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Защита информации в компьютерных системах

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Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoaiao – neaaaaiua oniaoa

I?ia?ann iiaea?ee /aeiaa/anoao aaeeeia iiiaeanoai aeinoeaeaiee, ii oio aea i?ia?ann ii?iaeee e ianno i?iaeai.
*aeiaa/aneee ?acoi, ?ac?aoay iaeie i?iaeaiu, iai?aiaiii
noaeeeaaaony i?e yoii n ae?oaeie, iiauie, e yoio i?ioeann ia?a/ai ia aaneiia/iinoue a naiae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.
Oioy, anee oae auoue oi/iui, iiaua i?iaeaiu – yoi anaai eeoue iaiiaeaiiay oi?ia noa?uo.
Aa/iay i?iaeaia – caueoa eioi?iaoeee. Ia ?acee/iuo yoaiao naiaai ?acaeoey /aeiaa/anoai ?aoaei yoo i?iaeaio n
i?enouae aeey aeaiiie yiioe oa?aeoa?iinoueth. Ecia?aoaiea
eiiiuethoa?a e aeaeueiaeoaa ao?iia ?acaeoea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee ai aoi?ie iieiaeia 20 aaea naeaeaee i?iaeaio
caueou eioi?iaoeee ianoieueei aeooaeueiie e ino?ie,
ianeieueei aeooaeueia naaiaeiy eioi?iaoecaoeey aeey anaai iauanoaa.
Aeaaiay oaiaeaioeey, oa?aeoa?ecothuay ?acaeoea nia?aiaiiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee – ?ino /enea eiiiuethoa?iuo
i?anooieaiee e naycaiiuo n ieie oeuaiee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie e eiie eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea iaoa?eaeueiuo iioa?ue. Ii
?acoeueoaoai iaeiiai enneaaeiaaiey, iinayuaiiiai aii?inai eiiiuethoa?iuo i?anooieaiee, ieiei 58% ii?ioaiiuo iino?aaeaee io eiiiuethoa?iuo aceiiia ca iineaaeiea 12 ianyoeaa. I?eia?ii 18 % ii?ioaiiuo ec yoiai /enea cayaeytho, /oi iioa?yee aieaa ieeeeiia aeieea?ia a oiaea
iaiaaeaiee, aieaa 66 i?ioeaioia iioa?iaee oauoee a ?acia?a 50 oun. aeieea?ia. Nauoa 22% aoae auee iaoeaeaiu ia i?iiuoeaiiua nae?aou eee aeieoiaiou, i?aaenoaaeythuea eioa?an i?aaeaea anaai aeey eiieo?aioia.
Naaiaeiy, iaaa?iia, ieeoi ia niiaeao n oaa?aiiinoueth iacaaoue oi/ioth oeeo?o noiia?iuo iioa?ue io eiiiuethoa?iuo i?anooieaiee, naycaiiuo n ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiuo aeinooiii e eioi?iaoeee. Yoi iauyniyaony, i?aaeaea anaai, iaaeaeaieai iino?aaeaaoeo eiiiaiee iaia?iaeiaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i naieo iioa?yo, a oaeaea oai, /oi ia anaaaea iioa?e io oeuaiey eioi?iaoeee iiaeii oi/ii ioeaieoue a aeaiaaeiii yeaeaaeaioa.
Iaeiaei ii aeaiiui, iioaeeeiaaiiui a naoe Internet, iauea iioa?e io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee a eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoaiao a 1997 aiaeo ioeaieaaeenue a 20
ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia, a oaea a 1998 aiaea a 53,6 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia.
I?e/ei aeoeaecaoeee eiiiuethoa?iuo i?anooieaiee e naycaiiuo n ieie oeiainiauo iioa?ue aeinoaoi/ii iiiai, nouanoaaiiuie ec ieo yaeythony:
ia?aoiae io o?aaeeoeeiiiie “aoiaaeiie” oaoiieiaee o?aiaiey e ia?aaea/e naaaeaiee ia yeaeo?iiioth e iaaeinoaoi/iia i?e yoii ?acaeoea oaoiieiaee caueou eioi?iaoeee a oaeeo oaoiieiaeyo;
iauaaeeiaiea au/eneeoaeueiuo nenoai, nicaeaiea aeiaaeueiuo
naoae e ?anoe?aiea aeinooia e eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai;
oaaee/aiea neiaeiinoe i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa e naycaiiia n
yoei oiaiueoaiea /enea eo iaaeaaeiinoe e oaaee/aieai oycaeiinoae.
Ethaia nia?aiaiiia i?aaei?eyoea iacaaeneii io aeaea aeayoaeueiinoe e oi?iu nianoaaiiinoe ia a ninoiyiee oniaoii ?acaeaaoueny e aanoe oicyenoaaiioth aeayoaeueiinoue aeey nicaeaiey ia iai oneiaee aeey iaaeaaeiiai ooieoeeiie?iaaiey nenoaiu caueou nianoaaiiie eioi?iaoeee.
