa i?eia?a iiaeaee ec
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai neiiiceoiia ( a. Eeeue, O?A )

Noaiaoe/aneea i?aaeiieiaeaiiue oei niaoeeaeecaoeee no?ai iiaeii
ecia?aceoue neaaeothuei ia?acii :

?acaeoua no?aiu ?acaeaathueany no?aiu

________________ _____________________

_______N________ _________R___________

_______K________ _________L___________

_______L_________ _________K___________

_______R_________ _________N___________

N – iaoeiaieea io?anee

K – eaeoaeiaieea io?anee

L – o?oaeiaieea io?anee

R – ?ano?niaieea io?anee

Iaoeiaieay niaoeeaeecaoeey. Iaoeiaieea io?anee / hight tecknology
industries / iaeaieaa nia?aiaiiua io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, auioeathuea
i?iaeoeoeeth ia iniiaa iineaaeieo aeinoeaeaiee iaoee e oaoieee
/oa?iei i?eiyo a iaaeaeoiaiaeiie i?aeoeea/. Yoe io?anee
ioee/athony e?oiiuie cao?aoaie ia iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiey, ia?aaeiaui
a iao/iii ieaia i?iecaiaenoaaiiui aiia?aoii, cia/eaeueiui
eaae?iaui iioaioeeaeii.

Aeey eeanneoeeaoeee io?aneae i?iiuoeaiiinoe ii noaiaie
iaoeiaieinoe eniieuecothony eiee/anoaaiiua e?eoa?ee, niaieoiiinoue
eioi?uo e /eneaiiua cia/aiey a ?acee/iuo no?aiao iaiaeeiaeiau.

Ii iaoiaeieiaee IYNAe / I?aaiecaoeey Yeiiiie/aneiai nio?oaeie/anoaa
e ?acaeoey/ e iaoeiaieei ioiinyony, io?anee, aaea o?iaaiue
?anoiaeia ia IEIE? ninoaaeyao aieaa 4% iai?ioa.

Ath?i noaoenoeee o?oaea NOA ioiineo e iaoeiaieiio naeoi?o oa
iiaeio?anee, aaea aeiey cao?ao ia IEIE? a noieiinoe i?iaeaae e
aeiey o/aiuo e IO? a /eneaiiinoe caiyouo n?aaeieo iieacaoaeae
ii i?iiuoeaiiinoe /niioaaaenoaaiii 3,1 e 6,3%. E iaoeiaieei
ioiinyony 92 ec 977 iiaeio?aneae ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa NOA.
Auaeaeytho oaeaea iiaeio?anee n iiauoaiiie iaoeiaieinoueth, aaea
oeacaiiua iieacaoaee eae ieieioi a 2 ?aca auoa n?aaeieo. E
/eneo oaeeo aunieioaoiieiae/aneeo io?aneae ioiinyo : i?iecaiaenoaa
iaaei?aia?aoia, YAI e iai?oaeiaaiey, ?aaeeiyeaeo?iiiuo eiiiiiaioia,
eaai?aoi?iiai iai?oaeiaaiey, aaeaoeeiiioth e ?aeaoiieinie/aneoth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue.

Iiceoeee ?acaeouo no?ai a aeiaaeueiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea
ii?aaeaeythony iaee/eai o ieo auniei?acaeoiai iao/ii
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai e eioi?iaoeeiiii – eiaeono?eaeueiuo eiiieaenia, eo
eiio?ieai iaae aieueoae /anoueth aeiaaeueiie eio?ano?oeoo?u
iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

?acaeoua no?aiu ea?atho ?ieue aeaaiuo iinoaiiaueeia iaoei e
iai?oaeiaaiey, oneoa, eiii?oa?ia nu?uey e oiieeaa, iaoaeeia,
i?iaeoeoeee oaenoeeueiie e eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, auoiaie oaoieee,
eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee.

A iineaaeiea aiaeu a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao ?acei
nie?aoeeny a iaeioi?uo neo/ayo e aiiaua i?ae?aoeeinue
i?iecaiaenoai iiiaeo oiaa?ia. Yoi ioiineony a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue e
o?aaeeoeeiiiui oiaa?ai, o.a. oaeei eioi?ua i?iecaiaeeony
n?aaieoaeueii aeaaii /?a/ue eaeao i oiaa?iuo a?oiiao, a ia i
eiie?aoiuo iiaeeoeeaoeeyo oiaa?ia/.

A aieueoeinoai ?acaeaathueony ainoaea?noa a eieiieaeueioth yiioo
noi?i?iaaeinue iiiieoeueoo?iia oicyenoai, o.a. any yeiiiieea no?aiu
auea i?eaioe?iaaia ia auione e auaic iaeiiai – aeaoo oiaa?ia.

?acaeaathueany no?aiu ea?atho ?ieue iinoaaueea nu?uey, a oii
/enea ia?aaioaiiiai ( eao/oe, oaia?a, oeaiaio, aea?aaiia?aaaoua. ),
i?iaeoeoeee o?oaeiaieeo e iaoa?eaeiaieeo io?aneae : eaaeie e
oaenoeeueiie i?iiuoeaiiinoe ( iaeaaeaea, iaoaue, /anu e o.i. );
eiiieaeoothueo ecaeaeee; iinoaaueea aeaoaaie ?aai/ae neeu, noa?u
i?eeiaeaiey eaieoaea. A yoeo no?aiao ?aciauathony i?iecaiaenoaa,
eniieuecothuea i?e?iaeiua e o?oaeiaua ?ano?nu.

A iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey aic?anoaao o/anoea no?ai e
i?iecaiaenoaa i?iiuoeaiiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo /a?o nia?aiaiiiai yoaia ?acaeoey nenoaiu
I?O yaeyaony iiyaeaiea, oae iacuaaaiuo, « iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo
no?ai ». Iiyaeeinue ieiei 15

« iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo ainoaea?noa » ( a THai – Ainoi/iie Acee,
Naaa?iie Ao?eea, Ia aeeaeiai Ainoiea ), anaai eaieoaeenoe/aneay
eiaeono?aeecaoeey inouanoaeyaony a 50 no?aiao.

Aeey iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai oa?aeoa?ia ia oieueei
o?oaeiaieay, ii e eaieoaeiaieay e aeaaea oaoiiaieay
niaoeeaeecaoeey ( iai?eia?, a iaoaeeo?aee e yeaeo?iieea ). THaeiay
Ei?ay, Oaeaaiue e ae?oaea no?aiu oaea ieacuaatho yenii?oiia
aeaaeaiea ia ssiiieth. A iaoaeeo?ae/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe thaeii –
ei?aeneea i?aaei?eyoey aieaa yooaeoeaiu, /ai onoa?aaoea
noaeaeeoaeiua caaiaeu a ssiiiee.

Iiaua eiaeono?eaeueiua ainoaea?noaa i?aa?aoeeenue a iioaaueeia
ecaeaeee ec oaenoeey, a oaeaea yeaeo?iiiuo i?eai?ia, eioi?ua iie
i?iecaiaeyo a ea/anoaa oeeeaeia o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo iiiiiieee NOA,
ssiiiee e no?ai Caiaaeiie Aa?iiu.

IAAEAeOIA?IAeIAss EIIIA?AOeEss E YEIIIIE*ANEIA

NIO?OAeIE*ANOAI

I?O yaeyaony aieaa oe?ieie yeiiiie/aneie eaoaai?eae ii
n?aaiaieth n iaaeaeoia?iaeiui eiiia?e?iaaieai, yaeythueiny iaeiie
ec noi?ii e aeaaiuo oi?i i?iyaeaiey IO?. A naith i/a?aaeue,
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia eiiia?e?iaaiea iniiauaaaony ia niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa, io?aaeathuae ae?oaoth noi?iio e eioth iniiaioth
oi?i I?O.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia eiiia?e?iaaiea e iaaeaeoia?iaeiay niaoeeaeecaoeey
ia oieueei oi?ia I?O, iie ii?aaeaeytho aai nouiinoue.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea – ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea iaaeaeo
no?aiaie a ii?aaeaeaiiuo eiee/anoaaiiuo e ea/anoaaiiuo
niioiioaieyo, iiin?aaenoaiaaiiia iaiaiii iaaeaeo ieie oiaa?aie
oneoaaie e ae?oaeie ?acoeueoaoaie iauanoaaiii iieaciie
aeayoaeueiinoe.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiay niaoeeaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa ?acaeaaaony ii aeaoi
iai?aaeaieyi : 1) i?iecaiaenoaaiiiio e 2) oa??eoi?eaeueiiio. A naith
i/a?aaeue, i?iecaiaenoaaiiia iai?aaeaiea iiae?acaeaeyaony ia
iaaeio?aneaaoth, aioo?eio?aneaaoth niaoeeaeecaoeeth e ia
niaoeeaeecaoeeth ioaeaeueiuo i?aaei?eyoee ( eiiiaiee, iauaaeeiaiee ). A
oa??eoi?eaeueiii aniaeoa INI i?aaeiieiaaao niaoeeaeecaoeeth
ioaeaeueiuo no?ai, a?oii no?ai e ?aaeiiia ia i?iecaiaenoai
ii?aaeaeaiiuo i?iaeoeoia i?iyaeaiey e eo /anoae aeey ie?iaiai
?uiea.

Iniiaiua oi?iu i?iyaeaiey INI:

i?aaeiaoiay ( i?iecaiaenoai aioiauo i?iaeoeoia );

iiaenoaeueiay ( i?iecaiaenoaa /anoae, eiiiiiaioia );

oaoiieiae/aneay ( ioaeaeueiuo iia?aoeee : nai?ea, ie?anea, naa?ea,
i?iecaiaenoai ioeeaie, caaioiaie e o.ae. ).

Nooeoo?a INI iaiyaony a caaeneiinoe io IOI, ia?aoiaey e aieaa
neiaeiui oi?iai a no?oeoo?a ie?iauo iio?aaiinoae.

Iaeaieaa iieioth oi?io niaoeeaeecaoeee iieo/eee a iaoeiino?iaiee.
E iiaui iieacaoaeyi iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee io?anee
ioiinyony eiyooeoeeaio ioiineoaeueiie yenii?oiie niaoeeaeecaoeee (
EIYN ) e yenii?oiay eaioa a i?iecaiaenoaa io?anee. EIYN
ii?aaeaeyaony ii oi?ioea :

aaea Y0 – oaeaeueiue aan oiaa?a a yenii?oa no?aiu

( niaieoiiinoe oiaa?ia io?anee );

Yi – oaeaeueiue aan oiaa?a ( oiaa?ia – aiaeiaia ) a ie?iaii
yenii?oa.

N iiiiuueth EIYN iiaeii a ia?aii i?eaeeaeaiee ii?aaeaeeoue e?oa
oiaa?ia e, niioaaonoaaiii, io?aneae, eioi?ua yaeythony
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai niaoeeaeece?oaiuie aeey aeaiiie

no?aiu. Iauaeoeaiie iniiaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
eiiia?e?iaaiea ( IIE ) yaeythony o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, e noaiaiue ?an/eaiaiey eo io?anee,
iiaeio?anee, i?aaei?eyoey. Ca iineaaeiua aiaeu a ?acoeueoaoa IOI
auea nicaeaia iaoa?eaeueiay niiaa aeey oe?ieiai ?acaeoey
i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai eiiia?e?iaaiey e nthaea aeeth/aia iaoea. Oaeei
ia?acii IIE – yoi ia oieueei iiauoaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
o?oaea, ii e ?aaeecaoeey i?eioeeieaeueii iiauo caaea/, eioi?ua
i/aiue o?oaeii eee iaaiciiaeii ?aoeoue aac iauaaeeiaiey oneeee
i?iecaiaeeoaeae ianeieueei no?ai.

I?e eiiia?aoeeiiiie aeayoaeueiinoe ii?aaeaeytho :

iauaeo nio?oaeie/anoaa ( iaeanoue aeayoaeueiinoe, a eioi?ie iii
inouanoaeyaony );

iaoiae nio?oaeie/anoaa ( i?aaiecaoeeiiiua aai oi?iu e n?aaenoaa );

ii?iaoeaiue aiia?ao, n iiiiuueth eioi?iai aeinoeaaaony auiieiaiea
iinoaaeaiiuo eiiia?aioaie oeaeae.

Iaoiae nio?oaeie/anoaa :

inouanoaeaiea niaianoiuo i?ia?aii

a) ii?yaei/iia eiiia?e?iaaiea – yoi iieo/aiea eee aeiaiai? ii
auioneo i?iaeoeoeee eee

a) ii i?iaeoe?iaaieth e auioneo iiaiai i?iaeoeoa.

Aeiaiai?iay niaoeeaeecaoeey – yoi ?aca?aie/aiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo
i?ia?aii o/anoieeia niaeaoaiee. Oeaeue – ono?aieoue aeeaee?iaaiea
i?iecaiaenoaa, eeeaeaeaoeey i?yiie eiieo?aioeee, niaeaoaiea i
i?iaaaeaiee niaiaoiuo enneaaeiaaiee, niaianoiia i?iecaiaenoai
neiaeiie i?iaeoeoeee.

Nicaeaiea i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Aeaaiua aii?inu, naycaiiua n nicaeaieai niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

iiene ia?oia?a aeey /enoiaey eo naieo eioa?ania/;

ninoaaeaiea niaeaoaiey i niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoee iaaeaeo
noi?iiaie;

i?eiyoua ?aoaiey i oi?ia i?aaiecaoeee i?aaei?eyoey – ei?ii?aoeey,
cae?uoay aeoeeiia?iay eee ia?ia?neay ei?ii?aoeey /a NIA
i?eiaiythony neaaeothuea oi?iu : a) aeoeeiia?iia iauanoai,

a) iauanoai n iieueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth /caeanue /anoue /eaiia
iiaoo ianoe iieioth e nieeaea?ioth ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai i?aaei?eyoey e /anoe/iay ioaaonoaaiiinoue ii
iaycaoaeuenoaai oieueei naieie aeeaaeaie a onoaaiie eaieoae/, a)
iauanoai n ia?aie/aiiie ioaaonoaaiiinoueth oa?aeoa?ecothony oai,
/oi iii naiinoiyoaeueii ioaa/aao nianoaaiiui eiouanoaii ii naiei
iaycaoaeuenoaai e oaeei ia?acii aai o/anoieee ioaa/atho ii
naieie iaycaoaeuenoaai oieueei naieie aeeaaeaie a onoaaiie
eaieoae iauanoaa.

Yoa oi?ia eiaao iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea.

auai? i?aaie th?enaeeeoeee, ia aaca eioi?ie aoaeao i?aaieciaaii
niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoea;

ii?aaeaeaiea nooeoo?u eaieoaea e i?eioeeiia oeiaineiaaiey
niaianoiiai i?aaei?eyoey.

Aeey nicaeaiey niaianoiia i?aaei?eyoey no?ai – aeiii? io no?aiu
i?eiiathuae o?aaoao iaee/ea « eiaanoeoeeiiiiai – eeeiaoa »- yoi
icia/aao:

1.oa?aeoa? caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa ia eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeey ( aa?aioee
ii caueoa e ?aiao?eaoeee i?eauee eiaanoeoeee ).

2.iaee/ea ccaiania i?e?iaeiia nu?uey, aiciiaeiinoue iieo/aiey
iaoa?eaeia aeey aeayoaeueiinoe niaianoiuo e eiino?aiiuo
i?aaei?eyoee;

3.iaee/ea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aai/ae neeu;

4.noaiaiue ?acaeoey i?iecaiaenoaaiiie eio?ano?oeoo?u, a iniaaiiinoe
o?ainii?oa, n?aaenoa nayce;

5.yia?aaoe/aneay iaania/aiiinoue ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa, iaee/ea
yia?aaoe/aneeo ?aca?aia;

6.aieinoue ?uiea, iaee/ea ieaoaaeaniiniaiiai ni?ina ia oiaa?u e
oneoae;

7.oa?aeoa? aioo?aiiaai oicyenoaaiiiai iaoaiecia, aiciiaeiinoue
naiaiaeiuo ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee n ianoiuie oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie;

8.eiiaa?oe?oaiinoue ianoiie aaethou, aa?aioee auciaa i?eauee a
oaa?aeie aaethoa ec no?aiu.

NI eiaao cia/eoaeueiia ?acaeoea a ?acaeouo eaieoaeenoe/aneeo
no?aiao. Oae, 77% – aia?eeaineeo, 82% -aiaeeeneeo, 86% – aa?iaineeo e
aieaa /ai 50% – yiiineeo i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee eiaaony a ?acaeouo
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo no?aiao.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, /ai aieaa ?acaeoa no?aia, oai aeaeiia ianoi iia
caieiaao a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaeae ea?aao
aaaeouoth ?ieue a IYI. ?acaeaathueiny aea no?aiai i?eoiaeeony caieiaoue
ia?eoa?eeiia iieiaeaiea, /oi iaoneaaeeaaao eo ionoaeinoue io
i?iiuoeaiii?acaeouo no?ai. I?iaiaeece?oai yoi.

( 2. ?ACAEAATHUEANss NO?AIU A IAAEAeOIA?IAeIII ?ACAeAEAIEE O?OAeA

Ia nia?aiaiiii yoaia ?acaeoey ie?iaiai oicyenoaa ?acaeaathueany
no?aiu caieiatho aeaeiia ianoi. Ia ieo i?eoiaeeoueny 70%
ie?iaiai ianaeaiey, 20% AAI , a oaeaea aieueoay aeiey ca?oaaaeiuo
eiaaneoeoeee a eo yeiiieeo. Iie aeoeaii aiaea/aiu a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey. E aeey oiai, /oiau
iiiyoue eo, iaiaoiaeeii i?aaiaeece?iaaoue ianoi e ?ieue
?acaeaathueany no?ai a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea.

Iaiythuayny ?ieue a ie?iaie yeiiiieea. A ?acaeoee ?N i?aiaeaaeaao
ianiiiaiii iinooiaoaeueiay oaiaeaioeey, iaiythuay oa?aeoa?
ioiioaiee a nenoaia “ ?acaeoea ainoaea?noaa – ?acaeaathueany no?aiu
” . Iiiaea ec ?N oaea auioneatho noaiee, noaea, yeaeo?iieeo,
oo?aeiu, inaieee i?iecaiaenoai e nai?eo aaoiiiaeeae, ae?oaeo
neiaeiuo iaoei e aioiauo ecaeaeee. Oaeea no?aiu, eae Eiaeey,
Aaeiao, A?aceeey, A?aaioeia, THaeiay Ei?ay e ?yae ae?oaeo, a
cia/eoaeueiie ia?a ?aaioatho e ia yenii?o, auaicy i?iaeoeoeeth
iaoeiino?iaiey, yeaeo?iieee, oaaeiua ecaeaeey e o.ae., oaniyo oaeeo
eiieo?aioia eae ssiiiey, NOA, aa?iiaeneea no?aiu ii oeaeui
oiaa?iui a?oiiai.

