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Windows NT – ОС нового поколения

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?aoa?ao ia oaio :

Windows NT – OC iiaiai iieieaiey !

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Ia aeaiiue iiiaio ie?iaay eiiiuethoa?iay eiaeono?ey ?acaeaaaony i/aiue
no?aieoaeueii .I?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoue nenoai aic?anoaao ,a neaaeiaaoaeue-

ii aic?anoatho aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaioee aieueoeo iau?iia aeaiiuo .

Iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu eeanna MS-DOSa oaea ia ni?aaeythony n oaeei

iioieii aeaiiuo e ia iiaoo oeaeeeii eniieueciaaoue ?ano?nu nia?aiaiiuo
eii-

iuethoa?ia .Iiyoiio a iineaaeiaa a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo ia?aoiae ia aieaa
iiuiua

e iaeaieaa niaa?oaiiua iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu eeanna UNIX , i?eia?ii ei-

oi?uo e yaeyaony Windows NT ,auiouaiiay ei?ii?aoeeae Microsoft .

I?aaeaea /ai ia/aoue aiai?eoue i Windows NT y oioae au
i?aaeeiaeeoue

noaoueth ec aaeaiaaeaeueieea ComputerWeek Moscow io 1-7 oaa?aey 1996
,eioi-

?ay au?aaeaao iiaiea i?iecaiaeeoaeae eiiiuethoa?iuo nenoai ii
aii?ino i

ia?niaeoeaiinoe Windows NT :

“ I?iecaiaeeoaee eiiiuethoa?ia aiceaaatho

aieueoea iaaeaaeaeu ia NT .

I?iecaiaeeoaee aioiau ia?ooeoue ia ?uiie eaaeio ?aai/eo noaioeee e
na?aa?ia n i?aaeaa?eoaeueii onoaiiaeaiiuie Windows NT e Gibraltar ,
iiaui

na?aa?iui II aeey Internet . Microsoft ia ioaeeeoao aeaiiua ia
einoaee?iaai-

iie aaca NT ,iaeiaei ooaa?aeaeaao ,/oi aieaa 40 eiiiaiee niae?athony
eniieue-

ciaaoue NT Workstation a ea/anoaa IN aieaa /ai ia 10.000 IE .E oiio
aea ,ii

aeaiiui ianeieueeeo eiinaeoeiaiauo oe?i , a ianyoe i?iaea?ony aieaa
30.000

eiiee IN NT Server .Yoe oeeo?u canoaaeytho caaeoiaoueny i oii ,eae
au ia

iiicaeaoue .

“Nii?o iao ,NT – yoi oaea/a Microsoft “ , – n/eoaao Ia?ena Oaein
,ia-

/aeiee ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa i?iaeoeoia MIPS – NT eiiiaiee NEC
Technologies .

Aio ii/aio Compaq , Dell ,Gateway 2000 ,NEC ,NetFrame e ae?oaea
i?iecaiaee-

oaee eiiiuethoa?ia i?aaenoaaeytho iiaua NT – nenoaiu .

11 aeaeaa?y NEC ia?aoea a ianooieaiea iaeiia?aiaiii ia ?uiea na?-

aa?ia e ianoieueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia , auionoea RISC server 2250 e RISC
station

2250 .Noieiinoue nenoai – io 5500 aei 23500 US$ , eo eiioeao?aoeey
iiaeao

aeeth/aoue a naay aeaa iee?ii?ioeanni?a Mips R4400 n oaeoiaie /anoioie
250

Iaoe .RISC station eiiiaiee NEC eiaao ano?iaiiua n?aaenoaa ia?aaioee
o??o-

ia?iuo a?aoe/aneeo i?eeiaeaiee ,iaienaiiuo ia OpenGL,e i?aaeiacia/athony

aeey i?eiaiaiey a iaeanoe NAI? e ioeueoeiaaeea – i?eeiaeaiee . RISC
server ,

ii?aaeaeyaiue eae eiiioieeaoeeiiiue na?aa? iauaai iacia/aiey
,iiaeaea?aee-

aatho iaeao Microsoft BackOffice .

A i?iiuoeaiiuo e?oaao aiai?yo ,/oi NEC aioiaeo au? ?yae na?aa?ia

n onoaiiaeaiiui II Gibraltar ,eioi?ua iia niae?aaony auionoeoue ia ?uiie
a

ia/aea yoiai aiaea . ”Nei?i iu iiae?iaiaa ociaai ia yoeo ieaiao “, –
oaa?aia

Oaein .

Eiiiaiey NetFrame iineaaeiaaea i?eia?o NEC e caa?ineea NetWare .

Iia oieueei /oi i?enooieea e auioneo Cluster Server 8500 –
/aou??oeaiaeueiiai

iiiaii?ioeanni?iiai na?aa?a n aunieie ioeacionoie/eainoueth .Aai
ieieiaeue-

iay oeaia – 31900 US$ .

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“Oiaeeo iiiai ?acaiai?ia ia ioeacionoie/eauo NT – na?aa?ao ,ii na-

aiaeiy oieueei iu iinoaaeyai oaeea nenoaiu “ , – cayaee Eaaei Eei ,
ia/aeueiee

ioaeaea ia?eaoeiaa i?iaeoeoeee eiiiaiee NetFrame .

