.

Защита информации в Интернет

Язык: русский
Формат: реферат
Тип документа: Word Doc
0 2480
Скачать документ

IEIENOA?NOAI IAUAAI E NIAOeEAEUeIIAI

IA?ACIAAIEss ?INNEENEIE OAAeA?AOeEE

AI?IIAAENEEE AINOAeA?NOAAIIUE OIEAA?NEOAO

YEIIIIE*ANEEE OAEOEUeOAO

AUIONEIAss ?AAIOA

ia oaio: “ Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a Eioa?iao ”

Aaeaeaa? yeiiiieee,

niaoeeaeecaoeey “Iaiaaeaeiaio”

Aeiaaiia ioaeaeaiea

Caa.eaoaae?ie eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee

e iaoaiaoe/aneeo iaoiaeia a yeiiiieea

eaiaeeaeao yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, aeioeaio Ei/o?iaa O.A.

?oeiaiaeeoaeue auioneiie ?aaiou

eaiaeeaeao yeiiiie/aneeo iaoe, aeioeaio Aaeia?iaeneee A.A.

Auioneioth ?aaioo auiieiee

nooaeaio 7 a?oiiu 4 eo?na Oai?a A.A.

AI?IIAAE 1997

Niaea?aeaiea

Aaaaeaiea………………………………………………………
………………………….. 2

Aeaaa 1 Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea naoe
Internet………………………………. 4

1.1 Enoi?ey neoe
Internet………………………………………………….. 4

1.1.1 I?ioieieu naoe
Internet…………………………………………….. 5

1.2 Oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua
naoueth……………………………………. 6

1.3 Aeia?oaenoiaay oaoiieiaey WWW, URL, HTML…………… 9

1.3.1 A?oeoaeoo?a WWW – oaoiieiaee………………………………
10

1.3.2 Iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou oaoiieiaee World Wide Web…. 13

Aeaaa 2 Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a aeiaaeueeiie naoe Internet……………
16

2.1 I?iaeaiu caueou
eioi?iaoeee………………………………….. 16

2.1.1 Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue e eioi?iaoeeiiiua

oaoiieiaee……………………………………………………..
……………… 19

2.2 N?aaenoaa caueou
eioi?iaoeee…………………………………… 23

2.2.1 Oaoiieiaey ?aaiou a aeiaaeueiuo naoyo

Solstice
FireWall-1……………………………………………………..
…….. 24

2.2.2 Ia?aie/aiea aeinooia a WWW- na?aa?ao…………………… 33

2.3 Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue a Intranet…………………… 35

Caeeth/aiea…………………………………………………….
……………………… 51

Nienie niaoeeaeueiuo
oa?ieiia…………………………………………………. 53

Nieie eniieueciaaiiuo
enoi/ieeia…………………………………………… 57

Aaaaeaiea

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, ioaaouaathuay aanue ie?.
Naaiaeiy Internet eiaao ieiei 15 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia a aieaa /ai 150
no?aiao ie?a. Aaeaiany/ii ?acia? naoe oaaee/eaaaony ia 7-10%. Internet
ia?acoao eae au yae?i, iaania/eaathuaa naycue ?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui o/?aaeaeaieyi ai anai ie?a, iaeia n
ae?oaie.

Anee ?aiaa naoue eniieueciaaeanue eneeth/eoaeueii a ea/anoaa n?aaeu
ia?aaea/e oaeeia e niiauaiee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, oi naaiaeiy ?aoathony
aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e ?ani?aaeaeaiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai. Ieiei aeaoo
eao iacaae auee nicaeaiu iaiei/ee, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea ooieoeee naoaaiai
iienea e aeinooia e ?ani?aaeaeaiiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai,
yeaeo?iiiui a?oeaai.

Internet, neoaeeaoay eiaaea-oi eneeth/eoaeueii enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e
o/aaiui a?oiiai, /uee eioa?anu i?inoe?aeenue aieioue aei aeinooia e
noia?eiiiuethoa?ai, noaiiaeony ana aieaa iiioey?iie a aeaeiaii ie?a.

Eiiiaiee niaeaciytho auno?ioa, aeaoaaay aeiaaeueiay naycue, oaeianoai
aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ?aaio, aeinooiiua i?ia?aiiu, oieeaeueiay
aaca aeaiiuo naoe Internet. Iie ?anniao?eaatho aeiaaeueioth naoue eae
aeiiieiaiea e naiei nianoaaiiui eieaeueiie naoyi.

Oaeoe/anee Internet ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa eieaeueiuo e aeiaaeueiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui eiiiaieyi e i?aaei?eyoeyi, naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie ?acee/iuie eeieyie nayce. Internet iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa a aeaea iicaeee neiaeaiiie ec iaaieueoeo naoae ?aciie aaee/eiu,
eioi?ua aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaeia n ae?oaie, ia?anueay oaeeu,
niiauaiey e o.i.

I?e ieceie noieiinoe oneoa (/anoi yoi oieueei oeene?iaaiiay aaeaiany/iay
ieaoa ca eniieuecoaiua eeiee eee oaeaoii) iieueciaaoaee iiaoo iieo/eoue
aeinooi e eiiia?/aneei e iaeiiia?/aneei eioi?iaoeeiiiui neoaeaai NOA,
Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee e iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. A a?oeaao naiaiaeiiai
aeinooia naoe Internet iiaeii iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth i?aeoe/anee ii anai
noa?ai /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia/eiay n iiauo iao/iuo ioe?uoee aei
i?iaiica iiaiaeu ia caao?a.

E?iia oiai Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeaoaaie,
iaaeaaeiie e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie aeiaaeueiie nayce ii anaio ie?o. Yoi
ieacuaaaony i/aiue oaeiaiui aeey oe?i eiathueo naie oeeeaeu ii anaio
ie?o, o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee e no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey. Iau/ii,
eniieueciaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u Internet aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce
iaoiaeeony cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea i?yiie eiiiuethoa?iie nayce /a?ac
niooieeiaue eaiae eee /a?ac oaeaoii.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oneoaa naoe Internet. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy naie aae?an ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa eiatho i?eaeeceoaeueii
20 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Iinueea ienueia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa iaoiaeeony
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea iinueee iau/iiai ienueia. E?iia oiai niiauaiea,
iineaiiia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa aeieaeao aei aae?anaoa ca ianeieueei
/ania, a oi a?aiy eae iau/iia ienueii iiaeao aeiae?aoueny aei aae?anaoa
ianeieueei aeiae, a oi e iaaeaeue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Internet eniuouaaao ia?eiae iiaeuaia, ai iiiaii
aeaaiaea?y aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoa aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai e NOA. Aaeaaiaeii a NOA auaeaeyaony ieiei 1-2 ieeeeiiia aeieea?ia
ia nicaeaiea iiaie naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe
naoaauo eiiioieeaoeee oeiaine?othony oaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oaaoeee, Oeieyiaeee, Aa?iaiee.

Iaeiaei, ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea – eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue
iinooiathueo n?aaenoa, o.e. ana aieaa caiaoiie noaiiaeony
“eiiia?oeecaoeey” naoe (80-90% n?aaenoa iinooiaao ec /anoiiai naeoi?a).

AEAAA 1

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea naoe Internet

1.1 Enoi?ey naoe Internet

A 1961 aiaeo Defence Advanced Research Agensy (DARPA) ii caaeaieth
ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e i?iaeoo ii nicaeaieth
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ia?aaea/e iaeaoia. Yoa naoue, iacaaiiay ARPANET,
i?aaeiacia/aeanue ia?aiia/aeueii aeey eco/aiey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey
iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie ?acee/iuo oeiia. Iiiaea iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo /a?ac iiaeaiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a ARPANET. Oiaaea aea
auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a naoe – TCP/IP. TCP/IP –
yoi iiiaeanoai eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho, eae
eiiiuethoa?u ?acee/iuo oeiia iiaoo iauaoueny iaaeaeo niaie.

Yenia?eiaio n ARPANET aue ianoieueei oniaoai, /oi iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
caoioaee aieoe a iaa, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aeey aaeaaeiaaiie
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. E a 1975 aiaeo ARPANET i?aa?aoeeanue ec
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe a ?aai/oth naoue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea naoe acyei ia naay Defence Communication Agency
(DCA), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaaaiia Defence Information Systems Agency
(DISA). Ii ?acaeoea ARPANET ia yoii ia inoaiiaeeinue; I?ioieieu TCP/IP
i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A 1983 aiaeo auoae ia?aue noaiaea?o aeey i?ioieieia TCP/IP, aioaaeoee a
Military Standarts (MIL STD), o.a. a aiaiiua noaiaea?ou, e ana, eoi
?aaioae a naoe, iaycaiu auee ia?aeoe e yoei iiaui i?ioieieai. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey yoiai ia?aoiaea DARPA ia?aoeeanue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi oe?iu Berkley Software Design – aiaae?eoue i?ioieieu
TCP/IP a Berkeley(BSD) UNIX. N yoiai e ia/aeny nithc UNIX e TCP/IP.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy TCP/IP aue aaeaioe?iaai a iau/iue, oi anoue a
iauaaeinooiiue noaiaea?o, e oa?iei Internet aioae ai anaiauaa
oiio?aaeaiea. A 1983 aiaeo ec ARPANET auaeaeeeanue MILNET, eioi?ay
noaea ioiineoueny e Defence Data Network (DDN) ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.
Oa?iei Internet noae eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaeeiie naoe:
MILNET iethn ARPANET. E oioy a 1991 aiaeo ARPANET i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, naoue Internet nouanoaoao, aa ?acia?u iaiiiai i?aauoatho
ia?aiia/aeueiua, oae eae iia iauaaeeieea iiiaeanoai naoae ai anai ie?a.
Aeeaa?aiia 1.1 eeethno?e?oao ?ino /enea oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe
Internet n 4 eiiiuethoa?ia a 1969 aiaeo aei 8,3 ieeeeiiia a 1994. Oinoii
a naoe Internet iacuaathony eiiiuethoa?u, ?aaioathuea a iiiaicaaea/iie
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia (Unix, VMS), iiaeaea?aeeaathuea i?ioieieu TCP\IP
e i?aaeinoaaeythuea iieueciaaoaeyi eaeea-eeai naoaaua oneoae.

Aeeaa?aiia 1.1

Aeeaa?aiia 1.1 Eiee/anoai oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e Internet .

I?ioieieu naoe Internet

Iniiaiia, /oi ioee/aao Internet io ae?oaeo naoae – yoi aa i?ioieieu –
TCP/IP. Aiiaua, oa?iei TCP/IP iau/ii icia/aao ana, /oi naycaii n
i?ioieieaie acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie a Internet. Ii
ioaaouaaao oeaeia naiaenoai i?ioieieia, i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu, e aeaaea
naio naoue. TCP/IP – yoi oaoiieiaey iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey,
oaoiieiaey internet. Naoue, eioi?ay eniieuecoao oaoiieiaeth internet,
iacuaaaony “internet”. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i aeiaaeueiie naoe,
iauaaeeiythuae iiiaeanoai naoae n oaoiieiaeae internet, oi aa iacuaatho
Internet.

Naia iacaaiea i?ioieie TCP/IP iieo/ee io aeaoo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
i?ioieieia (eee i?ioieieia nayce). Yoi Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) e Internet Protocol (IP). Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a naoe Internet
eniieuecoaony aieueoia /enei ae?oaeo i?ioieieia, naoue Internet /anoi
iacuaatho TCP/IP-naoueth, oae eae yoe aeaa i?ioieiea, aaconeiaii,
yaeythony aaaeiaeoeie.

Eae e ai anyeie ae?oaie naoe a Internet nouanoaoao 7 o?iaiae
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie: oece/aneee, eiae/aneee,
naoaaie, o?ainii?oiue, o?iaaiue naainia nayce, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneee e
i?eeeaaeiie o?iaaiue. Niioaaonoaaiii eaaeaeiio o?iaith acaeiiaeaenoaey
niioaaonoaoao iaai? i?ioieieia (o.a. i?aaee acaeiiaeaenoaey).

I?ioieieu oece/aneiai o?iaiy ii?aaeaeytho aeae e oa?aeoa?enoeee eeiee
nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie. A Internet eniieuecothony i?aeoe/anee ana
ecaanoiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy niiniau nayce io i?inoiai i?iaiaea (aeoay
ia?a) aei aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo eeiee nayce (AIEN).

Aeey eaaeaeiai oeia eeiee nayce ?ac?aaioai niioaaonoaothuee i?ioieie
eiae/aneiai o?iaiy, caieiathueeny oi?aaeaieai ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee ii
eaiaeo. E i?ioieieai eiae/aneiai o?iaiy aeey oaeaoiiiuo eeiee ioiinyony
i?ioieieu SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol) e PPP (Point to Point
Protocol). Aeey nayce ii eaaaeth eieaeueiie naoe – yoi iaeaoiua
ae?aeaa?u ieao EAN.

I?ioieieu naoaaiai o?iaiy ioaa/atho ca ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo iaaeaeo
ono?ienoaaie a ?aciuo naoyo, oi anoue caieiathony ia?o?ooecaoeeae
iaeaoia a naoe. E i?ioieieai naoaaiai o?iaiy i?eiaaeeaaeao IP (Internet
Protocol) e ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).

I?ioieieu o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy oi?aaeytho ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo ec iaeiie
i?ia?aiiu a ae?oaoth. E i?ioieieai o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy i?eiaaeeaaeao
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) e UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

I?ioieieu o?iaiy naainia nayce ioaa/atho ca onoaiiaeo, iiaeaea?aeaiea e
oie/oiaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo eaiaeia. A Internet yoei caieiathony oaea
oiiiyiooua TCP e UDP i?ioieieu, a oaeaea i?ioieie UUCP (Unix to Unix
Copy Protocol).

I?ioieieu i?aaenoaaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy caieiathony ianeoaeeaaieai
i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii. E i?ia?aiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy
i?eiaaeeaaeao i?ia?aiiu, caioneaaiua, e i?eia?o, ia Unix-na?aa?a, aeey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?acee/iuo oneoa aaiiaioai. E oaeei i?ia?aiiai ioiinyony:
telnet-na?aa?, FTP-na?aa?, Gopher-na?aa?, NFS-na?aa?, NNTP (Net News
Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), POP2 e POP3
(Post Office Protocol) e o.ae.

E i?ioieieai i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy ioiinyony naoaaua oneoae e i?ia?aiiu eo
i?aaeinoaaeaiey.

1.2 Oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth

Ana oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth Internet iiaeii oneiaii iiaeaeeoue
ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie naoe e
eniieueciaaiea aac aeaiiuo naoe.

E /eneo oneoa nayce iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie i?eiaaeeaaeao.

Telnet – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ?aaioaoue ia
ethaie YAI naoe Internet eae ia naiae nianoaaiiie. Oi anoue caioneaoue
i?ia?aiiu, iaiyoue ?aaeei ?aaiou e o.ae.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo iaiaieaaoueny aeaie/iuie e oaenoiauie oaeeaie n
ethaui eiiiuethoa?ii naoe. Onoaiiaea naycue n oaeaeaiiui eiiiuethoa?ii,
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao neiie?iaaoue oaee n oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
naie eee neiie?iaaoue oaee ni naiaai eiiiuethoa?a ia oaeaeaiiue.

NFS (Network File System) – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay oaeeiaay nenoaia. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo iieueciaaoueny oaeeiaie nenoaiie oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a, eae naiae nianoaaiiie.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie n ethaui aaiiaioii naoe
Internet. Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ioi?aaee eae oaenoiauo, oae e
aeaie/iuo oaeeia. Ia ?acia? ii/oiaiai niiauaiey a naoe Internet
iaeeaaeuaaaony neaaeothuaa ia?aie/aiea – ?acia? ii/oiaiai niiauaiey ia
aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 64 eeeiaaeo.

Iiainoe – iieo/aiea naoaauo iiainoae e yeaeo?iiiuo aeinie iauyaeaiee
naoe e aiciiaeiinoue iiiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe.
Yeaeo?iiiua aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe Internet oi?ie?othony ii oaiaoeea.
Iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao ii naiaio auai?o iiaeienaoueny ia ethaua a?oiiu
iiainoae.

Rsh (Remote Shell) – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aiaeia Telnet, ii ?aaioaao
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a noieo IN UNIX.

Rexec (Remote Execution) – auiieiaiea iaeiie eiiaiaeu ia oaeaeaiiie
UNIX-iaoeia.

Lpr – naoaaay ia/aoue. Ioi?aaea oaeea ia ia/aoue ia oaeaeaiiii (naoaaii)
i?eioa?a.

Lpq – naoaaay ia/aoue. Iieacuaaao oaeeu noiyuea a i/a?aaee ia ia/aoue ia
naoaaii i?eioa?a.

Ping – i?iaa?ea aeinooiiinoe oaeaeaiiie YAI ii naoe.

Talk – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uoey “?acaiai?a” n iieueciaaoaeai
oaeaeaiiie YAI. I?e yoii ia ye?aia iaeiia?aiaiii aeaeai aaiaeeiue oaeno
e ioaao oaeaeaiiiai iieueciaaoaey.

Iptunnel – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e na?aa?o EAN NetWare n eioi?ui
iao iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce ii EAN, a eiaaony eeoue naycue ii naoe
Internet.

Whois – aae?aniay eieaa naoe Internet. Ii cai?ino aaiiaio iiaeao
iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a, i
iieueciaaoaeyo.

Finger – iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i iieueciaaoaeyo oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a.

E?iia auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oneoa, naoue Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeaea
neaaeothuea niaoeeoe/aneea oneoae.

Webster – naoaaay aa?ney oieeiaiai neiaa?y aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Oaen-na?aen – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoaeth ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey
ii oaeneieeueiie nayce, iieuecoynue oaen-na?aa?ii naoe.

Yeaeo?iiiue ia?aaiae/ee – i?iecaiaeeo ia?aaiae i?eneaiiiai ia iaai
oaenoa n iaeiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie. Ia?auaiea e yeaeo?iiiui ia?aaiae/eeai
i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.

Oethcu – aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey a naoe, ia
?aaioathuea n i?ioieieaie TCP\IP (FidoNet, Goldnet, AT50).

E nenoaiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai iienea eioi?iaoeee a naoe Internet
i?eiaaeeaaeao neaaeothuea nenoaiu.

Gopher – iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiia n?aaenoai iienea eioi?iaoeee a
naoe Internet, iicaieythuaa iaoiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth ii eeth/aaui neiaai
e o?acai. ?aaioa n nenoaiie Gopher iaiiieiaao i?iniio? iaeaaeaiey, i?e
yoii iieueciaaoaeth i?aaeeaaaaony i?ieoe neaicue ?yae aeiaeaiiuo iaith
e aua?aoue ioaeioth oaio. A Internet a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nauoa 2000
Gopher-nenoai, /anoue ec eioi?uo yaeyaony oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiie, a
/anoue niaea?aeeo aieaa ?aciinoi?iiithth eioi?iaoeeth.

Gopher iicaieyao iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth aac oeacaiey eiai e aae?ania
aaoi?ia, aeaaiaea?y /aio iieueciaaoaeue ia o?aoeo iiiai a?aiaie e
ia?aia. Ii i?inoi niiaueo nenoaia Gopher, /oi eiaiii aio ioaeii, e
nenoaia iaoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua. Gopher-na?aa?ia nauoa aeaoo
ouny/, iiyoiio n eo iiiiuueth ia anaaaea i?inoi iaeoe o?aaoaioth
eioi?iaoeeth. A neo/aa aicieeoeo cao?oaeiaiee iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny
neoaeaie VERONICA. VERONICA inouanoaeyao iiene aieaa /ai a 500 nenoaiao
Gopher, inaiaiaeaeay iieueciaaoaey io iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iniao?eaaoue eo
a?o/ioth.

WAIS – aua aieaa iiuiia n?aaenoai iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, /ai Gopher,
iineieueeo iii inouanoaeyao iiene eeth/aauo neia ai anao oaenoao
aeieoiaioia. Cai?inu iinueathony a WAIS ia oi?iuaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea.
Yoi cia/eoaeueii eaa/a, /ai oi?ioee?iaaoue eo ia ycuea aeaaa?u eiaeee, e
yoi aeaeaao WAIS aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey
iieueciaaoaeae-iai?ioanneiiaeia.

I?e ?aaioa n WAIS iieueciaaoaeyi ia ioaeii o?aoeoue iiiai a?aiaie, /oiau
iaeoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei iaoa?eaeu.

A naoe Internet nouanoaoao aieaa 200 WAIS – aeaeeioae. Ii iineieueeo
eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii nio?oaeieeaie aeaaeaie/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee ia aeia?iaieueiuo ia/aeao, aieueoay /anoue iaoa?eaeia
ioiineony e iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee e eiiiuethoa?iuo iaoe.

WWW – nenoaia aeey ?aaiou n aeia?oaenoii. Iioaioeeaeueii iia yaeyaony
iaeaieaa iiuiui n?aaenoaii iienea. Aeia?oaeno niaaeeiyao ?acee/iua
aeieoiaiou ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai iaai?a neia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea a
oaenoa ano?a/aaony iiaia neiai eee iiiyoea, nenoaia, ?aaioathuay n
aeia?oaenoii, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e ae?oaiio aeieoiaioo, a
eioi?ii yoi neiai eee iiiyoea ?anniao?eaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii.

WWW /anoi eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa eioa?oaena e aacai aeaiiuo WAIS, ii
ionoonoaea aeia?oaenoiauo naycae ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe WWW aei
i?inoiai i?iniio?a.

Iieueciaaoaeue ni naiae noi?iiu iiaeao caaeaenoaiaaoue aiciiaeiinoue WWW
?aaioaoue n aeia?oaenoii aeey nayce iaaeaeo naieie aeaiiuie e aeaiiuie
WAIS e WWW oaeei ia?acii , /oiau nianoaaiiua caiene iieueciaaoaey eae au
eioaa?e?iaaeenue a eioi?iaoeeth aeey iauaai aeinooia. Ia naiii aeaea
yoiai, eiia/ii, ia i?ienoiaeeo, ii aini?eieiaaony eiaiii oae.

WWW – yoi ioiineoaeueii iiaay nenoaia. Onoaiiaeaiu ianeieueei
aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo na?aa?ia, a oii /enea Vatican Exibit a aeaeeioaea
Eiia?anna NOA e ioeueooeeuei i iiaiaea “Aeoee niooieea” a Ie/eaaineii
ainoaea?noaaiiii oieaa?neoaoa. A ea/anoaa aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo oaeaea
?aaioatho na?aa?u into.funet.fi (Oeieyiaeey); into.cern.ch. (Oaaeoea?ey)
e eies2.njit.edu (NOA).

I?aeoe/anee ana oneoae naoe iino?iaiu ia i?eioeeia eeeaio-na?aa?.
Na?aa?ii a naoe Internet iacuaaaony eiiiuethoa? niiniaiue
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eeeaioai (ii ia?a i?eoiaea io ieo cai?inia) iaeioi?ua
naoaaua oneoae. Acaeiiaeaenoaea eeeaio-na?aa? no?ieony iau/ii
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii i?eoiaeo cai?inia io eeeaioia na?aa? caioneaao
?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu i?aaeinoaaeaiey naoaauo oneoa. Ii ia?a auiieiaiey
caiouaiiuo i?ia?aii na?aa? ioaa/aao ia cai?inu eeeaioia.

Ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea naoe oaeaea iiaeii iiaeaeeoue ia eeeaioneia
e na?aa?iia. I?e yoii i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea na?aa?a caieiaaony
i?aaeinoaaeaieai naoaauo oneoa, a eeeaioneia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
iaania/eaaao ia?aaea/o cai?inia na?aa?o e iieo/aiea ioaaoia io iaai.

