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Вычислительные машины, системы и сети телекоммуникаций (часть 2 и последняя)

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Oaia 5. ?aaeiiaeueiua e aeiaaeueiua naoe

Aii?inu:

Enoi?ey ?acaeoey ?aaeiiaeueiuo (aeiaaeueiuo) naoae.

Niiniau eiiiooaoeee e ia?o?ooecaoeee eioi?iaoeee a naoe.

Iino?iaiea ?aaeiiaeueiuo naoae ia aaca IN NETWARE e ae?oaeo i?ia?aiiiuo
i?iaeoeoia oe?iu NOVELL.

Iauay oa?aeoa?enoeea iiaeaiia. I?aaeea auai?a iiaeaiia.

1 aii?in.

Aeiaaeueiua naoe a naiai ?acaeoee i?ioee o?e yoaia:

I. 60-a aiaeu. Eniieueciaaiea nouanoaothuae oaeaoiiiie naoe.

Aeaa AaN iiaee acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue iaaeaeo niaie iiaeeeth/aynue e
iaaeaeoia?iaeiie oaeaoiiiie naoe (ON) iin?aaenoaii iiaeaia iooai iaai?a
iaiaoiaeeiiai oaeaoiiiiai iiia?a (?en.5.1).

?en.5.1. Eniieueciaaiea oaeaoiiiie naoe.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

Oi?aaeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaeai inouanoaeyeinue i?ia?aiiii.

Eniieueciaaeny aneio?iiiue ?aaeei acaeiiaeaenoaey.

Iaeneiaeueiay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e 800 aeo/nae.

Aeinoieinoai: iianaianoiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiinoue oaeaoiiiie naoe
iaania/eaaao oieaa?naeueioth aeinooiiinoue aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Iaaeinoaoee: aeanoeay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. Anee
iaoeia o?aaoao iaiueoae nei?inoe ia?aaea/e, oi aiciiaeiinoe eaiaea ia
eniieuecothony. Anee aieueoae – oi oaeaoiiiue eaiae ia iia aa
oaeiaeaoai?eoue.

II.70-a aiaeu. Iiyaeaiea naoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Aeaa AaN acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaaeaeo niaie iin?aaenoaii naoe
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo (?en.5.2).

?en.5.2. Naoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo.

Iiaeniaaeeiaiea aaiiaioneie nenoaiu e naoe (?en.5.3) auiieiyaony
/a?ac eiiiooe?oaioth oaeaoiiioth eeieth
iin?aaenoaii iiaeaia (a eneeth/eoaeueiuo neo/ayo – /a?ac auaeaeaiioth
eeieth).

?en.5.3. Iiaeniaaeeiaiea aaiiaioa e naoe.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

Oi?aaeaiea acaeiiaeaenoaeai inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii iaeiie ec AnN.

Naoue iicaieyea eniieueciaaoue neio?iiiue ?aaeei ia?aaea/e (a oneiaeyo
auaeaeaiiuo eeiee).

IAO nei?inoue ia?aaea/e 64 Eaeo/nae (ii auaeaeaiiui eeieyi).

Oceu i?aaeiacia/aiu aeey eiiiooaoeee e ia?o?ooecaoeee oeeo?iaie
eioi?iaoeee
iinooiathuae ii auaeaeaiiui eaiaeai e eiatho neaaeothuoth no?oeoo?o,
i?aaenoaaeaiioth ia ?en.5.4.

?en.5.4. No?oeoo?a ocea.

Aeinoieinoaa: Ioiineoaeueii aieueoay nei?inoue ia?aaea/e
aeaiiuo.

Iaaeinoaoee: Ionoonoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aaeaaaoue ii
iaeiei e oai aea eaiaeai aeaiiua e ?a/ue.

III. 80-a – 90-a aiaeu. Nicaeaiea naoae iauaai iieueciaaiey,
ioaa/athueo iiaeaee acaeiiaeaenoaey ioe?uouo nenoai (OSI).

No?oeoo?a naoe iauaai iacia/aiey i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.5.5.

?en.5.5. Naoue iauaai iacia/aiey.

Iniiaiua oa?aeoa?enoeee:

Ethaay YAI iiaeeeth/aaony e naoe ia?aaea/e /a?ac eioa?oaen (oethc),
iaania/eaathuae niaeaniaaiea ?acoeueoaoiuo aeaiiuo.

Ii iaeiie e oie aea naoe iiaoo auoue ia?aaeaiu aeaiiua e ?a/ue.

2 aii?in.

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee ocea naoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo
yaeyaony eiiiooaoeey e ia?o?ooecaoeey eioi?iaoeee. Nouiinoue aa
caeeth/aaony a auai?a Oceii Nayce iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eaiaeia, ii
eioi?ui neaaeoao ia?aaeaoue iaeaou (aeiee, ia eioi?ua aeaeeony iannea
eioi?iaoeee ia?aae ia?aaea/ae).

Ia ?en.5.6 i?aaenoaaeai i?eia? eiiiooaoeee eioi?iaoeee. Caeanue
i?aaenoaaeai ocae EN, naycuaathuee aaiiaioneea nenoaiu A (ia?aaeathuea)
n aaiiaioneeie nenoaiaie A (iieo/athuea).

I?ia?aiiiiio iaania/aieth ocea iaiaoiaeeii ?aoeoue, a eaeii
ii?yaeea e ii eaeei eaiaeai iai?aaeoue yoe iaeaou aaiiaioai A. Ia yoii
i?ioeanna aiai?yo, /oi a ocea i?ienoiaeeo eiiiooaoeey eioi?iaoeee.
Nouanoaoao aeaa niiniaa eiiiooaoeee eioi?iaoeee: eiiiooaoeey eaiaeia e
eiiiooaoeey iaeaoia.

A ia?aii neo/aa (eiiiooaoeey eaiaeia) eiiiooaoeey oece/aneiai
eaiaea inouanoaeyaony i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iaeei ?ac niaeanii noaia,
i?aaenoaaeaiiie ia ?en.5.6.

?en.5.6. Eiiiooaoeey eaiaeia e iaeaoia.

I?e eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia i?aaeaa?eoaeueii iooai iinueee ii?aaeaeaiiiai
neaiaea onoaiaaeeaaaony naycue aaiiaioa A n aaiiaioii A, eioi?ue n
iiiiuueth neaiaea ia?aoiie nayce niiauaao i aioiaiinoe i?eiyoue
niiauaiea. Iinea yoiai
aaiiaio A ia/eiaao ia?aaeaaaoue aeaiiua. A?aiy ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo caaeneo
io aeeeiu ia?aaeaaaaiiai niiauaiey, i?iioneiie niiniaiinoe eaiaea
(a?aiy ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo) e a?aiaie ?ani?ino?aiaiey neaiaea ii eaiaeo. A
iiiaio ia?aaea/e ie iaeia ec /anoae eaiaea ia iiaeao auoue
eniieueciaaia ae?oaie AaN.

Iaoiae eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia i?ino, ii eiaao ?yae nouanoaaiiuo
iaaeinoaoeia:

A?aiy i?aaiecaoeee eeiee aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee aeinoaoi/ii aaeeei.

Ia?aoeeiiaeueiia eniieueciaaiea eaiaeia nayce. Ai a?aiy naaina iaaeaeo
aeaoiy aaiiaioaie iiaoo auoue aieueoea iaocu, iaeiaei eaiaeu nayce
iaaeaeo yoeie aaiiaioaie a ia?eiae iaoc caiyou ae?oaeie ia iiaoo auoue.

Ieceay aeinoiaa?iinoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Yoi naycaii n oai, /oi
aeaiiua, ia?aaeaaaaiua ii iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe eaiaeia, ieaaea ia
i?iaa?ythony.

No?aieaiea ono?aieoue yoe iaaeinoaoee i?eaaei e nicaeaieth
iaoiaea eiiiooaoeee iaeaoia. Nouiinoue caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi caeanue
eaaeaeue iaeao eiaao aae?an iacia/aiey e naiinoiyoaeueii ia?aaeaaony
/a?ac iiaenaoue. I?e eniieueciaaiee yoiai iaoiaea (?en.5.6) a ocea
i?iaa?yaony aae?an iaeaoa e ii eaaeaeiio ec ieo i?eieiaaony ?aoaiea ii
eaeiio i/a?aaeiiio eaiaeo aai ia?aaeaaaoue. Caeanue ie iaeia ia?a
aaiiaioia ai a?aiy naaina acaeiiaeaenoaey ia caieiaao iiiiiieueii ie
iaeiiai eaiaea.

Iaoiae eiiiooaoeee iaeaoia eiaao ?yae nouanoaaiiuo i?aeiouanoa:

Yooaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea eaiaeia nayce ca n/ao ?acaeaeaiey a?aiaie
?aaiou eaiaeia iaaeaeo ?acee/iuie ia?aie aaiiaioia (ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea
iioieia aeaiiuo). I?ioeann ioeueoeieaene?iaaiey aeaiiuo i?aaenoaaeai ia
?en.5.7.

iioiee aeaiiuo, aaia?e?oaiua aaiiaioaie

?en.5.7. Ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea iioieia aeaiiuo.

Aunieay aeinoiaa?iinoue ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee. Aeinoeaaaony ca n/ao
auiieiaiey i?iaa?ee eaaeaeiai iaeaoa anaie oceaie naoe.

Ii/oe iaiiaaiiia i?aaeinoaaeaiea aiciiaeiinoe ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee (ia
ioaeii iaeeaeaoue iiea inaiaiaeyony eaiaeu, ia?acothuea iooue io
Aa-ioi?aaeoaey e Aa-iieo/aoaeth.

Iaoiae eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia i?e anao naieo iaaeinoaoeao eiaao iaeii
i?aeiouanoai ia?aae eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia. Iii caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi
i?e iiiiiieueiii aeaaeaiee eaiaeaie ana iaeaou i?ioiaeyo iooue ca iaeii
e oi aea a?aiy. I?e eiiiooaoeee iaeaoia ec-ca ieeiauo iaa?ocie a
oceao iiaoo aicieeaoue iaeioi?ua caaea?aeee.

O/eouaay oeacaiiia i?aeiouanoai iaoiaea eiiiooaoeee eaiaeia a
ianoiyuaa a?aiy i?ienoiaeeo iiaea?iecaoeey iaoiaea eiiiooaoeee
iaeaoia. Aai ?ac?aaaouaatho eiiieaeniui, iaania/eaathuei eae
eiiiooaoeeth eaiaeia, oae e eiiiooaoeeth iaeaoia. Oaeea naoe iieo/eee
iacaaiea aeene?aoiuo naoae n eioaa?aeueiui na?aenii.