Ionoonoaea o iiiaeo ?oeiaiaeeoaeae i?aaei?eyoee e eiiiaiee
/aoeiai i?aaenoaaeaiey ii aii?inai caueou eioi?iaoeee
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi ei neiaeii a iieiie ia?a ioeaieoue
iaiaoiaeeiinoue nicaeaiey iaaeaaeiie nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee ia naiai i?aaei?eyoee e oai aieaa neiaeii auaaao ii?aaeaeeoue eiie?aoiua aeaenoaey, iaiaoiaeeiua aeey caueou oao eee eiuo eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo naaaeaiee. A iauai neo/aa ?oeiaiaeeoaee i?aaei?eyoee eaeoo ii iooe nicaeaiey io?aiiuo neoaea, iieiinoueth eaii?e?oy i?e yoii aii?inu eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe. Io?eoeaoaeueioth ?ieue i?e yoii ea?atho e iaeioi?ua n?aaenoaa ianniaie eioi?iaoeee, ioaeeeoy “iaie/aneea” noaouee i ninoiyiee aeae ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee, oi?ie?othuea o /eoaoaeae i?aaenoaaeaiea i iaaiciiaeiinoe a nia?aiaiiuo oneiaeyo iaania/eoue o?aaoaiue o?iaaiue caueou eioi?iaoeee. Iiaeii n oaa?aiiinoueth ooaa?aeaeaoue, /oi nicaeaiea yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee naaiaeiy aiieia ?aaeueii. Iaaeaaeiinoue caueou eioi?iaoeee, i?aaeaea anaai, aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny iieiioie ?aoaiey oeaeiai eiiieaena caaea/, ?a/ue i eioi?uo aoaeao i?iaeieaeaia aeaeueoa.

Eioi?iaoeey eae iauaeo caueou

Iino?iaiea iaaeaaeiie caueou aeeth/aao ioeaieo oee?eoee?othuae
a eiiiuethoa?iie nenoaia eioi?iaoeee n oeaeueth ooi/iaiey
noaiaie aa eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe, aiaeeca iioaioeeaeueiuo
oa?ic aa aaciianiinoe e onoaiiaeaiea iaiaoiaeeiiai ?aaeeia
aa caueou.
Oaaea?aeueiui caeiiii “Ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoecaoeee e
caueoa eioi?iaoeee” ii?aaeaeaii, /oi eioi?iaoeeiiiua
?ano?nu, o.a. ioaeaeueiua aeieoiaiou eee ianneau
aeieoiaioia, a oii /enea e a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoaiao,
yaeyynue iauaeoii ioiioaiee oece/aneeo, th?eaee/aneeo eeoe e
ainoaea?noaa, iiaeeaaeao iaycaoaeueiiio o/aoo e caueoa, eae
anyeia iaoa?eaeueiia eiouanoai nianoaaiieea. I?e yoii
nianoaaiieeo i?aaeinoaaeyaony i?aai naiinoiyoaeueii a
i?aaeaeao naiae eiiiaoaioeee onoaiaaeeaaoue ?aaeei caueou
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia e aeinooia e iei.
Caeii oaeaea onoaiaaeeaaao, /oi “eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie
eioi?iaoeeae n/eoaaony oaeay aeieoiaioe?iaaiiay
eioi?iaoeey, aeinooi e eioi?ie ia?aie/eaaaony a
niioaaonoaee n caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaii ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee”.
I?e yoii oaaea?aeueiue caeii iiaeao niaea?aeaoue i?yioth ii?io,
niaeanii eioi?ie eaeea-eeai naaaeaiey ioiinyony e
eaoaai?ee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo eee aeinooi e iei
ia?aie/eaaaony. Oae, Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa eioi?iaoeee” iai?yioth ioiineo e
eaoaai?ee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ia?niiaeueiua
aeaiiua (eioi?iaoeeth i a?aaeaeaiao). Caeii ?NON? “I aaieao e
aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe a ?NON?” ia?aie/eaaao aeinooi e
naaaeaieyi ii iia?aoeeyi, n/aoai e aeeaaeai eeeaioia e
ei??aniiiaeaioia aaieia (noaouey 25).
Iaeiaei ia ei anai naaaeaieyi, ninoaaeythuei
eiioeaeaioeeaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth, i?eiaieia i?yiay ii?ia.
Eiiaaea caeiiiaeaoaeueii ii?aaeaeythony oieueei i?eciaee,
eioi?ui aeieaeiu oaeiaeaoai?youe yoe naaaeaiey. Yoi a
/anoiinoe ioiineony e neoaeaaiie e eiiia?/aneie oaeia,
i?eciaee eioi?uo ii?aaeaeythony A?aaeaeaineei eiaeaenii ?O
(noaouey 139):
niioaaonoaothuay eioi?iaoeey iaecaanoia o?aoueei eeoeai;
e iae naiaiaeiiai aeinooia ia caeiiiii iniiaaiee;
ia?u ii iaania/aieth aa eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe i?eieiaao
nianoaaiiee eioi?iaoeee.
A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ionoonoaoao eaeay-eeai oieaa?naeueiay
iaoiaeeea, iicaieythuay /aoei niioiineoue oo eee eioth
eioi?iaoeeth e eaoaai?ee eiiia?/aneie oaeiu. Iiaeii oieueei
iiniaaoiaaoue enoiaeeoue ec i?eioeeia yeiiiie/aneie auaiaeu e
aaciianiinoe i?aaei?eyoey – /?acia?iay “canae?a/aiiinoue”
i?eaiaeeo e iaiainiiaaiiiio iiaei?iaeaieth iaiaoiaeeiuo ia?
ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee e ia niinianoaoao ?acaeoeth aeciana,
eiaaea eae oe?ieay ioe?uoinoue iiaeao i?eaanoe e aieueoei
oeiainiaui iioa?yi eee ?acaeaoaieth oaeiu. Caeiiii?iaeoii
“I eiiia?/aneie oaeia” i?aaa ii ioianaieth eioi?iaoeee e
eaoaai?ee eiiia?/aneie oaeiu i?aaenoaaeaiu ?oeiaiaeeoaeth
th?eaee/aneiai eeoea.
Oaaea?aeueiue caeii “Ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoecaoeee e
caueoa eioi?iaoeee”, ii?aaeaeyy ii?iu, niaeanii eioi?uo
naaaeaiey ioiinyony e eaoaai?ee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiuo,
onoaiaaeeaaao e oeaee caueou eioi?iaoeee:
i?aaeioa?auaiea ooa/ee, oeuaiey, eneaaeaiey, iiaeaeaeee
eioi?iaoeee;
i?aaeioa?auaiea ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiuo aeaenoaee ii
oie/oiaeaieth, eneaaeaieth, aeiee?iaaieth eioi?iaoeee;
nio?aiaiea ainoaea?noaaiiie oaeiu, eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe
aeieoiaioe?iaaiiie eioi?iaoeee.
Ii?aaeaeeaoenue a iaiaoiaeeiinoe caueou eioi?iaoeee,
iaiin?aaenoaaiii i?enooiatho e i?iaeoe?iaaieth nenoaiu
caueou eioi?iaoeee.

I?aaiecaoeey caueou eioi?iaoeee
Ioaeaeueiue ?acaeae caeiiii?iaeoa “I eiiia?/aneie oaeia”,
iinayuaiiue i?aaiecaoeee caueou eiiia?/aneie eioi?iaoeee,
ii?aaeaeyao iaiaoiaeeiue eiiieaen ia?ii?eyoee ii aa caueoa:
onoaiiaeaiea iniaiai ?aaeeia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe;
ia?aie/aiea aeinooia e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee;
eniieueciaaiea i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo ia? e oaoie/aneeo
n?aaenoa caueou eioi?iaoeee;
inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey ca niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiiai
?aaeeia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe.
Eiie?aoiia niaea?aeaiea oeacaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee aeey eaaeaeiai
ioaeaeueii acyoiai i?aaei?eyoey iiaeao auoue ?acee/iui ii
ianooaaai e oi?iai. Yoi caaeneo a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue io
i?iecaiaenoaaiiuo, oeiainiauo e eiuo aiciiaeiinoae
i?aaei?eyoey, io iauaiia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee e
noaiaie aa cia/eiinoe. Nouanoaaiiui yaeyaony oi, /oi
aanue ia?a/aiue oeacaiiuo ia?ii?eyoee iaycaoaeueii aeieaeai
ieaie?iaaoueny e eniieueciaaoueny n o/aoii iniaaiiinoae
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu i?aaei?eyoey.
Onoaiiaeaiea iniaiai ?aaeeia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe
iai?aaeaii ia nicaeaiea oneiaee aeey iaania/aiey
oece/aneie caueou iineoaeae eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee.
Eae i?aaeei, iniaue ?aaeei eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe
iiae?acoiaaaao:
i?aaiecaoeeth io?aiu iiiauaiee, a eioi?uo niaea?aeaony
iineoaee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee;
onoaiiaeaiea ?aaeeia ?aaiou a iiiauaieyo, a eioi?uo
niaea?aeaony iineoaee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee;
onoaiiaeaiea i?iioneiiai ?aaeeia a iiiauaiey,
niaea?aeauea iineoaee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee;
cae?aieaiea oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ia?aaioee
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee ca nio?oaeieeaie,
ii?aaeaeaiea ia?niiaeueiie ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca eo
nio?aiiinoue;
onoaiiaeaiea ii?yaeea iieueciaaiey iineoaeyie
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee (o/ao, o?aiaiea, ia?aaea/a
ae?oaei aeieaeiinoiui eeoeai, oie/oiaeaiea, io/aoiinoue);
i?aaiecaoeeth ?aiiioa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa ia?aaioee
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee;
i?aaiecaoeeth eiio?iey ca onoaiiaeaiiui ii?yaeeii.
O?aaiaaiey onoaiaaeeaaaiiai ia i?aaei?eyoee iniaiai
?aaeeia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe ioi?ieythony a aeaea
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiuo aeieoiaioia e aeiaiaeyony
aeey iciaeiieaiey aei nio?oaeieeia i?aaei?eyoey.
Ia?aie/aiea aeinooia e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee
niinianoaoao nicaeaieth iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiuo oneiaee
nio?aiiinoe eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee. Iaiaoiaeeii
/aoei ii?aaeaeyoue e?oa nio?oaeieeia, aeiioneaaiuo e
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, e eaeei eiie?aoii naaaeaieyi
ei ?ac?aoai aeinooi e iieiiii/ey nio?oaeieeia ii aeinooio e
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee.
Eae iieacuaaao i?aeoeea ?aaiou, aeey ?ac?aaioee
iaiaoiaeeiiai eiiieaena ia?ii?eyoee ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee
aeaeaoaeueii i?eaea/aiea eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiuo yenia?oia a
iaeanoe caueou eioi?iaoeee.