1.3 Aeia?oaenoiaay oaoiieiaey WWW, URL, HTML

World Wide Web ia?aaiaeeony ia ?onneee ycue eae “Anaie?iay Iaooeia”. E,
a nouiinoe, yoi aeaenoaeoaeueii oae. WWW yaeyaony iaeiei ec naiuo
niaa?oaiiuo eino?oiaioia aeey ?aaiou a aeiaaeueiie ie?iaie naoe
Internet. Yoa neoaeaa iiyaeeanue n?aaieoaeueii iaaeaaii e ana aua
i?iaeieaeaao ao?ii ?acaeaaoueny.

Iaeaieueoaa eiee/anoai ?ac?aaioie eiatho ioiioaiea e ?iaeeia WWW –
CERN, European Particle Physics Laboratory; ii auei au ioeaeie n/eoaoue,
/oi Web yaeyaony eino?oiaioii, ?ac?aaioaiiui oeceeaie e aeey oeceeia.
Ieiaeioai?iinoue e i?eaeaeaoaeueiinoue eaeae, iieiaeaiiuo a iniiao
i?iaeoa, i?aa?aoeee WWW a nenoaio ie?iaiai ianooaaa, i?aaeinoaaeythuoth
eioi?iaoeeth aaeaa ee ia ai anao iaeanoyo /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe e
ioaaouaathuoth i?eia?ii 30 iei. iieueciaaoaeae a 83 no?aiao ie?a.

Aeaaiia ioee/ea WWW io inoaeueiuo eino?oiaioia aeey ?aaiou n Internet
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi WWW iicaieyao ?aaioaoue i?aeoe/anee ni anaie
aeinooiiuie nae/an ia eiiiuethoa?a aeaeaie aeieoiaioia: yoi iiaoo auoue
oaenoiaua oaeeu, eeethno?aoeee, caoeiaua e aeaeai ?ieeee, e o.ae.

*oi oaeia WWW? Yoi iiiuoea i?aaieciaaoue anth eioi?iaoeeth a Internet,
iethn ethaoth eieaeueioth eioi?iaoeeth ii aaoaio auai?o, eae iaai?
aeia?oaenoiauo aeieoiaioia. Au ia?aiauaaoanue ii naoe, ia?aoiaey io
iaeiiai aeieoiaioa e ae?oaiio ii nnueeai. Ana yoe aeieoiaiou iaienaiu ia
niaoeeaeueii ?ac?aaioaiiii aeey yoiai ycuea, eioi?ue iacuaaaony
HyperText Markup Language (HTML). Ii /ai-oi iaiiieiaao ycue,
eniieuecothueeny aeey iaienaiey oaenoiauo aeieoiaioia, oieueei HTML
i?iua. I?e/ai, iiaeii eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei eioi?iaoeeth,
i?aaeinoaaeyaioth Internet, ii e nicaeaaaoue nianoaaiiua aeieoiaiou. A
iineaaeiai neo/aa nouanoaoao ?yae i?aeoe/aneeo ?aeiiaiaeaoeee e eo
iaienaieth.

Any iieueca aeia?oaenoa ninoieo a nicaeaiee aeia?oaenoiauo
aeieoiaioia,anee aan caeioa?aniaae eaeie eeai ioieo a oaeii aeieoiaioa,
oi aai aeinoaoi/ii oeiooue ooaea eo?ni?ii aeey iieo/aiey ioaeiie
eioi?iaoeee. Oaeaea a iaeiii aeieoiaioa aiciiaeii aeaeaoue nnueee ia
ae?oaea, iaienaiiua ae?oaeie aaoi?aie eee aeaaea ?aniieiaeaiiua ia
ae?oaii na?aa?a. A oi a?aiy eae aai yoi i?aaenoaaeyaony eae iaeii
oeaeia.

Aeia?iaaeea yoi iaaeiiiaeanoai aeia?oaenoa. A aeia?iaaeea i?iecaiaeyony
iia?aoeee ia oieueei iaae oaenoii ii e iaae caoeii, ecia?aaeaieyie,
aieiaoeeae.

Nouanoaotho WWW-na?aa?u aeey Unix, Macintosh, MS Windows e VMS,
aieueoeinoai ec ieo ?ani?ino?aiythony naiaiaeii. Onoaiiaea WWW-na?aa?,
au iiaeaoa ?aoeoue aeaa caaea/e:

1. I?aaeinoaaeoue eioi?iaoeeth aiaoiei iio?aaeoaeyi – naaaeaiey i aaoae
oe?ia, eaoaeiae i?iaeoeoia e oneoa, oaoie/aneoth eee iao/ioth
eioi?iaoeeth.

2. I?aaeinoaaeoue naiei nio?oaeieeai oaeiaiue aeinooi e
aioo?aiiei eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai i?aaiecaoeee. Yoi iiaoo auoue
iineaaeiea ?anii?yaeaiey ?oeiaiaenoaa, aioo?aiiee oaeaoiiiue
ni?aai/iee, ioaaou ia /anoi caaeaaaaiua aii?inu aeey iieueciaaoaeae
i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai , oaoie/aneay aeieoiaioaoeey e ana, /oi iiaeneaaeao
oaioacey aaeieieno?aoi?a e iieueciaaoaeae. Eioi?iaoeey, eioi?oth au
oioeoa i?aaeinoaaeoue iieueciaaoaeyi WWW, ioi?ieyaony a aeaea oaeeia
ia ycuea HTML. HTML – i?inoie ycue ?aciaoee, eioi?ue iicaieyao
iiia/aoue o?aaiaiou oaenoa e caaeaaaoue nnueee ia ae?oaea aeieoiaiou,
auaeaeyoue caaieiaee ianeieueeeo o?iaiae, ?acaeaaoue oaeno ia aacaoeu,
oeaio?e?iaaoue eo e o. i., i?aa?auay i?inoie oaeno a iooi?iaoe?iaaiiue
aeia?iaaeeeiue aeieoiaio. Aeinoaoi/ii eaaei nicaeaoue html-oaee
a?o/ioth, iaeiaei, eiathony niaoeeaeece?iaaiiua ?aaeaeoi?u e
i?aia?aciaaoaee oaeeia ec ae?oaeo oi?iaoia.

Aeey i?iniio?a aeieoiaioia eniieuecothony niaoeeaeueiua i?iniioi?ueee,
oaeea eae Mosaic, Netscape, Internet Explorer, lynx, www e ae?oaea.
Mosaic e Netscape oaeiaii eniieueciaaoue ia a?aoe/aneeo oa?ieiaeao. Aeey
?aaiou ia neiaieueiuo oa?ieiaeao iiaeii ii?aeiiaiaeiaaoue lynx.

A?oeoaeoo?a WWW-oaoiieiaee

Io iienaiey iniiaiuo eiiiiiaioia ia?aeaeai e a?oeoaeoo?a
acaeiiaeaenoaey i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey a nenoaia World Wide Web. WWW
iino?iaia ii oi?ioi ecaanoiie noaia “eeeaio-na?aa?”. Ia noaia 1.2
iieacaii, eae ?acaeaeaiu ooieoeee a yoie noaia. I?ia?aiia-eeeaio
auiieiyao ooieoeee eioa?oaena iieueciaaoaey e iaania/eaaao aeinooi
i?aeoe/anee ei anai eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai Internet. A yoii niunea
iia auoiaeeo ca iau/iua ?aiee ?aaiou eeeaioa oieueei n na?aa?ii
ii?aaeaeaiiiai i?ioieiea, eae yoi i?ienoiaeeo a telnet, iai?eia?.
Io/anoe, aeiaieueii oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiia iiaiea, /oi Mosaic eee
Netscape, eioi?ua yaeythony WWW-eeeaioaie, yoi i?inoi a?aoe/aneee
eioa?oaen a Internet, yaeyaony io/anoe aa?iui. Iaeiaei, eae oaea auei
ioia/aii, aaciaua eiiiiiaiou WWW-oaoiieiaee (HTML e URL) ea?atho i?e
aeinooia e ae?oaei ?ano?nai Mosaic ia iineaaeithth ?ieue, e iiyoiio
ioeueoei?ioieieueiua eeeaiou aeieaeiu auoue ioianaiu eiaiii e World Wide
Web, a ia e ae?oaei eioi?iaoeeiiiui oaoiieiaeyi Internet. Oaeoe/anee,
eeeaio—yoi eioa?i?aoaoi? HTML. E eae oeie/iue eioa?i?aoaoi?, eeeaio a
caaeneiinoe io eiiaiae (?aciaoee) auiieiyao ?acee/iua ooieoeee.

Noaia 1.2

Noaia 1.2 No?oeoo?a ”eeeaio – na?aa?” .

A e?oa yoeo ooieoeee aoiaeeo ia oieueei ?aciauaiea oaenoa ia ye?aia, ii
iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n na?aa?ii ii ia?a aiaeeca iieo/aiiiai HTML-oaenoa,
/oi iaeaieaa iaaeyaeii i?ienoiaeeo i?e ioia?aaeaiee ano?iaiiuo a oaeno
a?aoe/aneeo ia?acia. I?e aiaeeca URL-niaoeeoeeaoeee eee ii eiiaiaeai
na?aa?a eeeaio caioneaao aeiiieieoaeueiua aiaoiea i?ia?aiiu aeey ?aaiou
n aeieoiaioaie a oi?iaoao, ioee/iuo io HTML, iai?eia? GIF, JPEG, MPEG,
Postscript e o. i. Aiiaua aiai?y aeey caionea eeeaioii i?ia?aii
iacaaeneii io oeia aeieoiaioa auea ?ac?aaioaia i?ia?aiia Luncher, ii a
iineaaeiaa a?aiy ai?acaei aieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/ee iaoaieci
niaeaniaaiey caioneaaiuo i?ia?aii /a?ac MIME-oeiu. Ae?oaoth /anoue
i?ia?aiiiiai eiiieaena WWW ninoaaeyao na?aa? i?ioieiea HTTP, aacu
aeaiiuo aeieoiaioia a oi?iaoa HTML, oi?aaeyaiua na?aa?ii, e i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea, ?ac?aaioaiiia a noaiaea?oa niaoeeoeeaoeee CGI. Aei naiiai
iineaaeiaai a?aiaie (aei ia?aciaaiey Netscape) ?aaeueii eniieueciaaeinue
aeaa HTTP-na?aa?a: na?aa? CERN e na?aa? NCSA. Ii a ianoiyuaa a?aiy
/enei aaciauo na?aa?ia ?anoe?eeinue. Iiyaeeny i/aiue iaieioie na?aa?
aeey MS-Windows e Apachie-na?aa? aeey Unix-ieaooi?i. Nouanoaotho e
ae?oaea, ii aeaa iineaaeieo iiaeii auaeaeeoue ec niia?aaeaiee
aeinooiiinoe eniieueciaaiey. Na?aa? aeey Windows – yoi shareware, ii
aac ano?iaiiiai naiieeeaeaeaoi?a, eae a Netscape. O/eouaay
?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue ia?niiaeie a iaoae no?aia, oaeia i?ia?aiiiia
iaania/aiea aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iii?iaiaaoue, /oi oaeia WWW. Aoi?ie
na?aa? – yoi ioaao ia oa?ico eiiia?oeeaeecaoeee. Netscape oaea ia
?ani?ino?aiyao naie na?aa? Netsite naiaiaeii e i?ioae neoo, /oi
NCSA-na?aa? oaeaea aoaeao ?ani?ino?aiyoueny ia eiiia?/aneie iniiaa. A
?acoeueoaoa aue ?ac?aaioai Apachie, eioi?ue ii neiaai aai aaoi?ia
aoaeao freeware, e ?aaeecoao iiaua aeiiieiaiey e i?ioieieo HTTP,
naycaiiua n caueoie io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia, eioi?ua
i?aaeeiaeaiu a?oiiie ii ?ac?aaioea yoiai i?ioieiea e ?aaeecothony
i?aeoe/anee ai anao eiiia?/aneeo na?aa?ao.

Aaca aeaiiuo HTML-aeieoiaioia—yoi /anoue oaeeiaie nenoaiu, eioi?ay
niaea?aeeo oaenoiaua oaeeu a oi?iaoa HTML e naycaiiua n ieie a?aoeeo e
ae?oaea ?ano?nu. Iniaia aieiaiea oioaeinue au ia?aoeoue ia aeieoiaiou,
niaea?aeauea yeaiaiou ye?aiiuo oi?i. Yoe aeieoiaiou ?aaeueii
iaania/eaatho aeinooi e aiaoiaio i?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth.

I?eeeaaeiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, ?aaioathuaa n na?aa?ii, iiaeii
?acaeaeeoue ia i?ia?aiiu-oethcu e i?i/ea. Oethcu—yoi i?ia?aiiu,
iaania/eaathuea acaeiiaeaenoaea na?aa?a n na?aa?aie ae?oaeo i?ioieieia,
iai?eia? ftp, eee n ?ani?aaeaeaiiuie ia naoe na?aa?aie Oracle. I?i/ea
i?ia?aiiu—yoi i?ia?aiiu, i?eieiathuea aeaiiua io na?aa?a e auiieiythuea
eaeea-eeai aeaenoaey: iieo/aiea oaeouae aeaou, ?aaeecaoeeth a?aoe/aneeo
nnueie, aeinooi e eieaeueiui aacai aeaiiuo eee i?inoi ?an/aou.

Caaa?oay ianoaeaeaiea a?oeoaeoo?u World Wide Web oioaeinue au aua ?ac
iiae/a?eiooue, /oi aa eiiiiiaiou nouanoaotho i?aeoe/anee aeey anao oeiia
eiiiuethoa?iuo ieaooi?i e naiaiaeii aeinooiiu a naoe. Ethaie, eoi eiaao
aeinooi a Internet, iiaeao nicaeaoue naie WWW-na?aa?, eee, ii e?aeiae
ia?a, iiniio?aoue eioi?iaoeeth n ae?oaeo na?aa?ia.

Iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou oaoiieiaee World Wide Web

E 1989 aiaeo aeia?oaeno i?aaenoaaeye iiaoth, iiiaiiaauathuoth
oaoiieiaeth, eioi?ay eiaea ioiineoaeueii aieueoia /enei ?aaeecaoeee n
iaeiie noi?iiu, a n ae?oaie noi?iiu aeaeaeenue iiiuoee iino?ieoue
oi?iaeueiua iiaeaee aeia?oaenoiauo nenoai, eioi?ua iineee nei?aa
iienaoaeueiue oa?aeoa? e auee iaaayiu oniaoii ?aeyoeeiiiiai iiaeoiaea
iienaiey aeaiiuo. Eaeay O. Aa?ia?n-Ee caeeth/aeanue a oii, /oiau
i?eiaieoue aeia?oaenoiaoth iiaeaeue e eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai,
?ani?aaeaeaiiui a naoe, e naeaeaoue yoi iaeneiaeueii i?inoui niiniaii.
Ii caeiaeee o?e e?aaoaieueiuo eaiiy nenoaiu ec /aou?ao nouanoaothueo
iuia, ?ac?aaioaa:

ycue aeia?oaenoiaie ?aciaoee aeieoiaioia HTML (HyperText Markup
Lan-guage);

• oieaa?naeueiue niinia aae?anaoeee ?ano?nia a naoe URL (Universal
Resource Locator);

• i?ioieie iaiaia aeia?oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeeae HTTP (HyperText Transfer
Protocol).

Iicaea eiiaiaea NCSA aeiaaaeea e yoei o?ai eiiiiiaioai /aoaa?oue:

• oieaa?naeueiue eioa?oaen oethcia CGI (Common Gateway Interface).

Eaeay HTML—i?eia? /?acau/aeii oaea/iiai ?aoaiey i?iaeaiu iino?iaiey
aeia?oaenoiaie nenoaiu i?e iiiiue niaoeeaeueiiai n?aaenoaa oi?aaeaiey
ioia?aaeaieai. Ia ?ac?aaioeo ycuea aeia?oaenoiaie ?aciaoee nouanoaaiiia
aeeyiea ieacaee aeaa oaeoi?a: enneaaeiaaiey a iaeanoe eioa?oaenia
aeia?oaenoiauo nenoai e aeaeaiea iaania/eoue i?inoie e auno?ue niinia
nicaeaiey aeia?oaenoiaie aacu aeaiiuo, ?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia naoe.

A 1989 aiaeo aeoeaii ianoaeaeaeanue i?iaeaia eioa?oaena aeia?oaenoiauo
nenoai, o.a. niiniaia ioia?aaeaiey aeia?oaenoiaie eioi?iaoeee e
iaaeaaoeee a aeia?oaenoiaie naoe. Cia/aiea aeia?oaenoiaie oaoiieiaee
n?aaieaaee ni cia/aieai eieaiia/aoaiey. Ooaa?aeaeaeinue, /oi eeno
aoiaae e eiiiuethoa?iua n?aaenoaa ioia?aaeaiey/aini?iecaaaeaiey
na?ueacii ioee/athony ae?oa io ae?oaa, e iiyoiio oi?ia i?aaenoaaeaiey
eioi?iaoeee oiaea aeieaeia ioee/aoueny. Iaeaieaa yooaeoeaiie oi?iie
i?aaiecaoeee aeia?oaenoa auee i?eciaiu eiioaenoiua aeia?oaenoiaua
nnueee, a e?iia oiai auei i?eciaii aeaeaiea ia nnueee, annioeee?iaaiiua
ni anai aeieoiaioii a oeaeii e ioaeaeueiuie aai /anoyie.

Naiui i?inoui niiniaii nicaeaiey ethaiai aeieoiaioa yaeyaony aai
iaaeaea a oaenoiaii ?aaeaeoi?a. Iiuo nicaeaiey oi?ioi ?acia/aiiuo aeey
iineaaeothuaai ioia?aaeaiey aeieoiaioia a CERN_a aue – o?oaeii iaeoe
oeceea, eioi?ue ia iieueciaaeny au nenoaiie TeX eee LaTeX. E?iia oiai e
oiio a?aiaie nouanoaiaae noaiaea?o ycuea ?aciaoee—Standard Generalised
Markup Language (SGML).

Neaaeoao oaeaea i?eiyoue ai aieiaiea, /oi niaeanii naiei i?aaeeiaeaieyi
Aa?ia?n-Ee i?aaeiieaaae iauaaeeieoue a aaeeioth nenoaio eiathueany
eioi?iaoeeiiiua ?ano?nu CERN, e ia?auie aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuie nenoaiaie
aeieaeiu auee noaoue nenoaiu aeey NeXT e VAX/VMS.

Iau/ii aeia?oaenoiaua nenoaiu eiatho niaoeeaeueiua i?ia?aiiiua
n?aaenoaa iino?iaiey aeia?oaenoiauo naycae. Naie aeia?oaenoiaua nnueee
o?aiyony a niaoeeaeueiuo oi?iaoao eee aeaaea ninoaaeytho niaoeeaeueiua
oaeeu. Oaeie iiaeoiae oi?io aeey eieaeueiie nenoaiu, ii ia aeey
?ani?aaeaeaiiie ia iiiaeanoaa ?acee/iuo eiiiuethoa?iuo ieaooi?i. A HTML
aeia?oaenoiaua nnueee ano?iaiu a oaei aeieoiaioa e o?aiyony eae aai
/anoue. *anoi a nenoaiao i?eiaiytho niaoeeaeueiua oi?iaou o?aiaiey
aeaiiuo aeey iiauoaiey yooaeoeaiinoe aeinooia. A WWW aeieoiaiou—yoi
iau/iua ASCII- oaeeu, eioi?ua iiaeii iiaeaioiaeoue a ethaii oaenoiaii
?aaeaeoi?a. Oaeei ia?acii, i?iaeaia nicaeaiey aeia?oaenoiaie aacu
aeaiiuo auea ?aoaia /?acau/aeii i?inoi.

A ea/anoaa aacu aeey ?ac?aaioee ycuea aeia?oaenoiaie ?aciaoee aue
aua?ai SGML (Standard Generalised Markup Language). Neaaeoy
aeaaeaie/aneei o?aaeeoeeyi, Aa?ia?n-Ee iienae HTML a oa?ieiao SGML (eae
iienuaatho ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey a oa?ieiao oi?iu Aaeona-Iao?a).
Anoanoaaiii, /oi a HTML auee ?aaeeciaaiu ana ?aciaoee, naycaiiua n
auaeaeaieai ia?aa?aoia, o?eooia, noeeae e o. i., o.e. ?aaeecaoeey aeey
NeXT iiae?acoiaaaea a?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen. Aaaeiui eiiiiiaioii ycuea
noaei iienaiea ano?iaiiuo e annioeee?iaaiiuo aeia?oaenoiauo nnueie,
ano?iaiiie a?aoeee e iaania/aiea aiciiaeiinoe iienea ii eeth/aaui
neiaai.

N iiiaioa ?ac?aaioee ia?aie aa?nee ycuea (HTML 1.0) i?ioei oaea iyoue
eao. Ca yoi a?aiy i?iecioei aeiaieueii na?ueaciia ?acaeoea ycuea. Ii/oe
aaeaia oaaee/eeinue /enei yeaiaioia ?aciaoee, ioi?ieaiea aeieoiaioia
ana aieueoa i?eaeeaeaaony e ioi?ieaieth ea/anoaaiiuo ia/aoiuo ecaeaiee,
?acaeaathony n?aaenoaa iienaiey ia oaenoiauo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia e
niiniau acaeiiaeaenoaey n i?eeeaaeiui i?ia?aiiiui iaania/aieai.
Niaa?oainoaoaony iaoaieci ?ac?aaioee oeiiauo noeeae. Oaeoe/anee, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy HTML ?acaeaaaony a noi?iio nicaeaiey noaiaea?oiiai
ycuea ?ac?aaioee eioa?oaenia eae eieaeueiuo, oae e ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo
nenoai.

Aoi?ui e?aaoaieueiui eaiiai WWW noaea oieaa?naeueiay oi?ia aae?anaoeee
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo ?ano?nia. Universal Resource Identification (URI)
i?aaenoaaeyao niaie aeiaieueii no?ieioth nenoaio, o/eouaathuoth iiuo
aae?anaoeee e eaeaioeoeeaoeee e-mail, Gopher, WAIS, telnet, ftp e o. i.
Ii ?aaeueii ec anaai, /oi iienaii a URI, aeey i?aaiecaoeee aac aeaiiuo
a WWW o?aaoaony oieueei Universal Resource Locator (URL). Aac iaee/ey
yoie niaoeeoeeaoeee any iiuue HTML ieacaeanue au aaniieaciie. URL
eniieuecoaony a aeia?oaenoiauo nnueeao e iaania/eaaao aeinooi e
?ani?aaeaeaiiui ?ano?nai naoe. A URL iiaeii aae?aniaaoue eae ae?oaea
aeia?oaenoiaua aeieoiaiou oi?iaoa HTML, oae e ?ano?nu e-mail, telnet,
ftp, Gopher, WAIS, iai?eia?. ?acee/iua eioa?oaeniua i?ia?aiiu ii
?aciiio inouanoaeytho aeinooi e yoei ?ano?nai. Iaeie, eae iai?eia?
Netscape, naie niiniaiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue acaeiiaeaenoaea ii i?ioieieai,
ioee/iui io i?ioieiea HTTP, aaciaiai aeey WWW, ae?oaea, eae iai?eia?
Chimera, aucuaatho aeey yoie oeaee aiaoiea i?ia?aiiu. Iaeiaei, aeaaea a
ia?aii neo/aa, aaciaie oi?iie i?aaenoaaeaiey ioia?aaeaaiie eioi?iaoeee
yaeyaony HTML, a nnueee ia ae?oaea ?ano?nu eiatho oi?io URL. Neaaeoao
ioiaoeoue, /oi i?ia?aiiu ia?aaioee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou a oi?iaoa MIME
oaeaea eiatho aiciiaeiinoue ioia?aaeaoue aeieoiaiou, i?aaenoaaeaiiua a
oi?iaoa HTML. Aeey yoie oeaee a MIME ca?aca?ae?iaai oei “text/html”.