Aeene?aoiuie yoe naoe iacuaathony iioiio, /oi ii iei
ia?aaeathony aeene?aoiua neaiaeu. Eioaa?aeueiue na?aen icia/aao, /oi
eaaeaeay oaeay naoue a aoaeouai caiaieo i?aeoe/anee ana naoe nayce:
oaeaoiiioth, oaeaa?aoioth, oaeaoaeiioth e o.ae.

Nouiinoue iiaea?iece?iaaiiiai iaoiaea ia?aaea/e iaeaoia
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi ethaie eaiae ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie iiaenaoe iiaeao ?aaioaoue a 2-o ?aaeeiao:
iiiiiieueiii e eieeaeoeaiii. Iiyoiio ia?aue iaeao ia?aaeaaaaiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe iaeaoia aeieaeai niiauaoue anai oceai i oii, a
eaeii ?aaeeia iaiaoiaeeii ia?aaeaaaoue inoaeueiua iaeaou yoie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe.

3 aii?in.

Ianeieueei eieaeueiuo naoae iiaoo auoue iauaaeeiaiu iaaeaeo niaie. I?e
yoii niiniau iauaaeeiaiey caaenyo io ?annoiyiey, ia eioi?ii EAN
iaoiaeyony ae?oa io ae?oaa, a oaeaea io o?aaoaiie nei?inoe iaiaia
eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo naoyie.

I?e iauaaeeiaiee EAN, ?aniieiaeaiiuo iaaeaeaei ae?oa io ae?oaa,
eniieuecotho iinou. Iinou iicaieytho iauaaeeieoue EAN, ioee/athueany
iaaeaeo niaie eae ii a?oeoaeoo?a, oae e ii iaoiaeo aeinooia a eaiae.
Iaeiaei ana EAN aeieaeiu auoue iaeii?iaeiu ii oa?aeoa?o IYAI,
aoiaeyueo a eo ninoaa. Iinou auaatho aioo?aiiea e aiaoiea. Aioo?aiiea
iinou iauaaeeiytho ianeieueei EAN n iiiiuueth naoaauo ieao a oaeeiaii
na?aa?a (?en.5.8 ), eioi?uo iiaeao auoue ia aieaa 4-o.

?en.5.8. Iauaaeeiaiea EAN n?aaenoaaie aiaoiaai iinoa.

A ?AYA n iiiiuueth aioo?aiiaai iinoa ia na?aa?a a aoae.211 iauaaeeiaiu
aeaa oeiiuo EAN: iaeia iie?aaony ia oaoiieiaeth Ethernet (aoae.209),
ae?oaay – ia oaoiieiaeth Arcnet (aoae.213).

Iniiaiui iaaeinoaoeii aioo?aiiaai iinoa yaeyaony iaaunieay aai
iaaeaaeiinoue e nouanoaaiiia caiaaeeaiea nei?inoe ?aaiou oaeeiaiai
na?aa?a.

Aiaoiea iinou i?aaeiieaaatho eniieueciaaiea ?aai/ae noaioeee n
aeaoiy naoaauie aaeaioa?aie aeey iauaaeeiaiey iaeii?iaeiuo
(iino?iaiiuo ia aaca iaeiiai oeia YAI) EAN (?en.5.9 ).

?en.5.9. Iauaaeeiaiea EAN ii n?aaenoaai aiaoiaai iinoa.

Aiaoiee iino iiaeao auoue auaeaeaiiui eee iaauaeaeaiiui. ?aai/ay
noaioeey a ?aaeeia auaeaeaiiiai iinoa ?aaioaao oieueei a yoie
ooieoeee. IYAI, iaoiaeyuayny a ?aaeeia iaauaeaeaiiiai iinoa, caieiaaony
eae ia?anueeie oaeeia iaaeaeo EAN, oae e auiieiaieai
iieueciaaoaeueneeo i?ia?aii eae iau/iay ?aai/ay noaioeey. Iaaeinoaoie
oaeie ?aaiou caeeth/aaony a iacaueuaiiinoe iinoa: ethaie naie eee
iaaa?iia ooieoeeiie?iaaiea iieueciaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu iiaeao aucaaoue
?ac?ooaiea iinoa. E?iia oiai, I?eeeaaeiay I?ia?aiia iinoa caieiaao
aeiaieueii aieueoie iauai iaiyoe e yoi ia?aie/eaaao eniieueciaaiea IYAI
eae ?aai/ae noaioeee.

Aeey iauaaeeiaiey a ?aaeiiaeueiua e aeiaaeueiua naoe EAN ,
iaoiaeyueony ia cia/eoaeueiii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa, o?aaothony
aeiiieieoaeueiua aiia?aoiua e i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa. Eiiieaen
oeacaiiuo n?aaenoa caaeneo io niiniaa iauaaeeiaiey EAN:

iauaaeeiaiea EAN iin?aaenoaii oaeaoiiiuo eiiiooe?oaiuo eaiaeia nayce
(OEEN);

iauaaeeiaiea EAN iin?aaenoaii auaeaeaiiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee.

Iniaaiiinoe naoe ia aaca oaeaoiiiuo eiiiooe?oaiuo eaiaeia nayce
i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en.5.10.

?en.5.10. Iauaaeeiaiea EAN iin?aaenoaii aneio?iiiuo

eiiiooe?oaiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee nayce.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iin?aaenoaii aneio?iiiuo eiiiooe?oaiuo oaeaoiiiuo
eeiee nayce inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aioo?aiiaai eeai aiaoiaai iinoa,
?aaioathuaai iiae oi?aaeaieai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa

Net Ware Asynchcronous Remote Router

(aoiaeeo a ninoaa NETWARA 3.11 eee auoa, aeieaeai i?eia?aoaoueny
aeiiieieoaeueii aeey aieaa
?aiieo aa?nee IN).

E?iia oiai, o?aaoaony aneio?iiiue iiaeai aeey iiaeeeth/aiey e
eiiiooe?oaiui oaeaoiiiui eaiaeai nayce.

Iniiaiia aeinoieinoai iauaaeeiaiey EAN ia aaca OEEN:

1. Eniieueciaaiea iaaei?iaeo aneio?iiiuo iiaeaiia e
?acaiai?iuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee nayce.

2. Yooaeoeaii i?e ia?aaea/a oaeeia aeaiiuo n?aaeieo ?acia?ia.

3. ?aaeecaoeey yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.

Iaaeinoaoee:

1. Iayooaeoeaai i?yiie aeinooi e oaeeai ae?oaie EAN, iineieueeo
OEEN eiatho ia?aie/aiioth i?iioneioth niiniaiinoue e iaaunieoth
iaaeaaeiinoue, iaaieueooth nei?inoue e aiciiaeiinoue caaenaiey naoe.

Iniaaiiinoe naoe ia aaca auaeaeaiiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee nayce
i?aaenoaaeaiu ia ?en.5.11.

?en.5.11. Iauaaeeiaiea EAN iin?aaenoaii auaeaeaiiuo

neio?iiiuo eeiee nayce.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea iin?aaenoaii neio?iiiuo auaeaeaiiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee
nayce inouanoaeyaony n iiiiuueth aioo?aiiaai eeai aiaoiaai iinoa,
?aaioathuaai iiae oi?aaeaieai i?ia?aiiiiai i?iaeoeoa.

NETWARE LINK/64

E?iia oiai, iiaeeeth/aiea e auaeaeaiiui oaeaoiiiui eaiaeai
nayce o?aaoao iaee/ea IIAe e neio?iiiiai iiaeaia.

Aeiiieieoaeueii e yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa e ia?anueea oaeeia naoue
iaania/eaaao i?yiie aeinooi e oaeeai (?aaeei IN LINA). Iin?aaenoaii IIAe
(auiieiyao ?ieue ocea nayce) ianeieueei EAN iiaoo auoue naycaiu a
?aaeiiaeueioth eee aeiaaeueioth naoue n iiiiuueth oceiaie
eiiioieeaoeeiiiie iiaenaoe.

4 aii?in.

Ia?aaea/a eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo 2-iy eiiiuethoa?aie aiciiaeia 3-iy
niiniaaie:

Iiaeaiu eniieuecothony aeey i?aia?aciaaiey aeene?aoiuo neaiaeia a
aiaeiaiaua (e iaiai?io) i?e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo iaaeaeo IYAI iin?aaenoaii
oaeaoiiiuo eaiaeia nayce.

Niaeaoaiey i niiniaa e ii?yaeea iaiaia aeaiiuie (i?ioieie
nayce) iaaeaeo IYAI iin?aaenoaii iiaeaiia onoaiaaeeaathony n iiiiuueth
noaiaea?oia. A oa/aiee 30 eao ?ac?aaioea iauaie?iauo noaiaea?oia
iiaeaiiie nayce aoiaeeo a e?oa caaea/ Iaaeaeoia?iaeiiai
eiinoeueoaoeaiiai eiieoaoa ii oaeaa?aoee e oaeaoiiee ( Comite
Consultativ International de Telegrahic ef Telephonie, NNITT).

Iaeiie ec iniiaiuo oa?aeoa?enoee, ii?aaeaeyaiie noaiaea?oii,
yaeyaony nei?inoue ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee. Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea
noaiaea?ou nei?inoae:

Iiaeaiu iaycaiu iaiaieaaoueny eioi?iaoeeae n oi/iinoueth aei
aaeoa, e ei iaiaoiaeeii caueuaoueny io ioeaie nayce.

Iaeii ec iniiaiuo naienoa iiaeaia – caueoa io ioeaie.
I?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa, iicaieythuea auiieieoue caueoo io ioeaie,
iiaoo auoue eeai ano?iaiu a ICO, eeai aeeth/athony a eiiieaeo iinoaaee
iiaeaia.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iieo/eee iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea nenoaiu
ei??aeoeee ioeaie, ii?aaeaeaiiua noaiaea?oii V.42 -1988a (i?e aunieie
yooaeoeaiinoe ia o?aaoao aieueoie i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe i?ioeanni?a).

O?aoueei, iniiaiui naienoaii iiaeaia, yaeyaony naeaoea aeaiiuo.
Naeaoea aeaiiuo iaiaoiaeeii aeey nie?auaiey (oiaiueoaiey) a?aiaie,
iaiaoiaeeiiai aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ii eaiaeai nayce. Naeaoea aeaiiuo
iiaeao auoue eae i?ia?aiiiui, oae e aiia?aoiui (i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa).