O?aaeeoeeiiii aeey i?aaiecaoeee aeinooia e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee eniieueciaaeenue i?aaiecaoeeiiiua ia?u,
iniiaaiiua ia no?iaii niaethaeaiee nio?oaeieeaie i?ioeaaeo?
aeiionea e eioi?iaoeee, ii?aaeaeyaiuo niioaaonoaothueie
eino?oeoeeyie, i?eeacaie e ae?oaeie ii?iaoeaiuie
aeieoiaioaie. Iaeiaei n ?acaeoeai eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai yoe
ia?u ia?anoaee iaania/eaaoue iaiaoiaeeioth aaciianiinoue
eioi?iaoeee. Iiyaeeenue e a ianoiyuaa a?aiy oe?iei
i?eiaiythony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua i?ia?aiiiua e
i?ia?aiiii-aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee,
eioi?ua iicaieytho iaeneiaeueii aaoiiaoece?iaaoue i?ioeaaeo?u
aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee e iaania/eoue i?e yoii o?aaoaioth
noaiaiue aa caueou. Iiae?iaiaa i nouanoaothueo n?aaenoaao
caueou eioi?iaoeee iu inoaiiaeiny ieaea.
Inouanoaeaiea eiio?iey ca niaethaeaieai onoaiiaeaiiiai
?aaeeia eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe i?aaeoniao?eaaao i?iaa?eo
niioaaonoaey i?aaiecaoeee caueou eioi?iaoeee onoaiiaeaiiui
o?aaiaaieyi, a oaeaea ioeaieo yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiyaiuo
ia? caueou eioi?iaoeee. Eae i?aaeei, eiio?ieue
inouanoaeyaony a aeaea ieaiiauo e aiaieaiiauo i?iaa?ie
neeaie naieo nio?oaeieeia eee n i?eaea/aieai ae?oaeo
i?aaiecaoeee, eioi?ua niaoeeaeece?othony a yoie iaeanoe. Ii
?acoeueoaoai i?iaa?ie niaoeeaeenoaie ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee
i?iaiaeeony iaiaoiaeeiue aiaeec n ninoaaeaieai io/aoa,
eioi?ue aeeth/aao:
auaiae i niioaaonoaee i?iaiaeeiuo ia i?aaei?eyoee
ia?ii?eyoee onoaiiaeaiiui o?aaiaaieyi;
ioeaiea ?aaeueiie yooaeoeaiinoe i?eiaiyaiuo ia
i?aaei?eyoee ia? caueou eioi?iaoeee e i?aaeeiaeaiey ii eo
niaa?oainoaiaaieth.
Iaania/aiea e ?aaeecaoeey ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa ia?ii?eyoee
iio?aaoao nicaeaiey ia i?aaei?eyoee niioaaonoaothueo
i?aaiia caueou eioi?iaoeee. Yooaeoeaiinoue caueou
eioi?iaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoee ai iiiaii aoaeao ii?aaeaeyoueny
oai, ianeieueei i?aaeeueii aua?aia no?oeoo?a i?aaia caueou
eioi?iaoeee e eaaeeoeoee?iaaiu aai nio?oaeieee. Eae
i?aaeei, i?aaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
naiinoiyoaeueiua iiae?acaeaeaiey, iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea /anoi
i?aeoeeoaony e iacia/aiea iaeiiai ec ooaoiuo niaoeeaeenoia
i?aaei?eyoey ioaaonoaaiiui ca iaania/aiea caueou
eioi?iaoeee. Iaeiaei oaeay oi?ia ii?aaaeaia a oao neo/ayo,
eiaaea iauai iaiaoiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee
iaaieueoie e nicaeaiea ioaeaeueiiai iiae?acaeaeaiey
yeiiiie/anee ia auaiaeii.
Nicaeaieai i?aaiia caueou eioi?iaoeee ia i?aaei?eyoee
caaa?oaaony iino?iaiea nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee, iiae
eioi?ie iiieiaaony niaieoiiinoue i?aaiia caueou
eioi?iaoeee eee ioaeaeueiuo eniieieoaeae, eniieuecoaiua eie
n?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea iauaeou caueou,
i?aaieciaaiiua e ooieoeeiie?othuea ii i?aaeeai,
onoaiiaeaiiui niioaaonoaothueie i?aaiauie,
i?aaiecaoeeiiii-?anii?yaeeoaeueiuie e ii?iaoeaiuie
aeieoiaioaie ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee.