O?aoueei a iaoai nienea noieo i?ioieie iaiaia aeaiiuie a World Wide Web
-HyperText Transfer Protocol. Aeaiiue i?ioieie i?aaeiacia/ai aeey
iaiaia

aeia?oaenoiauie aeieoiaioaie e o/eouaaao niaoeeoeeo oaeiai iaiaia. Oae a

i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey, eeeaio iiaeao iieo/eoue iiaue aae?an ?ano?na
ia naoe

(relocation), cai?ineoue ano?iaiioth a?aoeeo, i?eiyoue e ia?aaeaoue
ia?aiao?u e

o. i. Oi?aaeaiea a HTTP ?aaeeciaaii a aeaea ASCII-eiiaiae. ?aaeueii

?ac?aaio/ee aeia?oaenoiaie aacu aeaiiuo noaeeeaaaony n yeaiaioaie
i?ioieiea

oieueei i?e eniieueciaaiee aiaoieo ?an/aoiuo i?ia?aii eee i?e aeinooia e

aiaoiei ioiineoaeueii WWW eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai, iai?eia? aacai
aeaiiuo.

Iineaaeiyy ninoaaeythuay oaoiieiaee WWW – yoi oaea ieiae ?aaiou a?oiiu
NCSA — niaoeeoeeaoeey Common Gateway Interface. CGI auea niaoeeaeueii
?ac?aaioaia aeey ?anoe?aiey aiciiaeiinoae WWW ca n/ao iiaeeeth/aiey
anaaiciiaeiiai aiaoiaai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Oaeie iiaeoiae
eiae/ii i?iaeieaeae i?eioeei ioaee/iinoe e i?inoiou ?ac?aaioee e
ia?aueaaiey aiciiaeiinoae WWW. Anee eiiaiaea CERN i?aaeeiaeeea i?inoie
e auno?ue niinia ?ac?aaioee aac aeaiiuo, oi NCSA ?acaeea yoio i?eioeei
ia ?ac?aaioeo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa. Iaaei caiaoeoue, /oi a
iauaaeinooiiie aeaeeioaea CERN auee iiaeoee, iicaieythuea i?ia?aiienoai
iiaeeeth/aoue naie i?ia?aiiu e na?aa?o HTTP, ii yoi o?aaiaaei
eniieueciaaiey yoie aeaeeioaee. I?aaeeiaeaiiue e iienaiiue a CGI niinia
iiaeeeth/aiey ia o?aaiaae aeiiieieoaeueiuo aeaeeioae e aoeaaeueii
ioaeiieye naiae i?inoioie. Na?aa? acaeiiaeaenoaiaae n i?ia?aiiaie /a?ac
noaiaea?oiua iioiee aaiaea/auaiaea, /oi oi?iuaao i?ia?aiie?iaaiea aei
i?aaeaea. I?e ?aaeecaoeee CGI /?acau/aeii aaaeiia ianoi caiyee iaoiaeu
aeinooia, iienaiiua a HTTP. E oioy ?aaeueii eniieuecothony oieueei aeaa
ec ieo (GET e POST), iiuo ?acaeoey HTML iieacuaaao, /oi niiauanoai WWW
aeaeao ?acaeoey e CGI ii ia?a oneiaeiaiey caaea/, a eioi?uo aoaeao
eniieueciaaoueny WWW-oaoiieiaey.

AEAAA 2

Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a aeiaaeueiie naoe Internet

2.1 I?iaeaiu caueou eioi?iaoeee

Internet e eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue ianiaianoiu ii naiie i?e?iaea
Internet. Iia ?iaeeeanue eae /enoi ei?ii?aoeaiay naoue, iaeiaei, a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy n iiiiuueth aaeeiiai noaea i?ioieieia TCP/IP e aaeeiiai
aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa iauaaeeiyao ia oieueei ei?ii?aoeaiua e
aaaeiinoaaiiua naoe (ia?aciaaoaeueiua, ainoaea?noaaiiua, eiiia?/aneea,
aiaiiua e o.ae.), yaeythueany, ii ii?aaeaeaieth, naoyie n ia?aie/aiiui
aeinooiii, ii e ?yaeiauo iieueciaaoaeae, eioi?ua eiatho aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/eoue i?yiie aeinooi a Internet ni naieo aeiiaoieo eiiiuethoa?ia n
iiiiuueth iiaeaiia e oaeaoiiiie naoe iauaai iieueciaaiey.

Eae ecaanoii, /ai i?iua aeinooi a Naoue, oai ooaea aa eioi?iaoeeiiiay
aaciianiinoue, iiyoiio n iieiui iniiaaieai iiaeii neacaoue, /oi
ecia/aeueiay i?inoioa aeinooia a Internet – ooaea ai?ianoaa, oae eae
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao aeaaea e ia ociaoue, /oi o iaai auee neiie?iaaiu –
oaeeu e i?ia?aiiu, ia aiai?y oaea i aiciiaeiinoe eo ii?/e e
ei??aeoe?iaee.

*oi aea ii?aaeaeyao ao?iue ?ino Internet, oa?aeoa?ecothueeny
aaeaaiaeiui oaeaiaieai /enea iieueciaaoaeae? Ioaao i?ino -“oaeyaa”, oi
anoue aeaoaaecia i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey (TCP/IP), eioi?ia a ianoiyuaa
a?aiy aeeth/aii a Windows 95, eaaeinoue e aeaoaaecia aeinooia a Internet
(eeai n iiiiuueth IP-aae?ana, eeai n iiiiuueth i?iaaeaea?a) e ei anai
ie?iaui eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai.

Ieaoie ca iieueciaaiea Internet yaeyaony anaiauaa nieaeaiea
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe, iiyoiio aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia e naiei eiiiuethoa?ai ana ei?ii?aoeaiua e
aaaeiinoaaiiua naoe, a oaeaea i?aaei?eyoey, eniieuecothuea oaoiieiaeth
intranet, noaayo oeeueo?u (fire-wall) iaaeaeo aioo?aiiae naoueth e
Internet, /oi oaeoe/anee icia/aao auoiae ec aaeeiiai aae?aniiai
i?ino?ainoaa. Aua aieueooth aaciianiinoue aeano iooiae io i?ioieiea
TCP/IP e aeinooi a Internet /a?ac oethcu.

Yoio ia?aoiae iiaeii inouanoaeyoue iaeiia?aiaiii n i?ioeannii
iino?iaiey anaie?iie eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe iauaai iieueciaaiey, ia aaca
eniieueciaaiey naoaauo eiiiuethoa?ia, eioi?ua n iiiiuueth naoaaie ea?ou
10Base-T e eaaaeueiiai iiaeaia iaania/eaatho aunieinei?inoiie aeinooi
(10 Iaeo/n) e eieaeueiiio Web-na?aa?o /a?ac naoue eaaaeueiiai
oaeaaeaeaiey.

Aeey ?aoaiey yoeo e ae?oaeo aii?inia i?e ia?aoiaea e iiaie a?oeoaeoo?a

Internet ioaeii i?aaeoniio?aoue neaaeothuaa:

Ai-ia?auo, eeeaeaee?iaaoue oece/aneoth naycue iaaeaeo aoaeouae Internet
(eioi?ay i?aa?aoeony ai Anaie?ioth eioi?iaoeeiiioth naoue iauaai
iieueciaaiey) e ei?ii?aoeaiuie e aaaeiinoaaiiuie naoyie, nio?aiea
iaaeaeo ieie eeoue eioi?iaoeeiiioth naycue /a?ac nenoaio World Wide Web.

Ai-aoi?uo, caiaieoue ia?o?ooecaoi?u ia eiiiooaoi?u, eneeth/ea ia?aaioeo
a oceao IP-i?ioieiea e caiaiea aai ia ?aaeei o?aineyoeee eaae?ia
Ethernet, i?e eioi?ii i?ioeann eiiiooaoeee naiaeeony e i?inoie iia?aoeee
n?aaiaiey MAC-aae?ania.

A-o?aoueeo, ia?aeoe a iiaia aaeeiia aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai ia aaca
oece/aneeo aae?ania aeinooia e n?aaea ia?aaea/e (MAC-o?iaaiue),
i?eaycaiiia e aaia?aoe/aneiio ?aniieiaeaieth naoe, e iicaieythuaa a
?aieao 48-aeo nicaeaoue aae?ana aeey aieaa /ai 64 o?eeeeiiia iacaaeneiuo
oceia.

Aaciianiinoue aeaiiuo yaeyaony iaeiie ec aeaaiuo i?iaeai a Internet.
Iiyaeythony ana iiaua e iiaua no?aoiua enoi?ee i oii, eae eiiiuethoa?iua
aceiiueee, eniieuecothuea ana aieaa eciu?aiiua i?eaiu, i?iieeatho a
/oaeea aacu aeaiiuo. ?acoiaaony, ana yoi ia niinianoaoao iiioey?iinoe
Internet a aeaeiauo e?oaao. Iaeia oieueei iuneue i oii, /oi
eaeea-ieaoaeue ooeeaaiu eee, /oi aua ooaea, eiieo?aiou, niiaoo iieo/eoue
aeinooi e a?oeaai eiiia?/aneeo aeaiiuo, canoaaeyao ?oeiaiaenoai
ei?ii?aoeee ioeacuaaoueny io eniieueciaaiey ioe?uouo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
nenoai. Niaoeeaeenou ooaa?aeaeatho, /oi iiaeiaiua iianaiey
aaciniiaaoaeueiu, oae eae o eiiiaiee, eiathueo aeinooi e e ioe?uoui, e
/anoiui naoyi, i?aeoe/anee ?aaiua oainu noaoue aea?oaaie eiiiuethoa?iiai
oa??i?a.

Eaaeaeay i?aaiecaoeey, eiathuay aeaei n eaeeie au oi ie auei
oeaiiinoyie, ?aii eee iicaeii noaeeeaaaony n iinyaaoaeuenoaii ia ieo.
I?aaeoniio?eoaeueiua ia/eiatho ieaie?iaaoue caueoo ca?aiaa,
iai?aaeoniio?eoaeueiua—iinea ia?aiai e?oiiiai “i?ieiea”. Oae eee eia/a,
anoaao aii?in i oii, /oi, eae e io eiai caueuaoue.

Iau/ii ia?aay ?aaeoeey ia oa?ico—no?aieaiea ni?yoaoue oeaiiinoe a
iaaeinooiiia ianoi e i?enoaaeoue e iei io?aio. Yoi ioiineoaeueii
ianeiaeii, anee ?a/ue eaeao i oaeeo oeaiiinoyo, eioi?ua aai aeieai ia
iiiaaeiayony: oa?aee e caauee. Eoaea neiaeiaa, anee aai iaiaoiaeeii
iinoiyiii ?aaioaoue n ieie. Eaaeaeia ia?auaiea a o?aieeeua ca aaoeie
oeaiiinoyie iio?aaoao auiieiaiey iniaie i?ioeaaeo?u, ioieiao a?aiy e
nicaeano aeiiieieoaeueiua iaoaeianoaa. Oaeiaa aeeeaiia aaciianiinoe:
i?eoiaeeony aeaeaoue auai? iaaeaeo caueuaiiinoueth aaoaai eiouanoaa e
aai aeinooiiinoueth aeey aan, a cia/eo, e aiciiaeiinoueth iieaciiai
eniieueciaaiey.

Ana yoi ni?aaaaeeeai e a ioiioaiee eioi?iaoeee. Iai?eia?, aaca aeaiiuo,
niaea?aeauay eiioeaeaioeeaeueiua naaaeaiey, eeoue oiaaea iieiinoueth
caueuaia io iinyaaoaeuenoa, eiaaea iia iaoiaeeony ia aeeneao, niyouo n
eiiiuethoa?a e oa?aiiuo a io?aiyaiia ianoi. Eae oieueei au onoaiiaeee
yoe aeenee a eiiiuethoa? e ia/aee eniieueciaaoue, iiyaeyaony n?aco
ianeieueei eaiaeia, ii eioi?ui ceioiuoeaiiee, a i?eioeeia, eiaao
aiciiaeiinoue iieo/eoue e aaoei oaeiai aeinooi aac aaoaai aaaeiia. Eiuie
neiaaie, aaoa eioi?iaoeey eeai iaaeinooiia aeey anao, aeeth/ay e aan,
eeai ia caueuaia ia noi i?ioeaioia.

Iiaeao iieacaoueny, /oi ec yoie neooaoeee iao auoiaea, ii
eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue n?iaeie aaciianiinoe ii?aieaaaiey: e oi, e
ae?oaia aiciiaeii eeoue n o/aoii iaeioi?ie aeiionoeiie noaiaie ?enea.

A iaeanoe eioi?iaoeee aeeeaiia aaciianiinoe oi?ioee?oaony neaaeothuei
ia?acii: neaaeoao auae?aoue iaaeaeo caueuaiiinoueth nenoaiu e aa
ioe?uoinoueth. I?aaeeueiaa, ai?i/ai, aiai?eoue ia i auai?a, a i aaeaina,
oae eae nenoaia, ia iaeaaeathuay naienoaii ioe?uoinoe, ia iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia.

A aaieianeie noa?a i?iaeaia aaciianiinoe eioi?iaoeee ineiaeiyaony
aeaoiy oaeoi?aie: ai-ia?auo, ii/oe ana oeaiiinoe, n eioi?uie eiaao aeaei
aaie (e?iia iaee/iuo aeaiaa e aua eia-/aai), nouanoaotho eeoue a aeaea
oie eee eiie eioi?iaoeee. Ai-aoi?uo, aaie ia iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac
naycae n aiaoiei ie?ii: aac eeeaioia, ei??aniiiaeaioia e o. i. I?e yoii
ii aiaoiei naycyi iaycaoaeueii ia?aaeaaony oa naiay eioi?iaoeey,
au?aaeathuay niaie oeaiiinoe, n eioi?uie ?aaioaao aaie (eeai naaaeaiey
ia yoeo oeaiiinoyo e eo aeaeaeaiee, eioi?ua eiiaaea noiyo aei?iaea naieo
oeaiiinoae). Ecaia i?eoiaeyo aeieoiaiou, ii eioi?ui aaie ia?aaiaeeo
aeaiueae n iaeiiai n/aoa ia ae?oaie. Aiaia aaie ia?aaeaao ?anii?yaeaiey
i aeaeaeaiee n?aaenoa ii ei??aniiiaeaioneei n/aoai, oae /oi ioe?uoinoue
aaiea caaeaia a priori.

Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi yoe niia?aaeaiey ni?aaaaeeeau ii ioiioaieth ia
oieueei e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiui nenoaiai, ii e e nenoaiai, iino?iaiiui ia
o?aaeeoeeiiiii aoiaaeiii aeieoiaioiiai?ioa e ia eniieuecothuei eiuo
naycae, e?iia eo?uea?neie ii/ou. Aaoiiaoecaoeey aeiaaaeea aieiaiie aiee
neoaeaai aaciianiinoe, a iiaua oaiaeaioeee ?acaeoey noa?u aaieianeeo
oneoa, oeaeeeii iniiaaiiua ia eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaeyo, onoaoaeytho
i?iaeaio.

2.1.1 Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue e eioi?iaoeeiiiua oaoiieiaee

Ia ?aiiai yoaia aaoiiaoecaoeee aiaae?aiea aaieianeeo nenoai (e aiiaua
n?aaenoa aaoiiaoecaoeee aaieianeie aeayoaeueiinoe) ia iiauoaei
ioe?uoinoue aaiea. Iauaiea n aiaoiei ie?ii, eae e i?aaeaea, oei /a?ac
iia?aoeeiienoia e eo?uea?ia, iiyoiio aeiiieieoaeueiay oa?ica
aaciianiinoe eioi?iaoeee i?ienoaeaea eeoue io aiciiaeiuo ceioiio?aaeaiee
ni noi?iiu ?aaioaaoeo a naiii aaiea niaoeeaeenoia ii eioi?iaoeeiiiui
oaoiieiaeyi.

Iieiaeaiea eciaieeinue iinea oiai, eae ia ?uiea oeiainiauo oneoa noaee
iiyaeyoueny i?iaeoeou, naii aicieeiiaaiea eioi?uo auei iaiuneeii aac
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee. A ia?aoth i/a?aaeue yoi—ieanoeeiaua
ea?oi/ee. Iiea ianeoaeeaaiea ii ea?oi/eai oei a ?aaeeia aieiniaie
aaoi?ecaoeee, ioe?uoinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu aaiea iiauoaeanue
iacia/eoaeueii, ii caoai iiyaeeenue aaieiiaou, POS-oa?ieiaeu, ae?oaea
ono?ienoaa naiiianeoaeeaaiey—oi anoue n?aaenoaa, i?eiaaeeaaeauea e
eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaia aaiea, ii ?aniieiaeaiiua aia aa e aeinooiiua
iinoi?iiiei aeey aaiea eeoeai.

Iiauneaoayny ioe?uoinoue nenoaiu iio?aaiaaea niaoeeaeueiuo ia? aeey
eiio?iey e ?aaoee?iaaiey iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae: aeiiieieoaeueiuo n?aaenoa
eaeaioeoeeaoeee e aooaioeoeeaoeee eeoe, eioi?ua cai?aoeaatho aeinooi e
nenoaia (PIN-eiae, eioi?iaoeey i eeeaioa ia iaaieoiie iieina eee a
iaiyoe iee?inoaiu ea?oi/ee, oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo, eiio?ieueiua /enea e
ae?oaea n?aaenoaa caueou ea?oi/ae), n?aaenoa e?eioicaueou eioi?iaoeee a
eaiaeao nayce e o. ae.

Aua aieueoee naeaea aaeaina “caueuaiiinoue-ioe?uoinoue” a noi?iio
iineaaeiae naycai n oaeaeiiioieeaoeeyie. Nenoaiu yeaeo?iiiuo ?an/aoia
iaaeaeo aaieaie caueoeoue ioiineoaeueii ianeiaeii, oae eae noauaeoaie
yeaeo?iiiiai iaiaia eioi?iaoeeae aunooiatho naie aaiee. Oai ia iaiaa,
oai, aaea caueoa ia oaeaeyeinue iaiaoiaeeiia aieiaiea, ?acoeueoaou auee
aiieia i?aaeneacoaiu. Iaeaieaa e?e/auee i?eia?—e niaeaeaieth, iaoa
no?aia. Eniieueciaaiea e?aeia i?eieoeaiuo n?aaenoa caueou
oaeaeiiioieeaoeee a 1992 a. i?eaaei e ia?iiiui iioa?yi ia oaeueoeauo
aaeci.

Iauay oaiaeaioeey ?acaeoey oaeaeiiioieeaoeee e ianniaiai
?ani?ino?aiaiey au/eneeoaeueiie oaoieee i?eaaea a eiioea eiioeia e oiio,
/oi ia ?uiea aaieianeeo oneoa ai anai ie?a iiyaeeenue iiaua, /enoi
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua i?iaeoeou, e a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue nenoaiu Home
Banking (ioa/anoaaiiue aiaeia—“eeeaio-aaie”). Yoi iio?aaiaaei
iaania/eoue eeeaioai e?oaeinooi/iue aeinooi e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie
aaieianeie nenoaia aeey i?iaaaeaiey iia?aoeee, i?e/ai iieiiii/ey ia
niaa?oaiea aaieianeeo o?aicaeoeee iieo/ee iaiin?aaenoaaiii eeeaio.
Noaiaiue ioe?uoinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu aaiea aic?inea ii/oe aei
i?aaeaea. Niioaaonoaaiii, o?aaothony iniaua, niaoeeaeueiua ia?u aeey
oiai, /oiau noieue aea cia/eoaeueii ia oiaea aa caueuaiiinoue.

Iaeiiaoe, a?yioea yiioa “eioi?iaoeeiiiie noia?iaaeno?aee”:
ac?uaiia?aciia ?acaeoea naoe Internet e naycaiiuo n iath oneoa. Aianoa n
iiauie aiciiaeiinoyie yoa naoue i?eianea e iiaua iianiinoe. Eacaeinue
au, eaeay ?acieoea, eaeei ia?acii eeeaio naycuaaaony n aaieii: ii
eiiiooe?oaiie eeiee, i?eoiaeyuae ia iiaeaiiue ioe aaieianeiai ocea
nayce, eee ii IP-i?ioieieo /a?ac Internet? Iaeiaei a ia?aii neo/aa
iaeneiaeueii aiciiaeiia eiee/anoai iiaeeeth/aiee ia?aie/eaaaony
oaoie/aneeie oa?aeoa?enoeeaie iiaeaiiiai ioea, ai aoi?ii
aea—aiciiaeiinoyie Internet, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue nouanoaaiii auoa.
E?iia oiai, naoaaie aae?an aaiea, a i?eioeeia, iauaaeinooiai, oiaaea eae
oaeaoiiiua iiia?a iiaeaiiiai ioea iiaoo niiauaoueny eeoue
caeioa?aniaaiiui eeoeai. Niioaaonoaaiii, ioe?uoinoue aaiea, /uey
eioi?iaoeeiiiay nenoaia naycaia n Internet, cia/eoaeueii auoa, /ai a
ia?aii neo/aa. Oae oieueei ca iyoue ianyoeaa 1995 a. eiiiuethoa?ioth
naoue Citicorp aceaiuaaee 40 ?ac! (Yoi naeaeaoaeuenoaoao, ai?i/ai, ia
noieueei i eaeie-oi “iianiinoe” Internet aiiaua, neieueei i
iaaeinoaoi/ii eaaeeoeoee?iaaiiie ?aaioa aaeieieno?aoi?ia aaciianiinoe
Citicorp.)

Ana yoi aucuaaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aniio?a iiaeoiaeia e iaania/aieth
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe aaiea. Iiaeeeth/aynue e Internet, neaaeoao
caiiai i?iaanoe aiaeec ?enea e ninoaaeoue ieai caueou eioi?iaoeeiiiie
nenoaiu, a oaeaea eiie?aoiue ieai eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee,
aicieeathueo a neo/aa oao eee eiuo ia?ooaiee eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe,
nio?aiiinoe e aeinooiiinoe eioi?iaoeee.

Ia ia?aue acaeyae, aeey iaoae no?aiu i?iaeaia eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aaciianiinoe aaiea ia noieue ino?a: aei Internet ee iai, anee a
aieueoeinoaa aaieia noiyo nenoaiu aoi?iai iieieaiey, ?aaioathuea a
oaoiieiaee “oaee-na?aa?”. E niaeaeaieth, e o ian oaea ca?aaeno?e?iaaiu
“eiiiuethoa?iua e?aaee”. Iieiaeaiea ineiaeiyaony aeaoiy i?iaeaiaie.
I?aaeaea anaai, eae iieacuaaao iiuo iauaiey n i?aaenoaaeoaeyie
aaieianeeo neoaea aaciianiinoe, e a ?oeiaiaenoaa, e n?aaee ia?niiaea
yoeo neoaea i?aiaeaaeatho auaoea iia?aoeaiua nio?oaeieee i?aaiia
aioo?aiieo aeae eee ainaaciianiinoe. Iie iaeaaeatho aunieie
eaaeeoeeaoeeae a naiae iaeanoe, ii a aieueoeinoaa naiai neaai ciaeiiu n
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oaoiieiaeyie. Niaoeeaeenoia ii eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aaciianiinoe a iaoae no?aia aiiaua e?aeia iaei, iioiio /oi ianniaie yoa
i?ioanney noaiiaeony oieueei nae/an.

Aoi?ay i?iaeaia naycaia n oai, /oi a i/aiue iiiaeo aaieao aaciianiinoue
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie aaieianeie nenoaiu ia aiaeece?oaony e ia
iaania/eaaaony ana?ueac. I/aiue iaei aaea eiaaony oio iaiaoiaeeiue iaai?
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo aeieoiaioia (aiaeec ?enea, ieai caueou e ieai
eeeaeaeaoeee iineaaenoaee), i eioi?ii aiai?eeinue auoa. Aieaa oiai,
aaciianiinoue eioi?iaoeee nieioue e ?yaeii i?inoi ia iiaeao auoue
iaania/aia a ?aieao eiathuaeny a aaiea aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie nenoaiu e
i?eiyouo i?aaee ?aaiou n iae.