A eiioea 1989a. eiieoaoii CCITT ?ac?aaioai noaiaea?o V.42 bis,
eioi?ue i?e ?aaioa a: iieoaeoieaeniii ?aaeeia (aeaiiua ia?aaeathony a
2-o iai?aaeaieyo, ii a ?acee/iua iiiaiou a?aiaie) iicaieyao naeeiaoue
aeaiiua a 2-3 ?aca; aeoieaeniii ?aaeeia (aeaiiua ia?aaeathony a iaeii
e oi aea a?aiy) iicaieyao naeeiaoue aeaiiua a 1.5-2 ?aca; V.42 bis
aeeth/aao a ea/anoaa iaoiaea ei??aeoeee ioeaie noaiaea?o V.42.

Iniiaiuie i?iecaiaeeoaeyie iiaeaiia aeey oaeaoiiiuo eaiaeia
yaeythony eiiiaiee NOA, Aaeeeia?eoaiee, O?aioeee e Aa?iaiee.

Iaee/ea aieueoiai eiee/anoaa iiaeaiia, ioee/athueony ii ?yaeo
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo i?eciaeia , o?aaoao ?ac?aaioee i?aaee eo auai?a.

Iiaeaiu iiaeii eeanneoeoee?iaaoue ii 5-oe i?eciaeai:

Ii ooieoeeiiaeueiiio iacia/aieth:

iiaeai;

oaen-iiaeai.

Ii eiino?oeoeaiiio eniieiaieth:

aioo?aiiea, iiaeeeth/aaiua eaaaeai e ?acu?io RS-232 ia?niiaeueiiai
eiiiuethoa?a;

aiaoiea, a aeaea ieaou, onoaiiaeaiiua aioo?e eiiiuethoa?a.

Ii nei?inoiui aeaiiui:

ieceinei?inoiua (300, 600, 1200 e 2400 bps);

aunieinei?inoiua (9600, 14400, 19200 bps).

Ii i?eioeeio ?aaiou a eeiee:

neio?iiiua;

aneio?iiiua.

Ii ?aaeecaoeee i?ioieieia ei??aeoeee ioeaie e naeaoey aeaiiuo:

iiaeaea?aeea i?ioieieia ia aiia?aoiii o?iaia;

iiaeaea?aeea i?ioieieia ia i?ia?aiiiii o?iaia.

Ia?a/eneaiiua i?eciaee yaeythony ii?aaeaeythueie i?e auai?a iiaeaia.

Ia ia?aii yoaia neaaeoao ii?aaeaeeoue: eniieueciaaoue iiaeai
eee oaen-iiaeai? Aaeeinoaaiiui iaaeinoaoeii oaen-iiaeaia, ii
n?aaiaieth n iiaeaiii, yaeyaony noieiinoue (a n?aaeiai oaen-iiaeai
aei?iaea iiaeaia ia 40$). Iiieii /enoi eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo ooieoeee
iiaeaia, oaen-iiaeai iicaieyao auiieieoue neaaeothuea iia?aoeee:

ieaie?iaaiea ai a?aiaie ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo;

iaeiia?aiaiiay ia?anueea ianeieueeeo oaeeia;

aaaeaiea aeo?iaea ?aaeno?aoeee ioeaie;

aiciiaeia ia?anueea oaenoiauo aeieoiaioia, iiaeaioiaeaiiuo oaenoiauie
i?ioeanni?aie.

Ia aoi?ii yoaia neaaeoao naeaeaoue auai? iaaeaeo aioo?aiiei e
aiaoiei iiaeaiii. Aioo?aiiee iiaeai oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue a
neaaeothueo neo/ayo:

aeaoeoeeoii ianoi ia ?aai/ai noiea;

anoue ia?aie/aiey ii iiaeeeth/aieth aeiiieieoaeueiuo ono?ienoa a naoue
ieoaiey;

ia o?aaoaony eniieueciaaoue iiaeai a ?acee/iuo eiiiuethoa?ao.

E?iia oiai, aioo?aiiea iiaeaiu aeaoaaea aiaoieo. Aiaoiee iiaeai
oeaeaniia?acii eniieueciaaoue a neaaeothueo neooaoeeyo:

anee eiiiuethoa? ia ia?aa?oaeai ia?eoa?eae;

anoue iaiaoiaeeiinoue ia?aiineoue iiaeai n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
ae?oaie.

Iaaeinoaoee aioo?aiiaai iiaeaia – iaiaoiaeeiinoue “oieiaeiiai”
ia?acaionea eiiiuethoa?a i?e “caaenaieyo” ia eeieyo, /oi oa?aeoa?ii aeey
“iaoeo” (ioa/anoaaiiuo) eeiee nayce.

Ia o?aoueai yoaia auiieiyaony auai? iiaeaia ii nei?inoiui
oa?aeoa?enoeeai. Iiaeaiu, eniieuecothuea i?ioieieu V.32 e V.32 bis,
oeaeaniia?acii eiaoue oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia ae?oaii eiioea
oaeaea i?ienoiaeeo iiaeeeth/aiea e nei?inoiiio iiaeaio. E?iia oiai, iiuo
yenieoaoaoeee iiaeaiia ia iaoeo oaeaoiiiuo eeieyo iieacuaaao, /oi,
ianiio?y ia i?eiaiaiea i?ioieiea naeaoey, iai?eia?, V.12 bis
aneaaenoaea iiiao e ia?aiiaoi?ia ?acoeueoe?othuay yooaeoeaiay nei?inoue
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo ieacuaaaony ieaea ?aca a iieoi?a. Iai?eia?, i?e
eniieueciaaiee iiaeaiia ni nei?inoyie 2400 bps yooaeoeaiay nei?inoue
iieo/aaony ii?yaeea 1200-1500 bps.

Ia /aoaa?oii yoaia aeaeaaony auai? iaaeaeo neio?iiiui (iaeaieaa
aunieinei?inoiie, eniieuecoaony i?e eioaineaiii niiniaa acaeiiaeaenoaey)
e aneio?iiiui (eniieuecoaony anee acaeiiaeaenoaea n naoueth ia
eioaineaii) iiaeaiii, enoiaey ec oa?aeoa?enoee eaiaeia nayce:
eiiiooe?oaiua eee iaeiiiooe?oaiua.

Iaeaieaa aeinooiiuie aeey iieueciaaoaey iiaeaia yaeythony
eiiiooe?oaiua eaiaeu nayce, a eioi?uo oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiay eioi?iaoeey
ia?aaeaaony ii oai aea eaiaeai, /oi e ?a/aaay eioi?iaoeey. I?e ?aaioa n
eiiiooe?oaiuie eaiaeaie nayce o?aaoaony aneio?iiiue iiaeai.

Aeey i?aaiecaoeee acaeiiaeaenoaey oieueei 2-o IYAI o?aaothony
auaeaeaiiua eaiaeu nayce. A yoeo oneiaeyo o?aaothony neio?iiiua iiaeaiu,
eae aieaa aunieinei?inoiua.

Ia iyoii yoaia ?aoaaony aii?in i oii, eaeei ia?acii iiaeai aeieaeai
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue i?ioieieu naeaoey aeaiiuo e ei??aeoeeth ioeaie. Caeanue
neaaeoao iiiieoue, /oi aiia?aoiay ?aaeecaoeey aieaa iaaeaaeia, ii e
aei?iainoiyuay. Iiyoiio, anee iao aeanoeie iaiaoiaeeiinoe, iiaeii
eoieoue iiaeaiu n i?ia?aiiiie ?aaeecaoeeae i?ioieieia.

E e o a ? a o o ? a

Aoiaoia E., Auai?iia A. Eae ?aaioaao iiaeai//Eiiiuethoa?-i?ann. N 3,
1994-N 50-51.

Oaaeoenoia A., Ii?aoiia I. *oi ioaeii o/eouaaoue i?e auai?a iiaeaia
//Eiiiuethoa?-i?ann. N 3, 1994-N, 52-56.

Aii?inu aeey naiieiio?iey

Iaciaeoa iniiaiua ioee/eoaeueiua oa?aeoa?enoeee yoaiia ?acaeoey
aeiaaeueiuo (?aaeiiaeueiuo) naoae.

Eaeiau i?eioeeieaeueiua ioee/ey niiniaia eiiiooaoeee eioi?iaoeee oceaie
naoae?

Eaeei niiniaii aiciiaeii iauaaeeiaiea ianeieueeeo eieaeueiuo naoae,
?aniieiaeaiiuo ia iaaieueoii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa?

*ai ioee/aaony aioo?aiiee iino io aiaoiaai?

Eaeei ia?acii aiciiaeii iauaaeeieoue EAN, ?aniieiaeaiiua ia
cia/eoaeueiii ?annoiyiee ae?oa io ae?oaa?

A /ai caeeth/athony i?eioeeieaeueiia ioee/ea iauaaeeiaiey EAN
iin?aaenoaii aneio?iiiuo e neio?iiiuo eeiee nayce?

Oaia 6. Iaeanoe i?eiaiaiey ?aaeiiaeueiuo

e eieaeueiuo naoae

Aii?inu:

Oaeaiaoeea: oaeaoaeno e aeaeaioaeno.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa.

Oaeaniaauaiey e oaeaeiioa?aioeee.

Oaeaoaeno.

1 aii?in.

Oa?iei «oaeaiaoeea» i?eiaiyaony aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aeaoo oe?ieeo eeannia
oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo ?aaeiiaeueiuie e aeiaaeueiuie naoyie –
oaeaoaeno e aeaeaioaeno.

Oaoiieiaey oaeaoaenoa eniieuecoao iau/iua nenoaiu oe?ieiaauaoaeueiiai
oaeaaeaeaiey aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aaeaaaoue iieaae?iai eioi?iaoeeth ia
oa?ieiaeu iieueciaaoaeae (?en.6.1). Eae aeaeii ia ?en.6.1 oa?iei
oaeaoaeno iienuaaao oneoao n iaeiiiai?aaeaiiie ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo.

?en.6.1. Oaoiieiaey oaeaoaenoa.

A oneiaeyo oaeaoaenoa no?aieoea oaenoa inoaaony ia ye?aia aei oiai, eae
aoaeao oeeeee/anee caiauaia neaaeothuae no?aieoeae, eeai aei oeacaiey
iieueciaaoaey. Aeae oneoae «oaeaoaeno» ioiineony e naiui ?aiiei oi?iai
acaeiiaeaenoaey iieueciaaoaey n oaeaeaiiie YAI. Aeey oaeaoaenoa ia
o?aaoaony aeiiieieoaeueiiai eaiaea oaeaaeaeaiey. Ii eniieuecoao oaea
nouanoaothuee. I?eioeei ?aaiou neoaeau oaeaoaenoa i?aaenoaaeai ia
?en.6.2.