Ii e?aeiae ia?a iaeei ?anaeea? NetFrame – ei?ii?aoeey Lantec – n yi-

ooceaciii iaeeaeaao iiaua na?aa?u .” O ian iiiai eiio?aeoia ia NT , –
aiai-

?eo Aeaea??e Aee ,aaaeouee eiaeaia? na?aeniie neoaeau Lantec , –
NetFrame ii-

iiaeao iai /anoe/ii oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoe caeacu “.

Oai a?aiaiai Compaq ,Dell e Getway aioiayo NT – na?aa?u ia aaca

iee?ii?ioeanni?ia Pentium Pro eiiiaiee Intel .Iaeeaeaaony ,/oi NT
noaiao aa-

aeouae IN aeey Pentium Pro ,iineieueeo Windows 95 niaea?aeeo 16- oe
?ac?yaeiue

eiae e ?aaioaao ia Pentium Pro ia oae auno?i ,eae iieiinoueth 32-oo
?ac?yaeiay NT .A 1996 aiaeo iau?i i?iaeaae NT aoaeao ia?anoaoue ,nei?aa
anaai ,eae niaaeiue

eii . “

Aeaeaa y iinoa?athnue iaeaieaa e?aoei ?anneacaoue i aioo?aiiai
ono-

?ienoaa Windows NT e i acaeiiaeaenoaea a? aioo?aiieo iiaeoeae .

Eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue aia?aua aeaeeo iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio
Microsoft

Windows NT ,aio a aeaca a?inaaony io/?oeeaia aiaoiaa noiaenoai n
iiethaea-

oeiny eioa?oaenii nenoaiu Windows 3.x .Iaeiaei yoi aeaeeiia noiaenoai
ya-

eyaony eeoue iacia/eoaeueiie /anoueth Windows NT .

Windows NT yaeyaony 32-oo ?ac?yaeiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie n i?e-

i?eoaoiie iiiaicaaea/iinoueth . A ea/anoaa ooiaeaiaioaeueiuo
eiiiiiaioia a

ninoaa iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu aoiaeyo n?aaenoaa iaania/aiey
aaciianiinoe e

?acaeoue naoaaie na?aen .Windows NT oaeaea iaania/eaaao niaianoeiinoue
ni

iiiaeie ae?oaeie iia?aoeeiiiuie e oaeeiauie nenoaiaie , a oaeaea n
naoyie.

Windows NT niiniaia ooieoeeiie?iaaoue eae ia eiiiuethoa?ao ,
iniauaiiuo

CISC – i?ioeanni?aie ni neiaeiie nenoaiie eiiaiae ( complex
instruction set

computing ), oae e ia eiiiuethoa?ao n RISC – i?ioeanni?aie , eiathueie
nie?a-

u?iiue iaai? eino?oeoeee ( reduced instruction set computing ) .
Iia?aoeeiiiay

nenoaia Windows NT oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao aunieii?iecaiaeeoaeueiua
nenoaiu n

ioeueoei?ioeanni?iie eiioeao?aoeeae .

Ciaeiiui a Windows NT yaeyaony oieueei aiaoiee iaeee .Ca a?aoe/an-

eei iieueciaaoaeueneei eioa?oaenii ne?uaathony iiuiua aiciiaeiinoe .
I?e-

aiaey iaci?iua naaaeaiey ii ninoaaeythuei Windows NT eiiiiiaioai y
iinoa-

?athnue aieaa aeaoaeueii ?anniio?aoue iaeioi?ua ec ieo .

Caaea/e ,iinoaaeaiiua i?e nicaeaiee Windows NT

Nenoaia Windows NT ia yaeyaony aeaeueiaeoei ?acaeoeai ?aiaa nouan-

oaiaaaoeo i?iaeoeoia . A? a?oeoaeoo?a nicaeaaaeanue n ioey n o/?oii
i?aaeuya-

eyaiuo e nia?aiaiiie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia o?aaiaaiee . Iniaaiiinoe
ii-

aie nenoaiu ,?ac?aaioaiiie ia iniiaa yoeo o?aaiaaiee ,ia?a/eneaiu ieaea
.

No?aiynue iaania/eoue niaianoeiinoue (compatible) iiaie iia?aoeeiiiie
nen-

oaiu ,?ac?aaio/eee Windows NT nio?aieee i?eau/iue eioa?oaen
Windows

e ?aaeeciaaee iiaeaea?aeeo nouanoaothueo oaeeiauo nenoai (oaeeo ,eae
FAT )

e ?acee/iuo i?eeiaeaiee (iaienaiiuo aeey MS – Dos ,OS/2 1.x ,Windows
3.x e

POSIX ).?ac?aaio/eee oaeaea aeeth/eee a ninoaa Windows NT n?aaenoaa
?aai-

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ou n ?acee/iuie naoaauie n?aaenoaaie .

Aeinoeaiooa ia?aiineiinoue (portability) nenoaiu ,eioi?ay iiaeao
oaia?ue ?a-

aioaoue eae ia CISC , oae e ia RISC – i?ioeanni?ao .E CISC ioiinyony
Intel –

niaianoeiua i?ioeanni?u 80386 e auoa ;RISC i?aaenoaaeaiu nenoaiaie n

i?ioeanni?aie MIPS R4000 , Digital Alpha AXP e Pentium na?ee P54 e auoa
.