Ia oae aeaaii iia aeiaaeinue /eoaoue eaeoeeth ia iniiaao
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe ia iaeiii ec naieia?ia aeey ?oeiaiaeeoaeae
oi?aaeaiee aaoiiaoecaoeee eiiia?/aneeo aaieia. Ia aii?in: “Ciaaoa ee au,
neieueei /aeiaae eiatho i?aai aoiaeeoue a iiiauaiea, aaea iaoiaeeony
na?aa? aacu aeaiiuo Aaoaai aaiea?”, ooaa?aeeoaeueii ioaaoeei ia aieaa
40% i?enoonoaothueo. Iioaieeueii iacaaoue oao, eoi eiaao oaeia i?aai,
niiaee eeoue 20%. A inoaeueiuo aaieao aeinooi a yoi iiiauaiea ia
ia?aie/ai e ieeae ia eiio?iee?oaony. *oi aiai?eoue i aeinooia e ?aai/ei
noaioeeyi!

*oi eanaaony aaoiiaoece?iaaiiuo aaieianeeo nenoai, oi iaeaieaa
?ani?ino?aiaiiua nenoaiu aoi?iai-o?aoueaai iieieaiee ninoiyo ec iaai?a
aaoiiiiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo iiaeoeae, caioneaaiuo ec eiiaiaeiie no?iee DOS ia
?aai/eo noaioeeyo. Iia?aoi? eiaao aiciiaeiinoue a ethaie iiiaio aueoe a
DOS ec oaeiai i?ia?aiiiiai iiaeoey. I?aaeiieaaaaony, /oi yoi iaiaoiaeeii
aeey ia?aoiaea a ae?oaie i?ia?aiiiue iiaeoeue, ii oaeoe/anee a oaeie
nenoaia ia nouanoaoao ieeaeeo niiniaia ia oieueei eneeth/eoue caione
iia?aoi?ii ethauo ae?oaeo i?ia?aii (io aaciaeaeiie ea?u aei i?ia?aiiu,
iiaeeoeoee?othuae aeaiiua aaieianeeo n/aoia), ii e i?ieiio?iee?iaaoue
aeaenoaey iia?aoi?a. Noieo caiaoeoue, /oi a ?yaea nenoai yoeo iieieaiee,
a oii /enea ?ac?aaioaiiuo aanueia oaaaeaaiuie ioa/anoaaiiuie oe?iaie e
i?iaeaaaaiuo nioiyie, oaeeu n/aoia ia oeo?othony, o. a. n aeaiiuie a
ieo iiaeii iciaeiieoueny i?inoaeoeie iauaaeinooiiuie n?aaenoaaie. Iiiaea
?ac?aaio/eee ia?aie/eaatho n?aaenoaa aaeieieno?e?iaaiey aaciianiinoe
ooaoiuie n?aaenoaaie naoaaie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu: aioae a naoue —
aeaeae, /oi oi/aoue.

Iieiaeaiea iaiyaony, ii neeoeii iaaeeaiii. Aeaaea ai iiiaeo iiauo
?ac?aaioeao aii?inai aaciianiinoe oaeaeyaony yaii iaaeinoaoi/iia
aieiaiea. Ia aunoaaea “Aaie e Ioen — 95” auea i?aaenoaaeaia
aaoiiaoece?iaaiiay aaieianeay nenoaia n a?oeoaeoo?ie eeeaio—na?aa?,
i?e/ai ?aai/ea noaioeee ooieoeeiie?otho iiae Windows. A yoie nenoaia
i/aiue naiaia?acii ?aoai aoiae iia?aoi?a a i?ia?aiio: a aeeaeiaiaii ieia
cai?aoeaaaony ia?ieue, a caoai i?aaeuyaeyaony ia auai? nienie oaieeee
anao iia?aoi?ia, eiathueo i?aai ?aaioaoue n aeaiiui iiaeoeai! Oaeeo
i?eia?ia iiaeii i?eaanoe aua iiiai.

Oai ia iaiaa, iaoe aaiee oaeaeytho eioi?iaoeeiiiui oaoiieiaeyi iiiai
aieiaiey, e aeinoaoi/ii auno?i onaaeaatho iiaia. Naoue Internet e
oeiainiaua i?iaeoeou, naycaiiua n iae, aieaeoo a aeeciue aaieia ?innee
auno?aa, /ai yoi i?aaeiieaaatho neaioeee, iiyoiio oaea nae/an
iaiaoiaeeii icaaioeoueny aii?inaie eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe ia
ae?oaii, aieaa i?ioanneiiaeueiii o?iaia, /ai yoi aeaeaeinue aei neo ii?.

Iaeioi?ua ?aeiiaiaeaoeee:

1. Iaiaoiaeei eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae e eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe.

Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue aeieaeia ?anniao?eaaoueny eae ninoaaiay
/anoue iauae aaciianiinoe aaiea—i?e/ai eae aaaeiay e iaiouaieaiay aa
/anoue. ?ac?aaioea eiioeaioeee eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe aeieaeia
iaycaoaeueii i?ioiaeeoue i?e o/anoee oi?aaeaiey aaciianiinoe aaiea. A
yoie eiioeaioeee neaaeoao i?aaeoniao?eaaoue ia oieueei ia?u, naycaiiua n
eioi?iaoeeiiiuie oaoiieiaeyie (e?eioicaueoo, i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa
aaeieieno?e?iaaiey i?aa iieueciaaoaeae, eo eaeaioeoeeaoeee e
aooaioeoeeaoeee, “a?aiaeiaoy?u” aeey caueou aoiaeia—auoiaeia naoe e o.
i.), ii e ia?u aaeieieno?aoeaiiai e oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a, aeeth/ay
aeanoeea i?ioeaaeo?u eiio?iey oece/aneiai aeinooia e aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie
aaieianeie nenoaia, a oaeaea n?aaenoaa neio?iiecaoeee e iaiaia aeaiiuie
iaaeaeo iiaeoeai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey aaciianiinoe aaieianeie nenoaiu e
nenoaiie io?aiu.

2. Iaiaoiaeeii o/anoea nio?oaeieeia oi?aaeaiey aaciianiinoe ia yoaia
auai?a—i?eia?aoaiey—?ac?aaioee aaoiiaoece?iaaiiie aaieianeie nenoaiu.
Yoi o/anoea ia aeieaeii naiaeeoueny e i?iaa?ea oe?iu-iinoaaueea.
Oi?aaeaiea aaciianiinoe aeieaeii eiio?iee?iaaoue iaee/ea iaaeeaaeaueo
n?aaenoa ?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee a i?eia?aoaaiie nenoaia.

E niaeaeaieth, iuia aeaenoaothuea nenoaiu na?oeoeeaoeee a iaeanoe
aaieianeeo nenoai nei?aa aaiaeyo a caaeoaeaeaiea, /ai iiiiaatho aua?aoue
n?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee. Na?oeoeoee?iaaoue eniieueciaaiea oaeeo
n?aaenoa eiaao i?aai OAINE, iaeiaei i?aaii naiei yoio i?aai iieuecoaony
aanueia naiaia?acii. Oae, iaeei aunieiiinoaaeaiiue nio?oaeiee OeA ?O
(iii?ineaoee ia iacuaaoue aai eiaie) ?anneacae, /oi OeA iio?aoee
aeiaieueii iiiai a?aiaie e aeaiaa ia iieo/aiea na?oeoeeaoa ia iaeii ec
n?aaenoa e?eioicaueou eioi?iaoeee (enoaoe, ?ac?aaioaiiia iaeiie ec
i?aaiecaoeee, aoiaeyueo a OAINE). Ii/oe n?aco aea iinea iieo/aiey
na?oeoeeaoa ii aue ioicaai: OeA auei i?aaeeiaeaii aiiaue i?ieoe
na?oeoeeaoeeth oaea n iiaui n?aaenoaii e?eioicaueou—?ac?aaioaiiui oie
aea i?aaiecaoeeae ec OAINE.

Aicieeaao aii?in, a /oi aea ia naiii aeaea iiaeoaa?aeaeaao na?oeoeeao?
Anee, eae i?aaeiieaaaao iaeaiue iieueciaaoaeue, ii iiaeoaa?aeaeaao
i?eaiaeiinoue n?aaenoaa e?eioicaueou auiieiaieth yoie ooieoeee, oi iocua
na?oeoeeaoa aiai?eo i oii, /oi i?e ia?aiia/aeueiii na?oeoeoee?iaaiee
OAINE /oi-oi oionoeei, a caoai iaia?oaeeei aeaoaeo. Neaaeiaaoaeueii,
aeaiiue i?iaeoeo ia iaania/eaaao e?eioicaueou e ia iaania/eaae aa n
naiiai ia/aea.

Anee aea, eae i?aaeiieaaatho iieueciaaoaee aieaa eneooaiiua, OAINE
ioicaaei na?oeoeeao ia ec-ca ia?aoia a ia?aii i?iaeoeoa, oi cia/aiea
na?oeoeeaoeee yoei aaaionoaii /aai au oi ie auei naiaeeony e ioeth.
Aeaenoaeoaeueii, ?ac “iaeea” eiiia?/aneea niia?aaeaiey i?aiaeaaeatho
iaae iauaeoeaiie ioeaieie i?iaeoeoa, oi eoi iiaeao aa?aioe?iaaoue, /oi a
ia?aue ?ac na?oeoeeao aue auaeai aeaaiaea?y aunieiio ea/anoao i?iaeoeoa,
a ia ii oai aea “iaeei” niia?aaeaieyi?

Ionthaea neaaeoao o?aouey i?aeoe/aneay ?aeiiaiaeaoeey: ioiineoueny
noaoai inoi?iaeii e ethaui na?oeoeeaoai e ioaeaaaoue i?aaeii/oaiea oai
i?iaeoeoai, iaaeaaeiinoue eioi?uo iiaeoaa?aeaeaia oniaoiui
eniieueciaaieai a ie?iaie oeiainiaie i?aeoeea. Aaciianiinoue a naoe
Internet

2.2 N?aaenoaa caueou eioi?iaoeee

Nae/an a?yae ee eiio-oi iaaei aeieacuaaoue, /oi i?e iiaeeeth/aiee e
Internet Au iiaeaa?aaaoa ?eneo aaciianiinoue Aaoae eieaeueiie naoe e
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue niaea?aeauaeny a iae eioi?iaoeee. Ii aeaiiui CERT
Coordination Center a 1995 aiaeo auei ca?aaeno?e?iaaii 2421 eioeeaeaioia
– aceiiia eieaeueiuo naoae e na?aa?ia. Ii ?acoeueoaoai ii?ina,
i?iaaaeaiiiai Computer Security Institute (CSI) n?aaee 500 iaeaieaa
e?oiiuo i?aaiecaoeee, eiiiaiee e oieaa?neoaoia n 1991 /enei iacaeiiiuo
aoi?aeaiee aic?inei ia 48.9 %, a iioa?e, aucaaiiua yoeie aoaeaie,
ioeaieaathony a 66 iei. aeieea?ia NOA.

Iaeiei ec iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiiuo iaoaieciia caueou io eioa?iaoianeeo
aaiaeeoia – “oaea?ia” yaeyaony i?eiaiaiea iaaenaoaauo ye?aiia –
a?yiaeiaoy?ia (firewalls).

Noieo ioiaoeoue, /oi a neaaenoaee iai?ioanneiiaeecia aaeieieno?aoi?ia e
iaaeinoaoeia iaeioi?uo oeiia a?yiaeiaoy?ia ii?yaeea 30% aceiiia
niaa?oaaony iinea onoaiiaee caueoiuo nenoai.

Ia neaaeoao aeoiaoue, /oi ana eceiaeaiiia auoa – “caii?neea aeeeiaeiu”.
Anai, eoi aua ia oaa?ai, /oi ?inney oaa?aiii aeiaiiyao ae?oaea no?aiu
ii /eneo aceiiia na?aa?ia e eieaeueiuo naoae e i?eianaiiiio eie oua?ao,
neaaeoao iiciaeiieoueny n oaiaoe/aneie iiaeai?eie iaoa?eaeia ?inneeneie
i?annu e iaoa?eaeaie Hack Zone (Zhurnal.Ru).

Ia niio?y ia eaaeoueeny i?aaiaie oain a ?aniao?eaaaiie iaeanoe, ethaay
aeayoaeueiinoue ii ?ac?aaioea, i?iaeaaea e eniieueciaaieth n?aaenoa
caueou eioi?iaoeee ?aaoee?oaony iiiaeanoaii caeiiiaeaoaeueiuo e
ii?iaoeaiuo aeieoiaioia, a ana eniieuecoaiua nenoaiu iiaeeaaeao
iaycaoaeueiie na?oeoeeaoeee Ainoaea?noaaiie Oaoie/aneie Eiieneae i?e
i?aceaeaioa ?innee.

2.2.1 Oaoiieiaey ?aaiou a aeiaaeueiuo naoyo Solstice FireWall-1

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aii?inai aaciianiinoe aeaiiuo a ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo
eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoaiao oaeaeyaony i/aiue aieueoia aieiaiea. ?ac?aaioaii
iiiaeanoai n?aaenoa aeey iaania/aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe,
i?aaeiacia/aiiuo aeey eniieueciaaiey ia ?acee/iuo eiiiuethoa?ao n
?aciuie IN. A ea/anoaa iaeiiai ec iai?aaeaiee iiaeii auaeaeeoue
iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu (firewalls), i?ecaaiiua eiio?iee?iaaoue aeinooi e
eioi?iaoeee ni noi?iiu iieueciaaoaeae aiaoieo naoae.

A ianoiyuai aeieoiaioa ?anniao?eaathony iniiaiua iiiyoey ye?aie?othueo
nenoai, a oaeaea o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua e iei. Ia i?eia?a iaeaoa
Solstice FireWall-1 ?anniao?eaaaony iaceieueei oeie/iuo neo/aaa
eniieueciaaiey oaeeo nenoai, iniaaiii i?eiaieoaeueii e aii?inai
iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe Internet-iiaeeeth/aiee. ?anniio?aii oaeaea
ianeieueei oieeaeueiuo iniaaiiinoae Solstice FireWall-1, iicaieythueo
aiai?eoue i aai eeaea?noaa a aeaiiii eeanna i?eeiaeaiee.

IACIA*AIEA YE?AIE?OTHUEO NENOAI E O?AAIAAIEss E IEI

I?iaeaia iaaenaoaaiai ye?aie?iaaiey oi?ioee?oaony neaaeothuei ia?acii.
Ionoue eiaaony aeaa eioi?iaoeeiiiua nenoaiu eee aeaa iiiaeanoaa
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai. Ye?ai (firewall) – yoi n?aaenoai ?aca?aie/aiey
aeinooia eeeaioia ec iaeiiai iiiaeanoaa nenoai e eioi?iaoeee, o?aiyuaeny
ia na?aa?ao a ae?oaii iiiaeanoaa.

?enoiie 2.2.1

?enoiie 2.2.1 Ye?ai FireWall.

Ye?ai auiieiyao naie ooieoeee, eiio?iee?oy ana eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee
iaaeaeo yoeie aeaoiy iiiaeanoaaie eioi?iaoeeiiiuo nenoai, ?aaioay eae
iaeioi?ay “eioi?iaoeeiiiay iaia?aia”. A yoii niunea ye?ai iiaeii
i?aaenoaaeyoue naaa eae iaai? oeeueo?ia, aiaeece?othueo i?ioiaeyuoth
/a?ac ieo eioi?iaoeeth e, ia iniiaa caeiaeaiiuo a ieo aeai?eoiia,
i?eieiathueo ?aoaiea: i?iionoeoue ee yoo eioi?iaoeeth eee ioeacaoue a aa
ia?anueea. E?iia oiai, oaeay nenoaia iiaeao auiieiyoue ?aaeno?aoeeth
niauoee, naycaiiuo n i?ioeannaie ?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia. a /anoiinoe,
oeene?iaaoue ana “iacaeiiiua” iiiuoee aeinooia e eioi?iaoeee e,
aeiiieieoaeueii, neaiaeece?iaaoue i neooaoeeyo, o?aaothueo iaiaaeeaiiie
?aaeoeee, oi anoue iiaeieiaoue o?aaiao.

Iau/ii ye?aie?othuea nenoaiu aeaeatho ianeiiao?e/iuie. Aeey ye?aiia
ii?aaeaeythony iiiyoey “aioo?e” e “nia?oaee”, e caaea/a ye?aia ninoieo a
caueoa aioo?aiiae naoe io “iioaioeeaeueii a?aaeaeaaiiai” ie?oaeaiey.
Aaaeiaeoei i?eia?ii iioaioeeaeueii a?aaeaeaaiie aiaoiae naoe yaeyaony
Internet.

?anniio?ei aieaa iiae?iaii, eaeea i?iaeaiu aicieeatho i?e iino?iaiee
ye?aie?othueo nenoai. I?e yoii iu aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue ia oieueei
i?iaeaio aaciianiiai iiaeeeth/aiey e Internet, ii e ?aca?aie/aiea
aeinooia aioo?e ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia?aia, i/aaeaeiia o?aaiaaiea e oaeei nenoaiai, yoi iaania/aiea
aaciianiinoe aioo?aiiae (caueuaaiie) naoe e iieiue eiio?ieue iaae
aiaoieie iiaeeeth/aieyie e naainaie nayce.

Ai-aoi?uo, ye?aie?othuay nenoaia aeieaeia iaeaaeaoue iiuiuie e aeaeeie
n?aaenoaaie oi?aaeaiey aeey i?inoiai e iieiiai aiieiuaiey a aeeciue
iieeoeee aaciianiinoe i?aaiecaoeee e, e?iia oiai, aeey iaania/aiey
i?inoie ?aeiioeao?aoeee nenoaiu i?e eciaiaiee no?oeoo?u naoe.

A-o?aoueeo, ye?aie?othuay nenoaia aeieaeia ?aaioaoue iacaiaoii aeey
iieueciaaoaeae eieaeueiie naoe e ia cao?oaeiyoue auiieiaiea eie
eaaaeueiuo aeaenoaee.

A-/aoaa?ouo, ye?aie?othuay nenoaia aeieaeia ?aaioaoue aeinoaoi/ii
yooaeoeaii e oniaaaoue ia?aaaouaaoue aanue aoiaeyuee e enoiaeyuee o?aoee
a “ieeiauo” ?aaeeiao. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii aeey oiai, /oiau firewall iaeuecy
auei, ia?acii aiai?y, “caa?inaoue” aieueoei eiee/anoaii auciaia, eioi?ua
i?eaaee au e ia?ooaieth aa ?aaiou.

Iyoia. Nenoaia iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe aeieaeia auoue naia iaaeaaeii
caueuaia io ethauo ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiuo aicaeaenoaee, iineieueeo iia
yaeyaony eeth/ii e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeee a i?aaiecaoeee.

Oanoia. A eaeaaea, anee o i?aaiecaoeee eiaaony ianeieueei aiaoieo
iiaeeeth/aiee, a oii /enea e a oaeaeaiiuo oeeeaeao, nenoaia oi?aaeaiey
ye?aiaie aeieaeia eiaoue aiciiaeiinoue oeaio?aeeciaaiii iaania/eaaoue
aeey ieo i?iaaaeaiea aaeeiie iieeoeee aaciianiinoe.

Naaeueiia. Nenoaia Firewall aeieaeia eiaoue n?aaenoaa aaoi?ecaoeee
aeinooia iieueciaaoaeae /a?ac aiaoiea iiaeeeth/aiey. Oeie/iie yaeyaony
neooaoeey, eiaaea /anoue ia?niiaea i?aaiecaoeee aeieaeia auacaeaoue,
iai?eia?, a eiiaiaee?iaee, e a i?ioeanna ?aaiou ei, oai iaiaiea,
o?aaoaony aeinooi, ii e?aeiae ia?a, e iaeioi?ui ?ano?nai aioo?aiiae
eiiiuethoa?iie naoe i?aaiecaoeee. Nenoaia aeieaeia oiaoue iaaeaaeii
?aniiciaaaoue oaeeo iieueciaaoaeae e i?aaeinoaaeyoue ei iaiaoiaeeiue
aeinooi e eioi?iaoeee.

NO?OEOO?A NENOAIU SOLSTICE FIREWALL-1

Eeanne/aneei i?eia?ii, ia eioi?ii oioaeinue au i?ieeethno?e?iaaoue ana
auoaeceiaeaiiua i?eioeeiu, yaeyaony i?ia?aiiiue eiiieaen Solstice
FireWall-1 eiiiaiee Sun Microsystems. Aeaiiue iaeao iaiaeiie?aoii
ioia/aeny iaa?aaeaie ia aunoaaeao e eiieo?nao. Ii iaeaaeaao iiiaeie
iieaciuie iniaaiiinoyie, auaeaeythueie aai n?aaee i?iaeoeoia
aiaeiae/iiai iacia/aiey.

?anniio?ei iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou Solstice FireWall-1 e ooieoeee, eioi?ua
iie ?aaeecotho (?en. 2.2.2).

Oeaio?aeueiui aeey nenoaiu FireWall-1 yaeyaony iiaeoeue oi?aaeaiey anai
eiiieaenii. N yoei iiaeoeai ?aaioaao aaeieieno?aoi? aaciianiinoe naoe.
Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi i?iaeoiaiiinoue e oaeianoai a?aoe/aneiai
eioa?oaena iiaeoey oi?aaeaiey ioia/aeinue ai iiiaeo iacaaeneiuo iaci?ao,
iinayuaiiuo i?iaeoeoai aeaiiiai eeanna.

?enoiie 2.2.2

?enoiie 2.2.2 Iniiaiua eiiiiiaiou Solstice FireWall-1 .

Aaeieieno?aoi?o aaciianiinoe naoe aeey eiioeao?e?iaaiey eiiieaena
FireWall-1 iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue neaaeothuee ?yae aeaenoaee:

• Ii?aaeaeeoue iauaeou, o/anoaothuea a i?ioeanna ia?aaioee eioi?iaoeee.
Caeanue eiathony a aeaeo iieueciaaoaee e a?oiiu iieueciaaoaeae,
eiiiuethoa?u e eo a?oiiu, ia?o?ooecaoi?u e ?acee/iua iiaenaoe eieaeueiie
naoe i?aaiecaoeee.

• Iienaoue naoaaua i?ioieieu e na?aenu, n eioi?uie aoaeoo ?aaioaoue
i?eeiaeaiey. Ai?i/ai, iau/ii aeinoaoi/iui ieacuaaaony iaai? ec aieaa /ai
40 iienaiee, iinoaaeyaiuo n nenoaiie FireWall-1.

• Aeaeaa, n iiiiuueth aaaaeaiiuo iiiyoee iienuaaaony iieeoeea
?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia a neaaeothueo oa?ieiao: “A?oiia iieueciaaoaeae A
?ac?aoai aeinooi e ?ano?no A n iiiiuueth na?aena eee i?ioieiea N, ii ia
yoii iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue iiiaoeo a ?aaeno?aoeeiiiii aeo?iaea”.
Niaieoiiinoue oaeeo caienae eiiieee?oaony a eniieieioth oi?io aeieii
oi?aaeaiey e aeaeaa ia?aaeaaony ia eniieiaiea a iiaeoee oeeueo?aoeee.

Iiaeoee oeeueo?aoeee iiaoo ?aniieaaaoueny ia eiiiuethoa?ao – oethcao
eee auaeaeaiiuo na?aa?ao – eee a ia?o?ooecaoi?ao eae /anoue
eiioeao?aoeeiiiie eioi?iaoeee. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeaea?aeeaathony
neaaeothuea aeaa oeia ia?o?ooecaoi?ia: Cisco IOS 9.x, 10.x, a oaeaea
BayNetworks (Wellfleet) OS v.8.