Aeaaiia eciaiaiea a yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee ?N, eioi?ia i?iecioei
e ianoiyuaio a?aiaie, – yoi aic?anoaiea o?iaiy oeaeinoiinoe
aini?iecaiaenoaaiiiai i?ioeanna e iinoaiaiiue ia?aaiae aai ia
iaoeeiiaeueioth yeiiiie/aneoth aaco – oaiaeaioeey, ?acoiaaony,
oneiaiay, enoiaey ec ?aciiai o?iaiy eo ?acaeoey. Oe?aieeny
eiio?ieue ?N iaae naieie ?ano?naie a ioee/ea io iaaeaaiaai
i?ioeiai, eiaaea ii i?eiaaeeaaeae Caiaaeo. Aaaeioth ?ieue caeanue
ea?atho ainoaea?noaaiiua oeiainiai – yeiiiie/aneea einoeooou,
i?ecaaiiua ianeoaeeaaoue aini?iecaiaenoaiiue i?ioeann. Yoi iicaieeei
a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a ?aaoee?iaaoue eiino?aiiue eaieoae, iinoaiaiii
aeeth/aoue auaoea ianoiua aaoiiiiiua i?iecaiaenoaaiiua aieeaau a
iaoeeiiaeueiua nenoaiu iaaeio?aneaauo naycae. Auee oe?aieaiu eee
caiiai nicaeaiu oaeea caaiuey aini?iecaiaenoaa, eae oyaeaeay
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, aaiee, i?iecaiaenoaaiiua eio?ano?oeoo?a, nenoaiu
iiaeaioiaee eaae?ia e ia?aciaaiey, ?acaeoey nenoaia ianeoaeeaaiey.
A iauai, “ o?aoueaai iooe ” ?acaeoey ia iieo/aaony – ?acaeaaaony a
iauai e oeaeii aeinoaoi/ii eeanne/aneay noaia ?uii/iie
nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneie nenoaiu – aeueoa?iaoeau iiea ia
i?iniao?eaaaony, oioy a eaaeaeie no?aia eiathony naie iniaaiiinoe.

Ia?aaeienu ?inoa. Nouanoaaiiie /a?oie yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey a
?N yaeyaony oi, /oi ii ia?ae?eaaaony onoie/eaie oaiaeaioeeae
?inoa ianaeaiey. Yoa oaiaeaioeey ia iiaeao ia aanoe a oeaeii
?yaea neo/aaa e oooaeuaieth iieiaeaiey o?oaeyueony iann. E
aiiauaa, iaaei ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaiia?aoe/aneee oaeoi? yaeyaony ii
nooe aeaaiui aioo?aiiei oaeoi?ii, aeeeoothuei niaoeeoeeo
yeiiiie/aneia ?inoa yoie a?oiiu no?ai iineaaeiea aeanyoeeaoey. Ii
ieacuaaao neeueiia aeaaeaiea ia no?oeoo?o ?uiea, caiyoinoue,
i?iecaiaenoai. Yoi aeaaeaiea neacuaaeinue ii neaaeothuei aeaoi
iai?aaeaieyi.

Ai – ia?auo, ?ino ianaeaiey aaoiiaoe/anee iiauoaao o?iaaiue
iio?aaeoaeueneiai ni?ina, nicaeaaay iai?yaeaiea ai anao caaiueyo
ianniaiai iio?aaeaiey. E oai naiui i?aaeuyaeyao iiauoaiiua
o?aaiaaiey e i?iecaiaenoao iniiaiuo n?aaenoa iio?aaeaiey. A
?aoeueoaoa iecoea o?aaeeoeeiiiua oi?iu i?aaiecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie
aeecie iieo/eee neeueiua eiioeuenu e ?acaeoeth, iineieueeo eiaiii
iie e ianoaeeaathoue yoio iai?a?uaii ?anoouee ni?in. Oaeie oei
?anoe?aiiiai aini?iecaiaenoaa yaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii yenoaineaiui.
Ii e caeanue aeey aai oniaoiiai ?acaeoey o?aaoaony iiiaieeaaeiay
yeiiiie/aneay nenoaia. I?e iiaeaaeaiee iiiaieeaiinoe, /oi auei
oa?aeoa?ii a 70 – a aiaeu aeey a?oiiu “nioeeaeenoe/aneea
i?eaioe?iaaiiuo ?N ”, ooo aea aicieeaee e?oiiua aeeni?iii?oeee,
aeaoeoeeo, anaiauay aaaeiinoue, i?aainoiaeyuay o?iaaiue ,
nouanoaiaaaoee aeaaea a eieiieaeueiue ia?eiae.

Ai – aoi?uo, aeaiia?aoe/aneee oaeoi? ieacuaaao neeueiia
aicaeaenoaea ia eiaanoeoeeiiiue i?ioeann, auioaeaeay ainoaea?noai
?acoe?youe i?iecaiaenoaaiiue aiia?ao , ninoiyuee ec iaeeeo,
eonoa?iuo e iieoeonoa?iuo i?aaei?eyoee aeey iaania/aiey ?inoa
caiyoinoe oioy au a niioaaonoaee n ?inoii ?aca?aa ?aai/ae neeu.

Oaoiieiae/aneee i?a?ann cia/eaeueii ?anoe?ee aiciiaeiinoe
oicyenoaiiiai iiaeuaia ?N. Ii i?iaeaia a oii, /oi ii
iaeiia?aiaiii oaeoaee ?ac?ua iaaeaeo ninoiyieai “ia?eoa?eeiiuo” e
iauaie?iauo i?iecaiaeeoaeueiuo nee, ineiaeiea eniieueciaaiea eo
aiciiaeiinoae aeey eiaeono?eaeecaoeee ia?auo. Aea e naia
eiaeono?eaeecaoeey ia?eoa?ee auea neaai iiaeaioiaeaia
i?aaeoanoaothuei ?acaeoeai. Iiyoiio iia ia iineea oeaeinoiue
oa?aeoa?, ia i?eaaea e oi?ie?iaaieth eioaa?e?iaaiiuo iaoeeiiaeueii
– oicyenoaaiiuo eiiieaenia. Aieaa oiai, niinanoaiaaea cae?aieaieth
io?aneaauo aeeni?iii?oeee, naienoaaiiuo aiiaua iiiieoeueoo?iui, neaai
acaeiinaycaiiui iaaeaeo niaie a oicyenoaaiiui ioiioaiee ?aaeiiai
?acaeaathueony no?ai. Iaeaieaa iauee eoia yeiiie/aneiai ?inoa a
?acaeaathuaiyny ie?a oa?aeoa?ecoaony oai, /oi a ia?eiae 1960 –
1990 aa. iauai i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii cia/eoaeueii aic?in. A
?acoeueoaoa aaeiaay oaiaeaioeey oaaee/aiey ?ac?uaa a o?iaiyo
?acaeoey iaaeaeo ie?iauie eeanneoeeaoeeyie aaaeiui iacuaaaony oio,
eoi iieo/aao iaiueoa 275 aeieea?ia a aiae ( a aeiee.1987 a.). A
1990a. ian/eouaaeinue 20 no?ai n iaiueoei o?iaiai aeioiaea. A
ia?eiae n 1980 ii 1990 aa. a 71 ec 155 no?ai, iaaethaeaeny
niaae o?iaiy aeioiaeia ianaeaiey.

A iaeaieaa neiaeiii iieiaeaiee iaoiaeyony 42 iaeiaiaa ?acaeoua
no?aiu, a eioi?uo n?aaeiaaeooaaie ?acia? AAI, ii iiaen/aoai
THIEOAAe , nieceeny a 1990a. aei 230 aeiee. Aic?anei ionoiaaiea
yoie a?oiiu no?ai io n?aaeieo iieacaoaeae ii “o?aoueaio ie?o ”.
Ii i?iecaiaenoao AAI ia aeooo ianaeaiey ?ac?ua aic?in aei 4
?ac ( 1970a. – 3,3 ?aca ). Eae iiaeii noaeeoue ii iniiaiiio
aa?eaioo i?iaiica THIEOAAe, e 2000a. yoi ionoaaaiea aoaeao
ecia?youeny oaea a 4,3 ?aca.

I?aiaeieaiea aai caeiao aeeeoaeueiue enoi?e/anee ia?ieae. Ii
naiui iioeienoe/aneei ioeaieai aaoi?eoaoiuo caiaaeiuo yeiiiienoia,
iai?eia?, ea?aaoa Iiaaeaaneie i?aiee A.Eaiioueaaa ( ecaanoiii
aeieaaea III “Aoaeouaa ie?iaie yeiiiieee ” ), aiciiaeiinoueth naiie
eeaeaeaoeee nouanoaothuaai ?ac?uaa a o?iaia yeiiiie/aneiai
?acaeoey iaaeaeo ?acaeouie e ?acaeaathueieny no?aiaie iiaeao
aicieeiooue eeoue a na?aaeeia OOI aaea. Yoa aiciiaeiinoue iiaeao
?aaeeciaaoueny a oii neo/aa, anee aoaeao nio?aiyoueny
cia/eoaeueiue i?eoie aiaoieo ?ano?nia a yoe no?aiu, /oi iaania/eo
iiauoaiiua oaiiu eo ?inoa.

Ionoaaaiea ?N io ?acaeouo na?ueacii aaniieieo ie?iaia
niiauanoai. Aaaeue a ii?aaeaeaiiie ia?a io yoiai no?aaeatho e
?acaeoua ainoaea?noaa, eai ocinoue ?uiea ?N nie?auaao
aiciiaeiinoe eo yenii?oa. Iiyoiio aeaiiay i?iaeaia aeoeaii
ianoaeaeaeanue ia ninoiyoaeny a ethia 1992a. a ?ei – aea –
AEaiae?i ( A?aceeey ). Eiioa?aioeee III ii ie?oaeathuae n?aaea e
?acaeoeth. Eiioa?aioeey i?eiyea aeieain?i/ioth i?ia?aiio aeaenoaee
a aeiaaeueiii ianooaaa ( Iiaanoea aeiy ia OOI aaea ), a eioi?ie
caoeene?iaaii aeinoeaiooia niaeanea ia i?aaeinoaaeaiea ?acaeoeie
no?aiaie e 2000 aiaeo e a iineaaeothuea aiaeu oeiainiaie iiiiuee
?N a ?acia?a 0,7% AII eaaeaeie ?acaeoie no?aiie. Anaai aea, eaa
auei iiaen/eoaii, aeey ?aaeecaoeee Iiaanoea aeiy ia OOI aaea
o?aaoaony 600 ie?ae. aeiee. a aiae, ec ieo 125 ie?ae. aeiee.,?acaeoua
no?aiu aeieaeiu auiea/eaaoue ?acaeaathueiny iaiin?aaenoaaiii.
Iaeiaei oaea a ?ei – aea – AEaiae?i auei ynii, /oi aiaaoua
i?iiuoeaiiua no?aiu neeueii icaai/aiu nianoaaiiuie i?iaeaiaie e
ia aeaeatho aeaaaoue aieueoeo oeiainiauo iaycaoaeuenoa eee
aeaeaoue aieueoea oeiainiaua onooiee, /oiau noceoue eiathueeny
?ac?ua. Iiyoiio ?N a?yae ee iiaoo ?ann/eouaaoue ia cia/eoaeueioth
oeiainiaoth e oaoiieiae/aneoth iiiiuue ni noi?iiu ?acaeouo no?ai.

Ecaea?aeee eiioeaioeee “caiauaiey eiii?oa ”. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
noaea iauai?eciaiiie oa oi/ea c?aiey, /oi no?aoaaey, iai?aaeaiiay
ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth iooai caiauaiey eiii?oa ianoiui
i?iecaiaenoaii, aeaeaei ia anaaaea niaeaenoaiaaea ?aoaieth caaea/e,
aeinoeaeaiey iinoiyiiiai e noaaeeueiiai ?inoa e i?aiaeaeaiey
yeiiiie/aneie ionoaeinoe, neaaeai, ii yiineiio eee thaeiiei?aeneiio
noeaia?eth.

Aeaei a oii, /oi, ai – ia?auo, ?uiee aeey i?iaeoeoeee io?aneae,
caiaiythueo eiii?o, eiatho ia?aie/aiiue oa?aeoa? a neeo
iaaeinoaoi/iie ?acaeoinoe i?iecaiaenoaa a naieo ?N. E i?eia?o,
eiaaony ieiei 30 yeiiiie/anee neaai?acaeouo no?ai n /eeaiiinoueth
ianaeaiey iaiaa 6 iei. /aeiaae a eaaeaeie, i?e/ai yoe
ainoaea?noaa ia a ninoiyiee iaania/eoue ioaeaeathueony o?oaeii –
ionthaea e e?aeia oceay aieinoue ?uiea, i?aeoe/anee neaau oneiaey
aeey i?aaiecaoeee ii?eaeueiiai aini?iecaiaenoaaiiai i?ioeanna aia
iii?u ia “ aiaoiee oaeoi?”.

Ai – aoi?uo, iieeoeea i?ioaeoeeiiecia, inouaoaeyaiay ia ia?auo
yoaiao, iaania/eea ono?aiaiea eiieo?aioeee ni noi?iiu aeaoaauo
caa?aie/iuo oiaa?ia. Ii yoi ianoiyoaeuenoai eiaei e ae?oaoth
noi?iio : i?iecaiaeeoaee a ?N, ia iianathueany eiieo?aioia ec
caiaaeiuo no?ai, ia eiaei noeoeia e iiieaeaieth ecaea?aeae
i?ieaiaenoaa e e iiauoaieth ea/anoa naieo ecaeaeee. A ?aoeueoaoa
eo oiaa?u ieacuaaeenue iaeiieo?aioiniiniaiuie ia yenii?oiuo
?uieao.

A – o?aoueeo, ecaea?aeee ia ?aai/eth neeo, aii?aee
?ani?ino?aiaiiiio iiaieth, auee ioiineoaeueii aunieeie ai iiiaeo
no?aiao Acee, Ao?eee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee a neeo oiai, /oi
i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue o?oaea caeanue /?acau/aeii iecea eae
neaaenoaea iauae ieceie eaaeeoeeaoeee ?aai/ae neeu.

A – /aoaa?ouo, ni anae io/aoeeainoueth auyaeeinue, /oi
i?iieeiiaaiea ia eiino?aiiua ?uiee oiaa?ia ec ?N aucuaaao
na?ueaciua i?aiyonoaey aeaaea a oao neo/ayo, eiaaea eo oiaa?u
eiieo?aioiiniiniaiu, iineieueeo caiaaeiua no?aiu aeiee?otho eo
aeinooi ia naie ?uiee iooai anaaiciiaeiuo aa?uea?ia, aeeth/ay
“aeia?iaieueiia eaioe?iaaiea ”. A /anoiinoe, ?acaeoua no?aiu
?uii/iie yeiiiieee onoaiiaeee i?ioaeoeeiienoneea aa?uea?u ia iiiaea
aeaeu i?iaeoeoeee iaoeiino?iaiey, eaaeie i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oaeie, eae
oaenoeeueiay e iaoaiay a eioi?uo no?aiu Acee, Eaoeineie Aia?eee,
Acee e Ao?eee aiieia eiieo?aioiniiniaiu.

Iaeiia?aiaiii iioa?iaei oeanei ia oieueei no?aoaaey caiauaiey
eiii?oa, eae aa?eaio no?aoaaee ?inoa i?iiuoeaiiinoe, ii e iieeoeea
a iaeanoe naeueneiai oicyenoaa. Aeoeaio ia eiaeono?eaeecaoeeth,
naeaeaiiue ai iiiaeo ?N, eae yoi ie ia?aaeienaeueii, i?eaae e
oiaaeeo eo aa?a?iue naeoi? yeiiiieee. A yoio naeoi? auee
naeaeaiu ioiineoaeueii iaaieueoea aeiaeaiey, oioy aieueoeinoai
ianaeaiey aceaoneeo, ao?eeaineeo e eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo no?ai
iieo/aee e iieo/atho n?aaenoaa aeey naiaai nouanoaiaaiey
aeaaiaea?y naeueneiio oicyenoao. Oi anoue eiaeono?eaeecaoeey a oii
aeaea, eaeii iia i?iaiaeeeanue, i?eaaea e ii?aaeaeaiiiio
aeiee?iaaieth ?inoa naeueneioicyenoaaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa, iniaaiii
ia Ao?eeaineii eiioeiaioa.

Aeaei a oii, /oi ?N enoiaeeee ec iaiaoiaeeiinoe nio?aiaiey
ieceeo oeai i?iaeoeou ieoaiey, /oiau noaaeeece?iaaoue o?iaaiue
aeecie a ai?iaeao e, niioaaonoaaiii, nio?aieoue ca?aaioioth ieaoo
ia ieceii o?iaia. Iaeiaei ieceea oeaiu ia i?iaeoeou ieoaiey
i?aiyonoaiaae naeueneioicyenoaaiiui i?iecaiaeeoaeyie ?anoe?youe naia
i?iecaiaenoai, a yoi iaecaaaeii aaei e eiii?oo i?iaeoeoia ieoaiey
ai ana oaaee/eaathueony ianooaaao. A iaaeaeo oai aieioue aei 50
– o aiaeia OO noieaoey e aceaoneea, e ao?eeaineea no?aiu ia 80
-90% iaania/eaaee naay naie ca?iii. Iaeiaei yoi iieiaeaiea
ei?aiiui ia?acii eciaieeinue. E 1990a. eiii?o ca?ia iiauneeny
ii/oe aei 35 iei oiii, ii anae aa?iyoiinoe, aoaeao
oaaee/eaaoueny e aeaeaa.

A oi aea a?aiy oeaiu ia oaeea oiaa?u, eae eioa e eaeai,
iaoiaeeony ia naiii ieceii o?iaia ni a?aiai aoi?ie ie?iaie
aieiu, e ia iaeeaeaaony, /oi iie neieueei- ieaooue aic?anooo. Ni?in
ia iiiaea ec yoeo oiaa?ia yaeyaony “iayeanoe/iui” – ii ia ?anoao
i?iii?oeeiiaeueii iaaeaieth oeai. I?e yoii ?acaeoea nianoaaiiie
i?iiuoeaiiie aacu nii?iaiaeaeaaony ia?anoaieai aaethoiuo i?iaeai,
?inoii caaeneiinoe io i?iecaiaenoaaiii-oaiieiae/aneie aacu
eaieoaeenoe/aneeo oeaio?ia.

?uiee ieia?aeueiiai nu?uey aceaoneeo e ao?eeaineeo no?ai iaaeue,
eiaaeueo, aeiacu, o?ai, ieiai, eao/oe e ae?.- oaeaea iaoiaeyony
ninoiyiee aeai?annee ec -ca aieueoiai eieaaaiey oeai, eiaaea ni?in
iaiaeeaeaiii iiauoaaony eee iaaeaao. A ?acoeueoaoa
ianoaaeeueiinoue yoeo ?uieia nicaeaao iaonoie/eainoue enoi/ieeia
iieo/aiey eiiaa?oe?oaiie aaethou.