Ianooaae?oaiinoue (scalability) icia/aao , /oi Windows NT ia
i?eaycaia e

iaeiii?ioeanni?iie a?oeoaeoo?a eiiiuethoa?ia ,a niiniaia iieiinoueth
enii-

eueciaaoue aiciiaeiinoe , i?aaeinoaaeyaiua neiiao?e/iuie
ioeueoei?ioean-

ni?iuie nenoaiaie .A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Windows NT iiaeao ooieoeeiie?i-

aaoue ia eiiiuethoa?ao n /eneii i?ioeanni?ia io 1 aei 32 . E?iia oiai ,
a neo-

/aa oneiaeiaiey noiyueo ia?aae iieueciaaoaeyie caaea/ e ?anoe?aiey
i?aaeu-

yaeyaiuo e eiiiuethoa?iie n?aaea o?aaiaaiee ,Windows NT iicaieyao
eaaei

aeiaaaeyoue aieaa iiuiua e i?iecaiaeeoaeueiua na?aa?u e ?aai/ee
noaioeee

e ei?ii?aoeaiie naoe .Aeiiieieoaeueiua i?aeiouanoaa aea?o
eniieueciaaiea

aaeeiie n?aaeu ?ac?aaioee e aeey na?aa?ia ,e aeey ?aai/eo noaioeee .

Windows NT eiaao iaeii?iaeioth nenoaio aaciianiinoe (security)
,oaeiaeaoai-

?ythuoth niaoeeoeeaoeeyi i?aaeoaeuenoaa NOA e niioaaonoaothuoth
noaiaea?oo

aaciianoiinoe A2 .A ei?ii?aoeaiie n?aaea e?eoe/aneei i?eeiaeaieyi iaan-

ia/eaaaony iieiinoueth eciee?iaaiiia ie?oaeaiea .

?ani?aaeae?iiay ia?aaioea ( distributed processing ) icia/aao ,/oi
Windows

NT eiaao ano?iaiiua a nenoaio naoaaua aiciiaeiinoe . Windows NT
oaeaea

iicaieyao iaania/eoue naycue n ?acee/iuie oeiaie oino – eiiiuethoa?ia
aea-

aiaea?y iiaeaea?aeea ?aciiia?aciuo o?ainii?oiuo i?ioieieia e
eniieueciaa-

ieth n?aaenoa “eeeaio-na?aa?” aunieiai o?iaiy ,aeeth/ay eiaiiaaiiua
eaia-

eu ,auciau oaeae?iiuo i?ioeaaeo? (RPC – remote procedure call ) e
Windows –

nieaou .

Iaae?aeiinoue e ioeacionoie/eainoue (reliability and robustness)
iaania/eaatho-

a?oeoaeoo?iuie iniaaiiinoyie ,eioi?ua caueuatho i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?ai-

iu io iia?aaeaeaiey ae?oa ae?oaii e iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiie .Windows NT
en-

iieuecoao ioeacionoie/eaoth no?oeoo?e?iaaiioth ia?aaioeo iniauo
neooaoeee

ia anao a?oeoaeoo?iuo o?iaiyo ,eioi?ay aeeth/aao ainnoaiaaeeaaaioth
oae-

eiaoth nenoaio NTFS e iaania/eaaao caueoo n iiiiuueth ano?iaiiie nenoa-

iu aaciianiinoe e oniaa?oainoaiaaiiuo iaoiaeia oi?aaeaiey iaiyoueth .

Aiciiaeiinoe eieaeecaoeee ( allocation) i?aaenoaaeytho n?aaenoaa aeey
?aaiou ai iiiaeo no?aiao ie?a ia iaoeeiiaeueiuo ycueao ,/oi aeinoeaaaony
i?eiaia-

ieai noaiaea?oa ISO Unicod ( ?ac?aaioai iaaeaeoia?iaeiie
i?aaiecaoeeae ii

noaiaea?oecaoeee ).

Aeaaiaea?y iiaeoeueiiio iino?iaieth nenoaiu iaania/eaaaony
?anoe?ya-

iinoue (insibility) Windows NT ,/oi ,eae aoaeao iieacaii a
neaaeothuai ?acaea-

ea ,iicaieyao aeaei inouanoaeyoue aeiaaaeaiea iiauo iiaeoeae ia
?acee/iua

o?iaie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu .

A?oeoaeoo?iua iiaeoee Windiws NT

Eae iieacaii ia neaaeothuai ?enoiea ,Windows NT i?aaenoaaeyao ec na-

iiaeoeueioth (aieaa niaa?oaiioth ,/ai iiiieeoiay )iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio
,ei-

oi?ay ninoieo ec ioaeaeueiuo acaeiinaycaiiuo ioiineoaeueii i?inouo
iiaeoeae.

Iniiaiuie iiaeoeyie Windows NT yaeythony (ia?a/eneaiu a ii?yaeea
neaaeiaa-

iey io ieaeiaai o?iaiy a?oeoaeoo?u e aa?oiaio ) : o?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo
aano-

?aeoeee HAL (Hardware Abstraction Layer ) ,yae?i (Kernel ) ,
eniieiythuay nenoa-

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ia (Executive) ,caueuaiiua iiaenenoaiu (protected subsystems) e
iiaenenoaiu

n?aaeu (environment subsystems ).