Iiaeoee oeeueo?aoeee i?iniao?eaatho ana iaeaou, iinooiathuea ia naoaaua
eioa?oaenu, e, a caaeneiinoe io caaeaiiuo i?aaee, i?iioneatho eee
ioa?anuaatho yoe iaeaou, n niioaaonoaothuae caienueth a ?aaeno?aoeeiiiii
aeo?iaea. Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi yoe iiaeoee, ?aaioay iaiin?aaenoaaiii
n ae?aeaa?aie naoaauo eioa?oaenia, ia?aaaouaatho aanue iioie aeaiiuo,
?aniieaaay iieiie eioi?iaoeeae i ia?aaeaaaaiuo iaeaoao.

I?EIA? ?AAEECAOeEE IIEEOEEE AACIIANIINOE

?anciio?ei i?ioeanc i?aeoe/aneie ?aaeecaoeee iieeoeee aaciianiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee n iiiiuueth i?ia?aiiiiai iaeaoa FireWall-1. (?en. 2.2.3) .

?enoiie 2.2.3

?enoiie 2.2.3 ?aaeecaoeey iieeoeee aaciianiinoe FireWall.

1. I?aaeaea anaai, eae oaea ioia/aeinue, ?ac?aaaouaathony e
ooaa?aeaeathony ia o?iaia ?oeiaiaenoaa i?aaiecaoeee i?aaeea iieeoeee
aaciianiinoe.

2. Iinea ooaa?aeaeaiey yoe i?aaeea iaaei aiieioeoue a aeeciue. Aeey
yoiai eo ioaeii ia?aaanoe a no?oeoo?o oeia “ioeoaea, eoaea e eaeei
niiniaii aeinooi ?ac?aoai eee, iaiai?io, cai?auai. Oaeea no?oeoo?u, eae
iu oaea ciaai, eaaei ia?aiinyony a aacu i?aaee nenoaiu FireWall-1.

3. Aeaeaa, ia iniiaa yoie aacu i?aaee oi?ie?othony nienee aeinooia aeey
ia?o?ooecaoi?ia e noeaia?ee ?aaiou oeeueo?ia ia naoaauo oethcao. Nienee
e noeaia?ee aeaeaa ia?aiinyony ia oece/aneea eiiiiiaiou naoe, iinea /aai
i?aaeea iieeoeee aaciianiinoe “anooiatho a neeo”.

4. A i?ioeanna ?aaiou oeeueo?u iaeaoia ia oethcao e na?aa?ao aaia?e?otho
caiene iai anao niauoeyo, eioi?ua ei i?eeacaee ioneaaeeaaoue, a, oaeaea,
caioneatho iaoaieciu “o?aaiae”, o?aaothuea io aaeieieno?aoi?a
iaiaaeeaiiie ?aaeoeee.

5. Ia iniiaa aiaeeca caienae, naeaeaiiuo nenoaiie, ioaeae eiiiuethoa?iie
aaciianiinoe i?aaiecaoeee iiaeao ?ac?aaaouaaoue i?aaeeiaeaiey ii
eciaiaieth e aeaeueiaeoaio ?acaeoeth iieeoeee aaciianiinoe.

?anniio?ei i?inoie i?eia? ?aaeecaoeee neaaeothueo i?aaee:

1. Ec eieaeueiuo naoae iiae?acaeaeaiee, aiciiaeii oaeaeaiiuo,
?ac?aoaaony naycue n ethaie eieaeueiie naoueth i?aaiecaoeee iinea
aooaioeoeeaoeee, iai?eia?, ii UNIX-ia?ieth.

2. Anai cai?auaaony aeinooi e naoe oeiainiaiai aeaia?oaiaioa, ca
eneeth/aieai aaia?aeueiiai aee?aeoi?a e aee?aeoi?a yoiai aeaia?oaiaioa.

3. Ec Internet ?ac?aoaaony oieueei ioi?aaeyoue e iieo/aoue ii/oo. Iai
anao ae?oaeo iiiuoeao nayce iaiaoiaeeii aeaeaoue iiae?iaioth caienue.

Ana yoe i?aaeea anoanoaaiiui ia?acii i?aaenoaaeythony n?aaenoaaie
a?aoe/aneiai eioa?oaena ?aaeaeoi?a I?aaee FireWall-1 (?en. 2.2.4).

?enoiie 2.2.4

?enoiie 2.2.4 A?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen ?aaeaeoi?a I?aaee FireWall-1 .

Iinea caa?ocee i?aaee, FireWall-1 aeey eaaeaeiai iaeaoa, ia?aaeaaaaiiai
ii naoe, iineaaeiaaoaeueii i?iniao?eaaao nienie i?aaee aei iaoiaeaeaiey
yeaiaioa, niioaaonoaothuaai oaeouaio neo/ath.

Aaaeiui iiiaioii yaeyaony caueoa nenoaiu, ia eioi?ie ?aciauai
aaeieieno?aoeaii-eiioeao?aoeeiiiue iiaeoeue FireWall-1. ?aeiiaiaeoaony
cai?aoeoue n?aaenoaaie FireWall-1 ana aeaeu aeinooia e aeaiiie iaoeia,
eee ii e?aeiae ia?a no?iai ia?aie/eoue nienie iieueciaaoaeae, eioi?ui
yoi ?ac?aoaii, a oaeaea i?eiyoue ia?u ii oece/aneiio ia?aie/aieth
aeinooia e ii caueoa iau/iuie n?aaenoaaie IN UNIX.

OI?AAEAIEA NENOAIIE FIREWALL-1

Ia ?en. 2.2.5 iieacaiu iniiaiua yeaiaiou oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie FireWall-1.

?enoiie 2.2.5

?enoiie 2.2.5 Iniiaiua yeaiaiou oi?aaeaiey nenoaiie FireWall-1.

Neaaa ?aniieiaeaiu ?aaeaeoi?u aac aeaiiuo ia iauaeoao, nouanoaothueo a
naoe e i i?ioieieao eee na?aenao, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo i?ienoiaeeo iaiai
eioi?iaoeeae. Ni?aaa aaa?oo iieacai ?aaeaeoi? i?aaee aeinooia.

Ni?aaa aieco ?aniieaaaaony eioa?oaen eiio?iey oaeouaai ninoiyiey
nenoaiu, a eioi?ii aeey anao iauaeoia, eioi?ua caian ooaea
aaeieieno?aoi?, ioia?aaeathony aeaiiua i eiee/anoaa ?ac?aoaiiuo
eiiioieeaoeee (aaei/ee), i eiee/anoaa ioaa?aioouo naycae (ciae “ee?ie/”)
e i eiee/anoaa eiiioieeaoeee n ?aaeno?aoeeae (eeiiea ea?aiaeao).
Ee?ie/iay noaia ca neiaieii iauaeoa (eiiiuethoa?a) icia/aao, /oi ia iai
onoaiiaeai iiaeoeue oeeueo?aoeee nenoaiu FireWall-1.

AUA IAeEI I?EIA? ?AAEECAOeEE IIEEOEEE AACIIANIINOE

?anniio?ei oaia?ue neo/ae, eiaaea ia?aiia/aeueiay eiioeao?aoeey naoe
iaiyaony, a aianoa n iae iaiyaony e iieeoeea aaciianiinoe.

Ionoue iu ?aoeee onoaiiaeoue o naay a i?aaiecaoeee ianeieueei
iauaaeinooiiuo na?aa?ia aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa. Yoi
iiaoo auoue, iai?eia?, na?aa?u World Wide Web, FTP eee ae?oaea
eioi?iaoeeiiiua na?aa?u. Iineieueeo oaeea nenoaiu iainiaeaiu io ?aaiou
anae inoaeueiie naoe i?aaiecaoeee, aeey ieo /anoi auaeaeytho naith
nianoaaiioth iiaenaoue, eiathuoth auoiae a Internet /a?ac oethc (?en.
2.2.6).

?enoiie 2.2.6

?enoiie 2.2.6 Noaia oethca Internet.

Iineieueeo a i?aaeuaeouai i?eia?a eieaeueiay naoue auea oaea caueuaia,
oi ana, /oi iai iaaei naeaeaoue, yoi i?inoi ?ac?aoeoue niioaaonoaothuee
aeinooi a auaeaeaiioth iiaenaoue. Yoi aeaeaaony n iiiiuueth iaeiie
aeiiieieoaeueiie no?iee a ?aaeaeoi?a i?aaee, eioi?ay caeanue iieacaia.
Oaeay neooaoeey yaeyaony oeie/iie i?e eciaiaiee eiioeao?aoeee
FireWall-1. Iau/ii aeey yoiai o?aaoaony eciaiaiea iaeiie eee iaaieueoiai
/enea no?ie a iaai?a i?aaee aeinooia, /oi, ianiiiaiii, eeethno?e?oao
iiuue n?aaenoa eiioeao?e?iaaiey e iauoth i?iaeoiaiiinoue a?oeoaeoo?u
FireWall-1.

AOOAIOEEAOeEss IIEUeCIAAOAEAE I?E ?AAIOA N FTP

Solstice FireWall-1 iicaieyao aaeieieno?aoi?o onoaiiaeoue ?acee/iua
?aaeeiu ?aaiou n eioa?aeoeaiuie na?aenaie FTP e telnet aeey ?acee/iuo
iieueciaaoaeae e a?oii iieueciaaoaeae. I?e onoaiiaeaiiii ?aaeeia
aooaioeoeeaoeee, FireWall-1 caiaiyao noaiaea?oiua FTP e telnet aeaiiiu
UNIX ia naie nianoaaiiua, ?aniieaaay eo ia oethca, cae?uoii n iiiiuueth
iiaeoeae oeeueo?aoeee iaeaoia. Iieueciaaoaeue, aeaeathuee ia/aoue
eioa?aeoeaioth nanneth ii FTP eee telnet (yoi aeieaeai auoue ?ac?aoaiiue
iieueciaaoaeue e a ?ac?aoaiiia aeey iaai a?aiy), iiaeao naeaeaoue yoi
oieueei /a?ac aoiae ia oaeie oethc, aaea e auiieiyaony any i?ioeaaeo?a
aooaioeoeeaoeee. Iia caaeaaony i?e iienaiee iieueciaaoaeae eee a?oii
iieueciaaoaeae e iiaeao i?iaiaeeoueny neaaeothueie niiniaaie:

• Unix-ia?ieue;

• i?ia?aiia S/Key aaia?aoeee iaeii?aciauo ia?ieae;

• ea?oi/ee SecurID n aiia?aoiie aaia?aoeeae iaeii?aciauo ia?ieae.

AEAEEA AEAI?EOIU OEEUeO?AOeEE UDP-IAEAOIA, AeEIAIE*ANEIA YE?AIE?IAAIEA

UDP-i?ioieieu, aoiaeyuea a ninoaa iaai?a TCP/IP, i?aaenoaaeytho niaie
iniaoth i?iaeaio aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe. N iaeiie noi?iiu ia eo
iniiaa nicaeaii iiiaeanoai i?eeiaeaiee. N ae?oaie noi?iiu, ana iie
yaeythony i?ioieieaie “aac ninoiyiey”, /oi i?eaiaeeo e ionoonoaeth
?acee/ee iaaeaeo cai?inii e ioaaoii, i?eoiaeyuei ecaia caueuaaiie naoe.

Iaeao FireWall-1 ?aoaao yoo i?iaeaio nicaeaieai eiioaenoa niaaeeiaiee
iiaa?o UDP nannee, caiiieiay ia?aiao?u cai?inia. I?iioneathony iacaae
oieueei ioaaou aiaoieo na?aa?ia ia auneaiiua cai?inu, eioi?ua
iaeiicia/ii ioee/athony io ethauo ae?oaeo UDP-iaeaoia (/eoae: iacaeiiiuo
cai?inia), iineieueeo eo ia?aiao?u o?aiyony a iaiyoe FireWall-1.

Neaaeoao ioiaoeoue, /oi aeaiiay aiciiaeiinoue i?enoonoaoao a aanueia
iaiiiaeo i?ia?aiiao ye?aie?iaaiey, ?ani?ino?aiyaiuo a ianoiyuee iiiaio.

Caiaoei oaeaea, /oi iiaeiaiua iaoaieciu caaeaenoaothony aeey
i?eeiaeaiee, eniieuecothueo RPC, e aeey FTP naainia. Caeanue aicieeatho
aiaeiae/iua i?iaeaiu, naycaiiua n aeeiaie/aneei auaeaeaieai ii?oia aeey
naainia nayce, eioi?ua FireWall-1 ioneaaeeaaao aiaeiae/iui ia?acii,
caiiieiay iaiaoiaeeioth eioi?iaoeeth i?e cai?inao ia oaeea naainu e
iaania/eaay oieueei “caeiiiue” iaiai aeaiiuie.

Aeaiiua aiciiaeiinoe iaeaoa Solstice FireWall-1 ?acei auaeaeytho aai
n?aaee anao inoaeueiuo iaaenaoaauo ye?aiia. Aia?aua i?iaeaia iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe ?aoaia aeey anao aac eneeth/aiey na?aenia e i?ioieieia,
nouanoaothueo a Internet.

ssCUE I?IA?AIIE?IAAIEss

Nenoaia Solstice FireWall-1 eiaao nianoaaiiue ano?iaiiue
iaueaeoii-i?eaioe?iaaiiue ycue i?ia?aiie?iaaiey, i?eiaiyaiue aeey
iienaiey iiaaaeaiey iiaeoeae – Oeeueo?ia nenoaiu. Nianoaaiii aiai?y,
?acoeueoaoii ?aaiou a?aoe/aneiai eioa?oaena aaeieieno?aoi?a nenoaiu
yaeyaony naaia?e?iaaiiue noeaia?ee ?aaiou eiaiii ia yoii aioo?aiiai
ycuea. Ii ia neiaeai aeey iiieiaiey, /oi aeiioneaao iaiin?aaenoaaiiia
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea ia iai. Iaeiaei ia i?aeoeea aeaiiay aiciiaeiinoue ii/oe
ia eniieuecoaony, iineieueeo a?aoe/aneee eioa?oaen nenoaiu e oae
iicaieyao naeaeaoue i?aeoe/anee ana, /oi ioaeii.

I?IC?A*IINOUe E YOOAEOEAIINOUe

FireWall-1 iieiinoueth i?ic?a/ai aeey eiia/iuo iieueciaaoaeae. Aua
iaeiei caia/aoaeueiui naienoaii nenoaiu Solstice FireWall-1 yaeyaony
i/aiue aunieay nei?inoue ?aaiou. Oaeoe/anee iiaeoee nenoaiu ?aaioatho ia
naoaauo nei?inoyo ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee, /oi iaoneiaeaii eiiieeyoeeae
naaia?e?iaaiiuo noeaia?eaa ?aaiou ia?aae iiaeeeth/aieai eo
iaiin?aaenoaaiii a i?ioeann oeeueo?aoeee.

Eiiiaiey Sun Microsystems i?eaiaeeo oaeea aeaiiua ia yooaeoeaiinoe
?aaiou Solstice FireWall-1. Iiaeoee oeeueo?aoeee ia Internet-oethca,
neiioeao?e?iaaiiua oeie/iui aeey iiiaeo i?aaiecaoeee ia?acii, ?aaioay ia
nei?inoyo iau/iiai Ethernet a 10 Ia/nae, caae?atho ia naay ia aieaa 10%
au/eneeoaeueiie iiuiinoe i?ioeanni?a SPARCstation 5,85 IAoe eee
eiiiuethoa?a 486DX2-50 n iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie Solaris/x86.

Solstice FireWall-1 – yooaeoeaiia n?aaenoai caueou ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae e
eo naaiaioia io aiaoieo oa?ic, a oaeaea io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiuo
acaeiiaeaenoaee eieaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae n aiaoieie nenoaiaie.

Solstice FireWall-1 iaania/eaaao aunieio?iaiaaoth iiaeaea?aeeo iieeoeee
aaciianiinoe i?aaiecaoeee ii ioiioaieth ei anai i?ioieieai naiaenoaa
TCP/IP.

Solstice FireWall-1 oa?aeoa?ecoaony i?ic?a/iinoueth aeey eaaaeueiuo
iieueciaaoaeae e aunieie yooaeoeaiinoueth.

Ii niaieoiiinoe oaoie/aneeo e noieiinoiuo oa?aeoa?enoee Solstice
FireWall-1 caieiaao eeaee?othuoth iiceoeeth n?aaee iaaenaoaauo ye?aiia.

2.2.2 Ia?aie/aiey aeinooia a WWW na?aa?ao

?anniio?ei aeaa ec ieo:

• Ia?aie/eoue aeinooi ii IP aae?anai eeeaioneeo iaoei;

• aaanoe eaeaioeoeeaoi? iieo/aoaey n ia?ieai aeey aeaiiiai aeaea
aeieoiaioia.

Oaeiai ?iaea aaiae ia?aie/aiee noae eniieueciaaoueny aeinoaoi/ii /anoi,
o.e. iiiaea no?aiyony a Internet, /oiau eniieueciaaoue aai
eiiioieeaoeee aeey aeinoaaee naiae eioi?iaoeee iio?aaeoaeth. N iiiiuueth
oaeiai ?iaea iaoaieciia ii ?aca?aie/aieth i?aa aeinooia oaeiaii
i?iecaiaeeoue naii?annueeo eioi?iaoeee ia iieo/aiea eioi?ie nouanoaoao
aeiaiai?.

Ia?aie/aiey ii IP aae?anai

Aeinooi e i?eaaoiui aeieoiaioai iiaeii ?ac?aoeoue, eeai iaiai?io
cai?aoeoue eniieuecoy IP aae?ana eiie?aoiuo iaoei eee naoie, iai?eia?:

123.456.78.9

123.456.79.

A yoii neo/aa aeinooi aoaeao ?ac?aoai (eee cai?auai a caaeneiinoe io
eiioaenoa) aeey iaoeiu n IP aae?anii 123.456.78.9 e aeey anao iaoei
iiaenaoee 123.456.79.

Ia?aie/aiey ii eaeaioeoeeaoi?o iieo/aoaey

Aeinooi e i?eaaoiui aeieoiaioai iiaeii ?ac?aoeoue, eeai iaiai?io
cai?aoeoue eniieuecoy i?enaiaiiia eiy e ia?ieue eiie?aoiiio
iieueciaaoaeth, i?e/ai ia?ieue a yaiii aeaea ieaaea ia o?aieony.

?anniio?ei oaeie i?eia?: Aaainoai ia/aoe i?aaeinoaaeyao naith
i?iaeoeoeeth, oieueei naiei iiaeien/eeai, eioi?ua caeeth/eee aeiaiai? e
iieaoeee iiaeieneo. WWW Na?aa? iaoiaeeony a naoe Internet e
iauaaeinooiai.

?enoiie 2.2.7

?enoiie 2.2.7 I?eia? nienea aanoieeia ecaeaoaeuenoaa.

Auaa?ai Aanoiee i?aaeinoaaeyaiue eiie?aoiiio iiaeien/eeo. Ia eeeaioneii
ianoa iiaeien/ee iieo/aao niiauaiea:

?enoiie 2.2.8

?enoiie 2.2.8 Ieii aaiaea ia?iey.

Anee ii i?aaeeueii iaienae naia eiy e ia?ieue, oi ii aeiioneaaony aei
aeieoiaioa, a i?ioeaiii neo/aa – iieo/aao niiauaiea:

?enoiie 2.2.9

?enoiie 2.2.9 Ieii iai?aaeeueiiai aaiaea ia?iey.

2.3 Eioi?iaoeeiiiay aaciianiinoue a Intranet

A?oeoaeoo?a Intranet iiae?acoiaaaao iiaeeeth/aiea e aiaoiei ioe?uoui
naoyi, eniieueciaaiea aiaoieo na?aenia e i?aaeinoaaeaiea nianoaaiiuo
na?aenia aiaia, /oi i?aaeuyaeyao iiauoaiiua o?aaiaaiey e caueoa
eioi?iaoeee.

A Intranet-nenoaiao eniieuecoaony iiaeoiae eeeaio-na?aa?, a aeaaiay
?ieue ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue ioaiaeeony Web-na?aeno. Web-na?aa?u
aeieaeiu iiaeaea?aeeaaoue o?aaeeoeeiiiua caueoiua n?aaenoaa, oaeea eae
aooaioeoeeaoeey e ?aca?aie/aiea aeinooia; e?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii
iaania/aiea iiauo naienoa, a iniaaiiinoe aaciianiinoe i?ia?aiiiie n?aaeu
e ia na?aa?iie, e ia eeeaioneie noi?iiao.

Oaeiau, anee aiai?eoue nianai e?aoei, caaea/e a iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aaciianiinoe, aicieeathuea a nayce n ia?aoiaeii ia oaoiieiaeth Intranet.
Aeaeaa iu ?anniio?ei aiciiaeiua iiaeoiaeu e eo ?aoaieth.

Oi?ie?iaaiea ?aaeeia eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe – i?iaeaia
eiiieaeniay.

Ia?u ii aa ?aoaieth iiaeii ?acaeaeeoue ia /aou?a o?iaiy:

• caeiiiaeaoaeueiue (caeiiu, ii?iaoeaiua aeou, noaiaea?ou e o.i.);

• aaeieieno?aoeaiue (aeaenoaey iauaai oa?aeoa?a, i?aaei?eieiaaiua
?oeiaiaenoaii i?aaiecaoeee);

• i?ioeaaeo?iue (eiie?aoiua ia?u aaciianiinoe, eiathuea aeaei n
ethaeueie);

• i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneee (eiie?aoiua oaoie/aneea ia?u).

A oaeii ii?yaeea e aoaeao iino?iaii iineaaeothuaa eceiaeaiea.

CAEIIIAeAOAEUeIUE O?IAAIUe

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa iiae?iaiui caeiiiaeaoaeueiui aeieoiaioii a
iaeanoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe yaeyaony Oaieiaiue eiaeaen, oi/iaa
aiai?y, aai iiaay ?aaeaeoeey, anooieaoay a neeo a iaa 1996 aiaea.

A ?acaeaea IX (“I?anooieaiey i?ioea iauanoaaiiie aaciianiinoe”) eiaaony
aeaaa 28 – “I?anooieaiey a noa?a eiiiuethoa?iie eioi?iaoeee”. Iia
niaea?aeeo o?e noaouee – 272 (“Iai?aaiia?iue aeinooi e eiiiuethoa?iie
eioi?iaoeee”), 273 (“Nicaeaiea, eniieueciaaiea e ?ani?ino?aiaiea
a?aaeiiiniuo i?ia?aii aeey YAI”) e 274 – “Ia?ooaiea i?aaee yenieoaoaoeee
YAI, nenoaiu YAI eee eo naoe”.

Oaieiaiue eiaeaen noieo ia no?aaea anao aniaeoia eioi?iaoeeiiiie
aaciianiinoe

– aeinooiiinoe, oeaeinoiinoe, eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe, i?aaeoniao?eaay
iaeacaiey ca

“oie/oiaeaiea, aeiee?iaaiea, iiaeeoeeaoeeth e eiie?iaaiea eioi?iaoeee,
ia?ooaiea ?aaiou YAI, nenoaiu YAI eee eo naoe”.

Aanueia yia?ae/ioth ?aaioo a iaeanoe nia?aiaiiuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
oaoiieiaee i?iaiaeeo Ainoaea?noaaiiay oaoie/aneay eiienney
(Ainoaoeiienney) i?e I?aceaeaioa ?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee. A ?aieao na?ee
?oeiaiaeyueo aeieoiaioia (?Ae) Ainoaoeiiennee iiaeaioiaeai i?iaeo ?Ae,
onoaiaaeeaathuee eeanneoeeaoeeth iaaenaoaauo ye?aiia (firewalls, eee
a?aiaeiaoy?ia) ii o?iaith iaania/aiey caueuaiiinoe io
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia (INAe). Yoi i?eioeeieaeueii aaaeiue
aeieoiaio, iicaieythuee oii?yaei/eoue eniieueciaaiea caueoiuo n?aaenoa,
iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey ?aaeecaoeee oaoiieiaee Intranet.