Aeey o?oaeiin?aaieiuo iaaeaeo niaie ?N oa?aeoa?ai oei

“ i/aaiaiai ” ?inoa – eee ioaeaeueiua no?aiu, eee oa eee eiua
?aaeiiu a ioaeaeueiuo ?N iieacuaatho aae?oa i?eia?u ao?iiai
yeiiiie/aneiai iiaeuaia. Yoi oa?aeoa?ii aeey ?N ia anao
eiioeiaioao. A oi aea a?aiy iaiaeiicia/iia aicaeaenoaea ia
yeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo ?N e aa ?acoeueoaou ieacuaatho
oai?aoe/aneea eiioeaioeee, acyoua ia aii?oaeaiey eie o caiaaeiuo
no?ai, a /anoiinoe, iaieeaa?aeueiua ( iaieeanne/aneea ) eiina?aaoeaiua
eaeae, oe?iei ?ani?ino?aieaoeany a yoeo ?aaeiiao. A niioaaonoaee
n eo ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie aieueoeinoai ao?eeaineeo e
eaoeiiaia?eeaineeo no?ai anoaei ia iooue nie?auaiey
ainoaea?noaaiiiai naeoi?a e iiiu?aiey ?acaeoey /anoiiai
i?aaei?eieiaoaeuenoaa ( aeaiaoeeiiaeecaoeee ). Ii e yoio iooue iiea
/oi ia aeaao iniaiai yooaeoa, a oi a?aiy eae aeieae ?anooo. “
Oaeiaioe Oaein ” a nayce n yoie i?eaioaoeeae ni?aaaaeeeai ienaea
: “ ?aciocaeaiiue iaieeaa?aeeci ioee/ii auiieiyao naith ooieoeeth,
niaeaenoaoy iaii?aaaeaiiiio iaiaauaieth ( caiaaeiuo aaieia) e
cae?uaay iaeiia?aiaiii aeaca ia aai aea?oau ”. A oi aea a?aiy
?N ana a aieueoae ia?a noaiiayony aaaeiaeoei ?aca?aii o?oaeiauo
?ano?nia aeey ie?iauo yeiiiie/aneeo oeaio?ia. ?aaioieee yoeo no?ai
eniieuecothony, eae i?aaeei, a ea/anoaa iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo
?aai/eo. Iaeiia?aiaiii Caiaae inouanoaeyao iieeoeeo eioaineaiiai
i?eaea/aiey ec ?acaeaathueony no?ai ?aaioieeia aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeee. Yoi iiieii oiai, /oi cia/eoaeueiay /anoue “
eioaeeaeooaeia ” a ?N ?aaioaao ia i?aaei?eyoeyo OIE a naieo
?acaeaathueony no?aiao – oi anoue a naeoi?ao yeiiiieee, i?aeoe/anee
“ aueeth/aiiuo ” ec noa?u iaoeeiiaeueiiai eiio?iey. Iaiaoeeanue
yaiay oaiaeaioeey ia?aiineoue ia ?acaeaathueany no?aiu oyaeanoue

?aoaiey oaeoaeythueony i?iaeai e i?ioeai?a/ee ?acaeouo no?ai : a
iaeanoe nu?uey, yia?aaoeee, io?aiu ie?oaeathuae n?aaeu, caiyoinoe,
aaethoiuo ioiioaiee e ae?.

Aeeiaie/iia ?acaeoea i?iecaiaeeo a a?oiia a?aaneeo no?ai iinea
caaa?oaiey aieiu n E?aeii a ciia Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa.

Eoaaeo aeiaieueii auno?i ii?aaeeny iinea ieeoiaoeee E?aeii. Ii
oaea aiiaue aeinoea o?iaiy aeiau/e iaooe, onoaiiaeaiiiai aio IIAE
iaeaioia aieiu a caeeaa – 1,5 iei o?iaiy aa??aeae a aeaiue .
Ionoonoaea aea e?aineie iaooe ia ?uiea aua aieaa oe?aieyao
iiceoeeth iaaieueoiai yie?aoa. Yeiiiieea Naoaeianeie A?aaee iaiaa
/ai /a?ac aeaa aiaea iinea aieiu a Caeeaa oaeaea oneeeeanue :
a 1991 – 1992 aa. oaii ?inoa AAI a n?aaeiai ninoaaee 6% a
aiae. E?oiiua ai?iaea no?aiu iaiiieiatho ia?iiiua no?ieoaeueiua
ieiuaaeee.

A ioee/ea io i?aaeieo naoaeianeeo aoiia yoio aoi iiaeia?aaaaony
/anoiui naeoi?ii, aiiaue ia?aaeoei o?iaaiiinoue

a naaa. Ii ooaa?aeaeaieth Aaia?aeueiiai nae?aoa?y Niaaoa oi?aiai –
i?iiuoeaiiuo iaeao Naoaeianeie A?aaee Aaaeaeea aae – Aeaaaa, ieiei
30 ie?ae.aeiee. NOA, iaoiaeyueony ia /anoiuo naa?aaaoaeueiuo n/aoao
a Naoaeianeie A?aaee, nae/an iiaoo auoue ec?anoiaeiaaiu ia
eiaanoeoeee. Ia iiaeuaia iaoiaeeony e yeiiiieei Iauaaeeiaiiuo
A?aaneeo Yie?aoia: aeeaaeuaathony aieueoea n?aaenoaa a
niaa?oainoaiaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u, no?ieoaeuenoai e a naeoi? ioaeuoa
e ?acaea/aiee. A Aao – Aeaae,

iai?eia?, aaeaaeiaaii aeiauaaaony ieiei 2,4 iei aa??aeae iaooe,
?anooo aeiau/a e yenii?o i?e?iaeiiai aaca. Iiaeooiue aeioiae
Iauaaeeiaiiuo A?aaneeo Yie?aoao ninoaaeyao a n?aaeiai 29 oun.
aeiee. (ianaeaiea anao yie?aoia-ieiei1,9 iei /aeiaae).Ia/aoi ?anoe?aiea
ii?oa Ieia – Caao noieiinoueth 60 iei aeiee., aeeceony e
caaa?oaieth no?ieoaeuenoai iiaiai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ii?oa a Aeue –
Aei e ieaie?oaony ?anoe?aiea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ii?oa a Aao –
Aeaae. Aeieaeiu auoue iino?iaiu iiaue iino, niaaeeiythuee ino?ia
Aao – Aeaae n iaoa?eeii, e ianeieueei iiauo aaoiiaaeno?aeae.

Aieueoea eaieoaeiaeiaeaiey aeaeathony a iaooaaaciaoth e
yeaeo?iyia?aeoe/aneoth i?iiuoeaiiinoue. Ii aeaiiui i?iiuoeaiiuo
e?oaia, a aeeaeaeoea iyoue – oanoue eao iie ninoaayo ieiei 6
ie?ae aeiee. Iie aeeth/atho 2 ie?ae aeieea?ia ia ?anoe?aiea
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuaai caaiaea ?oaaen e 1.4 ie?ae aeieea?ia – ia
yeaeo?inoaioeeth e ii?anieoaeueiua onoaiiaee.I?aaeiieaaaaony oaeaea
nii?oaeaiea ino?iaiiai eiiieaena ?acaea/aiee “Eoeo” noieiinoueth 2
ie?ae aeieea?ia ia eneonnoaaiiii ino?iaa, eioi?ie iiaeao noaoue
e?oiiaeoei ?aaeiiaeueiui e iaaeaeoia?iaeiui eiiieaenii oaeiai
?iaea. Inouanoaeyaony aieueoay i?ia?aiia eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee, i?eia?ii
a 6 ie?ae aeieea?ia, aeey niaa?oainoaiaaiey iaooaia?aaiiiuo
caaiaeia e aaciia?a?aaaouaathueo nenoai,

a /anoiinoe ia ino?iaa Aean, ioeoaea yenii?oe?oaony naeeaeaiiue
aac.

Aeey iiiaeo ?acaeaathueony no?ai ?aceoaeueiui i?eia?ii inoaaony
e nioeeaeueii – yeiiiie/aneia ?acaeoea noeoaiaoa Iiai.
Aeieacaoaeuenoaii aai oniaoiie yaiethoeee yaeythony ?ino AAI a
?aaeueiii au?aaeaiee ( ninoaaeaoee a 1992 aiaeo 7,5% ) e
nieaeaiea iieacaoaey eioeyoeee ( n 10,5% a 1990 aiaeo aei iaiaa
5% a eiioea 1992 aiaea ). A /aoaa?oii iyoeeaoiai ieaia ( 1991 –
1996 aa. ) i?aaeoaeuenoai Iiaia iinoaaeei caaea/o iiauneoue
iieacaoaeue ?inoa e nio?aieoue oaiiu ?acaeoey ; n yoie oeaeueth
iii no?aieony aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaoue yeiiiieeo, oiaiueoeoue
caaeneiinoue io iaooe, aeoeaece?iaaoue ?acaeoea i?iaeioeee e
oaaee/eoue eaiaeiaeaiey a ia?aciaaiea.

O/eouaay, /oi caiania iaooe oaaoeo i?eia?ii ia 18 eao, eiiiaiey
“ Iao?ieaoi aeaaaeiiiaio Iiai ” iieaaaao, /oi aeaai?iaey
iaia?oaeaieth cia/eoaeueiuo ianoi?iaeaeaiee aaca a enoaeoai aiaeo
Iiai a aeeaeaeoai aoaeouai iiaeao noaoue yenii?oa?ii aaca.

I?iaeoaeuenoai iuoaaony ?acaeaaoue iiaua io?anee, iai?eia?, aeiau/o
iaaeiie e o?iiiaie ?oaeu, caieiaynue iieneaie iiauo
ianoi?iaeaeaiee iieaciuo eneiiaaiuo. Iaeiia?aiaiii ainoaea?noai
oaeaeyao aieiaiea naeueneiio oicyenoao e ?uaieianoao, a oaeaea
oo?ecio, i?eia?aoathuaio ana aieueoaa cia/aiea aeey
caeioa?aniaaiiuo noi?ii eae aioo?e no?aiu, oae e ca aa
i?aaeaeaie. ?acaeoea aa?ii?iuoeaiiiai eiiieaena iicaieeei nie?aoeoue
eiii?o i?iaeiaieuenoaey e aeinoe/ue oaeiaeaoai?eoaeueiiai o?iaiy
naiiiaania/aiey.

Iaeii ec aeaaiuo oeaeae ainoaea?noaa auei iiiu?aiea /anoiiai
naeoi?a. Oae a 1991 – 1992 aa. eiee/anoai /anoiuo oe?i e
niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee aic?inei a aeaia. Aaaeiuie oaeoi?aie
?acaeoey yoiai naeoi?a auee inaiaiaeaeaiea oi?aiauo e
i?iiuoeaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee io iaeioi?uo iaeiaia ia i?eaueue e
ioiaia iaeiaa ia aeioiaeu eiiiaiee. Oniao a ?acaeoee yoie no?aiu
niioiineoaeueii ia?aie/aiiuie ?ano?naie – ?acoeueoao aeieain?i/iie
no?aoaaee iieeoe/aneiai ?aaeecia e oia?aiiie ioe?uoinoe.

Iaaei neacaoue, /oi ieeoiaoeey Eoaaeoa E?aeii e iineaaeothuee
?aca?ii iineaaeiaai aeaee iiuiue eiioeuen yeiiiie/aneiio
?acaeoeth anao no?ai ciiu Ia?neaeneiai caeeaa. Ii aeaei ia
oieueei a yoii. Aieia ?acei iiaeoieeioea eioaa?aoeeiiiua i?ioeannu
a ?aaeiia. E?iia oiai, aa eoiaii noaee e aieaa aeoeaiua nayce
ainoaea?noa Caeeaa n eiaeono?eaeueiuie no?aiaie Caiaaea, eioi?ua
ia oieueei oi?i/eee caeanue naie yeiiiie/aneea iiceoeee, ii e
niiaee yooaeoeaii eniieueciaaoue eo e aeey ?aoaiey naieo
iieeoe/aneeo caaea/ a noieue aaaeiii aaino?aoeae/aneii ?aaeiia
ie?a. Eneeth/eoaeueiue aeeiaieci a yeiiiie/aneii ?acaeoee
iieacuaaao Aaeiao, ianiiiaiii, noaiiayueeny ?aaeiiaeueiie
yeiiiie/aneie aea?aeaaie. Nianoaaiii, yoa no?aia aeinoeaea o?iaiy
ii?aaeaeaiiie eiaeono?eaeueiie c?aeinoe ii anai iniiaiui
yeiiiie/aneei iieacaoaeyi. Iia eiaao iiuioth aeeaa?neoeoee?iaaiioth
i?iiuoeaiiinoue, aeeth/ay nia?aiaiiia iaoeiino?iaiea,
i?iecaiaenoaaiioth eio?ano?oeoo?o, auno?i ?acaeaathueany a noa?o
oneoa, oi?ioi iiaeaioiaeaiiua eaae?u niaoeeaeenoia. Aeiaieueii
onoie/eauie oaiiaie ?acaeaaaony e Ei?aeaiey, no?aiu Iaa?eaa.

A aeieeaaea Anaie?iiai aaiea “ Ao?eea thaeiaa Naoa?ue : io
e?ecena e onoie/eaiio ?inoo” ioia/aaony, /oi “ a iauai
ao?eeaioeu a 1989 aiaeo ii/oe oae aea aaaeiu, eae e 30 eao
iacaae”. Aeey oiai, /oiau aeinoeaiooue “ne?iiiiai iiauoaiey o?iaiy
aeecie, yeiiiieea no?ai thaeiaa Naoa?u aeieaeia ?anoe ii
e?aeiae ia?a ia 4 – 5% aaeaaiaeii” .

A 1990 aiaeo iauee AAI yoeo no?ai aic?in ia 1,3% e i?eia?ii
ia 2,4% a 1991 aiaeo. Yoiai iaaeinoaoi/ii n o/aoii aunieie
?iaeaeaaiinoe a Ao?eea ( 3,2% ), /oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue iaaeaiea
iiaeooiiai aeioiaea ( ia 0,6% ). Iiyoiio ianeo/aeii niaoeeaeenou
ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi “ e 2000 aiaeo i?e?ino ?aaeueiiai aeioiaea ia
aeooo ianaeaiey aoaeao ieieiaeueiui ai anai ?aaeiia a oeaeii”, –
aiai?eony a aeieeaaea Anaie?iiai aaiea

“Ia?niaeoeau aeiaaeueiie yeiiiieee e ?acaeaathueany no?aiu”,“Oioy
iiaeii iaeeaeaoue iiiiue a aeaea ?aaeueiuo iiauoaiee oiaa?iuo
oeai e ia? ii nie?auaieth aeieaa e aai ianeoaeeaaiey”, –
aiai?eony a aeieeaaea, – “ neoaeinoue eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee a
iai?oaeiaaiea, eio?ano?oeoo?o e /aeiaa/aneea ?ano?nu eneeth/aao
?aceia oeo/aiea o?iaiy aeecie”. A iauai a ?aaeiiao
?acaeaathuaainy ie?a ea?oeiai iaiaeiicia/iay. N iiceoeee ieacaiey
iiiiue ni noi?iiu eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai, a 90-a aiaeu eo
iieiaeaiea aeaaea ianeieueei ineiaeieeinue : caeanue neacuaaaony
yeaiaio eiieo?aioeee – ?acaeoea no?aiu auee auioaeaeaiu ieacuaaoue
aieueooth iiiiuue iaeioi?ui no?aiai NIA e I?eaaeoeee, – a yoa
“eiieo?aioeey”, ia niiiaiii, ineiaeieo iieiaeaiea iiiaeo ?N,
iniaaiii iaeaieaa ionoaeuo eo ieo.

Niauoey 1998 aiaea iieacaee, /oi yeiiiieea no?ai THai – Ainoi/iie
Acee ia niiaea ni?aaeoueny n oeiainiaui e?ecenii, aicieeoei a
?acoeueoaoa i?iaiaeeiie yoeie no?aiaie yeiiiie/aneeo ?aoi?i. Yoio
e?ecen aua iieeoeee i?iiuoeaiii?acaeouo no?ai.

?acthia.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iauaeoeaii auoaeatho ec
i?ioeanna ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoee, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie.

Oaeoaeaiea ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea a cia/eo
IYI caaenyo io anoanoaaiiuo ( eeeiao, i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, e o.ae. )
e i?eia?aoaiiuo ( i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, oaoiieiae/aneea ) oaeoi?ia, a
oaeaea nioeeaeueiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo, yoie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e
i?aanoaaiiuo oneiaee.

Aiciiaeiinoe, ia?niaeoeau e ?ieue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, cia/aiea e niioiioaiea eo iniiaiuo oi?i e iai?aaeaiee
ii?aaeaeythony oaeoaeaieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea,
ia?aoiaeei e aunieei aai oeiai. Iauee oei iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iaaeio?aneaaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
iaiai, a /anoiinoe, oiaa?aie aeiauaathueony e ia?aaaouaathueo
io?aneae ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. *anoiia ?acaeaeaieao?oaea i?eaiaeeo e
?acaeoeth e i?aiaeaaeaieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee aioiauie
ecaeaeeyie ?aciuo io?aneae e i?iecaiaenoa, a oii /enea
aioo?eiaaeio?aneaaie . Iaeiiaoe, aaeeie/iue oei I?O icia/aao
niaoeeaeecaoeeth ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ( oceao,
aeaoaeyo, iieooaa?eeaoao ) e noaaeeyo iao/ii – oaoie/aneie, i?iaeoii
– eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiieiae/aneie ?ac?aaioai e aeaaea
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa. ?acaeoea oi?i niaoeeaeecaoeee e
eiiia?aoeee nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

?acaeaathueany no?aiu ( a oii /enea e ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai )
caieiatho aaaeiia ianoi a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea. Eo ianoi e ?ieue iaoneaaeeaaao eo yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai e
o?iaiai ?acaeoinoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio iie ai iniiaa
auiieiytho ?ieue iinoaaueeia nu?uey aeey i?iiuoeaiii?acaeouo no?ai. Ii
ii ia?a ?acaeoey naieo yeiiiiee ?acaeaathueany no?aiu ia?aoiaeyo e
niaoeeaeecaoeee ii auioneo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a iniiaiii IEN
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee. Ia niio?y ia yoi, ana aea iie
aua aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aoaeoo iineoue ia?eoa?eeiue oa?aeoa? ii
ioiioaieth e I?N, oai naiui iaoneaaeeaay naia ianoi a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea e nenoaia IYI.