Iiaeoeueiay no?oeoo?a Windows NT

E?aoeia iienaiea iiaeoeueiie no?oeoo?u Windows NT i?aaenoaaeaii aea-

eaa .Aeaeueiaeoee iaoa?eae iinayu?i aeaoaeueiiio ?anniio?aieth
eaaeaeiai ec

eiiiiiaioia Windows NT ,ia/eiay n o?iaiy aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee HAL
,eioi-

?ue ?aniieiaaaony iaaeaeo aiia?aoiuie n?aaenoaaie eiiiuethoa?a e
inoaeueiie

/anoueth iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu .

O?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee ae?ooaeece?oao aiia?aoiua eioa?oaenu ,

iaania/eaay oai naiui iacaaeneiinoue inoaeueiie /anoe iia?aoeeiiiie
nen-

oaiu io eiie?aoiuo aiia?aoiuo iniaaiiinoae .Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae
iicaieyao

iaania/eoue eaaeoth ia?aiineiinoue Windows NT n iaeiie aiia?aoiie
ieao-

oi?iu ia ae?oaoth .

ssae?i yaeyaony iniiaie iiaeoeueiiai no?iaiey nenoaiu e eii?aeeie?oao
au-

-5-

iieiaiea aieueoeinoaa aaciauo iia?aoeee Windows NT . Yoio
eiiiiiaio

niaoeeaeueiui ia?acii iioeiece?iaai ii caieiaaiiio iau?io e yooae-

oeaiinoe ooieoeeiie?iaaiey .ssae?i ioaa/aao ca ieaie?iaaiea
auiieiaiey

iioieia , neio?iiecaoeeth ?aaiou ianeieueeeo i?ioeanni?ia , ia?aaioeo
aiia-

?aoiuo i?a?uaaiee e eneeth/eoaeueiuo neooaoeee .

Eniieiythuay nenoaia aeeth/aao a naie ninoaa iaai? i?ia?aiiiuo eiino-

?oeoeee i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai ?aaeeia ( kernel – mode ) , i?aaenoaaeythueo
aa-

ciaue na?aen iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu iiaenenoaiai n?aaeu .
Eniieiythuay

nenoaia ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo eiiiiiaioia ; eaaeaeay ec ieo
i?aaeiacia/aia

aeey iiaeaea?aeee ii?aaeae?iiiai nenoaiiiai na?aena . Oae , iaeei ec
eiiii-

iaioia – iiieoi? aaciianiinoe (Security Reference Monitor) –
ooieoeeiie?o-

ao niaianoii n caueu?iiuie iiaenenoaiaie e iaania/eaaao ?aaeecaoeeth

iiaeaee aaciianiinoe nenoaiu .

Iiaenenoaiu n?aaeu i?aaenoaaeytho niaie caueu?iiua na?aa?u
iieueciaa-

oaeueneiai ?aaeeia (user-mode) ,eioi?ua iaania/eaatho auiieiaiea e
iiae-

aea?aeeo i?eeiaeaiee ,?ac?aaioaiiuo aeey ?acee/iiai iia?aoeeiiiiai
ie?oaea-

iey (?acee/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai ) . I?eia?ii iiaenenoai n?aaeu
iiaoo

neoaeeoue iiaenenoaiu Win32 e OS/2 .

O?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee

O?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee ( HAL ) i?aaenoaaeyao niaie nicaeaaaa-

iue i?iecaiaeeoaeyie aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa neie i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey,

eioi?ue ne?uaaao (eee aano?aae?oao ),iniaaiiinoe e ?acee/ey aiia?aoo?u
io

aa?oieo o?iaiae iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu .Oaeei ia?acii,aeaaiaea?y
iaania/e-

aaaiiio HALii oeeueo?o ,?acee/iua aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa auaeyaeyo
aiaeiae/-

ii n oi/ee c?aiey iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu ; nieiaaony iaiaoiaeeiinoue
niaoee –

aeueiie iiaeiano?ieee iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu iiae eniieuecoaiia
iai?oaeiaa –

iea .

I?e nicaeaiee o?iaiy aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee noaaeeanue caaea/a
iiaeai-

oiaee i?ioeaaeo? ,eioi?ua iicaieyee au aaeeinoaaiiiio ae?aeaa?o
eiie?aoiiai

ono?ienoaa iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ooieoeeiie?iaaiea yoiai ono?ienoaa
aeey anao

ieaooi?i . HAL i?eaioe?iaai ia aieueoia /enei ?aciiaeaeiinoae aiia?aoiuo

ieaooi?i n iaeiii?ioeanni?iie a?oeoaeoo?ie ; oaeei ia?acii aeey
eaaeaeiai ec

aiia?aoiuo aa?eaioia ia o?aaoaony ioaeaeueiie aa?nee iia?aoeeiiiie
nen-

oaiu .