N?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee
Eae oaea ioia/aeinue auoa, yooaeoeaiinoue caueou eioi?iaoeee
a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoaiao aeinoeaaaony i?eiaiaieai
n?aaenoa caueou eioi?iaoeee (NCE). Iiae n?aaenoaii caueou
eioi?iaoeee iiieiaaony oaoie/aneia, i?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai
eee iaoa?eae, i?aaeiacia/aiiua eee eniieuecoaiua aeey
caueou eioi?iaoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia ?uiea
i?aaenoaaeaii aieueoia ?aciiia?acea n?aaenoa caueou
eioi?iaoeee, eioi?ua oneiaii iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia ianeieueei
a?oii:
n?aaenoaa, iaania/eaathuea ?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia e
eioi?iaoeee a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoaiao;
n?aaenoaa, iaania/eaathuea caueoo eioi?iaoeee i?e
ia?aaea/a aa ii eaiaeai nayce;
n?aaenoaa, iaania/eaathuea caueoo io ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee
ii ?acee/iui oece/aneei iieyi, aicieeathuei i?e ?aaioa
oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai;
n?aaenoaa, iaania/eaathuea caueoo io aicaeaenoaey
i?ia?aii-ae?onia;
iaoa?eaeu, iaania/eaathuea aaciianiinoue o?aiaiey,
o?ainii?oe?iaee iineoaeae eioi?iaoeee e caueoo eo io
eiie?iaaiey.
Iniiaiia iacia/aiea n?aaenoa caueou ia?aie a?oiiu –
?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia e eieaeueiui e naoaaui
eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai. NCE
yoie a?oiiu iaania/eaatho:
eaeaioeoeeaoeeth e aooaioeoeeaoeeth iieueciaaoaeae
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai;
?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo iieueciaaoaeae
e eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai;
?aaeno?aoeeth aeaenoaee iieueciaaoaeae;
caueoo caa?ocee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu n aeaeeo
iaaieoiuo aeeneia e CD-ROM;
eiio?ieue oeaeinoiinoe NCE e eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia.
A ea/anoaa eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia iieueciaaoaeae i?eiaiythony,
eae i?aaeei, oneiaiua iaicia/aiey a aeaea iaai?a
neiaieia. Aeey aooaioeoeeaoeee iieueciaaoaeae i?eiaiythony
ia?iee.
Aaiae cia/aiee eaeaioeoeeaoi?a iieueciaaoaey e aai ia?iey
inouanoaeyaony ii cai?ino NCE n eeaaeaoo?u. Iiiaea
nia?aiaiiua NCE eniieuecotho e ae?oaea oeiu eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia
– iaaieoiua ea?oi/ee, ?aaeei/anoioiua aaneiioaeoiua
ea?oi/ee, nia?o-ea?oi/ee, yeaeo?iiiua oaaeaoee Touch
Memory e ae?oaea. Ioaeaeueii noieo neacaoue ia eniieueciaaiee
a ea/anoaa eaeaioeoeeaoi?a eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeieiae/aneeo
ia?aiao?ia (ioia/aoie iaeueoea, ?aaeoaeiay iaiei/ea aeaca),
i?enoueo eaaeaeiio /aeiaaeo. Eniieueciaaiea a ea/anoaa
eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo aeieiae/aneeo ia?aiao?ia
oa?aeoa?ecoaony, n iaeiie noi?iiu, aunoei o?iaiai
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe, a n ae?oaie – i/aiue aunieie
noieiinoueth oaeeo nenoai.
?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia ca?aaeno?e?iaaiiuo iieueciaaoaeae e
eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai inouanoaeyaony NCE a
niioaaonoaee n onoaiiaeaiiuie aeey iieueciaaoaeae
iieiiii/eyie. Eae i?aaeei, NCE iaania/eaatho
?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia e aeaeei e aeanoeei aeeneai,
eiae/aneei aeeneai, aee?aeoi?eyi, oaeeai, ii?oai e
ono?ienoaai. Iieiiii/ey iieueciaaoaeae onoaiaaeeaathony n
iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiuo iano?iae NCE. Ii ioiioaieth e
eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai n?aaenoaaie caueou iiaoo
onoaiaaeeaaoueny oaeea iieiiii/ey, eae ?ac?aoaiea /oaiey,
caiene, nicaeaiey, caionea eniieiyaiuoi oaeeia e ae?oaea.
Nenoaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee i?aaeoniao?eaatho aaaeaiea
niaoeeaeueiiai aeo?iaea, a eioi?ii ?aaeno?e?othony
ii?aaeaeaiiua niauoey, naycaiiua n aeaenoaeyie
iieueciaaoaeae, iai?eia? caienue (iiaeeoeeaoeey) oaeea,
caione i?ia?aiiu, auaiae ia ia/aoue e ae?oaea, a oaeaea
iiiuoee ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e caueuaaiui
?ano?nai e eo ?acoeueoao.
Iniai noieo ioiaoeoue iaee/ea a NCE caueou caa?ocee
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu n aeaeeo iaaieoiuo aeeneia e CD-ROM,
eioi?ay iaania/eaaao caueoo naieo n?aaenoa caueou io
“aceiia” n eniieueciaaieai niaoeeaeueiuo oaoiieiaee. A
?acee/iuo NCE nouanoaotho i?ia?aiiiua e
aiia?aoii-i?ia?aiiiua ?aaeecaoeee yoie caueou, iaeiaei
i?aeoeea iieacuaaao, /oi i?ia?aiiiay ?aaeecaoeey ia
iaania/eaaao iaiaoiaeeiie noieeinoe.
Eiio?ieue oeaeinoiinoe n?aaenoa caueou e caueuaaiuo oaeeia
caeeth/aaony a iiaen/aoa e n?aaiaiee eiio?ieueiuo noii
oaeeia. I?e yoii eniieuecothony ?acee/iie neiaeiinoe
aeai?eoiu iiaen/aoa eiio?ieueiuo noii.