Aeaaa 2. ?ANIOAEEEA EACAONOAI A IAAEAeOIA?IAeIII ?ACAeAEAIEE
O?OAeA.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ie iaeia no?aia ie?a, iacaaeneii io aa
iao/ii – oaoie/aneiai e yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea, ia iiaeao
iaania/eoue naia iioeiaeueiia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea aac o/aoa aiaoiaa
yeiiiie/aneeo naycae, aac aeiiieiaiey naieo aiciiaeiinoae
aiciiaeiinoyie nio?oaeie/anoaa n ae?oaeie no?aiaie. I?e yoii
i?iyaeyaony i/aaeaeiay “ caaeneiinoue” /ai auoa o?iaaiue
yeiiiie/aneiai ?acaeoey no?aiu e /ai oaea aa aioo?aiiee ?uiie,
oai aieueoie noaiaie iia aeieaeia auoue aeeth/aia a nenoaio
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea. Iaeiaei iiieiaiea yoiai
ianoiyoaeuenoaa ia aaei ia i?aeoeea e iiceoeaiui ?acoeueoaoai.

( 1. IIEIAEAIEA EACAONOAIA A NENOAIA IAAEAeOIA?IAeIIAI ?ACAeAEAIEss
O?OAeA.

Eacaonoai a oneiaeyo nicaeaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeieaeai
ei?aiiii ia?acii eciaieoue oa?aeoa? o/anoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea , i?eia?anoe iiaue iaeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea, /ai
yoi auei i?e NNN?.

Eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeey i?iecaiaenoaa a auaoai NNN? oea /a?ac
aaeieieno?aoeaiia iiaaeaiea “ naa?oo” , iieeoe/aneii o?iaia.

Ai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe no?aiu NYA aeaaiui ia?acii
i?eaioe?iaaeenue iaaeaeo niaie. Iaoaieci eioaa?aoeee inouanoaeyeny
n iiiiuueth neaaeothueo yeaiaioia :

1. niaianoiie ieaiiaie aeayoaeueiinoe;

2. eii?aeeiaoeey iao/ii – enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio;

3. niaoeeaeecaoeey e eiiia?e?iaaiea i?iecaiaenoaa;

4. aiaoiyy oi?aiaey a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea,
eioi?ay inouanoaeyeinue ii i?eioeeio:

1. nu?uea – aioiaua ecaeaeey.

2. aioiaua ecaeaeey – aioiaua ecaeaeey.

I?eioeei “nu?uea – aioiaua ecaeaeey” aue oa?aeoa?ai aeey
acaeiiioiioaiee “ NNN? – inoaeueiua no?aiu NYA”.

Yeiiiie/aneia naiinoiyoaeueiia ieaaaiea Eacaonoaia a ie?iaii
?uii/iii i?ino?ainoaa iio?aaoao iaee/ea nianoaaiiiai eiiiana,
naiaai a?aiioiiai eaieoaia, /oiau i?aaeeueii i?eaioe?iaaoueny a
aooothuai ieaaia ie?iaiai ?uiea e iaeoe naith i?enoaiue a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
ii?aaeaeeoue a oaeeo io?aneyo i?iiuoeaiiiai i?iecaiaenoaa iu
caieiaai i?ei?eoaoiua ianoa, a oaeeo io?aneyo iu yaeyainy
iiiiiieenoaie, a eaeeo io?aneyo iai iaiaoiaeeii oaeiaeaoai?eony
iieoieie aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a eaeeo io?aneyo iai iaiaoiaeeii
?acaeaaoue naia i?iecaiaenoai, /oiau naiiiaania/eoue yoie
i?iaeoeoeeae aioo?aiiee ?uiie, a eaeeo io?aneyo iai iaiaoiaeeii
nicaeaaaoue niaianoiua iaaeainoaea?noaaiiua i?aaei?eyoey
ea?oaeueiiai oeia eae IIAE. Iiaeao auoue a oao io?aneyo, aaea iu
caieiaai a ie?iaii i?iecaiaenoaa i?ei?eoaoiua ianoa, oaeea eae
oeaaoiay iaoaeeo?aey, o?aiiaay ?oaea, oinoi?iua oaeia?aiea,
i?iecaiaenoai cieioi e o.ae. iai iaiaoiaeeii iieneaoue iooe
nicaeaiey niaianoiuo iaaeainoaea?noaaiiuo i?aaei?eyoee, eioi?ua
niinianoaiaaee au cae?aieaieth ca Eacaonoaiii ?iee ia ie?iaii
?uiea ia eae iinoaaueea nu?uey, a eae iinoaaueea aioiauo ecaeaeee
eee iieooaa?eeaoia. Caeanue auoiae oieueei ia iea/ao naiaai
ia?oia?a, eniieueciaaiey aai eieaeaea, /aai ia eiatho iiea
i?aaei?eyoey iaoae ?anioaeeee. Iaeuecy caauaaoue, /oi ie?iaie ?uiie
– yoi “naa?oeai?eciay aeaia”, e ca iae iaaei oiaoue ooaaeeaaoue.

Oaeei ia?acii, ia/eiay n 1991 aiaea Eacaonoai noae
naiinoiyoaeueii ii?aaeaeyoue naia ianoi e ?ieue a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. Iaeiaei ia?aae oai, eae, o/anoaiaaoue ai
aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ioaeii auei ii?aaeaeeoueny n
yeiiiie/aneei iioaioeeaeii ?anioaeeee, /oiau ia iniiaa /aai
ii?aaeaeyoue yenii?o e eiii?o no?aiu, niaoeeaeecaoeeth a
i?iecaiaenoaa.

YEIIIIE*ANEEE IIOAIOeEAE ?ANIOAEEEE

EACAONOAI.

Eacaonoai ii naiae oa??eoi?ee caieiaao aoi?ia ianoi a NIA iinea
?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee, aai oa??eoi?ey 2717.3 oun. eaaae?aoiuo ei.,
eoaea iiaoo ?acianoeoueny ainaiue aa?iiaeneeo ainoaea?noa aianoa
acyouo : O?aioeey, Eniaiey, Eoaeey, Ii?ooaaeey, Oaaoeey, Ii?aaaey,
A?aoeey, Oeieyiaeey, aaea i?iaeeaaao nauoa 240 iei. /aeiaae.
?anioaeeea eiaao 14 iaeanoae, 198 ?aeiiia, 82 ai?iaea, iia
iaeaaeaao aiaaoaeoeie caiaeueiuie ?ano?naie e iieaciuie
eneiiaaiuie. Eacaonoai iaeaaeaao oieeaeueiuie i?e?iaeiuie
aiaaonoaaie.

Yoi, i?aaeaea anaai , iaooue. Iniiaiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey iaooe
iaoiaeyony a Caiaaeii – Eacaonoaineie, Aou?aoneie, Iaiaenoaoneie,
Aeothaeineie, Ecue – I?aeeineie iaeanoyo. Enneaaeiaaiiua caianu
ninoaaeytho 4.5 ie?ae.o. iaooe ; 5.9 o?ee.eoa.i. aaca.

Oaieue. Caianu 200 ie?ae.o. Iniiaiua ianoi?iaeaeaiey oaey
nin?aaeioi/aiu a Ea?aaaiaeeineie ( eienothueeny oaieue ),
Einoaiaeneie, Aeiieeineie, Iaaeiaea?neie, Ainoi/ii – Eacaonoaineie
iaeanoyo. Eiaaony oieeaeueiia ianoi?iaeaeaiea oaey : Ooaa?eieueneia
ianoi?iaeaeaiea, aaea caianu oaey ninoaaeytho 2 ie?ae.o.,i?e
ceinoiinoe 4 – 25%.

AEaeaciay ?oaea. Ii iauaiai caiania ( 8 ie?ae.o. ) Eacaonoai
caieiaao o?aouea ianoi a NIA iinea ?innee e Oe?aeiu. Iniiaiua
caianu nin?aaeioi/aiu a Einoaiaeneie iaeanoe (Na?aae, Eaoe?,
Eenaeiane ). Caianu o?iia nin?aaeioi/aiu a Aeothaeineie iaeanoe (
90% caiania NIA ). Oinoi? – 60% ie?iauo caiania eiaaony a
AEaiaueneie iaeanoe. Oaeoe/anee aeaa no?aiu a ie?a yaeythony
iiiiiieenoaie ii oinoi?iui oaeia?aieyi : Eacaonoai e NOA. 60%
oaoie/aneeo aeiacia, 97% oeaaoiui iaoaeeia, 60% caiania na?aa?a
NIA, a oaeaea 40 – 45% ie?iauo caiania o?aiiaie ?oaeu ( ii
aeaiiui IAAAOY ) iaoiaeyony ia oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia. ?anioaeeea
?aniieaaaao cia/eoaeueiuie caianaie cieioa, aaiaaeey, aieueo?aia e
ae?oaeie aeaeaie oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia, ec oaaeeoeu Iaiaeaeaaaa ia
oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaia auyaeaii 99 yeaiaioia. O?iaaiue i?iiuoeaiiiai
?acaeoey ?anioaeeee a oeaeii iaoiaeeony ia o?iaia neaai?acaeouo
no?ai, iaeiaei eiathony io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, aaea ?anioaeeea
iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia naith “ieoo” a ie?iaie nenoaia ?acaeouo
no?ai. Yoi i?aaei?eyoey aiaiii – i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena,
oieeaeueiue einiiae?ii Aaeeiio? e ae?oaea io?anee.

E iaoianoiui aiaaonoaai Eacaonoaia ioiineony aai caiey. Iauay
caiaeueiay ieiuaaeue ninoaaeyao 176 iei.aa.,ec ieo naeueoicoaiaeee
220 iei.aa., iiae naeueneioicyenoaaiiua eoeueoo?u caiyoi 35
iei.aa., ec ieo iiae ca?iaie eoeueoo?aie – 23 iei.aa. caiee.

Eacaonoai iaeaaeaao ?acaeoie nenoaiie ia?aciaaiey, iaoee,
eoeueoo?u, cia/eoaeueiui iao/iui e oaoie/aneeie iioaioeeaeii,
eioi?uo iao ai iiiaeo no?aiao, no?iyueo ?uii/ioth yeiiiieeo.

Ia iniiaa yeiiiie/aneiai iioaioeeaea auea iino?iaia
aiaoiaoi?aiaay iieeoeea e iieeoeea o/anoey a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. ?anniio?ei yenii?oiue iioaioeeae Eacaonoaia,
/oiau iiiyoue, ia /ai niaoeeaeece?oaony ?anioaeeea a aeaiiia
a?aiy, ii?aaeaeeoue aa ?ieue e ianoi a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea.

YENII?OIUE IIOAIOeEAE EACAONOAIA.

Iiiaea no?aiu i?e nicaeaiee iniia ?uii/iie yeiiiieee aeaaiia
aieiaiea oaeaeyee ?acaeoeth yenii?oa, eae oaeoi?a iiauoaiey
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe naiaai i?iecaiaenoaa a oeaeii, eae iaeaieaa
ei?ioeiai iooe i?e ?aoaiee iaaieaaoeo i?iaeai. A yoii ieaia
eaeeie aiciiaeiinoyie ?aniieaaaao ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai ?

Yeiiiie/aneia iieiaeaiea Eacaonoaia ii?aaeaeyaony aai aiaaonoaii,
a aeaiiii neo/aa i?e?iaeiuie ?ano?naie, n eioi?uie Eacaonoai
iiaeao aueoe ia ie?iaie ?uiie e eiieo?e?iaaoue n ae?oaeie
oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie. Iaeiaei ia yoii iooe aai iiaenoa?aaatho
aieueoea iai?aaeaeaeaiiua ianoiyoaeuenoaa. I?aaeaea anaai, ie?iaie
?uiie nu?uey oaea iiaeaeai iaaeaeo anaie oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie
e oai iao naiaiaeiie “ieoe”, oai nouanoaoao ino?ay eiieo?aioiay
ai?ueaa. Ai – aoi?uo, nu?uea ia ie?iaii ?uiea ?aaeecoaony ii
ieceei oeaiai, aea aua eacaonoaineee iinoaaueee nu?uey ia eiaao
naiaai eieaeaea e ea/anoai aai i?iaeoeoeee ia eiaao ie?iaiai
na?oeoeeaoa. Ie?iaie iio?aaeoaeue nu?uey i?eaue iieoiaoue nu?uea
ii?aaeaeaiiiai ea/anoaa e a oi/ii oeacaiiua n?iee. Iiyoiio,
/oiau caaiaaaoue naith “ieoo” ia yoii ?uiea iaiaoiaeeii
i?eeeaaeuaaoue iaeneioi oneeee. I?e nioeeaeecia ?anioaeeea
iaoiaeeeanue a oaiee/iuo oneiaeyo : iia ciaea, /oi i?iecaanoe
noieueei oiii oaey, iaooe, ca?ia, oeaaoiuo iaoaeeia e o.ae., ia
anooiaea ie a eiioaeou ni naieie iio?aaeoaeyie, ia eiieo?e?iaaea
ia ie?iaii ?uiea n ae?oaeie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie aiaeiae/ii
i?iaeoeoeee, ia eco/aea eiiuthieoo?o ie?iaiai ?uiea. Iaeiaei,
iieo/ea iacaaeneiinoue, ?anioaeeea noaea aeaeaoue ia?aua oaae a
yenii?oa naiae i?iaeoeoeee.

Ia aiaoiee ?uiie Eacaonoai a ia/aea 90 -o aiaeia iinoaaeye 290
iaeiaiiaaiee ?aciiia?aciuo oiaa?ia e aue iniiaiui iinoaaueeii a
auaoai Nithca ia yenii?o : 95% o?iiiaie ?oaeu, 90% aeaeoiai
oinoi?a, 75% naeiueoea, 50% oeeiea,

60% oa??io?iia e o?iiieea iao?eaaiai, cia/eoaeueiie /anoe
yenii?oe?oaiie iaaee, oeoaia, iaaiey, ?aaeeicaiaeueiuo iaoaeeia.

Yenii?oii – eiii?oiua iia?aoeee inouanoaeythony aiaoiaoi?aiauie
i?aaiecaoeeyie IIO e Y?E e ae?oaeie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuie
i?aaiecaoeeyie, ia iniiaa iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo niaeaoaiee e eaio
e eeoeaicee ia yenii?o i?iaeoeoeee ainoaea?noaaiiiai cia/aiey e
ia eiii?o nu?uey, i?iaeiaieuenoaey, iaaeeeaiaioia aeey
ainoaea?noaaiiuo ioaeae e ia oneiaeyo naiaiaeiie oi?aiaee, a
oaeaea iaiin?aaenoaaiii oiaa?ii?iecaiaeeoaeyie – i?aaei?eyoey
niaianoiua, iaeua, /anoiua e eiiia?aoeau.

N 1992 aiaea Eacaonoai ia/ae naiinoiyoaeueii inouanoaeyoue naie
aiaoiaoi?aiaua nayce.

Ii aeaiiui oaiiaeaiiuo aeaeea?aoeee, aaaaeaiiuo a ia?aii
iieoaiaeee 1998 aiaea, ?anioaeeea eiaea oiaa?iiaiai n 89 no?aiaie
aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey, a oii /enea : 38 – Aa?iiu, 28 – Acee, 12 –
Ao?eee, 9 – Aia?eee, a oaeaea n Aano?aeeae e Ieaaieae. Aaaeouaa
ianoi ai aiaoiaoi?aiaui oiaa?iiai?ioa ii eiio?aeoiaea?aeaoaeyie
caieiaee Eeoae, Oaaeoea?ey, Aa?iaiey, NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiey, Oaaoeey,
Oo?oeey, *aoey, THaeiay Ei?ay,

Ieaea?eaiaeu, ssiiiey. Ia aeieth inoaeueiuo iia?aoeee, ia aeieth
aceaoneeo no?ai – 28% aiaoiae oi?aiaee.

Aeeiaieea iauaia aiaoiaoi?aiaiai iai?ioa ( aac oi?aiauo iia?aoeee
iaaeaeo no?aiaie NIA ) iei.aeieea?ia.

1989a. 1990a. 1991a. 1992a.
1993a. 1994a.

ii aeaiiui Aineiieoaoa ?E aiaeu auaeyaeyo:

ANAAI 4048 6062 2424 1958 1915
6797

YENII?O 1580 1901 776 1489 1463
3230,7

EIII?O 2468 4161 1648 469 452
3561,2

NAEUeAeI – 888 -2260 -872 1020 1011
– 330,5

1995a. 1996a. 1997a.
1998a.

ii aeaiiui Aineiieoaoa ?E aiaeu auaeyaeyo:

ANAAI 8755,4 10491,7 11351
12051

YENII?O 4974,4 6230,4 6697,7 7325

EIII?O 3781 4261,3 4653,3
5726

NAEUeAeI 1193,4 1969,1 2044,4
1599

Ec iauaai iauaia 1998 aiaeo a no?aiu aeaeueiaai ca?oaaaeuey
iinoaaeaii 41%, aeeaeiaai ca?oaaaeuey – 59% Eacaonoai a iauaia
yenii?oa NIA caieiaao o?aouea ianoi ( 2,5% ) a iinea ?innee
(84,7% ) e Oe?aeiu ( 5,9% ).

A no?oeoo?a yenii?oa Eacaonoaia aaeee oaeaeueiue aan
iaoaeeiecaeaeee ; ieia?aeueiuo i?iaeoeoia e oeie/aneie i?iaeoeoeee,
aua iecea aeiey iaoei e iai?oaeiaaiey.

A iauaia iaoo?aeueiuo iinoaaie ia ia?aii ianoa iaaeue, i?ieao
/a?iuo iaoaeeia, oa??inieaau, oeeie, iaooue, iacoo, aeecaeueiia
oiieeai e oaeia?aiey. Ia aeieth yoeo aeaayoe nu?ueaauo i?iaeoeoia
i?eoiaeeony 54% yenii?oa.

Oaeei ia?acii iu aeaeei, /oi ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai ia aeaiiie
iiiaio i?eaioe?oaony ia yenii?o nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, a aeiau/a
eioi?iai iu eiaai aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae ae?oaeie
no?aiaie. Oi anoue Eacaonoai niaoeeaeece?oaony ia aeiau/a
i?e?iaeiuo iaoa?eaeueiuo ?ano?nia, e yoi iaoneiaeeaaao ?ieue e
ianoi Eacaonoaia, a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, eae
iinoaaueee aeaoaauo ?ano?nia. Anee aea ?anniio?aoue eiii?o no?aiu,
oi iiaeii auyaeoue neaaeothuea oaiaeaioeee.

EIII?OIAss IIEEOEEA.

A 1998 a. eiii?o ninoaaee nauoa 3,5 iee?ae.aeie. NOA

( ii aeaiiui Aieiinoaoa n o/aoii no?ai NIA ) ec ieo aeiey
yia?aiiineoaeae – 31%, iaoei, iai?oaeiaaiey, o?ainii?oiuo n?aaenoa e
i?eai?ia – 29%, i?iaeoeoeee oeie/aneie i?iiuoeaiiinoe – 8%, oiaa?ia
oe?ieiai iio?aaeaiey a i?aaeaeao – 10%.