I?ioeaaeo?u HAL iacuaathony eae n?aaenoaaie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu

(aeeth/ay yae?i) , oae e ae?aeaa?aie ono?ienoa .I?e ?aaioa n
ae?aeaa?aie ono-

?ienoa o?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee iaania/eaaao iiaeaea?aeeo
?acee/iuo

oaoiieiaee aaiaea – auaiaea (aianoi o?aaeeoeeiiiie i?eaioaoeee ia
iaeio aiia-

?aoioth ?aaeecaoeeth eee o?aaothuae cia/eoaeueiuo cao?ao aaeaioaoeee
iiae eaae-

aeoth iiaoth aiia?aoioth ieaooi?io ).

O?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee iicaieyao oaeaea “ne?uaaoue” io
inoaeue-

iuo o?iaiae iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu iniaaiiinoe aiia?aoiie
?aaeecaoeee

neiiao?e/iuo ioeueoei?ioeanni?iuo nenoai .

ssae?i

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ssae?i (Kernel) yaeyaony “na?aeoeai ” Windows NT e ?aaioaao a
oaniii

eiioaeoa n o?iaiai aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee . Yoio iiaeoeue , a ia?aoth
i/a?aaeue ,

caieiaaony ieaie?iaaieai aeaenoaee eiiiuethoa?iiai i?ioeanni?a . A
neo/aa

anee eiiiuethoa? niaea?aeeo ianeieueei i?ioeanni?ia , yae?i
neio?iiece?oao eo

?aaioo n oeaeueth aeinoeaeaiey iaeneiaeueiie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe
nenoaiu .

ssae?i inouanoaeyao aeeniao/a?ecaoeeth ieoae oi?aaeaiey (threads
,eiia-

aea iacuaathony iiaecaaea/aie ,ioaaoaeaieyie eee iioieaie ), eioi?ua
yaeytho-

ny iniiaiuie iauaeoaie a ieaie?oaiie nenoaia .Ieoe oi?aaeaiey ii?aaeaey-

thony a eiioaenoa i?ioeanna ;i?ioeann aeeth/aao aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai
, iaai?

aeinooiiuo i?ioeanno iauaeoia e niaieoiiinoue auiieiyaiuo a eiioaenoa
i?i-

oeanna ieoae oi?aaeaiey . Iauaeoaie yaeythony oi?aaeyaiua
iia?aoeeiiiie

nenoaiie ?ano?nu .

ssae?i i?iecaiaeeo aeeniao/a?ecaoeeth ieoae oi?aaeaiey oaeei ia?acii
,

/oiau iaeneiaeueii caa?oceoue i?ioeanni?u nenoaiu e iaania/eoue
ia?aii/a-

?aaeioth ia?aaioeo ieoae n aieaa aunieei i?ei?eoaoii . ( Anaai
nouanoaoao

32 cia/aiey i?ei?eoaoa ,eioi?ua na?oiie?iaaiu a aeaa eeanna
i?ei?eoaoia :

real-time e variable ).Iiaeiaiue iiaeoiae iicaieyao aeinoe/ue
iaeneiaeueiie yo-

oaeoeaiinoe iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu .

Iiae eiiiiiaiou eniieiythuae nenoaiu , oaeea eae aeeniao/a? aaiaea –

auaiaea e aeeniao/a? i?ioeannia , eniieuecotho yae?i aeey
neio?iiecaoeee aeaeno-

aee .Iie oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaotho n yae?ii aeey aieaa aunieeo o?iaiae
aano-

?aeoeee ,iacuaaaiuo iauaeoaie yae?a ;iaeioi?ua ec yoeo iauaeoia
yenii?oe-

?othony aioo?e iieueciaaoaeueneeo auciaia eioa?oaena i?eeeaaeiuo
i?ia?aii

(API) .

ssae?i oi?aaeyao aeaoiy oeiaie iauaeoia .

Iauaeou aeeniao/a?ecaoeee (dispatcher objects) oa?aeoa?ecothony
neaiaeueiui

ninoiyieai ( signaled eee nonsignaled ) e oi?aaeytho
aeeniao/a?ecaoeeae e

neio?iiecaoeeae nenoaiiuo iia?aoeee .Yoe iauaeou aeeth/atho niauoey ,
io-

oaiou ,iooyenu ,naiaoi?u , ieoe oi?aaeaiey e oaeia?u ( events ,
mutants ,

mutexes ,semaphores ,threads ,timers ).

Oi?aaeythuea iauaeou ( control objects ) eniieuecothony aeey iia?aoeee
oi?aa-

eaiey yae?a , ii ia aicaeaenoaotho ia aeeniao/a?ecaoeeth eee
neio?iiecaoeeth .

Oi?aaeythuea iauaeou aeeth/atho a naay aneio?iiiua auciau
i?ioeaaeo? ,

i?a?uaaiey ,oaaaeiieaiey e ninoiyiey enoi/ieea ieoaiey ,i?ioeannu e
i?i-

oeee (asynhcronous procedure calls , interupts ,power notifies, power
statuses,processes ,profiles).