?en.6.2. I?eioeei ?aaiou oe?ieiaauaoaeueiie neoaeau.

*oiau iiiyoue i?eioeei ?aaiou oaeaoaenoa, iaiaoiaeeii ?anniio?aoue, eae
inouanoaeyaony iau/iay oaeaaeceiiiay ia?aaea/a. Ecia?aaeaiea ia
oaeaaeci?a iiyaeyaony aeaaiaea?y oiio, /oi ii aai ye?aio iai?a?uaii
aeaeaaaony yeaeo?iiiue eo/. Nia/aea i?ienoiaeeo i?yiie oiae eo/a neaaa
ia i?aai, caoai eo/ aeaeaeaony a ia?aoiii iai?aaeaiee (ioieoe?).
?aaeueiay ea?oeia, aeaeeiay ia ye?aia oaeaaeci?a, ianeieueei ioee/aaony
io oie noaiu, eioi?ay iieacaia ia ?en.6.2. Ai-ia?auo, o/anoee i?yiiai
oiaea eo/a ?aniieaaathony oae aeecei ae?oa io ae?oaa, /oi iieo/aaony
nieioiia ecia?aaeaiea. Ai aoi?uo, ai a?aiy ia?aoiuo oiaeia eo/ aaneony e
iiyoiio ia ye?aia ia aeaeai.

I?e oe?ieiaauaiee o/anoee ia?aoiuo oiaeia eo/a eniieuecothony aeey
ia?aaea/e ?acee/iie eioi?iaoeee. Aeey yoiai e oaeaaeci?o aeiaaaeyaony
iaaei?iaay iee?iiaoeia (eioa?oaen oaeaoaenoa) n i?inoaeoei oa?ieiaeii a
aeaea eeaaeaoo?u.

A ioee/ea io oaeaoaenoa, aeaeaioaeno i?aaeiieaaaao aeaonoi?iiiaa
acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo iieueciaaoaeai e enoi/ieeii eioi?iaoeee
(?en.6.3).

?en.6.3. Oaoiieiaey aeaeaioaenoa.

Eae aeaeii ec ?en.6.3 aeey iaania/aiey aeaeaioaenoa iaiaoiaeeiu iiaeaiu
e eiiiooe?oaiua oaeaoiiiua naoe (eee eiiioieeaoeeiiiay iiaenaoue).

Oaeaiaoeea iaania/eaaao neaaeothuea aeaeu oneoa:

Iiainoe, iiaiaea, nii?o.

?aeeaia /a?ac aauaiea oaeaoaenoa.

Oeiainiaay eioi?iaoeey, iai?eia? eo?n aeoeee ia ae?aea.

Iieoiee /a?ac oa?ieiae.

Ea?u e ?acaea/aiey.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa.

Oaeaniaauaiey e oaeaeiioa?aioeee.

Ooieoeee 1, 2, 3 – iaania/eaatho oaeaoaenoii, a ooieoeee 4, 5, 6, 7 –
iaania/eaathony aeaeaioaenoii.

2 aii?in.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa (YI) yaeyaony iaeiie ec iaeaieaa oe?iei
?ani?ino?aiaiiuo oneoa, i?aaeinoaaeyaiuo iieueciaaoaeyi aeiaaeueiie
au/eneeoaeueiie naoe. YI eiaao ?yae i?aeiouanoa ia?aae iaueiiaaiiie:

aieaa auno?ay aeinoaaea niiauaiee;

aieaa ieceay noieiinoue ia?aaea/e (aeey Aa?iaiee iinueea ienueia –
0,94$, iaeneioi 4$ – no?aieoeu oaenoa oaeaenii, 0,19$ – oaeaoaenoii).

I?e iiiiue yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou iiaeii ia?anueaoue oaenou, ecia?aaeaiey,
caoeia?aiiu. Any oeacaiiay ei??aniiiaeaioeey o?aieony a eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
aaieao. Yoi iicaieyao a ethaia iaiaoiaeeiia a?aiy inouanoaeyoue iiene,
iiaeai?eo e i?iniio? iieo/aiiuo i?e iiiiue ii/ou aeieoiaioia.

Iniiaiua ooieoeee, auiieiyaiua YI, naiaeyony e neaaeothuei:

?aaeaeoe?iaaiea aeieoiaioia ia?aae ia?aaea/ae;

ia?anueea ei??aniiiaeaioeee;

i?iaa?ea e eni?aaeaiea ioeaie, aicieeathueo i?e ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee;

eniieueciaaiea i?ei?eoaoia aeey ia?aaea/e n?i/iie ei??aniiiaeaioeee;

ia?aaea/a iiaeoaa?aeaeaiee i iieo/aiee ei??aniiiaeaioeee aae?anaoaie.

I?inoaeoay oi?ia yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.6.4.

?en.6.4. I?inoaeoay noaia YI.

Ia ?en.6.4 ei??aniiiaeaioeey iaiin?aaenoaaiii ia?aaeaaony io iaeiiai
iieueciaaoaey e ae?oaiio /a?ac eiiioieeaoeeiiioth iiaenaoue. Aeaiiay
noaia i?inoa, ii eiaao iaeei nouanoaaiiue iaaeinoaoie. Caeanue ia?anueea
aeieoiaioaoeee aiciiaeia eeoue oiaaea, eiaaea iaeiia?aiaiii ?aaioatho
iaoeia – ioi?aaeoaeue e iaoeia iieo/aoaeue ei??aniiiaeaioeee. Anee
iieueciaaoaeue iaoiaeeony ia ia naiai ianoa, eeai caiyo ae?oaie ?aaioie,
ei??aniiiaeaioeeth ia?aaeaoue iaeuecy.

Aeey ono?aiaiey oeacaiiiai iaaeinoaoea a no?oeoo?o yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou
aaiaeyo iaeii eeai ianeieueei ii/oiauo ioaeaeaiee. No?oeoo?a YI n iaeiei
ii/oiaui ioaeaeaieai i?aaenoaaeaia ia ?en.6.5.

?en.6.5. No?oeoo?a ii/ou n iaeiei ii/oiaui ioaeaeaieai.

Niaeanii ?en.6.5 ei??aniiiaeaioeey ethaiai iieueciaaoaey ia?anueaaony e
o?aieony a eioi?iaoeeiiiii aaiea, auiieiythuai ooieoeee ii/oiaiai
ioaeaeaiey. Caoai ec ii/oiaiai ioaeaeaiey ei??aniiiaeaioeey ?annueaaony
aae?anaoai.

A aieueoeo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo naoyo iaee/ea iaeiiai ii/oiaiai ioaeaeaiey
i?eaiaeeo e aieueoie caa?ocea eaiaeia ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, aaaeoueo e
iaio. Iiyoiio a oaeeo naoyo aeaeatho ii ianeieueei ii/oiauo ioaeaeaiee
(?en.6.6). Caeanue AaN ia?aiia/aeueii ia?anueatho ei??aniiiaeaioeeth a
aeeaeaeoea ii/oiaua ioaeaeaiey, eioi?ua ia?anueatho a ioaeiuo neo/ayo
aeieoiaiou ae?oa ae?oao e ?annueatho eo iieueciaaoaeyi.

?en.6.6. YI n ianeieueeeie ii/oiauie ioaeaeaieyie.

Ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea a YI auiieiyao ana iaiaoiaeeiua ooieoeee,
iaania/eaathuea auno?oth e ea/anoaaiioth aeinoaaeo ei??aniiiaeaioeee:

oi?aaeytho naainaie ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee;

i?iaa?ytho iaee/ea ioeaie a ia?aaeaiiie ei??aniiiaeaioeee e eni?aaeytho
eo;

o?aiyo ei??aniiiaeaioeeth aei aino?aaiaaiey;

niiauatho iieueciaaoaeyi i iinooieaoae aeey ieo ei??aniiiaeaioeee;

ia?anueatho aeieoiaiou iieueciaaoaeyi;

?aaeno?e?otho ei??aniiiaeaioeeth e aaaeoo aa o/ao;

iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?aaioo ni?aai/ieeia ii/oiauo ioaeaeaiee e aae?ania
aaiiaioia;

auiieiytho neoaeaaiua iia?aoeee, ni?oe?iaeo eioi?iaoeee, i?iaa?eo
ia?ieae i?e cai?ina ei??aniiiaeaioeee, eiie?iaaiea aeieoiaioia.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiinoeueoaoeaiue eiieoao ii oaeaa?aoee e oaeaoiiee
ooaa?aeee noaiaea?o ia YI, aeeth/athuee a?oiio ?aeiiaiaeaoeee,
iaicia/aiiuo oeo?ii o.400.

3 aii?in.

Aeey i?iaaaeaiey oaeaniaauaiey eee oaeaeiioa?aioeee iaeia ec ?aai/eo
noaioeee ?aaeiiaeueiie eee aeiaaeueiie naoe aunooiaao a ea/anoaa aaiea
e, iaeiia?aiaiii, i?aaiecaoi?ii niaauaiey (?en.6.7).

?en.6.7. Noaia i?aaiecaoeee oaeaniaauaiey.

I?aaeaa?eoaeueii aaie iauyaeyao i i?iaaaeaiee oaeaniaauaiey ia
ii?aaeaeaiioth oaio e ?annueaao iieueciaaoaeyi ecaauaiey ia yoii. Aeey
i?iaaaeaiey niaauaiey a aaiea ioe?uaaaony niaoeeaeueiue oaee, a eioi?ue
aeeaaeuaaaony ia?aiia/aeueiue oaeno e eeethno?e?othuee aai iaoa?eae
(aeieeaae). A oa/aiea nooie eee ae?oaiai ca?aiaa onoaiiaeaiiiai a?aiaie
ana o/anoieee niaauaiey, ia?auaynue e aaieo, /eoatho yoio aeieeaae e
caienuaatho a oaee aaiea naie caia/aiey e i?aaeeiaeaiey. N ieie
ciaeiieony ?oeiaiaeeoaeue aaiea e ana eeoea, o/anoaothuea a aeeneonnee.
Iinea yoiai ?oeiaiaeeoaeue e inoaeueiua aeaeathuea eeoea aiiaue
aunooiatho ii ianoaeaeaaiiio i?aaeiaoo (iinueatho iaoa?eaeu a aaie). N
eo aunooieaieyie ciaeiiyony o/anoieee aeeneonnee. Oae i?iaeieaeaaony aei
oao ii?, iiea aoaeao noi?ioee?iaaii e i?eiyoi ?aoaiea niaauaiey.

4 aii?in.