Eiii?oiay iieeoeea ?anioaeeee aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaiia
i?aaeaea anaai ia inouanoaeaiea aeanoeiai eiio?iey ca eiii?oii.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a ?anioaeeeo caaicyony oiaa?u a iniiaiii
aeeiaieueiiai iai?aaeaiey e ieceiai ea/anoaa, e /aio aeieaeai
auoue iinoaaeai caneii. A niioaaonoaee n iauai?eiyoie
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie i?aeoeeie i?aaenoieo ?aaoee?iaaoue eiii?o,
ia?aie/eaay einaaiiuie iaoiaeaie aaic i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao
iaianoe oua?a iaoeeiiaeueiiio i?iecaiaenoao e oe?a ?acaeaaoue
eiii?o -caiauathuea i?iecaiaenoaa, eioi?ua Eacaonoai iiaeao
inouanoaeyoue naiinoiyoaeueii. Ia caeoieo eiii?oiuo oiaa?ia
?anoiaeoaony cia/eoaeueiay /anoue aaethoiuo iinooieaiee e
eiii?oiiai e?aaeeoa, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa iaainoaea?noaaiiuo
no?oeoo?.

Oaeei ia?acii iu aeaeei, /oi ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai ia aeaiiua iiiaio
i?eaioe?oaony ia yenii?o nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, aeiau/a eioi?iai iu eiaai
aieueoea i?aeiouanoaa ia?aae ae?oaeie no?aiaie. O.a. Eacaonoai
niaoeeaeece?oaony ia aeiau/a ieia?aeueiuo ?ano?nia, e yoi, iaoneaaeeaaao
?ieue e ianoi Eacaonoaia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, eae
iinoaaueea aeaoaauo ?ano?nia. Anee aea ?anniio?aoue eiii?o, oi iiaeii
auyaeoue iieiaeeoaeueiua e io?eoeaoaeueiua noi?iiu.

OI?IU O*ANOEss ?ANIOAEEEE EACAONOAI A I?O.

N 1987 aiaea nithciua ?anioaeeee naiinoiyoaeueii ninoaaeytho
ieaiu yenii?oii – eiii?oiuo iia?aoeee e ei auei ioeoeeaeueii
?ac?aoaii naiinoiyoaeueii auoiaeeoue ia aiaoiee ?uiie.

Aei yoiai aiaoiayeiiiie/aneea e iaae?anioaeeeaineea nayce
oi?ie?iaaeenue a ninoaaa aaeeiiai ainoaea?noaaiiiai ieaia e
ia?iaeiioicyenoaaiiiai eiiieaena. Niaaoaie Ieieno?ia nithciuo
?anioaeee onoaiaaeeaaeenue caaeaiey ii yenii?oo oieueei ii
i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay ecaioaaeeaaeanue i?aaei?eyoeyie iaiin?aaenoaaiii
?anioaeeeaineiai iiae/eiaiey. Iniiaiua i?aaei?eyoey – yenii?oa?u
iaoiaeeeenue a aaaeaiee nithciua ieienoa?noa, a ieaiao eioi?uo
onoaiaaeeaaeenue caaeaiey ii i?iecaiaenoao a i?iaeoeoeee ia
yenii?o. Aiaeiae/iay nenoaia ioiioaiee aeaenoaiaaea e i?e
eiii?oiuo caeoieao.

?aoaieai aeaoaeoeaiuo i?aaiia auee ii?aaeaeaiu i?aaa e
iaycaiiinoe i?aaei?eyoee, io?aneaauo, ?aaeiiaeueiuo e
?anioaeeeaineeo i?aaiia e a eo no?oeoo?a nicaeaiu niaoeeaeueiua
iiae?acaeaeaiey ii aiaoiayeiiiie/aneei naycyi.

A 1988 aiaeo auei nicaeaii ?anioaeeeaineia aiaoiaoi?aiaia
iauaaeeiaiea “Eacaoeiii?o” , a 1989 aiaeo aue ia?aciaai
Ainoaea?noaaiiue Eiieoao ii aiaoiaoi?aiaui naycyi, eioi?ue a
1991 aiaeo aue i?aia?aciaai a aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae (IAYN)
n ethiy 1993 aiaea aai aicaeaaeye caianoeoaeue i?aiuea?-ieieno?a
?anioaeeee.

A oeaeyo aieaa yooaeoeaiiai eniieueciaaiey i?iecaiaenoaaiiiai
iioaioeeaea ?anioaeeee e oaeiaeaoai?aiey iio?aaiinoe ?uiea,
auno?aeoaai aoiaeaeaiey ?anioaeeee a ie?ioicyenoaaiiua nayce a
ethia 1994 aiaea ia?aciaaii Ieienoa?noai i?iiuoeaiiinoe e
oi?aiaee ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai (IIeO ?E ) ia aaca oi?acaeiaiiuo
IAYN, Ieii?iia e Ieioi?aa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Auee nicaeaiu e oe?aieythony niioaaonoaothuea iiae?acaeaeaiey a
aiia?aoa Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia, Ieiyeiiiieee, Ieioeia, Iaoeaaiea,
i?aaieciaaiu Oaiiaeaiiue Eiieoao e Aiaoyeiiiiaaie ( Aeaiaaie ) n
?acaa?iooie nenoaiie a ?aaeiiao.

A oeaeyo oe?ieiai i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiie iiiiue aeey
no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee yeiiiieee e oe?aieaiey aai yenii?oiiai
iioaioeeaea a 1992 aiaeo auei nicaeaii Iaoeeiiaeueiia aaaionoai
ii eiino?aiiui eiaanoeoeeyi, eioi?ia n yiaa?y 1993 aiaea
iaoiaeeeinue i?e Ieienoa?noaa yeiiiieee ?anioaeeee, a n ia?oa
1995 aiaea iii auei i?aia?aciaaii a Eiieoao ii eniieueciaaieth
eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea i?e Eaaeiaoa Ieieno?ia ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai.

Aeey eii?aeeiaoeee ?aaiou ii i?eaea/aieth i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo
e?aaeeoia eiino?aiiuo ainoaea?noa e aeey ?aoaiey iia?aoeaiuo
aii?inia nicaeaia ?anioaeeeaineay Eiienney ii eiino?aiiui
e?aaeeoai iiae ?oeiaiaenoaii I?eia? – Ieieno?a.

Aeey oneeaiey ainoaea?noaaiiiai ?aaoee?iaaiey i?ioeannia
i?eaea/aiey, eniieueciaaiey, ianeoaeeaaiey e iiaaoaiey eiino?aiiuo
e?aaeeoia, iieo/aiiuo eee aa?aioe?oaiuo ?anioaeeeie Eacaonoai, e
noeioee?iaaiey ?acaeoey yenii?oa ioa/anoaaiiie i?iaeoeoeee a etheue
1994 aiaea nicaeai ainoaea?noaaiiue yenii?oii – eiii?oiue aaie
?anioaeeee Eacaonoai ( Yeneiaaie Eacaonoai ), eioi?ue yaeyaony
i?aaii?eaiieeii Aeaiaaiea Eacaonoai ii anai iaaeaeoia?iaeiui
iaycaoaeuenoaii. Aeaiaaie Eacaonoai ca 3 aiaea iieo/ee na?ueaciia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiia i?eciaiea, eiaao ei??aniiiaeaioneea nayce ni 170
e?oiiaeoeie aaieaie ie?a, ianeoaeeaaao 13 aaia?aeueiuo e?aaeeoiuo
eeiee, oeiaine?oao ?yae e?oiiaeoeo iauaeoia, aieaa 85% aaethoiuo
e?aaeeoia iai?aaeyao a noa?o i?iecaiaenoaa.

Ii aeaiiui Yeneiaaiea Eacaonoai iauay noiia iiaeienaiiuo
e?aaeeoiuo niaeaoaiee i?aauoaao 1 ie?ae.aeiee., ec eioi?uo 600
iei.aeiee. oaea eniieuecoaony ( 01.01.1995 a.).

A Ieiyeiiiieea ?E aaaeaony eiio?ieue ca eniieueciaaiea
eiino?aiiuo e?aaeeoia a ?aieao ioe?uouo 24 e?aaeeoiuo eeiee ec
19 no?ai e iyoe iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo i?aaiecaoeee.

Aeieaeii auoue ?aaeeciaaia 15 e?oiiuo eiaanoeoeeiiiuo i?iaeoia n
o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ia 6260 iei.aeie.

Iin?aaeieeii a ioiioaieyo ioa/anoaaiiiai aeciana eae aioo?e
?anioaeeee, oae e ca aa i?aaeaeaie noaiiaeony Oi?aiai –
i?iiuoeaiiay iaeaoa Eacaonoaia ( OII ). I?aaieciaaiiay a 1959 aiaeo
e noaaoae naiinoiyoaeueiie n 1989 aiaea. Ia naaiaeiy ( iiya?ue
1994 aiaea ) e aa /eaiaie yaeythony aieaa 400 i?aaiecaoeee, i?e
iae noi?ie?iaaiu niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua oe?iu “ Eacaonoaiyenia?oeca ”,
“EacYnii ”, “ Eacaiaona?aen ”.

A iaeanoiuo oeaio?ao nicaeathony iacaaeneiua OII ni anaie
iieiiii/eyie ?anioaeeeaineie iaeaou. I?iaiaeeony oeaeaono?aieaiiay
?aaioa ii nicaeaieth niaianoiuo oi?aiauo iaeao ( NOI ) n
ca?oaaaeiuie no?aiaie. NOI nicaeaia a O?aioeeae. A aeaayoe no?aiao
nicaeaiu Oi?aiaua aeiia.

A oeaeyo aeoeaecaoeee i?aaei?eieiaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe a
?anioaeeea, niaeaenoaey iineaaeiaaoaeueiiio eioaa?e?iaaieth
ioa/anoaaiiie yeiiiieee a nenoaio ie?iauo oicyenoaaiiuo naycae,
io?aaioee yeiiiieea – i?aaiauo ii?i ooieoeeiie?iaaiey naiaiaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo cii e eo eniieueciaaiey a ae?oaeo ?aaeiiao
?anioaeeee, a ai?iaea Aeiaou, a a?aieoeao oa??eoi?ee Eacaonoaineiai
oeaio?a aeaeiaiai nio?oaeie/anoaa nicaeaia naiaiaeiay oi?aiaay
ciia “ Aoaeaio ”.

A ?anioaeeea aee?aaeeoiaaii nauoa 160 i?aaenoaaeoaeuenoa
ca?oaaaeiuo oe?i, aeaenoaotho 10 aaieia n o/anoeai eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 2025 ( yiaa?ue 1995a. )

niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee n o/anoeai nauoa 60 no?ai.

A Eacaonoaia iaeiei ec ia?auo n?aaee ?anioaeee NIA auee
i?eiyou ii?iaoeaiua aeieoiaiou, ?aaoee?othuea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth
aeayoaeueiinoue ( AYAe ) noaa?aiiiai ainoaea?noaa.

Ana yoi iaoneaaeeaaao caaeneiinoe iieiaeaiea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai
a noa?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee ia aeaiiue
iiiaio ?acaeoey yeiiiieee no?aiu. Ii oae i?iaeieaeaoueny ia
iiaeao. Anee iu oioei ?acaeoey iaoaai ainoaea?noaa, iiauoaiey ?iee
a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea, oi iaiaoiaeeii iinoaiaiii
eciaieo no?oeoo?o yenii?oa e eiii?oa, iiauoay o?iaaiue ?acaeoey
i?iiuoeaiiinoe no?aiu.

( 2. I?IAEAIU IA?NIAEOEAU O*ANOEss EACAONOAIA IAAEAeOIA?IAeIII
?ACAeAEAIEE O?OAeA.

Aeey oiai, /oiau iiauneo ?ieue ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai a noa?
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaiaoiaeeii iieiinoueth
?aaeeciaaoue ?ano?niue iioaioeeae no?aiu, a oaeaea iiauneoue
?ieue io?aneae, i?iaiaeyueo aioiaoth i?iaeoeoeeth, /oiau ia eiaoue
caaeneiiai iieiaeaiey io i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai. Yoiai iiaeii
aeiaeoueny iooai i?eaea/aiey a no?aio iiauo ia?oia?ia, a oaeaea
oeo/oaieai yenii?oii – eiii?oii iieeoeee e aiaea/aieai Eacaonoaia
a ?uiie iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee.

IIENE IIAUO IA?OIA?IA.

Aeey Eacaonoaia n aai cia/eoaeueiui e iaeiinaiaiiui ?ano?niui
iioaioeeaeii i?eaea/aiea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea yaeyaony aaaeiui
oaeoi?ii ono?aiaiey eiathueony aeeni?iii?oeee e i?aiaeieaiey
oaoiieiae/aneiai ionoaaaiey. Iaaei eneaoue onoie/eauo eiaanoi?ia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Eacaonoai eiaao ieiei 30 iaooai?iaeoia ii
inaiaieth iaooaiiniuo cii. No?ieony iaooai?iaiae io Oaiaeca aei
*a?iiii?neiai ii?oa. Iiai?inneene, ?anniao?eaathony aii?inu
no?ieoaeuenoaa aoi?iai iaooai?iaiaea /a?ac oa??eoi?ee Eneaineie
?anioaeeee E?ai, a oaeaea iaooai?iaiaea aioo?e no?aiu. Aaaaeoony
ia?aaiai?u ( e iaaaconiaoii ) i no?ieoaeuenoaa
iaooaia?a?aaaouaathuaai, ?aeiino?oeoeee nouanoaothueo caaiaeia,
iai?eia? : Ea?aaaiaeeineiai iaoaeeo?ae/aneiai eiiaeiaoa e ae?oaeo
e?oiiuo iauaeoia, eioi?ua iiaoo nouanoaaiii eciaieoue no?oeoo?o
yeiiiieee iaoae no?aiu e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie ono?aieoue
eiathueany aeeni?iii?oeee.

A iineaaiaiiie ia?eiae ssiiiee iinoaaeea ia?aae niaie caaea/o :
“ Yenii?oe?iaaoue eee oia?aoue!”. Yoa i?ia?aiia iicaieeei ae
aueoe ia ia?aaeiaua iiceoeee ia ie?iaii ?uiea. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy
ana “ ieoe ” ie?iaiai ?uiea caiyou ?acaeouie eaieoaeenoe/aneeie
no?aiaie e a?yae ee a aeeaeaeoaa a?ai iai oaeanony eo
auoanieoue e caiyoue niioaaonoaaiioth “ ieoo ” . Iiyoiio oii?
aeieaeai auoue naeaeai ia ?acaeoea aioo?aiiae yeiiiie/aneie
no?oeoo?u, eneaoue iaaei iaeaieaa oeaeaniia?aciua iai?aaeaiey,
?acaeoea yenii?oa aeey aaethoiuo caiania, a ia aaneiio?ieueii
i?iaeaaaoue naie nu?ueaaua ?ano?nu. E?aaeeou iu aeieaeiu a?aoue n
oeaeaaui iai?aaeaieai , eia/a iiaeai ieacaoueny ia ianoa
ao?eeaioeaa e ian aoaeoo iacuaaoue “ ao?eeaioeaie ” e “
ao?eeaineei nenoai aeciana ”. 30 – 40 eao iacaae Ao?eea a?aea
e?aaeeou iiae inaiaiea iaaee, aethieiey, iaooe, aeaiueae i?iaaeaee,
a eiaaea i?eoiaeeee n?ie ?anieaou aiai?eee : “Oaae iaiy, ii o
iaiy iao aeaiaa ”. Yoi e iacuaaaony “ ao?eeaineee noeeue”.

I?e ionoonoaea a no?aia ia?a?aaaouaathueo io?aneae
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, e ie?a nouanoaoao i?eioeei eniieueciaaiey
oieeeiaiauo iia?aoeee, o.a. ia?aaeaaaaoue nu?uea ae?oaie no?aia
aeey ia?a?aaioee, nio?aiyy ia iaai i?aai nianoaaiiinoe e caoai
i?iaeaaaoue i?iaeoeoeeth aunieie ia?aaioee ia ie?iaii ?uiea.
Yooaeo, eiia/ii, cia/eoaeueii aieueoa, /ai i?iaeaaea nu?uey. Iaaei
eneaoue oaeeo ia?oia?ia.

Ii ioaeii iiiieoue, /oi eoi ia naao, oio ia aeiao. ?acaeaaoue
iaaei ia?a?aaaouaathuaa io?anee i?iiuoeaiiinoe, eia/a iu noaiai
nu?ueaaie aacie ie?iaiai eaieoaea.

A ie?a nouanoaotho iauea i?aaeea i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiiai
eaieoaea, eioi?ua iaeaieaa auaiaeiu, /ai eiaeeaeaeoaeueiua.Iiyoiio
iaiaoiaeeii eie iieueciaaoueny.

?anioaeeea eiaao na?ueaciia yeiiiie/aneea nayce ni iiiaeie
no?aiaie : NOA, Aa?iaieae, O?aioeeae, Aano?eae, Oo?oeeae, THaeiie
Ei?aae e ae?oaeie. Iaaei ia?aoiaeeoue e iauaie?iaie i?aeoeea
caeeth/aiey niaeaoaiee ia ?acaaaeeo, ?ac?aaioeo e yenieoaoaoeeth
ianoi?iaeaeaiee i?e?iaeiuo ?ano?nia. I?eaeaeaao eiino?aiiue eaieoae
aeey inaiaiey iaooaaaciauo ianoi?iaeaeaiee neaaeoao a niioaaonoaee
n iauai?eiyoie a ie?a i?aeoeeie. Iuethoii ienae : “ y aeaeae
aeaeueoa anao, iioiio /oi y noiye ia iea/ao aeaaioia ”. Noa?oiaie
ieiuaaeea iaoaai aeaeaeaiey aeieaeai auoue ie?iaie iiuo, ie?iaua
iauea i?aaeea, eia/a iu ?anoa?yai ana naia aiaaonai. E?iia yoeo
i?aaee i?aaeoaeuenoai ?anioaeeee noaei i?eiaiyoue, ia/eiay n 1993
a., aieaa aeanoeea ia?u a iaeanoe ?acaeoey aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo
naycae, o.e. aaneiio?ieueiinoue iiaeao i?eaanoe e na?ueaciiio
ia?aeino a ?acaeoee yeiiiieee.

E?iia oiai oeo/oaiey eiaanoeoeeiiiuo iieeoeee Eacaonoaio
iaiaoiaeeii naaeaine?iaaoue yenii?o e eiii?o no?aiu.

YENII?OII – EIII?OIAss NO?AOAAEss.