Eniieiythuay nenoaia Windows NT

Eniieiythuay nenoaia ( Executive ) , a ninoaa eioi?ie aoiaeeo yae?i
e

o?iaaiue aiia?aoiuo aano?aeoeee HAL , iaania/eaaao iauee na?aen
nenoaiu ,

eioi?ue iiaoo eniieueciaaoue ana iiaenenoaiu n?aaeu . Eaaeaeay a?oiia
na?aena

iaoiaeeony iiae oi?aaeaieai iaeiie ec ioaeaeueiuo ninoaaeythueo
eniieiythuae

nenoaiu :

aeeniao/a?a iauaeoia (Object Manager)

aeeniao/a?a ae?ooaeueiie iaiyoe (Virtual Memory Manager);

aeeniao/a?a i?ioeannia (Process Manager)

-7-

n?aaenoaa auciaa eieaeueiuo i?ioeaaeo? (Local Procedure Call Facility);

aeeniao/a?a aaiaea – auaiaea (E/O Maneger);

iiieoi?u aaciianiinoe (Security Reference Monitor).

Iiieoi? aaciianiinoe niaianoii n i?ioeanni?ii aoiaea a neneoaio

( Logon ) e caueu?iiuie iiaenenoaiaie ?aaeecoao iiaeaeue
aaciianiinoe

Windows NT .

Aa?oiee o?iaaiue eniieiythuae nenoaiu iacuaaaony nenoaiiui na?ae-

nii (System Services ) . Iieacaiiue ia neaaeothuai ?enoiea nenoaiiue
na?aen

i?aaenoaaeyao niaie eioa?oaen iaaeaeo iiaenenoaiaie n?aaeu
iieueciaaoaeuenei-

ai ?aaeeia e i?eaeeaae?iaaiiui ?aaeeiii .

Aeeniao/a? eyoa

A?oeoaeoo?a aaiaea – auaiaea niaea?aeeo aaeeinoaaiiue aeeniao/a?
eyoa

(Cache Manager),eioi?ue inouanoaeyao eyoe?iaaiea aeey anae nenoaiu
aai-

aea – auaiaea .Eyoe?iaaiea (Caching) – iaoiae ,eniieuecoaiue oaeeiaie
nenoa-

iie aeey oaaee/aiey yooaeoeaiinoe .Aianoi iaiin?aaenoaaiiie caiene e
n/e-

ouaaiey n aeenea ,/anoi eniieuecoaiua oaeeu a?aiaiii nio?aiythony a
eyo –

iaiyoe ;oaeei ia?acii ,?aaioa n yoeie oaeeaie auiieiyaony a iaiyoe .
Iia-

-8-

?aoeee n aeaiiuie ,iaoiaeyueieny a iaiyoe , i?iecaiaeyony cia/eoaeueii
auno-

?aa iia?aoeee n aeaiiuie ia aeenea .

Aeeniao/a? eyoa eniieuecoao iiaeaeue ioia?aaeaiey oaeea,eioi?ay eioaa-

?e?iaaiia n aeeniao/a?ii ae?ooaeueiie iaiyoe Windows NT .Aeeniao/a?
eyoa

iaania/eaaao neoaeao eyoe?iaaiey aeey anao oaeeiauo nenoai e naoaauo
eii-

iiiaioia ,ooieoeeiie?othueo iiae oi?aaeaieai aeeniao/a?a aaiaea –
auaiaea. A

caaeneiinoe io iau?ia aeinooiiie iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe aeeniao/a? eyoa ii
-aeao aeeiaie/anee oaaee/eaaoue eee oiaiueoaoue ?acia? eyoa
.Eiaaea i?ioeann

ioe?uaaao oaee ,eioi?ue oaea iaoiaeeeny a eyoa ,aeeniao/a? eyoa i?inoi
eiie-

?oao aeaiiua ec eyoa a ae?ooaeueiia aae?aniia i?ino?ainoai .

Aeeniao/a? eyoa iiaeaea?aeeaaao neoaeau oeia eaieaie caiene (
lazy

write) e eaieaie oeenaoeee (lazy commit), eioi?ua iiaoo cia/eoaeueii
oaaee/eoue

yooaeoeaiinoue oaeeiaie nenoaiu . A i?ioeanna eaieaie caiene
eciaiaiey

?aaeno?e?othony a eyoa oaeeiaie no?oeoo?u ,iaania/eaathuai aieaa auno?ue

aeinooi .Iicaeiaa ,eiaaea caa?ocea oeaio?aeueiiai i?ioeanni?a nieaeaia
, aeeniao-

/a? eyoa caiineo eciaiaiey ia aeene .Eaieaay oeenaoeey iiaeiaia eaieaie
ca-

iene .Aianoi iaiaaeeaiiie ia?ee?iaee o?aicaeoeee eae oniaoii
caaa?oea-

oaeny ,ia?aaeaiiay eioi?iaoeey eyoe?oaony e iicaeiaa a oiiiaii ?aaeeia
ca-

ienuaaaony a aeo?iae oaeeiaie nenoaiu .

Ae?aeaa?u oaeeiaie nenoaiu

A a?oeoaeoo?a aaiaea – auaiaea Windows NT oi?aaeaiea ae?aeaa?aie

oaeeiaie nenoaiu inouanoaeyao aeeniao/a? aaiaea – auaiaea . Windows NT
aei-

ioneaao eniieueciaaiea iiiaeanoaa oaeeiauo nenoai , aeeth/ay
nouanoaothuea

oaeeiaua nenoaiu oeia FAT . Aeey iaania/aiey niaianoeiinoe nieco
aaa?o

n iia?aoeeiiiuie nenoaiaie MS-Dos , Windows 3.x e OS/2 , Windows NT
iiae –

aea?aeeaaao oaeeiaua nenoaiu FAT e HPFS .