E?iia oaeaoaenoa e aeaeaioaenoa a iineaaeiea ianeieueei eao iiyaeeanue
ae?oaay oaoiieiaey, eioi?ay ii iiaieth iiiaeo niaoeeaeenoia, noaiao
ianniaui noaiaea?oii naoaauo nenoai ia aaca oa?ieiaeia.

Aeey ii?aaeaeaiey yoie oaoiieiaee eniieuecoaony oa?iei «oaeaen». Yoi
ianeoaeeaaiea yaeeinue ?acoeueoaoii ?acaeoey oaeaena e oaeaoaeia.

Oaeaen. I?eia?ii 20 eao iacaae, eiaaea ia/aee iiyaeyoueny yeaeo?iiiua
ieoouea iaoeiee, aicieeea eaeay eo niaaeeiaiey iin?aaenoaii oaeaoiiiuo
eaiaeia nayce. A ?acoeueoaoa aicieeea neoaeaa oaeaena. Nia?aiaiiua
nenoaiu oaeaena ?aaioatho iiae oi?aaeaieai YAI, ?aaeecothueo
ioeueoeieaene?iaaiea a oeeo?iauo (aeene?aoiuo) n?aaenoaao ia?aaea/e.
E?iia oiai, oa?ieiae oaeaena iiaeao eiaoue n?aaenoaa caiiieiaiey
aeaiiuo, /oi iniaaiii iieacii aeey ooieoeee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.
Nei?inoue ?aaiou oa?ieiaea 50 aio. Aeey eiaee?iaaiey neiaieia
eniieuecoaony iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aeoaaeo ? 2.

Nenoaia oaeaoaeia iaania/eaaao ia?aaea/o oaenoa iaaeaeo niaianoeiuie
oa?ieiaeaie ni nei?inoueth 110 neia a ieiooo, eniieuecoy
iaaeaeoia?iaeiue aeoaaeo ? 5 (eiae ASCII).

?ac?aaioea oaeaoaenoa ia/aeanue a eiioea 70-o aiaeia a O?A. Oeaeueth
aeaiiie ?ac?aaioee auei nicaeaiea oa?ieiaea, eioi?ue iaania/eaae au
aaia?aoeeth oaenoa iaeiia?aiaiii n ia?aaeathueie aiciiaeiinoyie e
eioi?ue au eniieueciaae iieiue iaai? neiaieia ieooueo iaoeiie.

IEEOO (Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiinoeueoaoeeiiiue eiieoao ii oaeaa?aoee e
oaeaoiiee) ii?aaeaeee:

Ana oa?ieiaeu oaeaoaenoa aeieaeiu eniieueciaaoue noaiaea?oiue iaai?
a?aoe/aneeo ciaeia. I?eieiathuee oa?ieiae oaeaoaenoa aeieaeai eiaoue
n?aaenoaa aeey o?aiaiey e eniieueciaaiey iieiiai iaai?a yoeo neiaieia.
Yoi o?aaiaaiea ?ac?aaioaii aeey oiai, /oiau aeieoiaio, iai?aaeaiiue ec
iaeiie no?aiu a ae?oaoth, aue i?eiyo a oii aea aeaea ianiio?y ia
?acee/ea ycueia e aeoaaeoia.

Neoaeaa oaeaoaenoa o?aaoao, /oiau oa?ieiae auaea?aeeaae caa?oceo a
oa/aiea 95% anaai a?aiaie aeaenoaey. Oaeaea o?aaoaony, /oiau ii ?aaioae
ia nei?inoe 2400 aeo/n eae ia aioo?aiieo eeieyo, oae e ia ca?oaaaeiuo.

Ana oa?ieiaeu oaeaoaenoa aeieaeiu eiaoue iieiinoueth aaoiiaoe/aneoth
onoaiiaeo auciaa e ioaaoia, /oiau eneeth/eoue ana ?o/iua aiaoaoaeuenoaa.

Eaaeaeue oa?ieiae aeieaeai eiaoue oieeaeueiue eiae eaeaioeoeeaoeee,
aeeth/athuee 4 /anoe:

no?aia eee naoue a no?aia;

aae?an oa?ieiaea;

aeiiieieoaeueiay eioi?iaoeey (ii?aaeaeyaony IEEOO);

eaeaioeoeeaoi? aeaaeaeueoea oa?ieiaea.

Ana oa?ieiaeu oaeaoaenoa aeieaeiu eiaoue neaaeothuea oi?iaou no?aieoe:

ia/aoiia iiea (210o280 ii);

ai?eciioaeueiia ?aciauaiea – 10 neiaieia ia 25,4 ii;

aa?oeeaeueiia ?aciauaiea – 0,5; 1; 1,5; 2 no?iee ia 25,4 ii.

E e o a ? a o o ? a

Aeye TH. Naoe YAI: i?ioieieu, noaiaea?ou, eioa?oaen. – I, ; Ie?, 1990.

Aii?inu aeey naiieiio?iey

Eaeiau i?eioeeieaeueiua ioee/ey oaeaoaenoa e aeaeaioaenoa?

Eaeiau ooieoeee oaeaoaenoa?

Eaeiau ooieoeee aeaeaioaenoa?

*oi oaeia oaeaoaeno?

Oaia 7. A u a i ? n a o e

Aii?inu:

1. Nicaeaiea ?aai/ae a?oiiu.

2. Acaeiiaeaenoaea n iinoaaueeaie.

3. Ioeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee.

1 aii?in.

Nicaeaiea ?aai/ae a?oiiu e aa aioo?aiiyy aeayoaeueiinoue yaeyaony
ia?aui yoaiii auai?a naoe.

Ia?aue yoai – auai? i?aaenaaeaoaey nicaeaiiie ?aai/ae a?oiiu e aa
aioo?aiiyy aeayoaeueiinoue (aac eiioaeoia n iinoaaueeaie).

?aai/ay a?oiia auai?a naoe aeieaeia aeeth/aoue ia aieaa o?ao
niaoeeaeenoia, eioi?ua aeieaeiu iaeaaeaoue aunieie eaaeeoeeaoeeae a
iaeanoe AO, oaeaoiiiie nayce, eiiioieeaoeee iauaai iacia/aiey.

Ooieoeeyie ?aai/ae a?oiiu ia ia?aii yoaia yaeythony:

1. Ninoaaeaiea ieaia i?iaiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee e n?ieia eo eniieiaiey.

2. Ninoaaeaiea ia?a/iy o?aaiaaiee, eioi?ui aeieaeia oaeiaeaoai?youe
naoue.

3. Ninoaaeaiea nienea oe?i iinoaaueeia.

4. Iiaeaioiaea ia?a/iy i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Ieai i?iaiaeeiuo ia?ii?eyoee ninoaaeyaony ia ana /aou?a yoaia
auai?a. I?e ninoaaeaiee ieaia iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue, /oi aeaeaoaeueiia
niioiioaiea iaaeaeo yoaiaie aeieaeii auoue eae 2,5:1:1:1.

Ia?a/aiue o?aaiaaiee, eioi?ui aeieaeia oaeiaeaoai?youe naoue, iau/ii
yaeyaony ioaaoaie ia neaaeothuea aii?inu:

1. Neieueei iiiauaiee aeieaeii ianeoaeeaaoueny naoueth?

2. Eaeia iaeeaeaaony acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo yoeie oa??eoi?eyie?

3. A eaeii aeaea eioi?iaoeey aeieaeia ia?aaeaaaoueny iaaeaeo
iiae?acaeaeaieyie: ecia?aaeaiey, ?a/aaay eioi?iaoeey, aeaiiua, oaeno e
o.ae?

4. Aeey eaaeaeie ia?u iiiauaiee:

a) eaeia iauai aaeaaeiaaiie ii?oeee ia?aaeaaaaiie eioi?iaoeee?

a) a oa/aiee eaeiai ia?eiaea aeieaeii iiaeaea?aeeaaoueny
eioa?aeoeaiia acaeiiaeaenoaea?

a) eaeia iauai aeaiiuo, ia?aaeaaaaiuo a eioa?aeoeaiii ?aaeeia?

5. Nouanoaotho ee iniaua o?aaiaaiey e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo (iaeay
caaea?aeea ioaaoa, aeaoa?ieie?iaaiiia a?aiy ia?aaea/e)?

6. Iaiaoiaeeia ee naycue n aeiaaeueiuie nenoaiaie?

O?aoueae ooieoeeae a?oii yaeyaony ninoaaeaiea nienea oe?i-iinoaaueeia
EAN. Aeaeaa aiciiaeiue nienie noaeaaony aei 3-4-o ia iniiaa aiaeeca
ioaaoia ii neaaeothuei e?eoa?eyi:

1. Ianeieueei aunie aaoi?eoao iinoaaueea n?aaee niaoeeaeenoia a
iaeanoe ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo?

2. Iiaeao ee iinoaauee nii?iaiaeaeaoue naie i?iaeoeo nianoaaiiuie
neeaie eee /a?ac iin?aaeieeia?

3. Ianeieueei ioioii iinoaaueee anooiatho a eiioaeo?

4. A eaeie ia?a iinoaauee aioia auiieieoue ana noi?ioee?iaaiiua
o?aaiaaiey, iniaaiii iaeaieaa o?oaeiua (i?aaiecaoeeth oethcia, aunieay
iaaeaaeiinoue e ae?.)

Ia 4-ii oaaa ia?aiai yoaia auiieiyaony iiaeaioiaea i?iaeoa
i?eaioe?iai/iiai ia?a/iy i?aaeeiaeaiee iinoaaueeia. Yoi iaiaoiaeeii
aeey oi?iuaiey aeaeueiaeoae ?aaiou n iinoaaueeaie.

A ia?a/ia oeacuaaaony, /oi iinooiathuea io iinoaaueeia i?aaeeiaeaiey
aeieaeiu auoue ioi?ieaiu eae ioaaou, iai?eia?, ii neaaeothuei ?acaeaeai:

1. Iauay /anoue.

2. I?ieeaaeea eaaaeae e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo.

3. Eioa?oaenu n ono?ienoaaie.

4. Aeai?eoi aeinooia e eaiaeo.

5. Iinou.

6. Oethcu.

7. Oi?aaeaiea naoueth.

8. No?aoaaey ?acaeoey.

A ?acaeaea 1 aeieaeai i?eaiaeeoueny iiae?iaiue iaci? i?aaeeaaaaiie
naoe, a oaeaea ?acoeueoaou aiaae?aiey naoe a ae?oaeo i?aaiecaoeeyo.

A ?acaeaea 2 ii?aaeaeaia iaiaoiaeeiinoue e oeio eaaaey, eioi?ue
o?aaoaony i?e onoaiiaea i?aaeeaaaaiie naoe.