Aa iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaaouaaoue a niioaaonoaee ni no?aoaae/aneie
i?ia?aiiie “ Eacaonoai – 2030 ” . A niioaaonoaee n iae nouanoaotho
neaaeothuea iai?aaeaiey a noa?a yenii?oa e eiii?oa, eioi?ua
io?anoatho iiauoaiey ?iee e ianoa ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea.

Yenii?oioth no?aoaaeth ?anioaeeee i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa ?ac?aaaouaaoue
ia aiiaua , a n i?eaioaoeeae ia ii?aaeaeaiiua ?uiee n o/aoii
eo iniaaiiinoae. Iiyoiio, i?e eco/aiee aiciiaeiinoae i?iieeiiaaiey
ia iiaua ie?iaua ?uiee nouanoaaiii aaaeiui yaeyaony i?aaiecaoeey
a ?anioaeeea nenoaiaoe/aneie ?aaiou ii i?iaaaeaieth eiiuthieoo?iuo
enneaaeiaaiee ( eae ii no?aiai, oae e ii aaaeiaeoei oiaa?iui
a?oiiai ).

Iieeoeea a iaeanoe niaa?oainoaiaaiey aaia?aoe/aneie iai?aaeaiiinoe
yenii?oa aeieaeia auoue i?eaioe?iaaia ia oaaee/aiey aeiee no?ai NIA e
Acee: yoi naycaii

aaia?aoe/aneie aeecinoueth;

iaee/eai ia ?uieao yoeo no?ai aunieiea/anoaaiiuo oiaa?ia ii aieaa ieceei
oeaiai ii n?aaiaieth n aa?iiaeneeie;

aeaaii?eyoiay eiiuetheoo?a ?uiea ii iniiaiui aeaeai yenii?oe?oaiie
?anioaeeeie i?iaeoeoeee;

iaoeeiiaeueiie-yoie/aneei oaeoi?ia;

aiciiaeiinoe iieo/aiey iiaie oaoiieiaee iooai nicaeaiey niaianoiuo
i?aaei?eyoee eee ioooi?iuo i?aaei?eyoee.

A iaeanoe aea eiii?oa oae aea iaiaoiaeeia no?oeoo?a ia?ano?ieea
aeey oiai, /oiau oeo/eoue oi?aiaay naeueaei, a oae aea
?aoeeiiaeueii eniieueciaaoue aiciiaeiua iinooieaiey.

Iaiaoiaeeii aeaoue i?ei?eoao caeoieai iaaeeeaiaioia e
iaaeeoeeineiai iai?oaeiaaiey, ioaeaeueiui aeaeai i?iaeoeoeee eaaeie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, oioy ?anioaeeea ?aniieaaaao iieiie aiciiaeiinoueth
i?aaieciaaoue eo i?iecaiaenoai o naay ca n/ao iieoiee iiaie
oaoiieiaee e nicaeaiey niaianoiuo i?aaei?eyoee.

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea – yoi eaaeaeie io?aneueth ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa
?anioaeeee iaiaoiaeeii ?ac?aaioaoue nianoaaiioth eiii?oioth
iieeoeeo, iniaaiii a aa?a?iii naeoi?a, eaaeie e ieuaaie
i?iiuoeaiiinoe, iaoeiino?iaiea.

O?aouea iai?aaeaiea – yoi eiii?o iiaie oaoiieiaee, eioi?ay n iaiueoeie
cao?aoaie iicaieeo iieo/eoue iaeneioi i?iaeoeoeee e oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iio?aaiinoe. Iaiaoiaeeii i?aaieciaaoue a iaoae no?aia oe?ieee eeceia.
?aoaiea yoeo i?iaeai o?aaoao aeoai/aeoaai aiaeeca ie?iaie yeiiiie/aneie
neooaoeee. E?iia oiai, iieeoeea i?iaeaaaoue ana iiaei?iaea, a iieoiaoue
oiaa?u ii aeaoaaea – yoi iieeoeea ethiiaia. I?iaeatho eae anaaaea
oiaa?u, ia iaoiaeyueo nauoa o naay, o.a. noa?iai auionea.

Iiyoiio iaaei no?aieoueny iieoiaoue oieueei oiaa?u iineaaeiaai
auionea eee iiaua oaoiieiaee.

Ii iaeuecy ia?aie/eaaoueny oieueei eiii?oiii iaoeiaieie
i?iaeoeoeee. Oaeaea auionea iiaaeoae oaoieee e oaoiieiaee, /oi
niinianoaiaaei au iiauoaieth ?iee no?aiu a IYI.

EACAONOAI IA ?UIEA IAOEIAIEIE

I?IAeOEOeEE

Iiae iaiaiii iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeeae a oe?ieii niunea iiieaeatho
eoieth-i?iaeaaeo iaoaioia e eeoeaicee, oi?aiaeth oiaa?aie,
i?aaeinoaaeaiea oneoa. Noauaeoaie ie?iaiai ?uiea iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee
yaeythony ainoaea?noaaie, oe?iu, oieaa?neoaou e oiiaeu, oece/aneea
eeoea-o/aiua e niaoeeaeenou. Iauaeou ie?iaiai ?uiea iaoeiaieie
i?iaeoeoeee – yoi ?acoeueoaou eioaeeaeooaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe a
iaauanoaeaiiie (aa?aaaou, eino?oiaiou, oaoiieiae/aneea eeiee e o.i., a
oaeaea i?iiuoeaiiua ia?acoeu) e iaauanoaeaiiie oi?ia (iaoaiou,
eeoeaicee, «iio-oao», oiaa?iua e ae?oaea). Eniieuecoy
oa?ieiieiaeth iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo i?aaiecaoeee,
iauaeoii iaiaia iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee eee oaoiieiae/aneiai iaiaia a ia
iaauanoaeaiiie oi?ia yaeyaony i?iiuoeaiiay nianoaaiiinoue, iiae eioi?ie
iiieiathony, i?aaeaea anaai, ecia?aoaiey, oiaa?iua ciaee e i?iiuoeaiiua
ia?acoeu.

Oaoiieiaey noaiiaeony oiaa?ii eeoue a ii?aaeaeaiiuo oneiaeyo.
Iauaecaanoii, /oi aeaaea ec /enea caiaoaioiaaiiuo iiaoanoa
eniieuecothony ai anai ie?a aaeaa ee 3-5%. A a i?ioeanna i?aa?auaiey
iiaie eaeae a oiaa? ionaa aua aieueoa. Ec eaaeaeuo 100 eaeae aei noaaeee
oiaa?iie oi?iu aeioiaeeo ia aieueoa iaeiie; a naith i/a?aaeue a eaaeaeuo
100 iiauo oiaa?ia, a eioi?uo aiieiuaiu iiaua eaeae, ?uiie ioaa?aaao
nauoa 90%. Oaoiieiaey noaiiaeony oiaa?ii oiaaea, eiaaea nouanoaoao
?aaeueiay aiciiaeiinoue eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee eaeae, i?iaaaeaiu yenia?oecu,
ionaa, ii?aaeaeaiu aiciiaeiua noa?u aa eniieueciaaiey. Aeey iaaeaaeiie
caueou naieo i?aa ia oaoie/aneea iiaoanoaa (ecia?aoaiey) eaaeaeue
nicaeaoaeue no?aieony caiaoaioiaaoue eo a no?aiao – iioaioeeaeueiuo
eiieo?aioao. Ia i?aeoeea aaaeouea oe?iu – ?ac?aaio/eee iiaie oaoieee e
oaoiieiaee iaeiia?aiaiii iaoaiootho naie iiaeiee i?eia?ii a 25
no?aiao-eiieo?aioao, o.a. iniiaiuo ?acaeouo eiaeono?eaeueiuo
ainoaea?noaao. I?aaiaua nenoaiu ?acee/iua no?ai i?aaeoniao?eaatho
?acee/iua n?iee io?aiu i?aa ia i?iiuoeaiioth nianoaaiiinoue – i?eia?ii
io 10 aei 20 eao. Yoiai n?iea aiieia aeinoaoi/ii aeey enoa/aiey
aeeciaiiiai oeeeea oaoiieiaee. Aieaa oiai, a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo
i?ienoiaeeo aeiaieueii auno?ia naeaoea n?ieia yoiai oeeeea. Iiyoiio ana
aac eneeth/aiey nianoaaiieee oaoiieiaee caeioa?aniaaiu a iaeneiaeueii
auno?ie aa eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee. E?oiiua ei?ii?aoeee Caiaaea
i?eaea?aeeaathony neaaeothuae oaoiieiae/aneie no?aoaaee.

Ia ia?aii yoaia aeeciaiiiai oeeeea i?aaeii/oaiea ioaeaaony i?iaeaaea
aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a eioi?ie aiieiuaiu eaeae, i?eioeeiu, i?ioeannu,
niiniaiua iaania/eoue iieoiaoaeth iiaia ea/anoai i?e eniieueciaaiee
aeaiiiai oiaa?a.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia oaoiieiae/aneee iaiai nii?iaiaeaeaaony eee
inouanoaeyaony a aeaea i?yiuo eiaanoeoeee, /oi ioe?uaaao aeey i?iaeaaoea
iiaua ?uiee, iicaieyao oaaee/eoue ianno i?eauee.

Ia o?aoueai yoaia i?aaeii/oaiea o?aaeeoeeiiii ioaeaaaeinue i?iaeaaea
eeoeaicee, o.a. onooiea i?aa nianoaaiiinoe ia caiaoaioiaaiioth e ia
caiaoaioiaaiioth («iio-oao) oaoiieiaeth, aa eniieueciaaiea. Enoi/ieeii
i?eia?aoaiey oaoiieiaee iiaoo auoue e iaeeea oe?iu, eniuouaathuea
iaaeinoaoie nianoaaiiuo n?aaenoa aeey aeiaaaeaiey oaoiieiaee aei
?uii/iie noaaeee, i?aaeaea anaai, iaaieueoea eiiiaiee aai/o?iiai oeia.
I?eoyaaoaeueiui iiiaioii a aeaiiii neo/aa neoaeeo aiciiaeiinoue
i?eiauaiey e iiaie oaoiieiaee i?aeoe/anee a iiiaio aa iiyaeaiey.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iniiaiui i?aiyonoaeai aeey o/anoey Eacaonoaia a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii oaoiieiae/aneii iaiaia yaeyaony ionoonoaea
yeiiiieei-i?aaiaie iniiau: caeiia ia eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe,
canae?a/eaaiea ioa/anoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee, ianiioaaonoaea ioa/anoaaiiie
i?iaeoeoeee iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oai.

Aianoa n oai n aoiaeaeaieai Eacaonoaia a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
oaoiieiae/aneee iaiai e a ?uieao oaoiieiaee ioe?uaathony oi?ioea
aiciiaeiinoe eioaa?aoeee a ie?iaia oicyenoai, no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieee,
iaeaaeeaaiey ?uii/iie yeiiiieee e ecaeeaaiey yia?ainu?ueaaie
iai?aaeaiiinoe yenii?oa. Oaoiieiaey iiaeao ia?aaeaaaoueny ia
eiiia?/aneie e iaeiiia?/aneie iniiaa, auoue aioo?eoe?iaiiie,
aioo?eainoaea?noaaiiie e iaaeaeoia?iaeiie. Iniiaioth aeieth oaoiieiaee,
ia?aaeaaaaiie a iaeiiia?/aneie oe?ia, ninoaaeyao iaiaoaioiniiniaiay
eioi?iaoeey: ia?iiiua eioi?iaoeeiiiua ianneau niaoeeaeueiie eeoa?aoo?u,
eiiiuethoa?iua aaiee aeaiiuo, ni?aai/ieee e ae?oaea; eiioa?aioeee,
aunoaaee, neiiiceoiu; iao/aiea, noaaee?iaea, i?aeoeea nooaeaioia, o/aiuo
e niaoeeaeenoia, iea?aoeey o/aiuo e niaoeeaeenoia ec iao/iuo a
eiiia?/aneea no?oeoo?u e ia?aoii, nicaeaiea oe?i aai/o?iiai oeia
niaoeeaeenoaie ec oieaa?neoaoia e ei?ii?aoeee, i?iiuoeaiiue oieiiaae.

Iniiaiuie oi?iaie ia?aaea/e oaoiieiaee ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa yaeythony:
i?iaeaaea oaoiieiaee a iaoa?eaeeciaaiiii aeaea (noaieia, aa?aaaoia,
iai?oaeiaaiey, oaoiieiae/aneeo eeiee e ae?.); naycaiiua n i?yiuie
eiaanoeoeeyie no?ieoaeuenoai, ?aeiino?oeoeey, iiaea?iecaoeey
i?aaei?eyoey, oe?i, i?iecaiaenoa; ii?ooaeueiua eiaanoeoeee, eeceia;
i?iaeaaea iaoaioia e eeoeaicee, «iio-oao»; niaianoiia i?iaaaeaiea IEIE?,
iao/ii-i?iecaiaenoaaiiia eiiia?e?iaaiea; eiaeeie?eia.

Eacaonoaio aeey i?iaaaeaiey ia?aaiai?ia ii iaiaio oaoiieiaeyie
iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue ii aiciiaeiinoe ana i?aeiouanoaa e iaaeinoaoee,
eioi?ua eaaeaeay no?aia iiaeao iieo/eoue e ciaoue ea/anoai oaoiieiaee a
no?aiiaii aniaeoa. Iineieueeo aia?eeaineea oaoiieiaee o?aaeeoeeiiii
ioee/athony o?oaeinaa?aaathuei oa?aeoa?ii, aa?iiaeneia –
?ano?ninaa?aaathuei, yiiineea aia?aee a naay iaa eiiiiiaioa, a
oaoiieiaee iiauo eiaeono?eaeueiuo no?ai aieaa o?oaeiaiee, iaiaa
eaieoaeiaiee e niaa?oaiiu, oi a caaeneiinoe i oeaee oaoiieiae/aneiai
iaiaia iiaeii naeaeaoue aeoeaio ia yeiiiiee iaoa?eaeueiuo, o?oaeiauo
cao?ao eeai ia ?aoaiee nioeeaeueiuo i?iaeai (caiyoinoe) eee
yeieiae/aneeo. E?iia oiai, neaaeoao ioeaieoue e o/anoue i?e ?an/aoao
oaoieei-yeiiiie/aneeo oa?aeoa?enoee aiciiaeiinoue e iaiaoiaeeiinoue
aiaea/aiey a i?iecaiaenoai ianoiuo nu?uey, oiieeaa, yia?aee, ?aai/ae (a
oii /enea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie) neeu e o?ainii?oioth ninoaaeythuoth. Oioy
a aeeaeaeoea aiaeu yenii?o e eiii?o iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee Eacaonoaiii,
a oii /enea, nia?aiaiiie oaoiieiaee aoaeao iacia/eoaeai, ?anioaeeea
aeieaeia ciaoue iauaie?iaua iau/ae e i?aaeea ii yoiio aeaeo iaiaia
oiaa?ia oi?ioi.

?anioaeeea iiaeao eniuouaaoue a ?aoaiee aii?ina iaiaia iaoeiaieie
i?iaeoeoeee ii?aaeaeaiiua o?oaeiinoe a ia?eiae ia?ano?ieee naiae
yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iie eaae. Iaeiaei auoiae ia ie?iaie ?uiie ii eeiee
iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee o?aaoao ?aoaiea neaaeothueo i?iaeai:

I?aaeaea anaai iaiaoiaeeii ninoaaeo ?aano? iiauo oaoiieiaee,
niioaaonoaothueo eee i?aauoathueo ie?iaie o?iaaiue;

Ninoaaeoue ?aano? aunieioaoiieiae/aneeo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ua
iiaoo auoue i?aaeeiaeaiu ia ie?iaie ?uiie e eioi?ua iiaoo eiieo?e?iaaoue
ia ie?iaii ?uiea;

Iaiaoiaeeii eco/eoue ie?iaie ?uiie aunieeo oaoiieiaee a no?aiiaii e
oaoiieiae/aneii aniaeoao, ciaoue eiiuthieoo?o ie?iaiai ?uiea;

I?iaeaaea nianoaaiiuo oaoiieiaee, aunieioaoiieiae/iie
eiieo?aioiniiniaiinoe i?iaeoeoeee;

Ii oeaco I?aceaeaioa a ?anioaeeea aeieaeia auoue nicaeaii naiue
Iaoeeiiaeueiuo iao/iuo oeaio?ia, ec eioi?uo a 1994 aiaeo nicaeaii /aou?a
oeaio?a;

Iaoeeiiaeueiue yaea?iue oeaio?;

Iaoeeiiaeueiue oeaio? ii eiiieaeniie ia?a?aaioea nu?uey;

Iaoeeiiaeueiue oeaio? ii ?aaeeiyeaeo?iieea e nayce;

Iaoeeiiaeueiue oeaio? ii aeioaoiieiaee.

E?iia oiai i?aaeiieaaaaony nicaeaiea Iaoeeiiaeueiiai ia?ea iiauo
oaoiieiaee iiae Eai/aaaai e Iaoeeiiaeueiiai oaoiiia?ea (I?eica?ne).

?aaeecaoeey ia ie?iaii ?uiea aunieeo oaoiieiaee e aunieioaoiieiae/iuo
oiaa?ia iicaieeoue iieo/eoue aieaa aunieie yeiiiie/aneee yooaeo, /ai ca
?aaeecaoeeth nu?uey.

A ia?aia a?aiy ca ieo aoaeoo ieaoeoue inei?aeoaeueii ieceea oeaiu, iiea
?anioaeeea eee oe?ia ia aoaeoo eiaoue nianoaaiiue eieaeae,
aa?aioe?othuee aunieia ea/anoai. Iaaei iiiieoue, /oi eiaaea-oi ia
ie?iaii ?uiea aeaoaauie oiaa?aie auee yiiineea, a nae/an
thaeiiei?aeneea. Iai iaaei i?ieoe yoio iooue, eia/a ian ia i?eioo ia
ie?iaii ?uiea.

Iiaeii ioeaaeeoue ia ?anioaeeeaineeo iiuiinoyo auione eaeiai-ieaoaeue
iaeiiai aeaea auaiaeiie i?iaeoeoeee e iieo/eoue aeinoaoi/iie yooaeo.

Aoi?ia iai?aaeaiea – yoi nicaeaiea n?aaeu, a eioi?ie iao/iua ?ac?aaioee
auiieiythony iaeaieaa yooaeoeaii, ecaaaeoue enneaaeiaaoaeae io
iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie (eneaoue caeac/eeia, ninoaaeyoue aeiaiai?u,
caieiaoueny ?aeeaiie) ?aaiou e nyeiiiieoue ia yoii eo neeu aeey
i?ioanneiiaeueiie aeayoaeueiinoe. A yoii aaeeea ?ieue Ieienoa?noaa iaoee
e iiauo oaoiieiaee ?anioaeeee.