Ianiio?y ia ooieoeeiiaeueioth iauiinoue n?aaenoa caueou
eioi?iaoeee aeaiiie a?oiiu, NCE ?acee/iuo i?iecaiaeeoaeae
?acee/athony:
oneiaeyie ooieoeeiie?iaaiey (iia?aoeeiiiay n?aaea,
aiia?aoiay ieaooi?ia, aaoiiiiiua eiiiuethoa?u e
au/eneeoaeueiua naoe);
neiaeiinoueth iano?ieee e oi?aaeaiey ia?aiao?aie NCE;
eniieuecoaiuie oeiaie eaeaioeoeeaoi?ia;
ia?a/iai niauoee, iiaeeaaeaueo ?aaeno?aoeee;
noieiinoueth n?aaenoa caueou.
N ?acaeoeai naoaauo oaoiieiaee iiyaeeny iiaue oei NCE –
iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu (firewalls), eioi?ua iaania/eaatho
?aoaiea oaeeo caaea/, eae caueoa iiaeeeth/aiee e aiaoiei
naoyi, ?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia iaaeaeo naaiaioaie
ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe, caueoa ei?ii?aoeaiuo iioieia aeaiiuo,
ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii ioe?uoui naoyi.
Caueoa eioi?iaoeee i?e ia?aaea/a aa ii eaiaeai nayce
inouanoaeyaony n?aaenoaaie e?eioia?aoe/aneie caueou
(NECE). Oa?aeoa?iie iniaaiiinoueth yoeo n?aaenoa yaeyaony
oi, /oi iie iioaioeeaeueii iaania/eaatho iaeaunooth caueoo
ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia
e iae. Iiieii yoiai, NECE iaania/eaatho caueoo eioi?iaoeee
io iiaeeoeeaoeee (eniieueciaaiea oeeo?iaie iiaeiene e
eieoianoaaee).
Eae i?aaeei, NECE ooieoeeiie?otho a aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
nenoaiao eae naiinoiyoaeueiia n?aaenoai, iaeiaei a
ioaeaeueiuo neo/ayo NECE iiaeao ooieoeeiie?iaaoue a ninoaaa
n?aaenoa ?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia eae ooieoeeiiaeueiay
iiaenenoaia aeey oneeaiey caueoiuo naienoa iineaaeieo.
Iaania/eaay aunieoth noaiaiue caueou eioi?iaoeee, a oi aea
a?aiy i?eiaiaiea NECE aea/ao ?yae iaoaeianoa:
noieeinoue NECE yaeyaony iioaioeeaeueiie, o.a.
aa?aioe?oaony i?e niaethaeaiee ?yaea aeiiieieoaeueiuo
o?aaiaaiee, ?aaeecaoeey eioi?uo ia i?aeoeea
inouanoaeyaony aeiaieueii neiaeii (nicaeaiea e
ooieoeeiie?iaaiea eeth/aaie nenoaiu, ?ani?aaeaeaiea
eeth/ae, iaania/aiea nio?aiiinoe eeth/ae, iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a iieo/aiee eeoeaicee OAINE ia i?aai yenieoaoaoeee
n?aaenoa, ieaie?iaaiea e i?aaiecaoeey ia?ii?eyoee i?e
eiii?iiaoaoeee eeth/aaie nenoaiu);
ioiineoaeueii aunieay noieiinoue yenieoaoaoeey oaeeo
n?aaenoa.
A oeaeii, i?e ii?aaeaeaiee iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaiey
n?aaenoa e?eioia?aoe/aneie caueou eioi?iaoeee, iaiaoiaeeii
o/eouaaoue oi, /oi i?eiaiaiea NECE ii?aaaeaii a neo/ayo
yaiiai ia?aoaaoa aeaenoaeoaeueii eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee.
Oeaeueth noaouee ia yaeyaony oe?ieia ianoaeaeaiea n?aaenoa
caueou io ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee ii ?acee/iui oece/aneei
iieyi, aicieeathuei i?e ?aaioa oaoie/aneeo n?aaenoa
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo nenoai, iaeiaei ioiaoei, /oi aeey
caueou eioi?iaoeee io ooa/ee ii oece/aneei iieyi
eniieuecothony neaaeothuea iaoiaeu e n?aaenoaa caueou:
yeaeo?iiaaieoiia ye?aie?iaaiea ono?ienoa eee
iiiauaiee, a eioi?uo ?aniieiaeaia au/eneeoaeueiay
oaoieea;
aeoeaiay ?aaeeioaoie/aneay ianee?iaea n eniieueciaaieai
oe?ieiiieiniuo aaia?aoi?ia ooiia, eioi?ua oe?iei
i?aaenoaaeaiu ia iaoai ?uiea.
?aaeeeaeueiui niiniaii caueou eioi?iaoeee io ooa/ee ii
oece/aneei iieyi yaeyaony yeaeo?iiaaieoiia ye?aie?iaaiea
oaoie/aneeo ono?ienoa e iiiauaiee, iaeiaei yoi niinia
o?aaoao cia/eoaeueiuo eaieoaeueiuo cao?ao e i?aeoe/anee ia
i?eiaiyaony.