A ?acaeaea 3 ii?aaeaeyaony eaeea ono?ienoaa iiaoo auoue iiaeeeth/aiu e
naoe.

A ?acaeaea 4 oeacuaaaony eaeie aeai?eoi aeinooia e eaiaeo iiaeao
?aaeeciaaoue naoue.

A ?acaeaea 5 ii?aaeaeyaony eaeei ia?acii aiciiaeii a oneiaeyo aeaiiie
naoe ?aaeeciaaoue naycue iaaeaeo EAN ia ?acee/iuo oa??eoi?eyo n
iiiiuueth iinoia.

A ?acaeaea 6 niaea?aeeony eioi?iaoeey i oii, eaeei ia?acii
i?aaeeaaaaiay naoue iicaieyao inouanoaeoue naycue n ?aciioeiiuie YAI
eee naoyie i?e iiiiue oethcia.

A ?acaeaea 7 aeeth/aiu aii?inu ii oi?aaeaieth naoueth e aa
ianeoaeeaaieth, iiiiaathuea ?aai/ae a?oiia ?ani?aaeaeeoue
ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca oi?aaeaiea naoueth e onoaiiaeoue o?aaoaioth
/eneaiiinoue ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea.

A ?acaeaea 8 iinoaauee eceaaaao naie i?aaenoaaeaiey i aoaeoueo naoaauo
?ac?aaioeao oe?iu. Yoa eioi?iaoeey iau/ii niiinoaaeyaony n nianoaaiiuie
ieaiaie oe?iu-caeacueea.

Noi?ie?iaaa ieai ?aaiou, a oaeaea ii?aaeaeea o?aaiaaiey e naoe e
iioaioeeaeueiui iinoaaueeai e ninoaaea i?iaeo i?aaeeiaeaiee, ?aai/ay
a?oiia ia/eiaao iaiin?aaenoaaiii acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue n iinoaaueeaie.

2 aii?in.

Aoi?ui yoaiii auai?a EAN yaeyaony acaeiiaeaenoaea n iinoaaueeaie.

Acaeiiaeaenoaea n iinoaaueeaie aeeth/aao ei?ioeea niaauaiey,
aeaiiino?aoeee e caeai/eaaaony iieo/aieai i?aaeeiaeaiee iinoaaueea. Ia
yoii yoaia i?aaenoaaeoaeth oe?iu-iinoaaueea i?aaenoaaeytho o?aaiaaiey,
eioi?ua i?aaeuyaeythony e aoaeouae naoe e i?iaeo i?aaeeiaeaiee. A
i?ioeanna acaeiiaeaenoaey /anoi auyniyaony, /oi i?aaeeiaeaiey
iinoaaueeia aieaa ne?iiiua, iaaeaee o?aaiaaiey, i?aaeuyaeyaiua
caeac/eeii.

Iaee/ea ?yaea eiieo?aioiuo i?aaeeiaeaiee, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo
iieiinoueth ia oaeiaeaoai?yao o?aaiaaieyi caeac/eea, o?aaoao ioeaiee
i?aaeeiaeaiee.

3 aii?in.

Ioeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Oaaeeoea 7.1

I?EIA? NIIINOAAEAIEss I?AAeEIAEAIEE

A oaae.7.1 i?eaaaeai ?yae i?aaeeiaeaiee iinoaaueeia niaeanii
o?aaiaaieyi, eioi?ua iiaoo auoue i?aaeuyaeaiu caeac/eeii(ni. oaae. 7.1).

Eae aeaeii ec oaae.7.1 ie iaeii i?aaeeiaeaiea ia iia?aaeaao
inoaeueiua ii anai iieacaoaeyi. A i?eaaaeaiiii i?eia?a i?aaeeiaeaiea 2
iaeeo/oaa ii Iniiaiui o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeeiaeaiea 3 – ii
Aeiiieieoaeueiui o?aaiaaieyi, i?aaeeiaeaiea 1 – ii Noieiinoe.

Iiyoiio, auai? aoaeao caaenaoue io oiai, /oi iaeaieaa aaaeii aeey
eiie?aoiiai iieueciaaoaey.

O?aaeeoeeiiiue iiaeoiae e ioeaiea i?aaeeiaeaiee caeeth/aaony a
neaaeothuai.

Ia ia?aii yoaia aaiaeyony eiee/anoaaiiua ioeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiee ii anai
ia?aiao?ai (e?eoa?eyi) n?aaiaiey (oaae. 7.2). I?e yoii ioeaieaathony
oieueei yeaiaioa?iua e?eoa?ee (ia?aiao?u, eiathuea iaiin?aaenoaaiiua
cia/aiey).

Oaaeeoea 7.2

IOeAIEE I?AAeEIAEAIEE

A ioee/ea io eiee/anoaaiiie ioeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiee, aaaeiinoue e?eoa?eaa
aeey eiie?aoiiai caeac/eea ii?aaeaeyaony eae ii a?oiiiaui (Iniiaiua
o?aaiaaiey, Aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey, Noieiinoue), oae e ii
yeaiaioa?iui e?eoa?eyi. Aeey ?an/aoa aaniauo eiyooeoeeaioia aaaeiinoe
e?eoa?eaa iaiaoiaeei yenia?oiue ii?in. Aeey yoie oeaee i?eaeaeaaony
8-12 yenia?oia.

Eaaeaeue yenia?o caiieiyao oaaeeoeo, a?aou eioi?ie niioaaonoaotho
e?eoa?eyi ioeaiee, a no?iee niaea?aeao cia/aiey eo aaaeiinoe aeey
eiie?aoiiai caeac/eea.

Ioeaiea e?eoa?eaa aeieaeia i?iecaiaeeoueny iooai eo ?aiaee?iaaiey,
eioi?ia caeeth/aaony a ?aniieiaeaiee iauaeoia a i?iioia?iaaiiie
iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe a niioaaonoaee n oauaaieai aaaeiinoe e?eoa?eaa
(cia/aiea ?aiaa “1” aeieaeai eiaoue e?eoa?ee n iaeneiaeueiie
aaaeiinoueth).

?acoeueoaou ?aiaee?iaaiey e?eoa?eaa i?aaenoaaeaiu a oaae.7.3-7.6.

Oaaeeoea 7.3

Oaaeeoea 7.4

Oaaeeoea 7.5

Ia iniiaa ?acoeueoaoia ?aiaee?iaaiey ii?aaeaeythony aana e?eoa?eaa
ioeaiee Wi ii neaaeothuaio aeai?eoio.

Au/eneyaony noiia ?aiaia aeey eaaeaeiai e?eoa?ey Ri

K

Ri=(Rki

k=1

aaea Rki – ?aia, iinoaaeaiiue i-io e?eoa?eth k-ui yenia?oii; R(1,
k – eiee/anoai yenia?oia.

2. Auae?aaony iaeiaiueoaa cia/aiea Ri = Rmin e
?ann/eouaathony aniiiiaaoaeueiua aaee/eiu

3. ?ann/eouaathony aaniaua eiyooeoeeaiou Wi

Vi

Wi =—–

M

( Vi

i=1

aaea i ( 1,M – eiee/anoai e?eoa?eaa.

Ia neaaeothuai yoaia ii?aaeaeyaony yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiee
Ej ii

eaaeaeiio ec 3-o eeannia e?eoa?eaa (oaae.7-9) niaeanii oi?ioea

M

Ej = ( WiPij

i=1

aaea Ej – yooaeoeaiinoue j-ai i?aaeeiaeaiey;

Wi – aan i-ai e?eoa?ey ioeaiee;

Pij – ioeaiea j-ai i?aaeeiaeaiey ii i-io e?eoa?eth.

Aeaeaa iieo/aiiay noiia ii?iaeecoaony ii oi?ioea

Sji – Smi

Lji = ————-

Sbi – S mi

aaea Smi – iaeiaiueoay eoiaiaay noiia yooaeoeaiinoe ii anai
e?eoa?eyi

i-ie a?oiiu;

Sbi – iaeaieueoay eoiaiaay noiia yooaeoeaiinoe;

Sji – eoiaiaay noiia yooaeoeaiinoe j-iai i?aaeeiaeaiey,
cia/aiea

eioi?iai ii?iaeecoaony;

Lji – ii?iaeeciaaiiia cia/aiea eoiaiaie noiiu yooaeoeaiinoe
j-ai i?aaeeiaeaiey.

?acoeueoao au/eneaiee a oaaeeoeao 7.7-7.9 yaeyaony eiee/anoaaiiie
ioeaieie a?oiiiauo e?eoa?eaa “Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey”,
“Aeiiieieoaeueiua o?aaiaaiey” e “Noieiinoue”.

Oaaeeoea 7.7

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiee ii e?eoa?eth “Iniiaiua o?aaiaaiey”

Oaaeeoea 7.8

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiee ii e?eoa?eth “Aeiiieieoaeueiua
o?aaiaaiey”

Oaaeeoea 7.9

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiee ii e?eoa?eth “Noieiinoue”

Ia iineaaeiai yoaia ?ann/eouaaaony yooaeoeaiinoue eaaeaeiai
i?aaeeiaeaiey ii anai e?eoa?eyi (oaae. 7.10), eae noiia i?iecaaaeaiee
iieo/aiiie ioeaiee ia aaaeiinoue niioaaonoaothuaai eeanna e?eoa?ey
(oaae. 7.3).

Oaaeeoea 7.10

Yooaeoeaiinoue i?aaeeiaeaiee ii anai e?eoa?eyi

iaeaieaa

auea?uoiia

i?aaeeiaeaiea

Eae neaaeoao ec oaae. 7.10 iaeeo/oei i?aaeeiaeaieai yaeyaony 2,
eiathuaa iauoth ioeaieo 0,5. Eiaiii yoi i?aaeeiaeaiea e aeieaeii auoue
?aeiiaiaeiaaii aeey aiaae?aiey.

E E O A ? A O O ? A

Aeye TH. Naoe YAI: i?ioieieu, noaiaea?ou, eioa?oaenu.-I.:Ie?, 1990.

AII?INU AeEss NAIIEIIO?IEss

Iaciaeoa iniiaiua yoaiu auai?a naoe.

Eaeie yoai auai?a naoe iaeaieaa o?oaeiaieee?

Eaeiau ooieoeee ?aai/ae a?oiiu ia ia?aii yoaia auai?a naoe?

Iaciaeoa iniiaiua yoaiu ioeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiee ?acee/iuo aa?eaioia naoe.

Iaieoeoa aeai?eoi ioeaiee i?aaeeiaeaiee.