?AC?AAIOEA NAOAAUO ANIAEOIA IIEEOEEE AACIIANIINOE

Iieeoeea aaciianiinoe ii?aaeaeyaony eae niaieoiiinoue
aeieoiaioe?iaaiiuo

oi?aaeai/aneeo ?aoaiee, iai?aaeaiiuo ia caueoo eioi?iaoeee e
annioeee?iaaiiuo n iae ?ano?nia.

I?e ?ac?aaioea e i?iaaaeaiee aa a aeeciue oeaeaniia?acii
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny neaaeothueie i?eioeeiaie:

• iaaiciiaeiinoue ieiiaaoue caueoiua n?aaenoaa;

• oneeaiea naiiai neaaiai caaia;

• iaaiciiaeiinoue ia?aoiaea a iaaaciianiia ninoiyiea;

• ieieiecaoeey i?eaeeaaee;

• ?acaeaeaiea iaycaiiinoae;

• yoaeiie?iaaiiinoue iai?iiu;

• ?aciiia?acea caueoiuo n?aaenoa;

• i?inoioa e oi?aaeyaiinoue eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu;

• iaania/aiea anaiauae iiaeaea?aeee ia? aaciianiinoe.

Iiyniei niune ia?a/eneaiiuo i?eioeeiia.

Anee o ceioiuoeaiieea eee iaaeiaieueiiai iieueciaaoaey iiyaeony
aiciiaeiinoue ieiiaaoue caueoiua n?aaenoaa, ii, ?acoiaaony, oae e
naeaeaao. I?eiaieoaeueii e iaaenaoaaui ye?aiai aeaiiue i?eioeei
icia/aao, /oi ana eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee a caueuaaioth naoue e ec iaa
aeieaeiu i?ioiaeeoue /a?ac ye?ai. Ia aeieaeii auoue “oaeiuo” iiaeaiiuo
aoiaeia eee oanoiauo eeiee, eaeoueo a iaoiae ye?aia.

Iaaeaaeiinoue ethaie iai?iiu ii?aaeaeyaony naiui neaaui caaiii.
Ceioiuoeaiiee ia aoaeao ai?ioueny i?ioea neeu, ii i?aaeii/oao eaaeoth
iiaaaeo iaae neaainoueth. *anoi naiui neaaui caaiii ieacuaaaony ia
eiiiuethoa? eee i?ia?aiia, a /aeiaae, e oiaaea i?iaeaia iaania/aiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe i?eia?aoaao iaoaoie/aneee oa?aeoa?.

I?eioeei iaaiciiaeiinoe ia?aoiaea a iaaaciianiia ninoiyiea icia/aao,
/oi i?e ethauo ianoiyoaeuenoaao, a oii /enea iaooaoiuo, caueoiia
n?aaenoai eeai iieiinoueth auiieiyao naie ooieoeee, eeai iieiinoueth
aeiee?oao aeinooi. Ia?acii aiai?y, anee a e?aiinoe iaoaieci iiaeuaiiiai
iinoa eiiaaony, iino aeieaeai inoaaaoueny a iiaeiyoii ninoiyiee,
i?aiyonoaoy i?ioiaeo iai?eyoaey.

I?eioeei ieieiecaoeee i?eaeeaaee i?aaeienuaaao auaeaeyoue
iieueciaaoaeyi e aaeieieno?aoi?ai oieueei oa i?aaa aeinooia, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeiu ei aeey auiieiaiey neoaeaaiuo iaycaiiinoae.

I?eioeei ?acaeaeaiey iaycaiiinoae i?aaeiieaaaao oaeia ?ani?aaeaeaiea
?ieae e ioaaonoaaiiinoe, i?e eioi?ii iaeei /aeiaae ia iiaeao ia?ooeoue
e?eoe/anee aaaeiue aeey i?aaiecaoeee i?ioeann. Yoi iniaaiii aaaeii,
/oiau i?aaeioa?aoeoue ceiiaia?aiiua eee iaeaaeeoeoee?iaaiiua aeaenoaey
nenoaiiiai aaeieieno?aoi?a.

I?eioeei yoaeiie?iaaiiinoe iai?iiu i?aaeienuaaao ia iieaaaoueny ia
iaeei caueoiue ?oaaae, eaeei au iaaeaaeiui ii ie eacaeny. Ca n?aaenoaaie
oece/aneie caueou aeieaeiu neaaeiaaoue i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa,
ca eaeaioeoeeaoeeae e aooaioeoeeaoeeae – oi?aaeaiea aeinooiii e, eae
iineaaeiee ?oaaae, – i?ioieiee?iaaiea e aoaeeo. Yoaeiie?iaaiiay iai?iia
niiniaia ii e?aeiae ia?a caaea?aeaoue ceioiuoeaiieea, a iaee/ea oaeiai
?oaaaea, eae i?ioieiee?iaaiea e aoaeeo, nouanoaaiii cao?oaeiyao
iacaiaoiia auiieiaiea ceioiuoeaiiuo aeaenoaee.

I?eioeei ?aciiia?acey caueoiuo n?aaenoa ?aeiiaiaeoao i?aaieciauaaoue
?acee/iua ii naiaio oa?aeoa?o iai?iieoaeueiua ?oaaaee, /oiau io
iioaioeeaeueiiai

ceioiuoeaiieea o?aaiaaeinue iaeaaeaiea ?aciiia?aciuie e, ii
aiciiaeiinoe,

ianiaianoeiuie iaaeaeo niaie iaaueaie (iai?eia? oiaieai i?aiaeieaaaoue
aunieoth ia?aaeo e ciaieai neaainoae ianeieueeeo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai).

I/aiue aaaeai i?eioeei i?inoiou e oi?aaeyaiinoe eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu
a oeaeii e caueoiuo n?aaenoa a iniaaiiinoe. Oieueei aeey i?inoiai
caueoiiai n?aaenoaa iiaeii oi?iaeueii eee iaoi?iaeueii aeieacaoue aai
ei??aeoiinoue. Oieueei a i?inoie e oi?aaeyaiie nenoaia iiaeii i?iaa?eoue
niaeaniaaiiinoue eiioeao?aoeee ?aciuo eiiiiiaioia e inouanoaeoue
oeaio?aeeciaaiiia aaeieieno?e?iaaiea. A yoie nayce aaaeii ioiaoeoue
eioaa?e?othuoth ?ieue Web-na?aena, ne?uaathuaai ?aciiia?acea
ianeoaeeaaaiuo iauaeoia e i?aaeinoaaeythuaai aaeeiue, iaaeyaeiue
eioa?oaen. Niioaaonoaaiii, anee iauaeou iaeioi?iai aeaea (neaaeai
oaaeeoeu aacu aeaiiuo) aeinooiiu /a?ac Web, iaiaoiaeeii caaeiee?iaaoue
i?yiie aeinooi e iei, iineieueeo a i?ioeaiii neo/aa nenoaia aoaeao
neiaeiie e o?oaeiioi?aaeyaiie.

Iineaaeiee i?eioeei – anaiauay iiaeaea?aeea ia? aaciianiinoe – iineo
iaoaoie/aneee oa?aeoa?. Anee iieueciaaoaee e/eee nenoaiiua
aaeieieno?aoi?u n/eoatho eioi?iaoeeiiioth aaciianiinoue /ai-oi eceeoiei
eee aeaaea a?aaeaeaaiui, ?aaeei aaciianiinoe noi?ie?iaaoue caaaaeiii ia
oaeanony. Neaaeoao n naiiai ia/aea i?aaeoniio?aoue eiiieaen ia?,
iai?aaeaiiue ia iaania/aiea eiyeueiinoe ia?niiaea, ia iinoiyiiia
iao/aiea, oai?aoe/aneia e, aeaaiia, i?aeoe/aneia.

Aiaeec ?eneia – aaaeiaeoee yoai au?aaioee iieeoeee aaciianiinoe. I?e
ioeaiea ?eneia, eioi?ui iiaeaa?aeaiu Intranet-nenoaiu, ioaeii o/eouaaoue
neaaeothuea ianoiyoaeuenoaa:

• iiaua oa?icu ii ioiioaieth e noa?ui na?aenai, auoaeathuea ec
aiciiaeiinoe ianneaiiai eee aeoeaiiai i?ineooeaaiey naoe. Ianneaiia
i?ineooeaaiea icia/aao /oaiea naoaaiai o?aoeea, a aeoeaiia – aai
eciaiaiea (e?aaeo, aeoaee?iaaiea eee iiaeeoeeaoeeth ia?aaeaaaaiuo
aeaiiuo). Iai?eia?, aooaioeoeeaoeey oaeaeaiiiai eeeaioa n iiiiuueth
ia?iey iiiaie?aoiiai eniieueciaaiey ia iiaeao n/eoaoueny iaaeaaeiie a
naoaaie n?aaea, iacaaeneii io aeeeiu ia?iey;

• iiaua (naoaaua) na?aenu e annioeee?iaaiiua n ieie oa?icu.

Eae i?aaeei, a Intranet-nenoaiao neaaeoao i?eaea?aeeaaoueny i?eioeeia
“ana, /oi ia ?ac?aoaii, cai?auaii”, iineieueeo “eeoiee” naoaaie na?aen
iiaeao i?aaeinoaaeoue eaiae i?iieeiiaaiey a ei?ii?aoeaioth nenoaio. A
i?eioeeia, oo aea iuneue au?aaeaao iieiaeaiea “ana iaiiiyoiia iianii”.

I?IOeAAeO?IUA IA?U

A iauai e oeaeii Intranet-oaoiieiaey ia i?aaeuyaeyao eaeeo-eeai
niaoeeoe/aneeo o?aaiaaiee e ia?ai i?ioeaaeo?iiai o?iaiy. Ia iao acaeyae,
ioaeaeueiiai ?anniio?aiey caneoaeeaatho eeoue aeaa ianoiyoaeuenoaa:

• iienaiea aeieaeiinoae, naycaiiuo n ii?aaeaeaieai, iaiieiaieai e
iiaeaea?aeaieai ei?ii?aoeaiie aeia?oaenoiaie no?oeoo?u ioeoeeaeueiuo
aeieoiaioia;

• iiaeaea?aeea aeeciaiiiai oeeeea eioi?iaoeee, iaiieiythuae Intranet.

I?e iienaiee aeieaeiinoae oeaeaniia?acii enoiaeeoue ec aiaeiaee iaaeaeo
Intranet e ecaeaoaeuenoaii. A ecaeaoaeuenoaa nouanoaoao aee?aeoi?,
ii?aaeaeythuee iauoth iai?aaeaiiinoue aeayoaeueiinoe. A Intranet aio
niioaaonoaoao Web-aaeieieno?aoi?, ?aoathuee, eaeay ei?ii?aoeaiay
eioi?iaoeey aeieaeia i?enoonoaiaaoue ia Web-na?aa?a e eae neaaeoao
no?oeoo?e?iaaoue aea?aai (oi/iaa, a?ao) HTML-aeieoiaioia.

A iiiaii?ioeeueiuo ecaeaoaeuenoaao nouanoaotho ?aaeaeoeee,
caieiathueany eiie?aoiuie iai?aaeaieyie (iaoaiaoe/aneea eieae, eieae
aeey aeaoae e o.i.). Aiaeiae/ii, a Intranet oeaeaniia?acii auaeaeeoue
aeieaeiinoue ioaeeeaoi?a, aaaeathuaai iiyaeaieai aeieoiaioia ioaeaeueiuo
iiae?acaeaeaiee e ii?aaeaeythuaai ia?a/aiue e oa?aeoa? ioaeeeaoeee.

O eaaeaeie eieae anoue oeooeueiue ?aaeaeoi?, ioaa/athuee ia?aae
ecaeaoaeuenoaii ca naith ?aaioo. A Intranet ?aaeaeoi?u caieiathony
anoaaeie aeieoiaioia a ei?ii?aoeaiia aea?aai, eo ei??aeoeeae e
oaeaeaieai. A aieueoeo i?aaiecaoeeyo “neie” ioaeeeaoi?/?aaeaeoi? iiaeao
ninoiyoue ec ianeieueeeo o?iaiae.

Iaeiiaoe, e a ecaeaoaeuenoaa, e a Intranet aeieaeiu auoue aaoi?u,
nicaeathuea aeieoiaiou. Iiae/a?eiai, /oi iie ia aeieaeiu eiaoue i?aa ia
iiaeeoeeaoeeth ei?ii?aoeaiiai aea?aaa e ioaeaeueiuo aeieoiaioia. Eo
aeaei – ia?aaeaoue naie o?oae ?aaeaeoi?o.

E?iia ioeoeeaeueiuo, ei?ii?aoeaiuo, a Intranet iiaoo i?enoonoaiaaoue
a?oiiiaua e ee/iua aeieoiaiou, ii?yaeie ?aaiou n eioi?uie (?iee, i?aaa
aeinooia) ii?aaeaeyaony, niioaaonoaaiii, a?oiiiauie e ee/iuie
eioa?anaie.

Ia?aoiaey e aii?inai iiaeaea?aeee aeeciaiiiai oeeeea
Intranet-eioi?iaoeee, iaiiiiei i iaiaoiaeeiinoe eniieueciaaiey n?aaenoa
eiioeao?aoeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey. Aaaeiia aeinoieinoai Intranet-oaoiieiaee
ninoieo a oii, /oi iniiaiua iia?aoeee eiioeao?aoeeiiiiai oi?aaeaiey –
aianaiea eciaiaiee (nicaeaiea iiaie aa?nee) e ecaea/aiea noa?ie aa?nee
aeieoiaioa – anoanoaaiiui ia?acii aienuaathony a ?aiee Web-eioa?oaena.
Oa, aeey eiai yoi iaiaoiaeeii, iiaoo ?aaioaoue n aea?aaii anao aa?nee
anao aeieoiaioia, iiaeiiiaeanoaii eioi?iai yaeyaony aea?aai naiuo
naaaeeo aa?nee.

OI?AAEAIEA AeINOOIII IOOAI OEEUeO?AOeEE EIOI?IAOeEE

Iu ia?aoiaeei e ?anniio?aieth ia? i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneiai o?iaiy,
iai?aaeaiiuo ia iaania/aiea eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe nenoai,
iino?iaiiuo a oaoiieiaee Intranet. Ia ia?aia ianoi n?aaee oaeeo ia? iu
iinoaaei iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu – n?aaenoai ?aca?aie/aiey aeinooia,
neoaeauaa aeey caueou io aiaoieo oa?ic e io oa?ic ni noi?iiu
iieueciaaoaeae ae?oaeo naaiaioia ei?ii?aoeaiuo naoae.

Ioiaoei, /oi ai?ioueny n oa?icaie, i?enoueie naoaaie n?aaea,
n?aaenoaaie oieaa?naeueiuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai ia i?aaenoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiui. Oieaa?naeueiay IN – yoi ia?iiiay i?ia?aiia, iaaa?iyea
niaea?aeauay, iiieii yaiuo ioeaie, iaeioi?ua iniaaiiinoe, eioi?ua iiaoo
auoue eniieueciaaiu aeey iieo/aiey iaeaaaeueiuo i?eaeeaaee. Nia?aiaiiay
oaoiieiaey i?ia?aiie?iaaiey ia iicaieyao naeaeaoue noieue aieueoea
i?ia?aiiu aaciianiuie. E?iia oiai, aaeieieno?aoi?, eiathuee aeaei ni
neiaeiie nenoaiie, aeaeaei ia anaaaea a ninoiyiee o/anoue ana
iineaaenoaey i?iecaiaeeiuo eciaiaiee (eae e a?a/, ia aaaeathuee anao
iiai/iuo aicaeaenoaee ?aeiiaiaeoaiuo eaea?noa). Iaeiiaoe, a
oieaa?naeueiie iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneie nenoaia a?aoe a aaciianiinoe
iinoiyiii nicaeathony naieie iieueciaaoaeyie (neaaua e/eee ?aaeei
eciaiyaiua ia?iee, iaoaea/ii onoaiiaeaiiua i?aaa aeinooia, inoaaeaiiue
aac i?eniio?a oa?ieiae e o.i.).

Eae oeacuaaeinue auoa, aaeeinoaaiiue ia?niaeoeaiue iooue naycai n
?ac?aaioeie niaoeeaeece?iaaiiuo caueoiuo n?aaenoa, eioi?ua a neeo naiae
i?inoiou aeiioneatho oi?iaeueioth eee iaoi?iaeueioth aa?eoeeaoeeth.
Iaaenaoaaie ye?ai eae ?ac e yaeyaony oaeei n?aaenoaii, aeiioneathuei
aeaeueiaeooth aeaeiiiiceoeeth, naycaiioth n ianeoaeeaaieai ?acee/iuo
naoaauo i?ioieieia.

Iaaenaoaaie ye?ai – yoi iieoi?iieoeaaiay iaia?aia, eioi?ay
?aniieaaaaony iaaeaeo caueuaaiie (aioo?aiiae) naoueth e aiaoiae n?aaeie
(aiaoieie naoyie eee ae?oaeie naaiaioaie ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe) e
eiio?iee?oao ana eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee ai aioo?aiithth naoue e ec iaa
(?en. 2.3.1). Eiio?ieue eioi?iaoeeiiiuo iioieia ninoieo a eo
oeeueo?aoeee, oi anoue a auai?i/iii i?iioneaiee /a?ac ye?ai, aiciiaeii,
n auiieiaieai iaeioi?uo i?aia?aciaaiee e ecaauaieai ioi?aaeoaey i oii,
/oi aai aeaiiui a i?iionea ioeacaii. Oeeueo?aoeey inouanoaeyaony ia
iniiaa iaai?a i?aaee, i?aaeaa?eoaeueii caa?oaeaiiuo a ye?ai e
yaeythueony au?aaeaieai naoaauo aniaeoia iieeoeee aaciianiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee.

?enoiie 2.3.1

?enoiie 2. 3.1 Iaaenaoaaie ye?ai eae n?aaenoai eiio?iey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
iioieia.

Oeaeaniia?acii ?acaeaeeoue neo/ae, eiaaea ye?ai onoaiaaeeaaaony ia
a?aieoea n aiaoiae (iau/ii iauaaeinooiiie) naoueth eee ia a?aieoea
iaaeaeo naaiaioaie iaeiie ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe. Niioaaonoaaiii, iu aoaeao
aiai?eoue i aiaoiai e aioo?aiiai iaaenaoaauo ye?aiao.

Eae i?aaeei, i?e iauaiee n aiaoieie naoyie eniieuecoaony
eneeth/eoaeueii naiaenoai i?ioieieia TCP/IP. Iiyoiio aiaoiee iaaenaoaaie
ye?ai aeieaeai o/eouaaoue niaoeeoeeo yoeo i?ioieieia. Aeey aioo?aiieo
ye?aiia neooaoeey neiaeiaa, caeanue neaaeoao i?eieiaoue ai aieiaiea
iiieii TCP/IP ii e?aeiae ia?a i?ioieieu SPX/IPX, i?eiaiyaiua a naoyo
Novell NetWare. Eiuie neiaaie, io aioo?aiieo ye?aiia ia?aaeei o?aaoaony
iiiaii?ioieieueiinoue.

Neooaoeee, eiaaea ei?ii?aoeaiay naoue niaea?aeeo eeoue iaeei aiaoiee
eaiae, yaeyaony, nei?aa, eneeth/aieai, /ai i?aaeeii. Iai?ioea, oeie/ia
neooaoeey, i?e eioi?ie ei?ii?aoeaiay naoue ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo
oa??eoi?eaeueii ?acianaiiuo naaiaioia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeeeth/ai e
naoe iauaai iieueciaaiey (?en. 2.3.2). A yoii neo/aa eaaeaeia
iiaeeeth/aiea aeieaeii caueuaoueny naiei ye?aiii. Oi/iaa aiai?y, iiaeii
n/eoaoue, /oi ei?ii?aoeaiue aiaoiee iaaenaoaaie ye?ai yaeyaony
ninoaaiui, e o?aaoaony ?aoaoue caaea/o niaeaniaaiiiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey
(oi?aaeaiey e aoaeeoa) anao eiiiiiaioia.

?enoiie 2.3.2

?enoiie 2.3.2 Ye?aie?iaaiea ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe, ninoiyuae ec ianeieueeeo
oa??eoi?eaeueii ?acianaiiuo naaiaioia, eaaeaeue ec eioi?uo iiaeeeth/ai e
naoe iauaai iieueciaaiey.

I?e ?anniio?aiee ethaiai aii?ina, eanathuaainy naoaauo oaoiieiaee,
iniiaie neoaeeo naieo?iaiaaay yoaeiiiay iiaeaeue ISO/OSI. Iaaenaoaaua
ye?aiu oaeaea oeaeaniia?acii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii oiio, ia eaeii o?iaia
i?iecaiaeeony oeeueo?aoeey – eaiaeueiii, naoaaii, o?ainii?oiii eee
i?eeeaaeiii. Niioaaonoaaiii, iiaeii aiai?eoue ia ye?aie?othueo
eiioeaio?aoi?ao (o?iaaiue 2), ia?o?ooecaoi?ao (o?iaaiue 3), i
o?ainii?oiii ye?aie?iaaiee (o?iaaiue 4) e i i?eeeaaeiuo ye?aiao
(o?iaaiue 7). Nouanoaotho oaeaea eiiieaeniua ye?aiu, aiaeece?othuea
eioi?iaoeeth ia ianeieueeeo o?iaiyo.

A aeaiiie ?aaioa iu ia aoaeai ?anniao?eaaoue ye?aie?othuea
eiioeaio?aoi?u, iineieueeo eiioeaiooaeueii iie iaei ioee/athony io
ye?aie?othueo ia?o?ooecaoi?ia.

I?e i?eiyoee ?aoaiey “i?iionoeoue/ia i?iionoeoue”, iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu
iiaoo eniieueciaaoue ia oieueei eioi?iaoeeth, niaea?aeauothny a
oeeueo?oaiuo iioieao, ii e aeaiiua, iieo/aiiua ec ie?oaeaiey, iai?eia?
oaeouaa a?aiy.

Oaeei ia?acii, aiciiaeiinoe iaaenaoaaiai ye?aia iaiin?aaenoaaiii
ii?aaeaeythony oai, eaeay eioi?iaoeey iiaeao eniieueciaaoueny a i?aaeeao
oeeueo?aoeee e eaeiaa iiaeao auoue iiuiinoue iaai?ia i?aaee. Aiiaua
aiai?y, /ai auoa o?iaaiue a iiaeaee ISO/OSI, ia eioi?ii ooieoeeiie?oao
ye?ai, oai aieaa niaea?aeaoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey aio aeinooiia e,
neaaeiaaoaeueii, oai oiiueoa e iaaeaaeiaa ye?ai iiaeao auoue
neiioeao?e?iaai. A oi aea a?aiy oeeueo?aoeey ia eaaeaeii ec
ia?a/eneaiiuo auoa o?iaiae iaeaaeaao naieie aeinoieinoaaie, oaeeie eae
aeaoaaecia, aunieay yooaeoeaiinoue eee i?ic?a/iinoue aeey
iieueciaaoaeae. A neeo yoie, a oaeaea iaeioi?uo ae?oaeo i?e/ei, a
aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa eniieuecothony niaoaiiua eiioeao?aoeee, a eioi?uo
iauaaeeiaiu ?aciioeiiua ye?aiu. Iaeaieaa oeie/iui yaeyaony ni/aoaiea
ye?aie?othueo ia?o?ooecaoi?ia e i?eeeaaeiiai ye?aia (?en. 2.3.3).

I?eaaaeaiiay eiioeao?aoeey iacuaaaony ye?aie?othuae iiaenaoueth. Eae
i?aaeei, na?aenu, eioi?ua i?aaiecaoeey i?aaeinoaaeyao aeey aiaoiaai
i?eiaiaiey (iai?eia? “i?aaenoaaeoaeueneee” Web-na?aa?), oeaeaniia?acii
auiineoue eae ?ac a ye?aie?othuoth iiaenaoue.