E ianeieueei neia i iaoa?eaeao, iaania/eaathueo
aaciianiinoue o?aiaiey, o?ainii?oe?iaee iineoaeae
eioi?iaoeee e caueoo eo io eiie?iaaiey. A iniiaiii yoi
niaoeeaeueiua oiieiieaii/iua iaoa?eaeu n eciaiythuaeny
oeaaoiaie aaiiie eee aieia?aoe/aneea iaoee, eioi?ua
iaiinyony ia aeieoiaiou e i?aaeiaou (a oii /enea e ia
yeaiaiou eiiiuethoa?iie oaoieee aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo
nenoai). Iie iicaieytho:
eaeaioeoeoee?iaaoue iiaeeeiiinoue iauaeoa;
eiio?iee?iaaoue ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiue aeinooi e iei.
N?aaenoaa aiaeeca caueuaiiinoe eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae
Oe?ieia ?acaeoea ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae, eioaa?aoeey eo n
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie nenoaiaie iauaai iieueciaaiey iiieii
yaiuo i?aeiouanoa ii?iaeaeaao iiaua oa?icu aaciianiinoe
eioi?iaoeee. I?e/eiu aicieeiiaaiey iiauo oa?ic
oa?aeoa?ecothony:
neiaeiinoueth e ?acii?iaeiinoueth eniieuecoaiiai i?ia?aiiiiai
e aiia?aoiiai iaania/aiey ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae;
aieueoei /eneii oceia naoe, o/anoaothueo a yeaeo?iiiii
iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae, eo oa??eoi?eaeueiie
?ani?aaeaeaiiinoueth e ionoonoaeai aiciiaeiinoe eiio?iey
anao iano?iae;
aeinooiiinoueth eioi?iaoeee ei?ii?aoeaiuo nenoai aiaoiei
iieueciaaoaeyi (eeeaioai, ia?oia?ai e i?.) ec-ca aa
?aniieiaeaiey ia oece/anee niaaeeiaiiuo iineoaeyo.
I?eiaiaiea iienaiiuo auoa n?aaenoa caueou eioi?iaoeee, a
oaeaea ano?iaiiuo a iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu iaoaieciia
caueou eioi?iaoeee ia iicaieyao a iieiie ia?a
eeeaeaee?iaaoue yoe oa?icu. Iaee/ea iinoiyiiuo eee
a?aiaiiuo oece/aneeo niaaeeiaiee yaeyaony aaaeiaeoei
oaeoi?ii, eioi?ue aeeyao ia iiauoaiea oycaeiinoae
ei?ii?aoeaiuo nenoai ec-ca a?aoae a eniieuecoaiuo
caueoiuo e i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoaao e ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee
aneaaenoaea ioeai/iuo eee iaa?aiioiuo aeaenoaee ia?niiaea.

Iaania/aiea o?aaoaiie caueou eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia
i?aaei?eyoee a yoeo oneiaeyo aeinoeaaaony i?eiaiaieai
aeiiieieoaeueiuo eino?oiaioaeueiuo n?aaenoa. E eo /eneo
ioiinyony:
n?aaenoaa aiaeeca caueuaiiinoe iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e
naoaauo na?aenia;
n?aaenoaa iaia?oaeaiey iianiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
aicaeaenoaee (aoae) a naoyo.
N?aaenoaa aiaeeca caueuaiiinoe iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai
iicaieytho inouanoaeyoue ?aaeceth iaoaieciia ?aca?aie/aiey
aeinooia, eaeaioeoeeaoeee e aooaioeoeeaoeee, n?aaenoa
iiieoi?eiaa, aoaeeoa e ae?oaeo eiiiiiaioia iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai n oi/ee c?aiey niioaaonoaey eo iano?iae e
eiioeao?aoeee onoaiiaeaiiui a i?aaiecaoeee. E?iia yoiai,
n?aaenoaaie aeaiiiai eeanna i?iaiaeeony eiio?ieue
oeaeinoiinoe e iaeciaiiinoe i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa e
nenoaiiuo onoaiiaie e i?iaa?ea iaee/ey oycaeiinoae
nenoaiiuo e i?eeeaaeiuo neoaea. Eae i?aaeei, oaeea
i?iaa?ee i?iaiaeyony n eniieueciaaieai aacu aeaiiuo
oycaeiinoae iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai e na?aeniuo neoaea,
eioi?ua iiaoo iaiiaeyoueny ii ia?a auyaeaiey iiauo
oycaeiinoae.
E /eneo n?aaenoa aiaeeca aeaiiiai eeanna ioiineony
i?ia?aiiiia n?aaenoai aaeieieno?aoi?a IN Solaris ASET
(Automated Security Tool), eioi?ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa IN
Solaris,
iaeao i?ia?aii COPS (Computer Oracle and Password
System) aeey aaeieieno?aoi?ia Unix-nenoai, e nenoaia
System Scanner (SS) oe?iu Internet Security System Inc.
aeey aiaeeca e oi?aaeaiey caueuaiiinoue iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoai Unix e Windows NT/ 95/98.