Oaia 8. Iaae?aeiinoue e aaciianiinoue a EAN

Aii?inu:

Oa?aeoa?enoeea i?e/ei aeeythueo ia iaaeaaeiinoue EAN

N?aaenoaa aeey iiieoi?eiaa EAN.

N?aaenoaa iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe eaaaeueiie nenoaiu.

Caueoa io ioeeth/aiey yeaeo?iieoaiey.

I?aaeioa?auaiea iioa?ue ec-ca naiy aeeneiauo nenoai.

Caueoa io eiiiuethoa?iuo ae?onia.

N?aaenoaa eiio?iey aeaiiuo.

E?eioia?aoe/aneea iaoiaeu caueou.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea n?aaenoa caueou eioi?iaoeee.

1 aii?in.

Ia?yaeo n iiauoaieai i?iecaiaeeoaeueiinoe EAN ia?aii/a?aaeiuie
yaeythony caaea/e iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiinoe naoe. Iniiaiuie i?e/eiaie,
aeeythueie ia aania?aaieioth ?aaioo EAN, yaeythony:

Naie iai?oaeiaaiey, aucaaiiua:

ia?ooaieyie ?aaiou naoaaiai eaaaey;

ioeeth/aieai yeaeo?iieoaiey;

ioeacii aeeneiauo nenoai e nenoai a?oeaaoeee aeaiiuo;

ia?ooaieai ?aaiou na?aa?ia, ?aai/eo noaioeee.

Iaei??aeoiay ?aaioa i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey (II), i?eaiaeyuay e iioa?a
eee ii?/a aeaiiuo ec-ca:

ioeaie a i?eeeaaeiii eee naoaaii II;

ca?aaeaiey nenoai eiiiuethoa?iuie ae?onaie.

Ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiue aeinooi, eiie?iaaiea eee eciaiaiea eioi?iaoeee
(neo/aeiua eee oiuoeaiiua), i?eaiaeyuea e:

eneaaeaieth, eeai oie/oiaeaieth aeaiiuo;

iciaeiieaieth iinoi?iiieo eeoe n eioi?iaoeeae, ninoaaeythuae oaeio.

Ioeaee ianeoaeeaathuaai ia?niiaea.

Oieaa?naeueiiai ?aoaiey, eneeth/athuaai ana ia?a/eneaiiua i?e/eiu, iao.
Iaeiaei ?ac?aaioaiu e i?eiaiythony oaoie/aneea n?aaenoaa e
aaeieieno?aoeaiua ia?u, iicaieythuea ?ene iioa?e aeaiiuo eee
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia naanoe e ieieioio.

2 aii?in.

N?aaenoaa iiieoi?eiaa EAN e iaia?oaeaiey a aa ?aaioa «oceeo iano» iiaeii
iiae?acaeaeeoue ia aeaa iniiaiuo eeanna: no?aoaae/aneea e oaeoe/aneea.

Iacia/aiea no?aoaae/aneeo n?aaenoa ninoieo a eiio?iea ca ia?aiao?aie
ooieoeeiie?iaaiey anae naoe e ?aoaiey i?iaeai eiioeao?e?iaaiey EAN.

Iacia/aiea oaeoe/aneeo n?aaenoa — iiieoi?eia e ono?aiaiea iaeni?aaiinoae
naoaauo ono?ienoa e naoaaiai eaaaey.

E no?aoaae/aneei n?aaenoaai ioiinyony:

nenoaiu oi?aaeaiey naoueth;

ano?iaiiua nenoaiu aeeaaiinoeee;

?ani?aaeaeaiiua nenoaiu iiieoi?eiaa;

n?aaenoaa aeeaaiinoeee na?aa?ia.

E oaeoe/aneei n?aaenoaai ioiinyo ?acee/iua aeaeu oanoe?othueo ono?ienoa
(oanoa?u e neaia?u naoaaiai eaaaey), a oaeaea ono?ienoaa aeey
eiiieaeniiai aiaeeca ?aaiou naoe – aiaeecaoi?u i?ioieieia.

Oanoe?othuea ono?ienoaa iiiiaatho aaeieieno?aoi?o iaia?oaeeoue
iaeni?aaiinoe naoaaiai eaaaey e ?acu?iia, a aiaeecaoi?u i?ioieieia —
iieo/aoue eioi?iaoeeth ia iaiaia aeaiiuie a naoe. E?iia oiai, e yoie
eaoaai?ee n?aaenoa ioiinyo niaoeeaeueiia II, iicaieythuaa a ?aaeeia
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie iieo/aoue iiae?iaiua io/aou i ninoiyiee ?aaiou EAN.

3 aii?in.

I?e/eio e ianoi iia?aaeaeaiey eaaaeueiie nenoaiu iicaieytho onoaiiaeoue
neaia?u naoaaiai eaaaey. Iaeaieaa oieaa?naeueiuie yaeythony neaia?u
oe?iu Microtest, n iiiiuueth eioi?uo iiaeii oanoe?iaaoue iniiaiua aeaeu
naoaauo eaaaeae neaaeothueo noaiaea?oia:

IEEE 802.3 Ethernet (10BASE-5 — oienoue eaaaeue, 10BASE-2 — oiieee
eaaaeue, 10BASE-T — aeoay ia?a);

IEEE 802.4 Arcnet

IEEE 802.5 Token Ring.

Iaaeaaeiinoue eaaaeueiie nenoaiu caaeneo e io ea/anoaa naiiai naoaaiai
eaaaey. A niioaaonoaee n iaaeaeoia?iaeiui noaiaea?oii ANSI/EIA/TIA -568
a nia?aiaiiuo EAN ?aeiiaiaeoaony eniieueciaaoue naoaaua eaaaee 3-o
o?iaiae (eaaaeue o?iaiy 1 — oaeaoiiiue, o?iaiy 2 — eniieuecoaony aeey
ia?aaea/e iaeuo iauaiia aeaiiuo n iaaieueoie nei?inoueth).

4 aii?in.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa iaaeaaeiui n?aaenoaii i?aaeioa?auaiey iioa?ue
eioi?iaoeee yaeyaony onoaiiaea enoi/ieeia aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey. Ia
?inneeneii ?uiea iaeaieueoaa ?ani?ino?aiaiea iieo/eee enoi/ieee
aania?aaieiiai ieoaiey oe?iu American Power Conversion (APC). Oaeea
iiuiua iiaeaee, eae Smart-UPS 2000 oe?iu APC, iiaeaea?aeeaatho ?aaioo
IE a oa/aiea 3-4 /ania iinea ioeeth/aiey yeaeo?iyia?aee.

Ca ?oaaaeii e?oiiua eiiiaiee onoaiaaeeaatho ?aca?aiua eeiee
yeaeo?iieoaiey, iiaeeeth/aiiua e ?aciui iiaenoaioeeyi, e i?e auoiaea ec
no?iy iaeiie ec ieo, yeaeo?e/anoai iiaeaaony n ae?oaie.

5 aii?in.

Niaeanii enneaaeiaaieyi, i?iaaaeaiiui a NOA, i?e iieiie iioa?e
eioi?iaoeee ia iaaieoiuo iineoaeyo aneaaenoaea naiy eiiiuethoa?iie
nenoaiu a ia?aua o?e aeiy, ec iauaai /enea iioa?iaaoeo iauyaeytho i
naiai aaie?ionoaa 60% oe?i e a oa/aiea aiaea — 90% ec inoaaoeony. A
?innee iiea ia nouanoaoao iieiinoueth aacaoiaaeiuo oaoiieiaee e
iineaaenoaey naiy ia aoaeoo noieue o?aae/aneeie. Iaeiaei nenoaiai
ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo oaeaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii aieueoia aieiaiea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aeey ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo i?e naiyo i?eiaiyaony aeaa
niiniaa:

eniieueciaaiea aeoaee?othueo ae?oa ae?oaa ca?eaeueiuo aeeneia;

i?aaiecaoeey iaaeaaeiie e yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu a?oeaaoeee.

Eniieueciaaiea ca?eaeueiuo aeeneia eia/a iacuaatho RAID – a?oeoaeoo?ie
(Redundant Arrays of Inexpensive Disks), eioi?ay i?aaeoniao?eaaao
o?aiaiea ecauoi/iie eioi?iaoeee (Parity), eniieuecoaiie aeey auno?iai
ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo i?e naia ethaiai ec aeeneia. Aeey ?aaeecaoeee
Raid – a?oeoaeoo?u eniieuecoaony niaoeeaeueiay ieaoa Raid – eiio?ieea?a,
niaaeeiythuaai n iiiiuueth niaoeeaeueiiai eioa?oaena n IAe e
niaaaeaiiiai niaoeeaeueiie nenoaiie aeeaaiinoeee eiio?iey aeaiiuo, a
oaeaea auno?iai ainnoaiiaeaiey aeaiiuo iinea naiy. A i?iecaiaenoaa Raid
– eiio?ieea?ia eeaee?othuaa iieiaeaiea caieiatho oe?iu Micropolis,
Dynatek.

I?aaiecaoeey iaaeaaeiie e yooaeoeaiie nenoaiu a?oeaaoeee — aua iaeia
aaaeiay caaea/a ii iaania/aieth nio?aiiinoe eioi?iaoeee a naoe. A
aieueoeo EAN aeey i?aaiecaoeee ?aca?aiiai eiie?iaaiey eniieuecotho
niaoeeaeece?iaaiiue a?oeaaoeeiiiue na?aa?. Iaeiie ec iaeaieaa
yooaeoeaiuo aiia?aoiuo nenoai yaeyaony naiaenoai a?oeaaoeeiiiuo na?aa?ia
Storage Express oe?iu Intel.

Na?aa? Storage Express iiaeeeth/aaony iaiin?aaenoaaiii e naoaaiio
eaaaeth e neoaeeo aeey a?oeaaoeee aeaiiuo, iinooiathueo n ethaiai ec
naoaauo na?aa?ia e ?aai/eo noaioeee. I?e a?oeaaoeee auiieiyaony
aeaoe?aoiia naeaoea aeaiiuo. Niioaaonoaothuaa naoaaia II — iaeao Central
Console — iicaieyao aaeieieno?aoi?o oi?aaeyoue ?aaeeiii eiie?iaaiey.

6 aii?in.

Iniaoth iianiinoue ?aaioa naoe i?aaenoaaeytho eiiiuethoa?iua ae?onu. Ii
ioeaiea niaoeeaeenoia eiaeaia?iiai ei?iona a?iee NOA, i?e iaia?oaeaiee e
oie/oiaeaiee a au/eneeoaeueiuo naoyo aiaiiiai aaaeiinoaa ae?ona
«Naoaieineee aeoe» cao?aou ninoaaeyee 12000$ a /an. Iaeaieaa /anoi aeey
ai?ueau n eiiiuethoa?iuie ae?onaie i?eiaiythony aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu,
?aaea aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa.