E?iia oiai ,Windows NT oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaaao NTFS – iiaoth oaeeiaoth

nenoaio ,?ac?aaioaiioth niaoeeaeueii aeey eniieueciaaiey n Windows NT
. NTFS

iaania/eaaao iiiaeanoai aiciiaeiinoae , aeeth/ay n?aaenoaa
ainnoaiiaeaiey

oaeeiaie nenoaiu , iiaeaea?aeeo Unicode ,aeeeiiuo ei?i oaeeia e
iiaeaea?aeeo

aeey POSIX .

A?oeoaeoo?a aaiaea – auaiaea Windows NT ia oieueei iiaeaea?aeeaaao
o?a-

aeeoeeiiiua oaeeiaua nenoaiu ,ii e iaania/eaaao ooieoeeiie?iaaiea
naoa-

aiai ?aaeaeoi?a e na?aa?a a ea/anoaa ae?aeaa?ia oaeeiaie nenoaiu . N
oi/ee

c?aiey aeeniao/a?a aaiaea – auaiaea , iao ieeaeie ?acieoeu iaaeaeo
?aaioie n

oaeeii ,nio?ai?iiui ia oaeae?iiii eiiiuethoa?a naoe ,e ?aaioie n oaeeii
ia

eieaeueiii ae?noeii aeenea . ?aaee?aeoi?u e na?aa?u iiaoo auoue
caa?oaeaiu e

aua?oaeaiu aeeiaie/anee ,oae aea eae e ethaua ae?oaea ae?aeaa?u ;ia
iaeiii eii-

iuethoa?a iiaeao iaeiia?aiaiii iaoiaeeoueny aieueoia /enei
?aaee?aeoi?ia e

na?aa?ia .

Naoaaua ae?aeaa?u

Neaaeothuei oeiii ae?aeaa?ia ,i?enoonoaothueo a ea/anoaa eiiiiiaioa

a a?oeoaeoo?a aaiaea – auaiaea ,yaeythony naoaaua ae?aeaa?u .Windows NT
aeeth-

/aao eioaa?e?iaaiiua aiciiaeiinoe ?aaiou n naoyie e iiaeaea?aeeo
aeey ?an-

i?aaeae?iiuo i?eeiaeaiee .Eae iieacaii ia neaaeothuai ?enoiea ?aaioa n
na-

-9-

oyie iaania/eaaaony ?yaeii naoaauo ae?aeaa?ia .

?aaee?aeoi?u e na?aa?u ooieoeeiie?otho eae ae?aeaa?u oaeeiaie nen-

oaiu e auiieiythony ia o?iaia eioa?oaena iinoaaueea eee ieaea , aaea
iaoi-

aeyony NetBIOS e Windows – nieao .

Ae?aeaa?u o?ainii?oiiai i?ioieiea iauathony n ?aaee?aeoi?aie e na?-

aa?aie /a?ac o?iaaiue , iacuaaaiue eioa?oaenii o?ainii?oiiai
ae?aeaa?a

(TDI – Transport Driver Interface). Windows NT aeeth/aao neaaeothuea
o?ainii?o-

iua n?aaenoaa :

I?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae / iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie TCP/IP ,
eioi?ue iaania/eaaao aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou n oe?ieei aeeaiaciiii
nouanoaothueo naoae .

NBF ,iioiiie ?anoe?aiiiai eioa?oaena iieueciaaoaey NetBIOS (NetBEUI ) ,
eioi?ue iaania/eaaao niaianoeiinoue n nouanoaothueie eieaeueiuie au-
/eneeoaeueiuie naoyie ia aaca LAN Manager ,LAN Server e MS-Net .

Oi?aaeaiea ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo (DLC – Data Link Control) , eioi?ia
iaania/e-aaao eioa?oaen aeey aeinooia e iyeio?yeiai e iiaeeeth/?iiui e
naoe i?ei-oa?ai .

NWLink ,?aaeecaoeey IPX/SPX , iaania/eaathuay naycue n Nowell NetWare .

A ieaeiae /anoe naoaaie a?oeoaeoo?u iaoiaeeony ae?aeaa? ieaou naoaai-

ai aaeaioa?a .Windows NT a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iiaeaea?aeeaaao
ae?aeaa?u ono-

-10-

?ienoa ,auiieiaiiua a niioaaonoaee ni niaoeeoeeaoeeae NDIS (Network
Device

Inerface Specification ) aa?nee 3.0 .NDIS i?aaeinoaaeyao aeaeoth n?aaeo
iaiaia aeaiiuie iaaeaeo o?ainii?oiuie i?ioieieaie e naoaauie aaeaioa?aie
.NDIS 3.0 iicaieyao ioaeaeueiiio eiiiuethoa?o eiaoue ianeieueei
onoaiiaeaiiuo a i?i

ieao naoaaiai aaeaioa?a .A naith i/a?aaeue ,eaaeaeay ieaoa naoaaiai
aaeaioa?a iiaeao iiaeaea?aeeaaoue ianeieueei o?ainii?oiuo i?ioieieia
aeey aeinooia e ?ac-

ee/iui oeiai naoaauo noaioeee .