Eniieueciaaiea a naoyo Internet/Intranet i?ioieieia
TCP/IP, eioi?ua oa?aeoa?ecothony iaee/eai a ieo
iaono?aieiuo oycaeiinoae, i?eaaei e iiyaeaieth a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiauo ?aciiaeaeiinoae eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
aicaeaenoaee ia naoaaua na?aenu e i?aaenoaaeythueo ?aaeueioth
oa?ico caueuaiiinoe eioi?iaoeee. N?aaenoaa aiaeeca
caueuaiiinoe naoaauo na?aenia i?eiaiythony aeey ioeaiee
caueuaiiinoe eiiiuethoa?iuo naoae ii ioiioaieth e
aioo?aiiei e aiaoiei aoaeai. Ii ?acoeueoaoai aiaeeca
caueuaiiinoe naoaauo na?aenia n?aaenoaaie aaia?e?othony
io/aou, aeeth/athuea a naay nienie iaia?oaeaiiuo
oycaeiinoae, iienaiea aiciiaeiuo oa?ic e ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
eo ono?aiaieth. Iiene oycaeiinoae iniiauaaaony ia
eniieueciaaiee aacu aeaiiuo, eioi?ay niaea?aeeo oe?iei
ecaanoiua oycaeiinoe naoaauo na?aeniuo i?ia?aii e iiaeao
iaiiaeyoueny iooai aeiaaaeaiey iiauo oycaeiinoae.
E /eneo n?aaenoa aiaeeca aeaiiiai eeanna ioiineony
i?ia?aiia SATAN (aaoi? A.Aaiaia), Netprobe oe?iu Qualix
Group e Internet Scanner oe?iu Internet Security System
Inc.
Iaeaieueoay yooaeoeaiinoue caueou eioi?iaoeee aeinoeaaaony
i?e eiiieaeniii eniieueciaaiee n?aaenoa aiaeeca
caueuaiiinoe e n?aaenoa iaia?oaeaiey iianiuo
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo aicaeaenoaee (aoae) a naoyo. N?aaenoaa
iaia?oaeaiey aoae a naoyo i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey inouanoaeaiey
eiio?iey anaai naoaaiai o?aoeea, eioi?ue i?ioiaeeo /a?ac
caueuaaiue naaiaio naoe, e iia?aoeaiiai ?aaae?iaaiea a
neo/ayo iaiaaeaiey ia oceu ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe.
Aieueoeinoai n?aaenoa aeaiiie a?oiiu i?e iaia?oaeaiee aoaee
a naoe iiiaauatho aaeieieno?aoi?a nenoaiu, ?aaeno?e?otho
oaeo iaiaaeaiey a aeo?iaea nenoaiu e caaa?oatho niaaeeiaiea
n aoaeothuei oceii. Aeiiieieoaeueii, ioaeaeueiua n?aaenoaa
iaia?oaeaiey aoae iicaieytho aaoiiaoe/anee
?aeiioeao?e?iaaoue iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu e ia?o?ooecaoi?u a
neo/aa iaiaaeaiey ia oceu ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe.
Ianeieueei iieaciuo niaaoia aianoi caeeth/aiey
Nouanoaotho ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea, eioi?uo oeaeaniia?acii
i?eaea?aeeaaoueny i?e i?aaiecaoeee caueou eioi?iaoeee:
nicaeaiea e yenieoaoaoeey nenoai caueou eioi?iaoeee
yaeyaony neiaeiui e ioaaonoaaiiui i?ioeannii. Ia
aeiaa?yeoa aii?inu caueou eioi?iaoeee aeeeaoaioai,
ii?o/eoa eo i?ioanneiiaeai;
ia noa?aeoanue i?aaieciaaoue aaniethoii iaaeaaeioth caueoo –
oaeie i?inoi ia nouanoaoao. Nenoaia caueou aeieaeia auoue
aeinoaoi/iie, iaaeaaeiie, yooaeoeaiie e oi?aaeyaiie.
Yooaeoeaiinoue caueou eioi?iaoeee aeinoeaaaony ia
eiee/anoaii aeaiaa, iio?a/aiiuo ia aa i?aaiecaoeeth, a
niiniaiinoueth aa aaeaeaaoii ?aaae?iaaoue ia ana iiiuoee
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee;
ia?ii?eyoey ii caueoa eioi?iaoeee io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia aeieaeiu iineoue eiiieaeniue
oa?aeoa?, o.a. iauaaeeiyoue ?acii?iaeiua ia?u
i?ioeaiaeaenoaey oa?icai (i?aaiaua, i?aaiecaoeeiiiua,
i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneea);
iniiaiay oa?ica eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai enoiaeeo iaiin?aaenoaaiii io
nio?oaeieeia. N o/aoii yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iaeneiaeueii
ia?aie/eaaoue eae e?oa nio?oaeieeia, aeiioneaaiuo e
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee, oae e e?oa eioi?iaoeee, e
eioi?ie iie aeiioneathony (a oii /enea e e eioi?iaoeee ii
nenoaia caueou). I?e yoii eaaeaeue nio?oaeiee aeieaeai
eiaoue ieieioi iieiiii/ee ii aeinooio e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie
eioi?iaoeee.
Iaaeaainy, /oi iaoa?eae, eioi?ue i?eaaaeai a noaouea,
iiiiaeao aai iieo/eoue iaiaoiaeeiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i
i?iaeaia caueou eioi?iaoeee a eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoaiao e
oniaoii ?aoaoue aa a iianaaeiaaiie aeayoaeueiinoe.
Caieianeee A.E.

Enoi/iee: Caieianeee A.E. O/aaiue Oeaio?

10

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