Iaeuecy n/eoaoue, /oi ?anioaeeea ia ?aniieaaaao caianaie iao/iuo eaeae,
iiauie oaoiieiaeyie, ia eiathueo aiaeiaia a ie?iaie i?aeoeea. Iaaei ana
yoi i?eaanoe a niioaaonoaothuee ii?yaeie. Iaiaoiaeeii nicaeaoue ?aano?
iiauo oaoiieiaee, iao/iuo eaeae.

A naia a?aiy ana yoi ooiaeeei a ianie, auei i?aaenoaaeaiea, /oi iaoeie
iiaoo caieiaoueny oieueei a oeaio?a, a inoaeueiua aeieaeiu caieiaoueny
oieueei aiaae?aieai eo ?acoeueoaoia a i?iecaiaenoai.

Iaeioi?ay /anoue iiauo eaeae, nicaeaiiuo a ?anioaeeea, iii?inoo
ioaa?aaeanue, eae ia niioaaonoaothuay iauae o?aaeeoeee. Oae, iai?eia?,
ia?aiia/aeueii nouanoaiaaei aeaa i?iaeoa no?ieoaeuenoaa Eenaeianeiai
AIEa – aeiaoeineee e eaieia?aaeneee. Aeiaoeineee I?aaeoniao?eaae
eiiieaenioth aeiau/o e ia?a?aaioeo aeaeacii?oaeiiai nu?uey, aeeiicaia,
oaeia?aiee; eaieia?aaeneee – oieueei aeaeaciie ?oaeu. Iineaa aua?aea
eaieia?aaeneee i?iaeo. E aio naaiaeiy caeiiiia?iue oeiae Eenaeianeiai
AIEa-Ea?aaaiaeeineee iaoaeeo?ae/aneee eiiaeiao ?acei nie?aoee caeac ia
Eenaeianeoth ?oaeo, aaea niaea?aeaiea aeaeaca n?aaieoaeueii ieceia a
iieueco Nieieianei-Na?aaeneiai ianoi?iaeaeaiey. Eenaeianeee AIE aeieaeai
oaia?ue i?eaioe?iaaoueny ia ae?oaea ?uiee nauoa (Caiaaeiay Neae?ue,
O?ae) e ?acaeaaoue ae?oaea io?anee ia?a?aaioee eee ia?ai?ioeee?iaaoue
naia i?iecaiaenoai.

Iaeiaei ia?aua oaae i?eciaiey i?aainoiaenoaa eacaonoaineie oaoiieiaee
iaae i?eciaiiuie ie?iauie oaai?eoaie oaea eiathony.

Oae, iaeiei ec aaaeoueo a ie?a i?iecaiaeeoaeae naeioea – eaiaaeneay
oe?ia «Eiieiei» – i?eiyea ?aoaiea i ?aeiino?oeoeee naiaai caaiaea ia
iniiaa oaoiieiaee, ?ac?aaioaiiie eacaonoaineeie o/aiuie e
niaoeeaeenoaie, ioeacaaoenue io niiniaa ia?a?aaioee nu?uey,
i?aaeeaaaaoeeny aa?iaineeie niaoeeaeenoaie, ia eioi?ue eaiaaeoeaie auee
cao?a/aiu e?oiiua n?aaenoaa. Ioeac aue naeaeai ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
n?aaee aeoeeiia?ia oe?iu auee iaiaoeeea i?aaei?eieiaoaee, ianoaeaaaoea
ia aiaae?aiee oaoiieiaee niioa/anoaaiieeia. Oai ia iaiaa auai? naeaeai a
iieueco aa?eaioa, ?iaeeaoaainy a Onoue-Eaiaiiai?nea.

Iacaaiea iiaeiee-eenei?iaeii-acaaoaiiay oeeeeiiii-yeaeo?ioa?ie/aneay
ieaaea naeioeiai-oeeieiaiai nu?uey (EEAOeYO) – aia?aei a naay iaeaieaa
eioa?aniua ?aoaiey, i?aaeeiaeaiiua ?aiaa AIEEoeaaoiaoii e aiieiuaiiua
iaoaeeo?aaie eiiaeiaoa.

A ?anioaeeea eiathony io?anee iaoee e oaoieee, aaea iu yaeyainy
eeaea?aie eee iaoe ?ac?aaioee iaoiaeyony ia o?iaia ie?iauo noaiaea?oia.
Iaeiaei ana yoi iaaei oiaoue iinoaaeyoue ia ie?iaie ?uiie, iaeiia?aiaiii
nio?aiyy yeiiiie/aneoth aaciianiinoue iaoae ?anioaeeee e iaania/eaay
nianoaaiiue o?iaaiue iio?aaeaiey yoeo iiauo ?ac?aaioie e i?iaeoeoeeth io
ieo.

Iaeiaei i?aa?auaiea Eacaonoaia a nia?aiaiioth, auniei?acaeooth no?aio ai
iiiaii caaeneo io iioeiaeueiiai auai?a iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee
e yooaeoeaiiai i?enoonoaey ia aiaoieo ?uieao. Iaeiei ec iniiaiuo
?aca?aia oaaee/aiey yenii?oa ?anioaeeee yaeythony iaoeiaieea ecaeaeey e
aunieea oaoiieiaee. Caiaaeiua yenia?ou i?iyaeytho iiauoaiiue eioa?an e
iiaie oaoiieiaee e iiaui ecaeaeeyi. Oae, NOA caeoieee o ?innee
einie/aneee yaea?iue ?aaeoi? «Oiiac-2», ieooiiee – 238, eniieuecoaiue a
yia?aaoe/aneeo onoaiiaeao einie/aneeo ei?aaeae. E?iia oiai, a NOA
ninoaaeai nienie aieaa /ai o?ao ouny/ oaoiieiaee, a ?ac?aaioea eioi?uo
?inney eo ii?aaeaao. A eaeiaa aeiey Eacaonoaia a yoie oaoiieiaee eee aa
aiiaua iao? Iaaei aa ii?aaeaeeoue e eiaoue i?aai ?anii?yaeaoueny ath.
Auoiae ia aiaoiee ?uiie iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee io iaoeo i?aaei?eyoee
o?aaoao, ai-ia?auo, iauaai iiauoaiey eo aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
eaaeeoeeaoeee e ai-aoi?uo, iniciaiey niaoeeoeee ie?iauo ?uieia aunieeo
oaoiieiaee. Aeaei a oii, /oi oaoiieiae/aneee iioaioeeae a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy yaeyaony iniiaie yeiiiie/aneie e iai?iiiie iiue ethaiai
ainoaea?noaa. Iiyoiio a yeiiiie/aneii niia?ie/anoaa iaaeaeo Naaa?iie
Aia?eeie, Caiaaeiie Aa?iiie e ssiiieae ana aieaa aaaeiia ianoi (a
ia?niaeoeaa oeaio?aeueiia) caieiaao ai?ueaa ca oaoiieiae/aneia
eeaea?noai. A oneiaeyo yeiiiie/aneiai e?ecena, eioi?ui ioaa/aiu ana
no?aiu NIA (?inney, Oe?aeia, Ocaaeenoai, Eacaonoai, Aaei?onue) Eacaonoai
eiaao iaeeo/oea ia?niaeoeau. N?aaieoaeueii i?inoay no?oeoo?a yeiiiieee
(/oi iicaieyao nicaeaaaoue iiaua io?anee e ia?ano?aeaaoue yeiiiieeo) n
aieueoei oaeaeueiui oaeaeueiui aanii aa?a?iiai naeoi?a aianoa n
io?aiaiiie nenoaiie oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai oi?aaeaiey e ioiineoaeueii
aeanoeie aeenoeeieeiie o?oaea, a oaeaea aiaaoua i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu
iicaieytho Eacaonoaio ?ann/eouaaoue ia iaiaa i?ioaeaiey e?ecena e
nei?aeoaa yeiiiie/aneia ainnoaiiaeaiea. E oiio aea e?oiiua eiaanoeoeee
caiaaeiuo iaooaaaciauo ei?ii?aoeee oneeeoue, ii aeaeeiiio, i?eoie
/anoiiai eaieoaea iaeiaei cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie oicyenoaaiiay neooaoeey
a Eacaonoaia a neeo aunieie noaiaie yeiiiie/aneie eioaa?aoeee aoaeao
ii?aaeaeyoueny ioiioaieyie n ?inneae. Iiyoiio a nouanoaothueo oneiaeyo
yeiiiie/aneay e oaoiieiae/aneay iieeoeea iiaeao eeai naeaeaoue
iaoeiaieee naeoi? «eieiiioeaii» oicyenoaaiiiai ?inoa, ?acaeaay
?aaiii?aaiia nio?oaeie/anoai n aaaeoueie oaoiieiae/aneeie no?aiaie ie?a,
eeai i?aa?aoeoue aai a n?aaenoai ?aoaiey nethieiooiuo i?iaeai. Aoi?ie
iooue neiaeeoueny nai ii naaa anoanoaaiiui iooai, i?e ionoonoaee yniie e
aeieaia?aiaiiie oaoiieiae/aneie no?aoaaee. Ec-ca aieueoiai cia/aiey
oaoiieiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie eiieo?aioeee
i?ienoaeaao iniaaiiinoe ie?iaiai ?uiea iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee. I?e anao
o?oaeiinoyo e i?eiyonoaeyo eeaa?aeecaoeey ie?iaie oi?aiaee oiaa?aie
ieceiai e n?aaeiaai oaoiieiae/aneiai o?iaiy iaoeeiiii i?iaeaeaaaony
aia?aae. N aunieioaoiieiae/aneie i?iaeoeoeeae aeaei ianoieo eia/a. Iaiai
aai niaea?aeeony niaoeeoe/aneei oi?iaie «oaoiieiae/aneiai iioaioeeaea»,
iai?aaeaiiiai ia oaea?aeaiea i?aeiouanoa a aeaiiie iaeanoe.

Ia ie?iaii ?uiea aunieeo oaoiieiaee e iaoeiaieie ecaeaeee i?eiaiythony
neaaeothuea aeaeu ia?aie/aiee:

-ia?aie/aiey ia auaic i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaia ca
?oaaaeii a oua?a no?aia-i?iecaiaeeoaeth;

-ia?aie/aiey ia aaic i?iaeoeoeee, eioi?ay iiaeao ninoaaeoue
eiieo?aioeeth iaoeeiiaeueiiio aunieioaoiieiae/iiio i?iecaiaenoao e oai
naiui iiiauaoue aai ?acaeoeth;

-ia?aie/aiey ia eiaanoe?iaaiea eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea a eeth/aaua
iaoeiaieea i?iecaiaenoaa. A yoie ianoaiiaea, anooiay ia aeaiiue ?uiie a
ea/anoaa i?iaeaaoea eee iieoiaoaey, iaiaoiaeeii aeiaeaaoueny ?aaiuo
oneiaee eiieo?aioeee, iao/eoueny i?eiaiyoue aiaeiae/iua ia?u n oeaeueth
caueou nianoaaiiuo eioa?ania. ?aaiua oneiaey eiieo?aioeee
i?aaeiieaaatho iieiua ono?aiaiiua anao aeene?eieiaoeeiiiuo ia? a
yenii?oa, eiii?oa e eiaanoeoeey. Oaeoi?ii aeene?eieiaoeee iiaeao
aunooieoue i?aaeeia caueou iaaeaeoia?iaeiie aaciianiinoe, a /anoiinoe
ia?ani?ino?aiaiee oaoie/aneie ia?aaeiauo aeaeia aii?oaeaiee.

A aunieioaoiieiae/aneeo io?aneyo aua i?eiaiyaony e ae?oaie iaoiae
eiieo?aioeee – yoi neoiea «ia ei?ith» iaoeiaieie i?iecaiaenoa e
oaoiieiae/aneeo aeinoeaeaiee aeey iieiiai eiio?iey iaae ieie. Yoio
iaoiae ai?ueau ia o?aaoao ia?ooaiey ?aaiuo oneiaee eiieo?aioeee – aaaeue
ii iiaeao auoue i?eiaiai ii ioiioaieth e ethaie no?aia. Ii i?eiaiaiea
aai a ioiioaiee Eacaonoaia ?ac?ooeoaeueii aeey aai iao/ii-oaoie/aneiai
iioaioeeaea a nayce n iaeaaeei oeiainiaui iieiaeaieai
aunieioaoiieiae/iuo io?aneae. Oae, i?iaeaaaoue a NOA eiioeaio?ao
i?e?iaeiiai o?aia Eacaonoai niaianoii n ?inneae niiaeao eeoue iinea
oiai, eae aai oeaia aeinoeaiao 13 aeiee. ca ooio. A yoii neo/aa eaioa
aoaeao oaaee/eaaoueny ii ia?a iiauoaiey oeaiu. Ii e yoiio a?aiaie
aeieain?i/iua eiioaeou aoaeoo a iniiaiii ia?acaeeth/aiee e, oaeei
ia?acii caaea/a ia aeiiouaiey eacaonoaineeo (e ?inneeneeo)
i?iecaiaeeoaeae o?aia ia ?uiie aeieain?i/iuo eiio?aeoia aoaeao ?aoaia. A
aeaiiii neo/aa i?ioaeoeeiieci ia iainiiauaaeny caueoie iaoeeiiaeueiie
aaciianiinoe, a iie?aeny ia yeiiiie/aneia (aioeaeaiieiaiaia)
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iu iiaeai iaoiaeii oeaiiaie eiieo?aioeee ai?ioueny ni
naieie eiieo?aioaie, oiaaea iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eo yooaeoeaioth
th?eaee/aneoth caueoo a naieo eioa?ania a caiaaeiuo no?aiao, eia/a
i?ioea eacaonoaineeo yenii?oa?ia aoaeoo i?eiaiaiu ea?aoaeueiua
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u. *?acia?ii ieceea oeaiu ia oieueei iiaiae aeey
aaaaeaiey aioeaeaiieiaiauo naieoeee iaania/eaay nauo a e?aoein?i/iii
ieaia, iii aea/ao ca niaie iaaeaaii?eyoiua iineaaenoaey aeey aoaeouaai
aeaiiuo io?aneae, eeoay eo noeioeia, oae e n?aaenoa aeey aeaeueiaeoaai
oaoiieiae/aneiai i?ia?anna, ia?aeay eo ia canoie. Iaeiiaoe, nouanoaoao
iianiinoue iieiie oo?aou ioa/anoaaiiiai eiio?iey iaae ia?aaeiauie
oaoiieiae/aneeie ?ac?aaioeaie. Yoi iiaeao i?iecieoe, iai?eia?, a
?acoeueoaoa i?eia?aoaiey eiino?aiiuie eiiiaieyie eiio?ieueiuo iaeaoia
aeoeee niiaaonoaothueo i?aaei?eyoee e iauaaeeiaiee, a ?acoeueoaoa
iieoiea eee eneeth/eoaeueiuo i?aa ia iaoeiaieoth i?iaeoeoeeth.
Iao/ii-i?iiuoeaiiue eiiieaen ?anioaeeee a yoii neo/aa oo?aoeo
oeaeinoiinoue, ?aniaaeaony ia ioaeaeueiua /anoe. A aeaeueiaeoai aoaeoo
?acaeaaoueny eeoue oa ec ieo, a ?aaioa eioi?uo caeioa?aniaai ca?oaaaeiue
eaieoae. Aeeiaieea eo ?acaeoey aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny iio?aaiinoyie
caeac/eeia, a aeeyiee eo ia iauoth yeiiiie/aneoth neooaoeeth a
?anioaeeea aoaeao naaaeaii e ieieioio. Iiyoiio, anee ainoaea?noai
caeioa?aniaaii a oeaeinoiii ?acaeoee yoeo io?aneae, iii aeieaeii
iaania/eoue aeinoaoi/ioth oeiainiaoth iiaeaea?aeeo yoiio iai?aaeaieth
eee niaeaenoaiaaoue i?eaea/aieth a iaai eiino?aiiiai eaieoaea ia aieaa
i?eaieaiuo, n oi/ee c?aiey iaoeeiiaeueiuo eioa?ania, oneiaeyo. E?iia
oiai, iaaei oe?a i?eiaiyoue ainoaea?noaaiiia noaneaee?iaaiea e
e?aaeeoe?iaaiea ia?niaeoeaiuo i?iaeoia, ieacuaaoue iiiiuue a auoiaea ia
aiaoiee ?uiie oai i?aaei?eyoeyi, eioi?ua ia eiatho niioaaonaothuaai
iiuoa: na?oeoeeaoeey i?iaeoeoeee a niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiuie
noaiaea?oaie, iao/aiey ia?eaoeiao e o.ae. Ainoaea?noai aeieaeii
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue iaeaieaa ia?niaeoeaiua io?anee, iaania/eaaoue
yeaeaaeaioiue iaiai oaoiieiae/aneeie aeinoeaeaieyie.

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaoe i?aaei?eyoey i?iyaeytho
ia?iiiue eioa?an e caiaaeiui oaoiieiaeyi, nio?oaeie/anoao a yoie noa?a.
Iaoe i?aaei?eyoey, iniaaiii ec io?aneae AIE, iiaee au naie i?aaeeiaeeoue
iaiaei ia?niaeoeaiuo ?ac?aaioie. Iniaaiii i?aaei?eyoey AIE, eoaea a naia
a?aiy iai?aaeyeinue 75% anao anneaiiaaiee ia iaoeo, aaea ?aaioaee naiua
eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua o/aiua e niaoeeaeenou. Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii
niaethnoe iiiaeanoai oneiaee, ?ac?aaioaoue e ?aaeeciaaoue aa?iiie/iua
i?ia?aiiu, o/eouaathuea neiaeeaoeany ia ie?iaii ?uiea i?aaeea ea?u.
Caeanue iai ioaeia oaeay nenoaia, eioi?ay iaania/eea au iaaeaaeioth
io?aio i?aa aeaaeaeueoeaa i?iiuoeaiiie nianoaaiiinoe, no?iaia
niaethaeaiea oneiaee niaeaoaiee i ia?aaea/e oaoiieiaee. Iaae yoie
i?iaeaiie iiea ie eoi na?ueacii ia aeoiaao, a aa ?aoaiee iiaeii
iia?aoueny ia iiuo iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaie iaeaou, eiathuae
oieeaeueiia iaaeaeoia?iaeiie a?aeo?aaeiue noae, a oaeaea niaeaenoaea
Anaie?iie i?aaiecaoeee eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe (AIEN).