Iiaeaeue aaciianiinoe Windows NT

Iiaeaeue aaciianiinoe Windows NT i?aaenoaaeaia iiieoi?ii aaciian-

iinoe (Security Reference Monitor),a oaeaea aeaoiy ae?oaeie eiiiiiaioaie
: i?i-

oeanni?ii aoiaea a nenoaio (Logon Process) e aaciianiuie caueu?iiuie
iiae-

nenoaiaie .

A iiiaicaaea/iie iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia , eaeiaie yaeyaony Windows NT
i?eeiaeaiey niaianoii eniieuecotho ?yae ?ano?nia nenoaiu ,aeeth/ay
iaiyoue

eiiiuethoa?a ,ono?ienoaa aaiaea – auaiaea ,oaeeu e i?ioeanni?(u)
nenoaiu. Windows NT aeeth/aao iaai? eiiiiiaioia aaciianiinoe ,eioi?ua
aa?aioe?otho,

/oi i?eeiaeaiey ia niiaoo ia?aoeoueny e yoei ?ano?nai aac
niioaaonoaothuaai ?ac?aoaiey .

Iiieoi? aaciianiinoe ioaa/aao ca i?iaaaeaiea a aeeciue iieeoeee
i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe aeinooia e eiio?iey ,ii?aaeae?iiie eieaeueiie
iiaenenoaiie aaciianiinoe .Iiieoi? aaciianiinoe iaania/eaaao oneoae ii
iiaeoaa?aeaeaieth aeinooia e iauaeoai ,i?iaa?ea i?eaeeaaee iieueciaaoaey
e aa- ia?aoeee niiauaiee eae aeey i?eaeeaae?iaaiiiai ?aaeeia ,oae e aeey
?aaeeia iieueciaaoaey .Iiieoi? aaciianiinoe ,iiaeiaii ae?oaei /anoyi
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu ,auiieiyaony a i?eaeeaae?iaaiiii ?aaeeia .

I?ioeann aoiaea a nenoaio a Windows NT i?aaeoniao?eaaao iaycaoaeue-
iue aoiae a nenoaio aaciianiinoe aeey eaeaioeoeeaoeee iieueciaaoaey
.Eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue aeieaeai eiaoue athaeaeao e aeieaeai
eniieueciaaoue ia?ieue aeey ia?a- uaiey e yoiio athaeaeaoo .

I?aaeaea /ai iieueciaaoaeue niiaeao ia?aoeoueny e ethaiio ?ano?no
eiiiuethoa- ?a n Windows NT ,ii aeieaeai aieoe a nenoaio /a?ac i?ioeann
aoiaea a nenoaio aeey oiai ,/oiau iiaenenoaia aaciianiinoe iiaea
?aniiciaoue eiy iieueciaaoa- ey e ia?ieue .Oieueei iinea oniaoiiai
onoaiiaeaiey iiaeeeiiinoe iiieoi? aac-iianiinoe auiieiyao i?ioeaaeo?o
i?iaa?ee i?aaeeueiinoe aeinooia aeey ii?aaea-eaiey i?aaa iieueciaaoaey
ia ia?auaiea e yoiio iauaeoo .

Caueu?iiinoue ?ano?nia – iaeia ec iniaaiiinoae ,i?aaeinoaaeyaiay
iiaeaeueth aaciianiinoe .Caaea/e ia iiaoo ia?auaoueny e /oaeei ?ano?nai
(oeia iaiyoe) eia/a ,/ai /a?ac i?eiaiaiea niaoeeaeueiuo iaoaieciia
niaianoiiai eniieueciaaiey .

Windows NT oaeaea i?aaeinoaaeyao n?aaenoaa eiio?iey ,eioi?ua iicai-
eytho aaeieieno?aoi?o oeene?iaaoue aeaenoaey iieueciaaoaeae .

Eoiae

Iiaeaiaey eoiae anaio auoaiienaiiiio oi/o neacaoue ,/oi yoi oieueei
iaeaiueeay /anoue anao aiciiaeiinoae , eioi?ua caeiaeaiu a Windows NT
.Oi/o

-11-

e?aoei ia?a/eneeoue aeinoieinoaa Windows NT :

Yoi nia?aiaiiay IN ,ioaa/athuay o?aaiaaieyi nia?aiaiiie aiia?aoo?u !

Yoi i?ae?anii niaianoeiay n ae?oaeie IN !

Yoi iiiaicaaea/iay (ioeueoecaaea/iay) IN !

Yoi oi?ioi caueu?iiay IN !

E yoi oaeiaiay e iaae?aeiay IN !

Aeey ninoaaeaiey ?aoa?aoa y iieueciaaeny iaoa?eaeaie aaeaiaaeaeueieea
ComputerWeek Moscow e iaoa?eaeaie eieae “?ano?nu Windows NT”
ecaeaoaeue-noaa “BHV – Naieo-Iaoa?ao?a”.

?aoa?ao ia oaio :

Windows NT –

IN iiaiai iieieaiey !

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