Iaeiei ec naiuo iiuiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa caueou io ae?onia a EAN
yaeyaony II LANDest Visus Protect oe?iu Intel, aace?othuaany ia naoaaii
na?aa?a. Onoaiaaeeaaaiay ia ?aai/eo noaioeeyo ?aceaeaioiay i?ia?aiia
caieiaao anaai 4 Eaaeoa. Neaie?iaaiea oaeeia i?ienoiaeeo a ?aaeeia
?aaeueiiai a?aiaie. I?e iaia?oaeaiee ae?ona LANDest Visus Protect a
aaoiiaoe/aneii ?aaeeia ?aaoey?ii naycuaaaony ni niaoeeaeueiie BBS oe?iu
Intel, ioeoaea iieo/aao eioi?iaoeeth i oaaeiiao iiauo ae?onia.

Aa?iyoiinoue caianaiey eiiiuethoa?iiai ae?ona nieaeaao i?eiaiaiea
aacaeeneiauo ?aai/eo noaioeee, iniaaiii aac IAIAe.

7 aii?in.

?ani?ino?aiaiiui n?aaenoaii ia?aie/aiey aeinooia a EAN yaeyaony nenoaia
ia?ieae. Iaeiaei iii iaiaaeaaeii, oae eae oaeoth caueoo aeinoaoi/ii
eaaei aceiiaoue, eeai iiaeniio?aoue ia?ieue, eeai aieoe a nenoaio iooai
ia?aai?a ia?ieae. Aieaa iaaeaaeiia ?aoaiea ninoieo a i?aaiecaoeee
eiio?iey aeinooia a iiiauaiey eee e eiie?aoiiio eiiiuethoa?o a EAN n
iiiiuueth ?acee/iuo aeaeia eaeaioeoeeaoeeiiiuo ieanoeeiauo ea?oi/ae.
Nouanoaoao aeaa aeaea ea?oi/ae:

n iaaieoiie iieinie;

iee?ii?ioeanni?iua ea?oi/ee.

Eniieueciaaiea ea?oi/ae n iaaieoiie iieinie iaoeaeaniia?acii, oae eae
eiay iaaei?iaia n/eouaathuaa ono?ienoai aeey ia?aianaiey eioi?iaoeee ia
«/enooth» ea?oi/eo, aa iiaeii eaaei iiaeaeaeaoue.

Aieaa aunieoth iaaeaaeiinoue eiatho iee?ii?ioeanni?iua ea?oi/ee. Eo
iaaeaaeiinoue iaoneiaeaia a ia?aoth i/a?aaeue iaaiciiaeiinoueth
eiie?iaaiey eee iiaeaeaeee eonoa?iui niiniaii. Onoaiiaea niaoeeaeueiiai
n/eouaathuaai ono?ienoaa II-ea?oi/ae aiciiaeia ia oieueei ia aoiaea a
iiiauaiea, aaea ?aniieiaeaiu eiiiuethoa?u, ii e ia ?aai/eo noaioeeyo e
na?aa?ao EAN. Noieiinoue ecaioiaeaiey oaeeo ea?oi/ae ninoaaeyao 4-6 $
(ea?oi/ae n iaaieoiie iieinie 0,3-0,5$), a noieiinoue ono?ienoaa
n/eouaaiey — ii?yaeea 150 – 200$.

8 aii?in.

Aeey i?aaeioa?auaiey iciaeiieaiey n eiiiuethoa?iie eioi?iaoeeae eeoe, ia
eiathueo e iae aeinooia, /aua anaai eniieuecoaony oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo i?e
iiiiue ii?aaeaeaiiuo eeth/ae.

Nouanoaotho neaaeothuea aeaeu oeo?iaaiey:

Oeo?iaaiea n iiiiuueth ee/iuo eeth/ae :

iiaenoaiiai/iua;

ia?anoaiiai/iua.

Noaiaea?o oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo.

Oeo?iaaiea n eeth/aie iauaai iacia/aiey.

Iiaenoaiiai/iua iaoiaeu oeo?iaaiey:

Iiiiaeoaaeoiue. Nooue — aoeau aeoaaeoa caiaiythony aoeaaie ae?oaiai
aeoaaeoa.

Iai?eia? : A A A A Ae AE C E E

ae c e e i i i i ?

Iieeaeoaaeoiue oeo?. I?aaeiieaaaao eniieueciaaiea iiiaeanoaa oeo?othueo
aeoaaeoia, eioi?ua eniieuecothony oeeeee/anee. I?e yoii eniieuecoaony
eeth/ aeeeiaa, iaaeaee enoiaeiue oaeno.

Ia?anoaiiai/iua oeo?u. Nooue ia?anoaiiai/iuo oeo?ia caeeth/aaony a oii,
/oi a neiaa (niiauaiee), iieo/aiiii a ?acoeueoaoa oeo?iaaiey, aoeau
inoathony i?aaeieie, a iaiyaony oieueei ii?yaeie.

I?eia?. Neiai «ii?a» eniieuecoaony eae eeth/. Eeth/ eniieueciaai aeey
ioia?aoeee eieiiie. Eieiiea iaeei iiiauaaony iiae eeth/ii, aoeaa
eioi?iai aeeaea anaai e ia/aeo aeoaaeoa. Enoiaeiue oaeno caoai
caienuaaaony eae iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue no?ie iiae eeth/ii. Oeo? aeaeaa
/eoaaony ii eieiieai, ia/eiay n eieiiee eeth/ eioi?ie iaeiaiueoee a
aeoaaeoa. O?aca «eco/ae oeo?u» ?aciauaaony neaaeothuei ia?acii:

i i ? a

2 3 4 1

e c o /

a e o

e o ? u

Iieo/aaony neaaeothuay oeo?iaea:

/oueaeceoo ?

a ?aaeueiuo naoyo iiaenoaiiai/iua e ia?anoaiiai/iua iaoiaeu oeo?iaaiey
eniieuecothony iaeiia?aiaiii. I?e/ai i?e oi?ie?iaaiee oeo?iaaiiuo
aeaiiuo iiaenoaiiaea e ia?anoaiiaea iiaoo eniieueciaaoueny
iaiaeiie?aoii. Yoa eaeay eniieueciaaia a noaiaea?oa oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo
(NOAe), ?ac?aaioaiiui a 1977 aiaeo ieienoa?noaii oi?aiaee e
Iaoeeiiaeueiui ath?i noaiaea?oia NOA.

Aua iaeiei oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiui niiniaii oeo?iaaiey yaeyaony
oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo n eeth/aie iauaai iacia/aiey. Naoue niiniaa
caeeth/aaony a oii, /oi aeey oeo?iaaiey aeaiiuo eniieuecothony aeaa
iieiaeeoaeueiuo i?inouo /enea A e N. Ia iniiaa A e N iiaeii au/eneeoue
D, eioi?ia eniieuecoaony aeey aeaoeo?aoeee oaenoa a enoiaeiue.

Nae/an ia ?uiea i?aaenoaaeaii aieueoia ?aciiia?acea ono?ienoa oeo?iaaiey
aeaiiuo. I?eaeeceoaeueii 50% anao ono?ienoa i?eaioe?iaaii ia
eniieueciaaiea noaiaea?oa NOAe, aeinoaoi/ii iiiai eniieuecotho eeth/e
iauaai iacia/aiey.

I?ioeann oeo?iaaiey auiieiyaony ia o?iaia i?aaenoaaeaiey aeaiiuo.

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaeia oeo?iaaiey i?aaenoaaeaia a
oaaeeoea 8.1.

Oaaeeoea 8.1

N?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea iaoiaeia oeo?iaaiey

Ia?aiao?u n?aaiaiee Iaeiaiiaaiea iaoiaea

DES AINO 28147-89 RSA

Aeeeia eeth/a 56 aeo 256 aeo 300-600 aeo

Nei?inoue oeo?iaaiey 10-20 Eaaeo/n 50-70 Eaaeo/n 300-500 Eaaeo/n

E?eioinoieeinoue iia?aoeee 1017 1017 1023

?aaeecaoeey i?ia?aiiiay e aiia?aoiay a iniiaiii aiia?aoiay i?ia?aiiiay
e aiia?aoiay

9 aii?in.

Aeey iaania/aiey iaaeaaeiie e aaciianiie ?aaiou neiaeiuo EAN iaiaoiaeeii
eiiieaeniia i?eiaiaiea anao ia? aaciianiinoe n o/aoii niaoeeoeee caaea/
eiie?aoiie i?aaiecaoeee.

Niaeanii ianeaaeiaaieth, i?iaaaeaiiiio DataPro Information Service
Group a 1992 aiaeo n?aaee 1153 aia?eeaineeo e eaiaaeneeo oe?i,
eniieuecothueo EAN ia aaca IE n /eneii iieueciaaoaeae io 20 aei 500,
iaeaieaa /anoi (84% anao oe?i) aeey iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
i?eiaiythony aioeae?oniua i?ia?aiiu. Cia/eoaeueii ?aaea eniieuecothony
aieaa aei?iaea aeaeu caueou — aaoiiaoe/aneia ?aca?aiia eiie?iaaiea
(27%), eiio?ieue aeinooia (27%) e oeo?iaaiea aeaiiuo (22%).

I?eaaaeaiiua oeeo?u yaeythony n?aaeieie, eo cia/aiea iiaeao nouanoaaiii
eieaaaoueny, a caaeneiinoe io noa?u i?eiaiaiey EAN. Ia ?en. 8.1
i?aaenoaaeaia n?aaieoaeueiay oa?aeoa?enoeea /anoiou eniieueciaaiey
n?aaenoa aaciianiinoe aeaiiuo a naoyo Naaa?iaia?eeaineeo aaieia.

?en.8.1.

E e o a ? a o o ? a

ssia?ia O. A. Iaae?aeiinoue e aaciianiinoue a EAN: eiiieaeniue iiaeoiae
// Ie? IE. – 1994. – ?4. – n. 76 – 80.

Aeaeeaaa I. Neoaeau caueou aeaiiuo a NetWare 4.0 // Naoe. – 1994. – ?6.

Aii?inu aeey naiieiio?iey

Iaciaeoa n?aaenoaa, iaania/eaathuea iaae?aeiinoue naoe a neo/aa naiaa
iai?oaeiaaiey.

Eaeei ia?acii iaaciianeoue naoue a neo/aa iaei??aeoiie ?aaiou II?

Eaeea n?aaenoaa io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia a naoe au ciaaoa?

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