Iaeiaei oaeouaa iai?aaeaiea aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe –
ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea eiii?oo i?iaeiaieuenoaaiiuo i?iaeoeoia, a ia
no?ieoaeuenoao iauaeoia, eioi?ua iicaieeee au ia aeaea iieo/eoue ca
ei?ioeia a?aiy ?acoeueoaou ia oieueei ia iiiai eo/oa, ii e aieaa
i?iaeieaeeoaeueiua ai a?aiaie, ooaa?aeeeinue a caei?aiaeie oi?ia
i?aaeinoaaeaiea iaaei?aaeoaeuenoaaiiuo e?aaeeoia Eacaonoaio. Eiino?aioeu
i?aoniaaatho a oi?aiaea nu?ueai, eioi?ua ia ioaeaeathony a iaoaioiie
caueoa. Iai aea nauaathony yeaeo?iiioth oaoieeo 60-70-o aiaeia, n?ie
aeaenoaey iaoaioia ia eioi?oth oaea enoae. Naaiaeiy iaoa no?aia – yoi
?uiie noa?uey, Iu naaiaeiy naooai ia EIEII, /oi caiaaeiua no?aiu ia
iaaeatho iai oaoieeo e oaoiieiaee, niinianoaothuea ia?aueaaieth iaoaai
iioaioeeaea. Oe?iu–i?iecaiaeeoaee iaoeiaieeo ecaeaeee aicaea?aeeaathony
io auoiaea ia iao ?uiie a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue ec-ca aeaenoaey nenoaiu
caueou eo i?aa e iie iiyoiio ia nicaeatho a iaoae no?aia nia?aiaiiua
i?iecaiaenoaa. Anee iu oioei, /oiau ?acaeoea ?uii/iuo ioiioaiee oei
oeeaeeeciaaiiui iooai, ioaeii naeaeaoue oae, /oiau eioaeeaeooaeueiay
nianoaaiiinoue noaea iaeiei ec aeaaiuo e?eoa?eaa oeaiu oiaa?a. Ii iiea
iu i?eo/aai iieoiaoaey e iaaiciiaeiie ie a eaeie ae?oaie no?aia ie?a
ii?ia i?eauee a 500-1000% i?e i?iaeaaea neaa?ao, iaieoeia e o.i., oai
naiui ia oieueei ia?ooay i?aaa iio?aaeoaey, noaay aai a oieceoaeueiia
iieiaeaiea, ii e iaiiny na?ueaciie oua?a i?iecaiaeeoaeth.

Oieueei oiaaea Eacaonoai aoaeao eiaoue aeinoieiia ianoi a nenoaia
iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, eiaaea aoaeao niaoeeaeece?iaaoueny
ia yenii?oa ia oieueei nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia, ii e ia auionea aioiaie,
aunieiiao/iie i?iaeoeoeee (yeaeo?iieea, i?iiuoeaiiia iai?oaeiaaiea e
o.i. ).

?acthia.

Oaeei ia?acii neaaeoao, /oi anee ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai aoaeao
neaaeiaaoue, /oi iaia/aiiui ieaiii a iaeanoe aiaoiayeiiiie/aneie
aeayoaeueiinoe, io?aaeaiiue a no?aoaaee I?aceaeaioa ?E «Eacaonoai –
2030», oi iia niiaeao iaeoe naia ianoi a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee
o?oaea. I?e yoii iu aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue, /oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiia
?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ia?ac?uaii naycaii n IYI. E, i?iaiaey
yooaeoeaioth aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, Eacaonoai oai naiui
oeo/oaao naia iieiaeaiea a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea.

Eacaonoai n oi/ee c?aiey ie?iaiai aeciana iaeaaeaao
oieeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, a a ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo yaeyaony
iiiiiieenoii ii i?iecaiaenoao iaeioi?uo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee aeey
ie?iaiai ?uiea. Iaaeinoaoie Eacaonoaia – ii neeoeii aeaeaei
?aniieiaeai io ie?iauo o?ainii?oiuo naoae, i?aaeaea anaai ii?neeo
iooae.

Iiea iaaeinoaoi/ii eniieuecothony i?aeiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoee aiaiii
– i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, eo iaaei eniieueciaaoue a eioa?anao
iiauoaiey yenii?oiuo aiciiaeiinoae no?aiu, iooai :

a) i?ai?ioeee?iaaieyo eo /anoe a?aaeaeaineie i?iaeoeoeee;

a) /aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey nianoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae a aii?oaeaiee;

a) iienea nianoaaiiie “ieoe” a yenii?oa i?oaeey a ie?iaii ?uiea.

Ecaanoii, /oi aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aao ?aoathuoth
?ieue a no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iue eaae,
iaeiaei caeanue a?oc ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai. Noa?ay o?aaeeoeey
inouanoaeaiey iayeaeaaeaioiiai iaiaia auaoaai NNN? ii i?eioeeio
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu – aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey nio?aieeanue.

Ia eo/oea iieiaeaiea e n eiii?oii a Eacaonoaia. Acaiai
auaiceiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?ano?nia ?anioaeeeaineee ?uiie
iaaiaeiyaony oiaa?aie, ioaa/athueie ia no?aoaae/aneei eioa?anai
?anioaeeee, a iaeaieueoae auaiaea iiauo eiiia?naioia eee, a eo/oai
neo/aa, eioa?anai ioaeaeueiuo eieeaeoeaia. Iiiaea ec eiii?oe?oaiuo
oiaa?ia ia aoiaeyo a e?oa iaiaoiaeeiuo, eiatho ieceia ea/anoai
eee ninoaaeytho iaioaeioth eiieo?aioeeth ecaeaeeyi ?anioaeeeaineeo
i?iecaiaenoa. Ionoonoaea a?aiioiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a
iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey eiii?oa i?eiineo ia oieueei i?yiua oaeouea
aaethoiua iioa?e, ii e aaaeao e aeieain?i/iii aeiiieieoaeueiui
cao?aoai iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?ano?nia, ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai, eioi?uo iiaei
au e ia auoue. Iai?eia?, aaic a ?anioaeeeo au/eneeoaeueiie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oaoieee, aiia?aoo?u nayce ?aciiia?aciuo e
ca/anooth ianiaianoeiuo oeiia e ia?ie /?acau/aeii cao?oaeieo
caaea/o nicaeaiea aaeeiie nenoaiu eioi?iaoeee e eiiioieeaoeee.
Iaaiaeiaiea Eacaonoaia aaoiiiaeeyie aaeaa ee ia anao ia?ie
i?eaaaeao e ?aniueaieth ia?iiiuo n?aaenoa ia nicaeaiea
eio?ano?oeoo?u ii ianeoaeeaaieth e ?aiiioo anaai yoiai
?aciiianoiiai oicyenoaa.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaia aeey
?aoaiey aeaoo iniiaiuo caaea/:

1.niinianoaiaaoue i?ioeanno noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee
a ?anioaeeea;

2.onei?youe ea/anoaaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia
iniiaa oe?ieiai i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, ia?aaeiaie
oaoiieiaee, ie?iaiai iiuoa oicyenoaiaaiey.

Eeth/aaay i?iaeaia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae – yoi oaaee/aiea
yenii?oa eae enoi/ieea aaethoiuo iinooieaiee. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia –
yoi ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aaethoiuo iinooieaiee:

a) ia iieoieo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, ia eiathueo aiaeiaia e
iaaiciiaeiuo i?iecaiaeeoue a ?anioaeeea ;

a) ia i?eia?aoaiea iiaie oaoiieiaee, ia i?iecaiaenoai iiauo
oiaa?ia a ?anioaeeea. Nae/an iaaei iaeoe yenii?oiua ?ano?nu aac
nouanoaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e aeey yoiai iaaei

i?iaanoe ioeaieo iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa ?anioaeeee a oeaeii
e oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?ac?aca , /oiau i?iaeaaaoue ia ie?iaii ?uiea
eiaiii, oi /oi i?eianao iaeaieueooth auaiaeo e iiaeao ?aaeeciaaii
aia eiieo?aioeee.

CAEETH*AIEA.

Oaeei ia?acii iu ?anniio?ei o/anoea ?anioaeeee Eacaonoai a
iaaeaeoia?iaeiii ?acaeaeaiee o?oaea. Ianoi e ?ieue

Eacaonoaia a I?O ii?aaeaeyaony aai iieiaeaieai a IYI.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey iauaeoeaii auoaeatho ec
i?ioeanna ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, iaaeaeoia?iaeiie niaoeeaeecaoeee
i?iecaiaenoaa e iaoee, eioa?iaoeeiiaeecaoeee oicyenoaaiiie aeecie.

Oaeoaeaiea ?acaeoea iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea a cia/eo
IYI caaenyo io anoanoaaiiuo ( eeeiao, i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu, e o.ae. )
e i?eia?aoaiiuo ( i?iecaiaenoaaiiua, oaoiieiae/aneea ) oaeoi?ia, a
oaeaea nioeeaeueiuo, iaoeeiiaeueiuo, yoie/aneeo, iieeoe/aneeo e
i?aanoaaiiuo oneiaee.

Aiciiaeiinoe, ia?niaeoeau e ?ieue iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo yeiiiie/aneeo
ioiioaiee, cia/aiea e niioiioaiea eo iniiaiuo oi?i e iai?aaeaiee
ii?aaeaeythony oaeoaeaieai iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea,
ia?aoiaeei e aunieei aai oeiai. Iauee oei iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea i?aaeii?aaeaeyao iaaeio?aneaaie iaaeaeoia?iaeiue
iaiai, a /anoiinoe, oiaa?aie aeiauaathueony e ia?aaaouaathueo
io?aneae ioaeaeueiuo no?ai. *anoiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea i?eaiaeeo e
?acaeoeth e i?aiaeaaeaieth iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oi?aiaee aioiauie
ecaeaeeyie ?aciuo io?aneae e i?iecaiaenoa, a oii /enea
aioo?eiaaeio?aneaaie . Iaeiiaoe, aaeeie/iue oei I?O icia/aao
niaoeeaeecaoeeth ia ioaeaeueiuo yoaiia i?iecaiaenoaa ( oceao,
aeaoaeyo, iieooaa?eeaoao ) e noaaeeyo iao/ii – oaoie/aneie, i?iaeoii
– eiino?oeoi?neie e oaoiieiae/aneie ?ac?aaioai e aeaaea
eiaanoeoeeiiiiai i?iaeoa. ?acaeoea oi?i niaoeeaeecaoeee e
eiiia?aoeee nicaeaao i?aaeiinueee ?acaeoey iaaeaeoia?iaeiuo
yeiiiie/aneeo ioiioaiee.

?acaeaathueany no?aiu ( a oii /enea e ?anioaeeea Eacaonoai )
caieiatho aaaeiia ianoi a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey
o?oaea. Eo ianoi e ?ieue iaoneaaeeaaao eo yeiiiie/aneei ?acaeoeai e
o?iaiai ?acaeoinoe i?iiuoeaiiinoe. Ia aeaiiue iiiaio iie ai iniiaa
auiieiytho ?ieue iinoaaueeia nu?uey aeey i?iiuoeaiii ?acaeouo no?ai. Ii
ii ia?a ?acaeoey naieo yeiiiiee ?acaeaathueany no?aiu ia?aoiaeyo e
niaoeeaeecaoeee ii auioneo aioiaie i?iaeoeoeee, a iniiaiii IEN
THai-Ainoi/iie Acee e Eaoeineie Aia?eee. Ia niio?y ia yoi, ana aea iie
aua aeeeoaeueiia a?aiy aoaeoo iineoue ia?eoa?eeiue oa?aeoa? ii
ioiioaieth e I?N, oai naiui iaoneaaeeaay naia ianoi a iaaeaeoia?iaeiii
?acaeaeaiee o?oaea e nenoaia IYI. I?e yoii iu aeieaeiu o/eouaaoue,
/oi iaaeaeoia?iaeiia ?acaeaeaiea o?oaea ia?ac?uaii naycaii n IYI.
E, i?iaiaey yooaeoeaioth aiaoiayeiiiie/aneoth iieeoeeo, Eacaonoai
oai naiui oeo/oaao naia iieiaeaiea a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
?acaeaeaiey o?oaea.

Eacaonoai n oi/ee c?aiey ie?iaiai aeciana iaeaaeaao
oieeaeueiuie aiciiaeiinoyie, a a ioaeaeueiuo io?aneyo yaeyaony
iiiiiieenoii ii i?iecaiaenoao iaeioi?uo aeaeia i?iaeoeoeee aeey
ie?iaiai ?uiea. Iaaeinoaoie Eacaonoaia – ii neeoeii aeaeaei
?aniieiaeai io ie?iauo o?ainii?oiuo naoae, i?aaeaea anaai ii?neeo
iooae.

Iiea iaaeinoaoi/ii eniieuecothony i?aeiouanoaa i?aaei?eyoee aiaiii
– i?iiuoeaiiiai eiiieaena, eo iaaei eniieueciaaoue a eioa?anao
iiauoaiey yenii?oiuo aiciiaeiinoae no?aiu, iooai :

a) i?ai?ioeee?iaaieyo eo /anoe a?aaeaeaineie i?iaeoeoeee;

a) /aoeiai ii?aaeaeaiey nianoaaiiuo iio?aaiinoae a aii?oaeaiee;

a) iienea nianoaaiiie “ieoe” a yenii?oa i?oaeey a ie?iaii ?uiea.

Ecaanoii, /oi aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue ea?aao ?aoathuoth
?ieue a no?oeoo?iie ia?ano?ieea yeiiiieee ia ?uii/iue eaae,
iaeiaei caeanue a?oc ia?aoaiiuo i?iaeai. Noa?ay o?aaeeoeey
inouanoaeaiey iayeaeaaeaioiiai iaiaia auaoaai NNN? ii i?eioeeio
i?e?iaeiua ?ano?nu – aioiaay i?iaeoeoeey nio?aieeanue.

Ia eo/oea iieiaeaiea e n eiii?oii a Eacaonoaia. Acaiai
auaiceiuo iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?ano?nia ?anioaeeeaineee ?uiie
iaaiaeiyaony oiaa?aie, ioaa/athueie ia no?aoaae/aneei eioa?anai
?anioaeeee, a iaeaieueoae auaiaea iiauo eiiia?naioia eee, a eo/oai
neo/aa, eioa?anai ioaeaeueiuo eieeaeoeaia. Iiiaea ec eiii?oe?oaiuo
oiaa?ia ia aoiaeyo a e?oa iaiaoiaeeiuo, eiatho ieceia ea/anoai
eee ninoaaeytho iaioaeioth eiieo?aioeeth ecaeaeeyi ?anioaeeeaineeo
i?iecaiaenoa. Ionoonoaea a?aiioiie ainoaea?noaaiiie iieeoeee a
iaeanoe ?aaoee?iaaiey eiii?oa i?eiineo ia oieueei i?yiua oaeouea
aaethoiua iioa?e, ii e aaaeao e aeieain?i/iii aeiiieieoaeueiui
cao?aoai iaoeeiiaeueiuo ?ano?nia, ia ?aoaiea i?iaeai, eioi?uo iiaei
au e ia auoue. Iai?eia?, aaic a ?anioaeeeo au/eneeoaeueiie e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiie oaoieee, aiia?aoo?u nayce ?aciiia?aciuo e
ca/anooth ianiaianoeiuo oeiia e ia?ie /?acau/aeii cao?oaeieo
caaea/o nicaeaiea aaeeiie nenoaiu eioi?iaoeee e eiiioieeaoeee.
Iaaiaeiaiea Eacaonoaia aaoiiiaeeyie aaeaa ee ia anao ia?ie
i?eaaaeao e ?aniueaieth ia?iiiuo n?aaenoa ia nicaeaiea
eio?ano?oeoo?u ii ianeoaeeaaieth e ?aiiioo anaai yoiai
?aciiianoiiai oicyenoaa.

Aiaoiayeiiiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue aeieaeia auoue iai?aaeaia aeey
?aoaiey aeaoo iniiaiuo caaea/:

1.niinianoaiaaoue i?ioeanno noaaeeecaoeee yeiiiie/aneie neooaoeee
a ?anioaeeea;

2.onei?youe ea/anoaaiiia i?aia?aciaaiea ia?iaeiiai oicyenoaa ia
iniiaa oe?ieiai i?eaea/aiey eiino?aiiuo eiaanoeoeee, ia?aaeiaie
oaoiieiaee, ie?iaiai iiuoa oicyenoaiaaiey.

Eeth/aaay i?iaeaia aiaoiayeiiiie/aneeo naycae – yoi oaaee/aiea
yenii?oa eae enoi/ieea aaethoiuo iinooieaiee. Iniiaiay i?iaeaia –
yoi ?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea aaethoiuo iinooieaiee:

a) ia iieoieo iio?aaeoaeueneeo oiaa?ia, ia eiathueo aiaeiaia e
iaaiciiaeiuo i?iecaiaeeoue a ?anioaeeea ;

a) ia i?eia?aoaiea iiaie oaoiieiaee, ia i?iecaiaenoai iiauo
oiaa?ia a ?anioaeeea. Nae/an iaaei iaeoe yenii?oiua ?ano?nu aac
nouanoaaiiuo eaieoaeiaeiaeaiee e aeey yoiai iaaei i?iaanoe ioeaieo
iaoeeiiaeueiiai aiaaonoaa ?anioaeeee a oeaeii e
oa??eoi?eaeueiii ?ac?aca , /oiau i?iaeaaaoue ia ie?iaii ?uiea
eiaiii, oi /oi i?eianao iaeaieueooth auaiaeo e iiaeao ?aaeeciaaii
aia eiieo?aioeee.

Oaeei ia?acii, ?aoay caaea/e a AYN Eacaonoaia, iu oeo/oei ianoi e ?ieue
Eacaonoaia a nenoaia iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai ?acaeaeaiey o?oaea, ia?aeaey io
eaoaai?ee no?ai – yenii?oa?ia nu?uey e iaoa?eaeia e no?aiai n
auniei?acaeoie i?iiuoeaiiinoueth, i?eaioe?iaaiiie ia niaoeeaeecaoeee
iaoeiaieie i?iaeoeoeee. Yoi aeano iai aiciiaeiinoe yooaeoeaii
eniieueciaaoue yeiiiie/aneie iioaioeeae no?aiu.

NIENIE ENIIEUeCIAAIIIE EEOA?AOO?U

1. Aeaiania A.E. “Yeiiiie/aneea iiaeaee?iaaiey e ?aaeueiay

iieeoeea”. // “Eacaonoai yeiiiieea e aeeciue”, 1995a, ? 3 – 4.

2. A?iaiia A.A. “Eacaonoai a nia?aiaiiii ie?a”. // Aeiaou,

1998 a.

3. Eanuiia N. “Iaoeeiiaeueiay yeiiiieea a eciaiythuainy

ie?a”. // “Aeue – ia?e”, 1998a.

4. “Ianoi Eacaonoaia naaeu no?ai NIA”. // “Aiaoiyy yei –

iiie/aneay aeayoaeueiinoue”,1997a. ? 5.

5. ?uaaeeei A. “Iaaeaeoia?iaeiua yeiiiie/aneea ioiioaiey” ,

// Iineaa , “I?ia?ann”, 1998a.

6. Oieaaa E. “Aiaoiyy iieeoeea aeieaeia eiaoue yeiiiie/aneee

oa?aeoa?”. // “Yeni?ann E”.,1994a, ? 20.

7. Oanaoeaoia ?.E. “ Ie?iaay yeiiiieea” , //Iineaa,1997a.

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