Iiieii au?aceoaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae e aeiionoeiiai eiee/anoaa i?aaee
ea/anoai iaaenaoaaiai ye?aia ii?aaeaeyaony aua aeaoiy i/aiue aaaeiuie
oa?aeoa?enoeeaie – i?inoioie i?eiaiaiey e nianoaaiiie caueuaiiinoueth. A
ieaia i?inoiou eniieueciaaiey ia?ainoaiaiiia cia/aiea eiatho iaaeyaeiue
eioa?oaen i?e caaeaiee i?aaee oeeueo?aoeee e aiciiaeiinoue
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey ninoaaiuo eiioeao?aoeee. A naith
i/a?aaeue, a iineaaeiai aniaeoa oioaeinue au auaeaeeoue n?aaenoaa
oeaio?aeeciaaiiie caa?ocee i?aaee oeeueo?aoeee e i?iaa?ee iaai?a i?aaee
ia iai?ioeai?a/eainoue. Aaaeai e oeaio?aeeciaaiiue nai? e aiaeec
?aaeno?aoeeiiiie eioi?iaoeee, a oaeaea iieo/aiea neaiaeia i iiiuoeao
auiieiaiey aeaenoaee, cai?auaiiuo iieeoeeie aaciianiinoe.

Nianoaaiiay caueuaiiinoue iaaenaoaaiai ye?aia iaania/eaaaony oaie aea
n?aaenoaaie, /oi e caueuaiiinoue oieaa?naeueiuo nenoai. I?e auiieiaiee
oeaio?aeeciaaiiiai aaeieieno?e?iaaiey neaaeoao aua iicaaioeoueny i
caueoa eioi?iaoeee io ianneaiiai e aeoeaiiai i?ineooeaaiey naoe, oi
anoue iaania/eoue aa (eioi?iaoeee) oeaeinoiinoue e
eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoue.

?enoiie 2.3.3

?enoiie 2.3.3 Ni/aoaiea ye?aie?othueo ia?o?ooecaoi?ia e i?eeeaaeiiai
ye?aia.

Oioaeinue au iiae/a?eiooue, /oi i?e?iaea ye?aie?iaaiey (oeeueo?aoeee),
eae iaoaiecia aaciianiinoe, i/aiue aeoaiea. Iiieii aeiee?iaaiey iioieia
aeaiiuo, ia?ooathueo iieeoeeo aaciianiinoe, iaaenaoaaie ye?ai iiaeao
ne?uaaoue eioi?iaoeeth i caueuaaiie naoe, oai naiui cao?oaeiyy aeaenoaey
iioaioeeaeueiuo ceioiuoeaiieeia. Oae, i?eeeaaeiie ye?ai iiaeao
inouanoaeyoue aeaenoaey io eiaie noauaeoia aioo?aiiae naoe, a
?acoeueoaoa /aai ec aiaoiae naoe eaaeaony, /oi eiaao ianoi
acaeiiaeaenoaea eneeth/eoaeueii n iaaenaoaaui ye?aiii (?en. 2.3.4). I?e
oaeii iiaeoiaea oiiieiaey aioo?aiiae naoe ne?uoa io aiaoieo
iieueciaaoaeae, iiyoiio caaea/a ceioiuoeaiieea nouanoaaiii oneiaeiyaony.

?enoiie 2.3.4

?enoiie 2.3.4 Enoeiiua e eaaeoueany eioi?iaoeeiiiua iioiee.

Aieaa iauei iaoiaeii nie?uoey eioi?iaoeee i oiiieiaee caueuaaiie naoe
yaeyaony o?aineyoeey “aioo?aiieo” naoaauo aae?ania, eioi?ay iiiooii
?aoaao i?iaeaio ?anoe?aiey aae?aniiai i?ino?ainoaa, auaeaeaiiiai
i?aaiecaoeee.

Ia?aie/eaathuee eioa?oaen oaeaea iiaeii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
?aciiaeaeiinoue ye?aie?iaaiey. Ia iaaeaeeiue iauaeo o?oaeii iaiaaeaoue,
iniaaiii n iiiiuueth oeene?iaaiiiai iaai?a n?aaenoa. A yoii niunea
Web-eioa?oaen iaeaaeaao anoanoaaiiie caueoie, iniaaiii a oii neo/aa,
eiaaea aeia?oaenoiaua aeieoiaiou oi?ie?othony aeeiaie/anee. Eaaeaeue
aeaeeo eeoue oi, /oi aio iieiaeaii.

Ye?aie?othuay ?ieue Web-na?aena iaaeyaeii i?iyaeyaony e oiaaea, eiaaea
yoio na?aen inouanoaeyao iin?aaeie/aneea (oi/iaa, eioaa?e?othuea)
ooieoeee i?e aeinooia e ae?oaei ?ano?nai, a /anoiinoe oaaeeoeai aacu
aeaiiuo. Caeanue ia oieueei eiio?iee?othony iioiee cai?inia, ii e
ne?uaaaony ?aaeueiay i?aaiecaoeey aac aeaiiuo.

AACIIANIINOUe I?IA?AIIIIE N?AAeU

Eaeay naoae n oae iacuaaaiuie aeoeaiuie aaaioaie, eiaaea iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ia?aaeathony ia oieueei ianneaiua, ii e aeoeaiua
eniieiyaiua aeaiiua (oi anoue i?ia?aiiu), ?acoiaaony, ia iiaa.
Ia?aiia/aeueii oeaeue ninoiyea a oii, /oiau oiaiueoeoue naoaaie o?aoee,
auiieiyy iniiaioth /anoue ia?aaioee oai, aaea ?aniieaaathony aeaiiua
(i?eaeeaeaiea i?ia?aii e aeaiiui). Ia i?aeoeea yoi icia/aei ia?aiauaiea
i?ia?aii ia na?aa?u. Eeanne/aneee i?eia? ?aaeecaoeee iiaeiaiiai
iiaeoiaea – yoi o?aieiua i?ioeaaeo?u a ?aeyoeeiiiuo NOAAe.

Aeey Web-na?aa?ia aiaeiaii o?aieiuo i?ioeaaeo? yaeythony i?ia?aiiu,
ianeoaeeaathuea iauee oethciaue eioa?oaen (Common Gateway Interface –
CGI).

CGI-i?ioeaaeo?u ?aniieaaathony ia na?aa?ao e iau/ii eniieuecothony aeey
aeeiaie/aneiai ii?iaeaeaiey HTML-aeieoiaioia. Iieeoeea aaciianiinoe
i?aaiecaoeee e i?ioeaaeo?iua ia?u aeieaeiu ii?aaeaeyoue, eoi eiaao i?aai
iiiauaoue ia na?aa? CGI-i?ioeaaeo?u. AEanoeee eiio?ieue caeanue
iaiaoiaeei, iineieueeo auiieiaiea na?aa?ii iaei??aeoiie i?ia?aiiu iiaeao
i?eaanoe e neieue oaiaeii oyaeaeui iineaaenoaeyi. ?acoiiay ia?a
oaoie/aneiai oa?aeoa?a ninoieo a ieieiecaoeee i?eaeeaaee iieueciaaoaey,
io eiaie eioi?iai auiieiyaony Web-na?aa?.

A oaoiieiaee Intranet, anee caaioeoueny i ea/anoaa e au?aceoaeueiie
neea iieueciaaoaeueneiai eioa?oaena, aicieeaao ioaeaea a ia?aiauaiee
i?ia?aii n Web-na?aa?ia ia eeeaioneea eiiiuethoa?u – aeey nicaeaiey
aieiaoeee, auiieiaiey naiaioe/aneiai eiio?iey i?e aaiaea aeaiiuo e o.ae.
Aiiaua, aeoeaiua aaaiou – iaiouaieaiay /anoue oaoiieiaee Intranet.

A eaeii au iai?aaeaiee ie ia?aiauaeenue i?ia?aiiu ii naoe, yoe
aeaenoaey i?aaenoaaeytho iiauoaiioth iianiinoue, o.e. i?ia?aiia,
iieo/aiiay ec iaiaaeaaeiiai enoi/ieea, iiaeao niaea?aeaoue
iai?aaeiaia?aiii aianaiiua ioeaee eee oeaeaiai?aaeaiii nicaeaiiue
ceia?aaeiue eiae. Oaeay i?ia?aiia iioaioeeaeueii oa?iaeaao anai iniiaiui
aniaeoai eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe:

• aeinooiiinoe (i?ia?aiia iiaeao iiaeioeoue ana iaee/iua ?ano?nu);

• oeaeinoiinoe (i?ia?aiia iiaeao oaeaeeoue eee iia?aaeeoue aeaiiua);

• eiioeaeaioeeaeueiinoe (i?ia?aiia iiaeao i?i/eoaoue aeaiiua e
ia?aaeaoue eo ii naoe).

I?iaeaio iaiaaeaaeiuo i?ia?aii iniciaaaee aeaaii, ii, iiaeaeoe, oieueei
a ?aieao nenoaiu i?ia?aiie?iaaiey Java aia?aua i?aaeeiaeaia oeaeinoiay
eiioeaioeey aa ?aoaiey.

Java i?aaeeaaaao o?e iai?iieoaeueiuo ?oaaaea:

• iaaeaaeiinoue ycuea;

• eiio?ieue i?e iieo/aiee i?ia?aii;

• eiio?ieue i?e auiieiaiee i?ia?aii.

Ai?i/ai, nouanoaoao aua iaeii, i/aiue aaaeiia n?aaenoai iaania/aiey
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe – aani?aoeaaeaioiay ioe?uoinoue
Java-nenoaiu. Enoiaeiua oaenou Java-eiiieeyoi?a e eioa?i?aoaoi?a
aeinooiiu aeey i?iaa?ee, iiyoiio aaeeea aa?iyoiinoue, /oi ioeaee e
iaaei/aou ia?auie aoaeoo iaia?oaeeaaoue /anoiua niaoeeaeenou, a ia
ceioiuoeaiieee.

A eiioeaiooaeueiii ieaia iaeaieueoea o?oaeiinoe i?aaenoaaeyao
eiio?iee?oaiia auiieiaiea i?ia?aii, caa?oaeaiiuo ii naoe. I?aaeaea
anaai, iaiaoiaeeii ii?aaeaeeoue, eaeea aeaenoaey n/eoathony aeey oaeeo
i?ia?aii aeiionoeiuie. Anee enoiaeeoue ec oiai, /oi Java – yoi ycue aeey
iaienaiey eeeaioneeo /anoae i?eeiaeaiee, iaeiei ec iniiaiuo o?aaiaaiee e
eioi?ui yaeyaony iiaeeueiinoue, caa?oaeaiiay i?ia?aiia iiaeao
ianeoaeeaaoue oieueei iieueciaaoaeueneee eioa?oaen e inouanoaeyoue
naoaaia acaeiiaeaenoaea n na?aa?ii. I?ia?aiia ia iiaeao ?aaioaoue n
oaeeaie oioy au iioiio, /oi ia Java-oa?ieiaea eo, aiciiaeii, ia aoaeao.
Aieaa niaea?aeaoaeueiua aeaenoaey aeieaeiu i?iecaiaeeoueny ia na?aa?iie
noi?iia eee inouanoaeyoueny i?ia?aiiaie, eieaeueiuie aeey eeeaioneie
nenoaiu.

Eioa?aniue iiaeoiae i?aaeeaaatho niaoeeaeenou eiiiaiee Sun Microsystems
aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiiai auiieiaiey eiiaiaeiuo oaeeia. ?a/ue eaeao i
n?aaea Safe-Tcl (Tool Comman Language, eino?oiaioaeueiue eiiaiaeiue
ycue). Sun i?aaeeiaeeea oae iacuaaaioth y/aa/ioth iiaeaeue
eioa?i?aoaoeee eiiaiaeiuo oaeeia. Nouanoaoao aeaaiue eioa?i?aoaoi?,
eioi?iio aeinooiiu ana aiciiaeiinoe ycuea.

Anee a i?ioeanna ?aaiou i?eeiaeaiey iaiaoiaeeii auiieieoue niiieoaeueiue
eiiaiaeiue oaee, ii?iaeaeaaony iiae/eiaiiue eiiaiaeiue eioa?i?aoaoi?,
iaeaaeathuee ia?aie/aiiie ooieoeeiiaeueiinoueth (iai?eia?, ec iaai iiaoo
auoue oaeaeaiu n?aaenoaa ?aaiou n oaeeaie e naoaaua aiciiaeiinoe). A
?acoeueoaoa iioaioeeaeueii iianiua i?ia?aiiu ieacuaathony caeeth/aiiuie
a y/aeee, caueuathuea iieueciaaoaeueneea nenoaiu io a?aaeaeaaiuo
aeaenoaee. Aeey auiieiaiey aeaenoaee, eioi?ua n/eoathony
i?eaeeaae?iaaiiuie, iiae/eiaiiue eioa?i?aoaoi? iiaeao ia?auaoueny n
cai?inaie e aeaaiiio. Caeanue, i/aaeaeii, i?iniao?eaaaony aiaeiaey n
?acaeaeaieai aae?aniuo i?ino?ainoa iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu e
iieueciaaoaeueneeo i?ioeannia e eniieueciaaieai iineaaeieie nenoaiiuo
auciaia. Iiaeiaiay iiaeaeue oaea ieiei 30 eao yaeyaony noaiaea?oiie
aeey iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneeo IN.

CAUEOA WEB-NA?AA?IA

Ia?yaeo n iaania/aieai aaciianiinoe i?ia?aiiiie n?aaeu (ni.
i?aaeuaeouee ?acaeae), aaaeiaeoei aoaeao aii?in i ?aca?aie/aiee aeinooia
e iauaeoai Web-na?aena. Aeey ?aoaiey yoiai aii?ina iaiaoiaeeii oynieoue,
/oi yaeyaony iauaeoii, eae eaeaioeoeoee?othony noauaeou e eaeay iiaeaeue
oi?aaeaiey aeinooiii – i?eioaeeoaeueiay eee i?iecaieueiay – i?eiaiyaony.

A Web-na?aa?ao iauaeoaie aeinooia aunooiatho oieaa?naeueiua eieaoi?u
?ano?nia (URL – Uniform (Universal) Resource Locator). Ca yoeie
eieaoi?aie iiaoo noiyoue ?acee/iua nouiinoe – HTML-oaeeu,
CGI-i?ioeaaeo?u e o.i.

Eae i?aaeei, noauaeou aeinooia eaeaioeoeoee?othony ii IP-aae?anai e/eee
eiaiai eiiiuethoa?ia e iaeanoae oi?aaeaiey. E?iia oiai, iiaeao
eniieueciaaoueny ia?ieueiay aooaioeoeeaoeey iieueciaaoaeae eee aieaa
neiaeiua noaiu, iniiaaiiua ia e?eioia?aoe/aneeo oaoiieiaeyo.

A aieueoeinoaa Web-na?aa?ia i?aaa ?aca?aie/eaathony n oi/iinoueth aei
eaoaeiaia (aee?aeoi?ee) n i?eiaiaieai i?iecaieueiiai oi?aaeaiey
aeinooiii. Iiaoo i?aaeinoaaeyoueny i?aaa ia /oaiea HTML-oaeeia,
auiieiaiea CGI-i?ioeaaeo? e o.ae.

Aeey ?aiiaai auyaeaiey iiiuoie iaeaaaeueiiai i?iieeiiaaiey a Web-na?aa?
aaaeai ?aaoey?iue aiaeec ?aaeno?aoeeiiiie eioi?iaoeee.

?acoiaaony, caueoa nenoaiu, ia eioi?ie ooieoeeiie?oao Web-na?aa?,
aeieaeia neaaeiaaoue oieaa?naeueiui ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyi, aeaaiie ec eioi?uo
yaeyaony iaeneiaeueiia oi?iuaiea. Ana iaioaeiua na?aenu, oaeeu,
ono?ienoaa aeieaeiu auoue oaeaeaiu. *enei iieueciaaoaeae, eiathueo
i?yiie aeinooi e na?aa?o, aeieaeii auoue naaaeaii e ieieioio, a eo
i?eaeeaaee – oii?yaei/aiu a niioaaonoaee ni neoaeaaiuie iaycaiiinoyie.

Aua iaeei iauee i?eioeei ninoieo a oii, /oiau ieieiece?iaaoue iauai
eioi?iaoeee i na?aa?a, eioi?oth iiaoo iieo/eoue iieueciaaoaee. Iiiaea
na?aa?u a neo/aa ia?auaiey ii eiaie eaoaeiaa e ionoonoaey oaeea
index.HTML a iai, auaeatho HTML-aa?eaio iaeaaeaiey eaoaeiaa. A yoii
iaeaaeaiee iiaoo ano?aoeoueny eiaia oaeeia n enoiaeiuie oaenoaie
CGI-i?ioeaaeo? eee n eiie eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie eioi?iaoeeae. Oaeiai ?iaea
“aeiiieieoaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe” oeaeaniia?acii ioeeth/aoue, iineieueeo
eeoiaa ciaiea (ceioiuoeaiieea) oiiiaeaao ia/aee (aeaaeaeueoea na?aa?a).

AOOAIOEOEEAOeEss A IOE?UOUO NAOssO

Iaoiaeu, i?eiaiyaiua a ioe?uouo naoyo aeey iiaeoaa?aeaeaiey e i?iaa?ee
iiaeeeiiinoe noauaeoia, aeieaeiu auoue onoie/eau e ianneaiiio e
aeoeaiiio i?ineooeaaieth naoe. Nooue eo naiaeeony e neaaeothuaio.

• Noauaeo aeaiiino?e?oao ciaiea nae?aoiiai eeth/a, i?e yoii eeth/ eeai
aiiaua ia ia?aaeaaony ii naoe, eeai ia?aaeaaony a caoeo?iaaiiii aeaea.

• Noauaeo aeaiiino?e?oao iaeaaeaiea i?ia?aiiiui eee aiia?aoiui
n?aaenoaii aaia?aoeee iaeii?aciauo ia?ieae eee n?aaenoaii, ?aaioathuei a
?aaeeia “cai?in-ioaao”. Iao?oaeii caiaoeoue, /oi ia?aoaao e
iineaaeothuaa aini?iecaaaeaiea iaeii?aciaiai ia?iey eee ioaaoa ia cai?in
ie/aai ia aeaao ceioiuoeaiieeo.

• Noauaeo aeaiiino?e?oao iiaeeeiiinoue naiaai ianoiiieiaeaiey, i?e yoii
eniieuecoaony nenoaia iaaeaaoeeiiiuo niooieeia.

AE?OOAEUeIUA *ANOIUA NAOE

Iaeiie ec aaaeiaeoeo caaea/ yaeyaony caueoa iioieia ei?ii?aoeaiuo
aeaiiuo,ia?aaeaaaaiuo ii ioe?uoui naoyi. Ioe?uoua eaiaeu iiaoo auoue
iaaeaaeii caueuaiueeoue iaeiei iaoiaeii – e?eioia?aoe/aneei.

Ioiaoei, /oi oae iacuaaaiua auaeaeaiiua eeiee ia iaeaaeatho iniauie
i?aeiouanoaaie ia?aae eeieyie iauaai iieueciaaiey a ieaia
eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe. Auaeaeaiiua eeiee oioy au /anoe/ii aoaeoo
?aniieaaaoueny a iaeiio?iee?oaiie ciia, aaea eo iiaoo iia?aaeeoue eee
inouanoaeoue e iei ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiia iiaeeeth/aiea. Aaeeinoaaiiia
?aaeueiia aeinoieinoai – yoi aa?aioe?iaaiiay i?iioneiay niiniaiinoue
auaeaeaiiuo eeiee, a aiana ia eaeay-oi iiauoaiiay caueuaiiinoue.
Ai?i/ai, nia?aiaiiua iioiaieieiiiua eaiaeu niiniaiu oaeiaeaoai?eoue
iio?aaiinoe iiiaeo aaiiaioia, iiyoiio e oeacaiiia aeinoieinoai ia
anaaaea iaea/aii a ?aaeueioth oi?io.

Ethaiiuoii oiiiyiooue, /oi a ie?iia a?aiy 95% o?aoeea Ieienoa?noaa
iai?iiu NOA ia?aaeaaony /a?ac naoe iauaai iieueciaaiey (a /anoiinoe
/a?ac Internet). A aiaiiia a?aiy yoa aeiey aeieaeia ninoaaeyoue “eeoue”
70%. Iiaeii i?aaeiieiaeeoue, /oi Iaioaaii – ia naiay aaaeiay
i?aaiecaoeey. Aia?eeaineea aiaiiua iieaaathony ia naoe iauaai
iieueciaaiey iioiio, /oi ?acaeaaoue nianoaaiioth eio?ano?oeoo?o a
oneiaeyo auno?uo oaoiieiae/aneeo eciaiaiee – caiyoea i/aiue aei?iaia e
aania?niaeoeaiia, ii?aaaeaiiia aeaaea aeey e?eoe/anee aaaeiuo
iaoeeiiaeueiuo i?aaiecaoeee oieueei a eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo.

I?aaenoaaeyaony anoanoaaiiui aiceiaeeoue ia iaaenaoaaie ye?ai caaea/o
oeo?iaaiey e aeaoeo?iaaiey ei?ii?aoeaiiai o?aoeea ia iooe ai aiaoithth
naoue e ec iaa. *oiau oaeia oeo?iaaiea/aeaoeo?iaaiea noaei aiciiaeiui,
aeieaeii i?iecieoe ia/aeueiia ?ani?aaeaeaiea eeth/ae. Nia?aiaiiua
e?eioia?aoe/aneea oaoiieiaee i?aaeeaaatho aeey yoiai oeaeue ?yae
iaoiaeia.

Iinea oiai eae iaaenaoaaua ye?aiu inouanoaeee e?eioia?aoe/aneia
cae?uoea ei?ii?aoeaiuo iioieia aeaiiuo, oa??eoi?eaeueiay ?acianaiiinoue
naaiaioia naoe i?iyaeyaony eeoue a ?aciie nei?inoe iaiaia n ?aciuie
naaiaioaie. A inoaeueiii any naoue auaeyaeeo eae aaeeiia oeaeia, a io
aaiiaioia ia o?aaoaony i?eaea/aiea eaeeo-eeai aeiiieieoaeueiuo caueoiuo
n?aaenoa.

I?INOIOA E IAeII?IAeIINOUe A?OEOAEOO?U

Aaaeiaeoei aniaeoii eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe yaeyaony
oi?aaeyaiinoue nenoaiu. Oi?aaeyaiinoue – yoi e iiaeaea?aeaiea aunieie
aeinooiiinoe nenoaiu ca n/ao ?aiiaai auyaeaiey e eeeaeaeaoeee i?iaeai, e
aiciiaeiinoue eciaiaiey aiia?aoiie e i?ia?aiiiie eiioeao?aoeee a
niioaaonoaee n eciaieaoeieny oneiaeyie eee iio?aaiinoyie, e iiiaauaiea i
iiiuoeao ia?ooaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe i?aeoe/anee a ?aaeueiii
a?aiaie, e nieaeaiea /enea ioeaie aaeieieno?e?iaaiey, e iiiaia, iiiaia
ae?oaia.

Iaeaieaa ino?i i?iaeaia oi?aaeyaiinoe anoaao ia eeeaioneeo ?aai/eo
ianoao e ia nouea eeeaioneie e na?aa?iie /anoae eioi?iaoeeiiiie nenoaiu.
I?e/eia i?inoa – eeeaioneeo iano ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai na?aa?iuo, iie,
eae i?aaeei, ?aca?inaiu ii cia/eoaeueii aieueoae ieiuaaee, eo
eniieuecotho ethaee n ?aciie eaaeeoeeaoeeae e i?eau/eaie. Ianeoaeeaaiea
e aaeieieno?e?iaaiea eeeaioneeo ?aai/eo iano – caiyoea /?acau/aeii
neiaeiia, aei?iaia e /?aaaoia ioeaeaie. Oaoiieiaey Intranet ca n/ao
i?inoiou e iaeii?iaeiinoe a?oeoaeoo?u iicaieyao naeaeaoue noieiinoue
aaeieieno?e?iaaiey eeeaioneiai ?aai/aai ianoa i?aeoe/anee ioeaaie.
Aaaeii e oi, /oi caiaia e iiaoi?iue aaiae a yenieoaoaoeeth eeeaioneiai
eiiiuethoa?a iiaoo auoue inouanoaeaiu i/aiue auno?i, iineieueeo yoi
“eeeaiou aac ninoiyiey”, o ieo iao ie/aai, /oi o?aaiaaei au
aeeeoaeueiiai ainnoaiiaeaiey eee eiioeao?e?iaaiey.

Ia nouea eeeaioneie e na?aa?iie /anoae Intranet-nenoaiu iaoiaeeony
Web-na?aa?. Yoi iicaieyao eiaoue aaeeiue iaoaieci ?aaeno?aoeee
iieueciaaoaeae e iaaeaeaiey eo i?aaaie aeinooia n iineaaeothuei
oeaio?aeeciaaiiui aaeieieno?e?iaaieai. Acaeiiaeaenoaea n iiiai/eneaiiuie
?acii?iaeiuie na?aenaie ieacuaaaony ne?uoui ia oieueei io
iieueciaaoaeae, ii e a cia/eoaeueiie noaiaie io nenoaiiiai
aaeieieno?aoi?a.

Caaea/a iaania/aiey eioi?iaoeeiiiie aaciianiinoe a Intranet ieacuaaaony
aieaa i?inoie, /ai a neo/aa i?iecaieueiuo ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo nenoai,
iino?iaiiuo a a?oeoaeoo?a eeeaio/na?aa?. I?e/eia oiio – iaeii?iaeiinoue
e i?inoioa a?oeoaeoo?u Intranet. Anee ?ac?aaio/eee i?eeeaaeiuo nenoai
noiatho a iieiie ia?a ainiieueciaaoueny yoei i?aeiouanoaii, oi ia
i?ia?aiiii-oaoie/aneii o?iaia ei aoaeao aeinoaoi/ii ianeieueeeo
iaaei?iaeo e i?inouo a inaiaiee i?iaeoeoia. I?aaaea, e yoiio iaiaoiaeeii
i?eniaieoieoue i?iaeoiaiioth iieeoeeo aaciianiinoe e oeaeinoiue iaai?
ia? i?ioeaaeo?iiai o?iaiy.

Caeeth/aiea

A i?ioeanna aeeieiiiiai i?iaeoe?iaaiey auee enneaaeiaaiu 15 iaeaoia
aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. A iaeaoao aaiiaioneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey eco/aeenue eo aiciiaeiinoe a iia?aoeeiiiuo
n?aaeao MS-DOS e MS-Windows, iaoiaeu iano?ieee, ?aaeeiu ?aaiou, a oaeaea
i?inoioa ooieoeeiie?iaaiey. Ii ?acoeueoaoai enneaaeiaaiee aeey eaaeaeiai
iaeaoa aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey auee aeaiu ?aeiiaiaeaoeee i
aiciiaeiinoe eniieueciaaiey oiai eee eiiai iaeaoa a aeiaaeueiie
eioi?iaoeeiiiie naoe ?aaioathuae ia aaca i?ioieieia TCP\IP.

Aeey n?aaiaiey iaeaoia aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey iaaeaeo
niaie e auai?a eo/oaai auea iaienaia i?ia?aiia yenia?oiiai auai?a.

Ia iniiaaiee i?iaaaeaiiuo enneaaeiaaiee iiaeii naeaeaoue neaaeothuea
auaiaeu.

Aeey iia?aoeeiiiie n?aaeu MS-DOS eo/oei iaeaoii aaiiaioneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey n oi/ee c?aiey iieueciaaoaey yaeyaony iaeao
Minuet, ?ac?aaioaiiue oieaa?neoaoii Ieiianiou (NOA). Iaeao Minuet
iaeaaeaao iieiui niaeo?ii oneoa naoe Internet, a oaeaea ioee/iui
iieueciaaoaeueneei eioa?oaenii. Minuet i?ino a eniieueciaaiee, iiaeao
?aaioaoue eae ii EAN oae e ii eiiiooe?oaiui eeieyi e, naiia aeaaiia,
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea naieo aiaeiaia. Aac niiiaiey iaeao Minuet a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy yaeyaony eo/oei aaiiaioneei iaeaoii aeey IN MS-DOS. Ii
iiaeao auoue ?aeiiaiaeiaai i?aeoe/anee anai eaoaai?eyi aaiiaioia naoe.

Aeey iia?aoeeiiiie n?aaeu MS-DOS eo/oei iaeaoii aaiiaioneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey n oi/ee c?aiey niaoeeaeenoa yaeyaony iaeao
KA9Q. Iaeao KA9Q ?ani?ino?aiyaony aianoa n enoiaeiuie oaenoaie e eiaao a
naiai ninoaaa aanue niaeo? naoaauo oneoa, ii iiaeao auoue ?aeiiaiaeiaai
niaoeeaeenoai naoe a ea/anoaa enoiaeiiai iaoa?eaea i?e ?ac?aaioea iiaiai
iaeaoa aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Aeey iia?aoeeiiiie n?aaeu MS-Windows eo/oei iaeaoii aaiiaioneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey iiaeao auoue i?eciai iaeao Chameleon,
yaeythueeny ?ac?aaioeie oe?iu NetManage (COA). Iaeao Chameleon iaeaaeaao
iieiui iaai?ii oneoa naoe Internet. E?iia yoiai Chameleon eiaao a naiai
ninoaaa NFS-na?aa?, a oaeaea iiaeao ?aaioaoue ia?o?ooecaoi?ii naoe. Ia
naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue Chameleon iiaeao auoue i?eciai eo/oei iaeaoii aeey
iia?aoeeiiiie n?aaeu MS Windows. Iaeao Chameleon iiaeao auoue
?aeiiaiaeiaai oai aaiiaioai naoe, eioi?ui iaiaoiaeei iaeao aaiiaioneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeey MS-Windows. Ii oaeaea iiaeao auoue
?aeiiaiaeiaai a ea/anoaa ia?o?ooecaoi?a aeey nayce iaaieueoie EAN n
naoueth

Eo/oei ii/oiaui iaeaoii aeey iia?aoeeiiiie n?aaeu MS-DOS yaeyaony
aaconeiaii iaeao MAIL2, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie PC-oeaio? Oaoii (?inney).
Iaeao Mail2 iaeaaeaao ioee/iui iieueciaaoaeueneei eioa?oaenii, i?ino a
iano?ieea e iaaei?ia. Ii iiaeao ?aaioaoue eae a EAN, oae e ii
eiiiooe?oaiui eeieyi. Ii iiaeao ?aeiiaiaeiaaoueny anai eaoaai?eyi
iieueciaaoaeae naoe.

Eo/oei ii/oiaui iaeaoii aeey iia?aoeeiiiie n?aaeu MS-Windows iiaeii
n/eoaoue iaeao DMail for Windows, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Aeaiin (?inney).
Iaeao DMail iiaeao auoue ?aeiiaiaeiaai e eniieueciaaieth oai aaiiaioai,
eioi?ua ioaeaeathony a yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa e i?eaueee ?aaioaoue a n?aaea
Windows.

Eo/oei iaeaoii aeey iaeaieaa iieiiai eniieueciaaiey eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
?ano?nia naoe Internet yaeyaony iaeao Mosaic, ?ac?aaioaiiue NCSA
(National Centre of Supercomputing Applications) COA. Mosaic – iaeaieaa
iiuiue eino?oiaio aeey iooaoanoaey ii naoe Internet. N iiiiuueth Mosaic
iieueciaaoaee iiaoo iieo/aoue aeinooi e aeia?oaenoiaui aeaeeioaeai WWW,
e iau/iui aacai aeaiiuo naoe Internet e nenoaiai iienea eioi?iaoeee a
ieo.

A oiaea aeeieiiiiai i?aeoe?iaaiey aeey iaeaoia Minuet, Mail2 e auee
?ac?aaioaiu eino?oeoeee ii onoaiiaea e yenieoaoaoeee aeaiiuo iaeaoia
aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Iaeaou Chameleon e Dmail
i?iaeathony aianoa n iieiui eiiieaeoii oe?iaiiie aeieoiaioaoeee, iaeao
Mosaic ?ani?ino?aiyaony naiaiaeii aianoa n aeiaieueii iieiie
aeieoiaioaoeeae.

Nienie niaoeeaeueiuo oa?ieiia

Aiaeeeneea oa?ieiu

Alta Vista – iaeei ec iiuiaeoeo iieneiauo na?aa?ia Internet.

Archie – a?oea. Nenoaia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey oaeeia a
ioaee/iuo a?oeaao naoe Internet.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – i?ioieie ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana,
i?aia?acoao aae?an eiiiuethoa?a a naoe Internet a aai oece/aneee aae?an.

ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) – ath?i i?iaeoia ia?aaeiauo
enneaaeiaaiee ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.

ARPANET – yenia?aiaioaeueiay naoue, ?aaioaaoay a naieaeanyoua aiaeu, ia
eioi?ie i?iaa?yeenue oai?aoe/aneay aaca e i?ia?aiiia iaania/aiea,
iieiaeaiua a iniiao Internet. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia nouanoaoao.

Bps (bit per second) – aeo a naeoiaeo. Aaeeieoea ecia?aiey i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe eeiee nayce. I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue eeiee nayce
ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaeaaaaiie ii eeiee ca
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie.

Cisco – ia?o?ooecaoi?, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Cisco-Systems.

DNS (Domain Name System) – aeiiaiiay nenoaia eiai. ?ani?aaeaeaiiay
nenoaia aac aeaiiuo aeey ia?aaiaea eiai eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe Internet a
eo IP-aae?ana.

Ethernet – oei eieaeueiie naoe. Oi?ioa ?aciiia?aceai oeiia i?iaiaeia
aeey niaaeeiaiee, iaania/eaathueo i?iioneiua niiniaiinoe io 2 aei 10
ieeeeiiia bps(2-10 Mbps). Aeiaieueii /anoi eiiiuethoa?u, eniieuecothuea
i?ioieieu TCP/IP, /a?ac Ethernet iiaeniaaeeiythony e Internet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia, i?ioieie,
ii?aaeaeythuee i?aaeea ia?anueee oaeeia n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
ae?oaie.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Qustions) – /anoi caaeaaaaiua aii?inu. ?acaeae
ioaee/iuo a?oeaia naoe Internet a eioi?ii o?aieony eioi?iaoeey aeey
“ia/eiathueo” iieueciaaoaeae naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Gopher – eioa?aeoeaiay iaiei/ea aeey iienea, i?eniaaeeiaiey e
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e aiciiaeiinoae Internet. Eioa?oaen n
iieueciaaoaeai inouanoaeai /a?ac nenoaio iaith.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)- ycue aeey iaienaiey aeia?oaenoiauo
aeieoiaioia. Iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue – iaee/ea aeia?oaenoiauo naycae
iaaeaeo aeieoiaioaie iaoiaeyueieny a ?acee/iuo a?oeaao naoe; aeaaiaea?y
yoei naycyi iiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ai a?aiy i?iniio?a iaeiiai
aeieoiaioa ia?aoiaeeoue e ae?oaei aeieoiaioai.

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue.

internet – oaoiieiaey naoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie
?aciuo oeiia.

IP (Internet Protocol) – i?ioieie iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, naiue
aaaeiue ec i?ioieieia naoe Internet, iaania/eaaao ia?o?ooecaoeeth
iaeaoia a naoe.

I?-aae?an – oieeaeueiue 32-aeoiue aae?an eaaeaeiai eiiiuethoa?a a naoe
Internet.

Iptunnel – iaeia ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii naoe Internet. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e na?aa?o EAN NetWare n eioi?ui iao
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce ii EAN, a eiaaony eeoue naycue ii naoe Internet.

Lpr – naoaaay ia/aoue. Eiiaiaea ioi?aaee oaeea ia ia/aoue ia oaeaeaiiii
i?eioa?a.

Lpq – naoaaay ia/aoue. Iieacuaaao oaeeu noiyuea a i/a?aaee ia ia/aoue.

NetBlazer – ia?o?ooecaoi?, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Telebit.

NetWare – naoaaay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, ?ac?aaioaiiay oe?iie Novell;
iicaieyao no?ieoue EAN iniiaaiioth ia i?eioeeia acaeiiaeaenoaey
eeeaio-na?aa?. Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo na?aa?ii e eeeaioii a EAN NetWare
i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa nianoaaiiuo i?ioieieia (IPX), oai ia iaiaa
i?ioieieu TCP/IP oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaathony.

NFS (Network File System) – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay oaeeiaay nenoaia.
I?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey oaeeiaie nenoaiu oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a a ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiiai IAEIAe.

NNTP (Net News Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e naoaauo iiainoae.
Iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea naoaauo iiainoae e yeaeo?iiiuo aeinie iauyaeaiee
naoe e aiciiaeiinoue iiiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe.

Ping – ooeeeoa i?iaa?ea nayce n oaeaeaiiie YAI.

POP (Post Office Protocol) – i?ioieie “ii/oiaue iooen”. Eniieuecoaony
aeey iaiaia ii/oie iaaeaeo oinoii e aaiiaioaie. Iniaaiiinoue i?ioieiea –
iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie ii cai?ino io aaiiaioa.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol) – i?ioieie eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy iicaieythuee
eniieueciaaoue aeey auoiaea a Internet iau/iua iiaeaiiua eeiee.
Ioiineoaeueii iiaue i?ioieie, yaeyaony aiaeiaii SLIP.

RAM (Random Acsess Memory) – iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue.

RFC (Requests For Comments) – cai?inu eiiiaioa?eaa. ?acaeae ioaee/iuo
a?oeaia naoe Internet a eioi?ii o?aieony eioi?iaoeey i anao noaiaea?oiuo
i?ioieieao naoe Internet.

Rexec (Remote Execution) – auiieiaiea iaeiie eiiaiaeu ia oaeaeaiiie
UNIX-iaoeia.

Rsh (Remote Shell) – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aiaeia Telnet, ii ?aaioaao
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a noieo IN UNIX.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) – i?ioieie eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy
iicaieythuee eniieueciaaoue aeey auoiaea a Internet iau/iua iiaeaiiua
eeiee.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – i?inoie i?ioieie ia?aaea/e ii/ou.
Iniiaiiay iniaaiiinoue i?ioieiea SMTP – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie
i?ienoiaeeo ia ii cai?ino iaeiiai ec oinoia, a /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
(eaaeaeua 20 – 30 ieioo). Ii/oa iaaeaeo oinoaie a Internet ia?aaeaaony
ia iniiaa i?ioieiea SMTP.

Talk – iaeia ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii naoe Internet. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ioe?uoey “?acaiai?a” n iieueciaaoaeai oaeaeaiiie YAI. I?e yoii ia ye?aia
iaeiia?aiaiii ia/aoaaony aaiaeeiue oaeno e ioaao oaeaeaiiiai
iieueciaaoaey.

Telnet – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ?aaioaoue ia
ethaie YAI naoe Internet eae ia naiae nianoaaiiie.

TCP\IP – iiae TCP\IP iau/ii iiieiaaony ana iiiaeanoai i?ioieieia
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo a naoe Internet.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – i?ioieie eio?iey ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee a naoe. TCP – i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, iaeei ec
iniiaiuo i?ioieieia naoe Internet. Ioaa/aao ca onoaiiaeaiea e
iiaeaea?aeaiea ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea (o.a. eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey), a
oaeaea ca aacioeai/ioth ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee ii eaiaeo.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) – i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, a ioee/ea
io i?ioieiea TCP ia iaania/eaaao aacioeai/iie ia?aaea/e iaeaoa.

Unix – iiiaicaaea/iay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, iniiaiay iia?aoeeiiiay
n?aaea a naoe Internet. Eiaao ?acee/iua ?aaeecaoeee: Unix-BSD,
Unix-Ware, Unix-Interactive.

UUCP – i?ioieie eiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee n iaeiiai Unix-oinoa ia ae?oaie.
UUCP – ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa i?ioieieia TCP/IP, ii oai ia iaiaa ana-aua
oe?iei eniieuecoaony a naoe Internet. Ia iniiaa i?ioieiea UUCP –
iino?iaiu iiiaea nenoaiu iaiaia ii/oie, aei neo ii? eniieuecoaiua a
naoe.

VERONICA (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Archives)
– nenoaia iienea eioi?iaoeee a ioaee/iuo a?oeaao naoe Internet ii
eeth/aaui neiaai.

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) – iiuiay nenoaia iienea eioi?iaoeee
a aacao aeaiiuo naoe Internet ii eeth/aaui neiaai.

WWW (World Wide Web) – anaie?iay iaooeia. Nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo aac
aeaiiuo, iaeaaeathueo aeia?oaenoiauie naycyie iaaeaeo aeieoiaioaie.

Whois – aae?aniay eieaa naoe Internet.

Webster – naoaaay aa?ney oieeiaiai neiaa?y aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

?onneea oa?ieiu

Ae?aeaa? – caa?oaeaaiay a iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue i?ia?aiia, oi?aaeythuay
iaiaiii aeaiiuie iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie e aiaoieie
ono?ienoaaie.

Aeia?oaeno – aeieoiaio, eiathuee nayce n ae?oaeie aeieoiaioaie /a?ac
nenoaio auaeaeaiiuo neia (nnueie). Aeia?oaeno niaaeeiyao ?acee/iua
aeieoiaiou ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai iaai?a neia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea a
oaenoa ano?a/aaony iiaia neiai eee iiiyoea, nenoaia, ?aaioathuay n
aeia?oaenoii, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e ae?oaiio aeieoiaioo, a
eioi?ii yoi neiai eee iiiyoea ?anniao?eaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii.

EAN – eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue.

Ia?o?ooecaoi? (router) – eiiiuethoa? naoe, caieiathueeny ia?o?ooecaoeeae
iaeaoia a naoe, oi anoue auai?ii e?ao/aeoaai ia?o?ooa neaaeiaaiey
iaeaoia ii naoe.

Iiaeai – ono?ienoai i?iaa?acothuaa oeeo?iaua neaiaeu a aiaeiaiaoth oi?io
e ia?aoii. Eniieuecoaony aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ii aiaeiaiaui eeieyi nayce.

IAEIAe – iaeiieoaee ia aeanoeii iaaieoiii aeenea.

I?ioieie – niaieoiiinoue i?aaee e niaeaoaiee, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo oi?iao e
i?ioeaaeo?o iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie iacaaeneiuie ono?ienoaaie
eee i?ioeannaie. Noaiaea?oiua i?ioieieu iicaieytho naycuaaony iaaeaeo
niaie eiiiuethoa?ai ?aciuo oeiia, ?aaioathuei a ?aciuo iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoaiao.

?ano?n – eiae/aneay eee oece/aneay /anoue nenoaiu, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
auaeaeaia iieueciaaoaeth eee i?ioeanno.

Na?aa? – i?ia?aiia aeey naoaaiai eiiiuethoa?a, iicaieythuay
i?aaeinoaaeoue oneoae iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o.
Ianeoaeeaaaiua eiiiuethoa?u niiauathony n na?aa?-i?ia?aiiie i?e iiiiue
iieueciaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu (eeeaio-i?ia?aiiu). Kiiiuethoa? a naoe,
i?aaeinoaaeythuee naie oneoae ae?oaei, oi anoue auiieiythuee
ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee ii cai?inai ae?oaeo.

Ocae – eiiiuethoa? a naoe, auiieiythuee iniiaiua naoaaua ooieoeee
(ianeoaeeaaiea naoe, ia?aaea/a niiauaiee e o.i.).

Oino – naoaaay ?aai/ay iaoeia; aeaaiay YAI. Naoaaie eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ue
iiieii naoaauo ooieoeee (ianeoaeeaaiea naoe, ia?aaea/a niiauaiee)
auiieiyao iieueciaaoaeueneea caaeaiey (i?ia?aiiu, ?an/aou, au/eneaiey).

Oethc – noaioeey nayce n aiaoiae eee ae?oaie naoueth. Iiaeao
iaania/eaaoue naycue ianiaianoeiuo naoae, a oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea
ianiaianoeiuo i?eeiaeaiee a ?aieao iaeiie naoe.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie n ethaui aaiiaioii naoe
Internet.

Eniieueciaaiiua enoi/ieee

1. A?aoi N. “Iicaeea” e “Anaie?iay iaooeia” aeey aeinooia e Internet:
Ia?. c aiae. – I.: Ie?: Iaeei: NE I?ann, 1996. – 167c.

2. Aaeeiae/ A., Ia?oei A. Aaciianiinoue yeaeo?iiiuo aaieianeeo nenoai.
– I.: “Aaeeiay Aa?iia”, 1994. – 264 c.

3. Aeenoa? I. Iiaue iaaeaaoi? Internet: Ia? n aiae. -Eeaa:
Aeeaeaeoeea, 1996. – 495 c.

4. Eaa? A. ?aaioa a Internet / Iiae ?aae. A. Oeoiiiaa; Ia?. c aiae. –
I.: AEIII, 1996. – 313 c.

5. Eaio I. Internet / Ia?. c aiae. A.E. A?eai?ueaaa. – I.:
Eiiiuethoa?, THIEOE, 1996. – 267 c.

6. Eieanieeia I.Y. Eioa?iao aeey aeaeiaiai /aeiaaea. – M.: IOeO.
Ecaeao. oe?ia “ssoca”, 1996. – 281 c.

7. E?ie Yae. Ana ia Internet: ?oeiaiaenoai e eaoaeia / Ia?. c aiae.
N.I. Oeia/aaa. – Eeaa: BNV, 1995. 591 c.

8. Eaaei A.E. Caueoa eioi?iaoeee a eioi?iaoeeiiii-au/eneeoaeueiuo
cenoaiao e naoyo // I?ia?aiie?iaaiea. – 1994. – N5. – C. 5-16.

9. Iieueaeai I. Aao ia?aue auoiae a Internet: Aeey ia/eiathueo
ieueciaaoaeae Internet e oe?ieiai e?oaa iieueciaaoaeae PC / Ae. ?aae.
A.A. Eiiaeoeiaa; Ia? n iai. E.A. Oeiaea?. – Nia.: EEN, 1996. – 238 n.

10. I?iaeoeou aiaea // LAN – ?onneia ecaeaiea. – ai?aeue 1995. – oii 1.
– iiia? 1. – C. 6-25.

11. Ia eioi?iaoeee, eioi?iaoecaoeee e caueoa eioi?iaoeee: Oaaea?aeueiue
Caeii // ?inneeneay aacaoa. – 1995. – 22 oaa?aey. – C. 4.

12. O?ieia A.A., O?ieia A.A. Aeiaaeueiua naoe eiiiuethoa?ia.
I?aeoe/aneia aaaaeaiea a Internet, E-mail, FTP, WWW, e HTML,
i?ia?aiie?iaaiea aeey Windiws Sockets. – Aeeaeia – IEOE, 1996. – 283 c.

13. Oiieeao Ae. Internet Windows 95: ?oeiaiaenoai iieueciaaoaey / Ia?.
n aiae. A. Iaeethaeiaa. – I.: AEIII, 1996. – 334 n.

14. Cheswick W.R., Bellovin S.M. Firewalls and Internet Security:
Repelling the Wily Hacker. – Addison-Wesley, 1994. – 275 c.

15. An Introduction to Computer Security: The NIST Handbook. Draft. –
National Institute of Standards and Technology, Technology
Administration, U.S. Department of Commerce, 1994. – 310 c.

PAGE

PAGE 6

Нашли опечатку? Выделите и нажмите CTRL+Enter

Похожие документы
Обсуждение

Оставить комментарий

avatar
  Подписаться  
Уведомление о
Заказать реферат
UkrReferat.com. Всі права захищені. 2000-2019