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Все об INTERNET

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Ieienoa?noai iaoee, aunoae oeieu e

oaoie/aneie iieeoeee

?inneeneie Oaaea?aoeee.

Iiaineae?neee Ainoaea?noaaiiue

Oaoie/aneee Oieaa?neoao.

?aoa?ao ii eioi?iaoeea ia oaio

«An? ia INTERNET».

Oaeoeueoao: AAO.

Eaoaae?a: ANO.

A?oiia: A–513.

Nooaeaio: Ai?cia Aiae?ae Ieeieaaae/.

I?aiiaeaaaoaeue: Iaiiiiaa Aeeoi?ey Aai?aeaaia.

Aeaoa: 14 ai?aey 1997 aiaea.

Iiaineae?ne – 1997.

Niaea?aeaiea:

TOC \o “1-3” Aaaaeaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417147 PAGEREF
_Toc386417147 4

*oi oaeia Internet? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417148 PAGEREF _Toc386417148
4

Enoi?ey naoe Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417149 PAGEREF
_Toc386417149 4

Ec /aai ninoieo Internet? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417150 PAGEREF
_Toc386417150 5

Eoi oi?aaeyao Internet? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417151 PAGEREF
_Toc386417151 6

Eoi ieaoeo? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417152 PAGEREF _Toc386417152 6

I?ioieieu naoe Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417153 PAGEREF
_Toc386417153 7

I oii, eae ?aaioaao Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417154 PAGEREF
_Toc386417154 7

Ia?aiauay aeou n iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417155
PAGEREF _Toc386417155 7

Naoe n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417156 PAGEREF
_Toc386417156 7

Iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie (IP). GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417157 PAGEREF
_Toc386417157 8

I?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae (ON?). GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417158
PAGEREF _Toc386417158 9

Ae?oaea i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417159 PAGEREF
_Toc386417159 10

Eae naeaeaoue naoue ae?oaeanoaaiiie? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417160
PAGEREF _Toc386417160 10

I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417161 PAGEREF
_Toc386417161 10

Aeiiaiiay nenoaia ei?i. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417162 PAGEREF
_Toc386417162 11

No?oeoo?a aeiiaiiie nenoaiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417163 PAGEREF
_Toc386417163 11

Iiene aeiiaiiuo ei?i. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417164 PAGEREF
_Toc386417164 13

*oi iiaeii aeaeaoue a Internet? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417165 PAGEREF
_Toc386417165 13

I?aaiaua ii?iu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417166 PAGEREF _Toc386417166 14

Enneaaeiaaiey, ia?aciaaiea e oaaea?aeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc386417167 PAGEREF _Toc386417167 14

Eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417168 PAGEREF
_Toc386417168 14

Yenii?oiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417169 PAGEREF
_Toc386417169 15

I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417170 PAGEREF _Toc386417170
16

Iieeoeea e Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417171 PAGEREF _Toc386417171
16

Naoaaay yoeea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417172 PAGEREF _Toc386417172 17

Eiaeeaeaeoaeeci. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417173 PAGEREF _Toc386417173 17

Caueoa Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417174 PAGEREF _Toc386417174 18

Yoe/aneea ii?iu e /anoiay eiiia?/aneay Internet. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc386417175 PAGEREF _Toc386417175 18

Niia?aaeaiey aaciianiinoe. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417176 PAGEREF
_Toc386417176 19

Ia?iee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417177 PAGEREF _Toc386417177 20

Eiii?o i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417178 PAGEREF
_Toc386417178 21

Ioeaee a eiioeao?aoeee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc386417179 PAGEREF _Toc386417179 21

Aeaoaeou caueou a nenoaiiii i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee. GOTOBUTTON
_Toc386417180 PAGEREF _Toc386417180 22

*oi aeaeaoue, anee caueoa eiiiuethoa?a ia?ooaia? GOTOBUTTON
_Toc386417181 PAGEREF _Toc386417181 22

Neieue aaeeea Internet nae/an? GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417182 PAGEREF
_Toc386417182 23

Oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417183 PAGEREF
_Toc386417183 23

Ianoi aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey a eiiieaena i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa naoe Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417184 PAGEREF
_Toc386417184 25

Oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua iaeaou. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417185 PAGEREF
_Toc386417185 25

Yeaiaiou io?aiu o?oaea e caueou eioi?iaoeee. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417186
PAGEREF _Toc386417186 26

Caeeth/aiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417187 PAGEREF _Toc386417187 26

Neiaa?ue oa?ieiia. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417188 PAGEREF _Toc386417188
27

Aiaeeeneea oa?ieiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417189 PAGEREF _Toc386417189
27

?onneea oa?ieiu. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417190 PAGEREF _Toc386417190 28

I?eeiaeaiea A. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417191 PAGEREF _Toc386417191 30

Aeiionoeiia eniieueciaaiea. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417192 PAGEREF
_Toc386417192 30

Iieeoeea aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey aaciauo oneoa naoe NSFNET.
GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417193 PAGEREF _Toc386417193 30

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386417194 PAGEREF _Toc386417194
31

Nienie eeethno?aoeee:

TOC \c “?enoiie” ?enoiie 1. ?ino /enea oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe
Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386394599 PAGEREF _Toc386394599 5

?enoiie 2. Aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa Internet. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386394600
PAGEREF _Toc386394600 8

?enoiie 5. No?oeoo?a aeiiaiiiai eiaie. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386394601
PAGEREF _Toc386394601 11

Nienie oaaeeoe:

TOC \c “Oaaeeoea” Oaaeeoea 1. Ia?aiia/aeueiua aeiiaiu aa?oiaai
o?iaiy. GOTOBUTTON _Toc386394602 PAGEREF _Toc386394602 12

Aaaaeaiea.

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue, ioaaouaathuay aanue ie?.
Naaiaeiy Internet eiaao ieiei 15 ieeeeiiia aaiiaioia a aieaa /ai 150
no?aiao ie?a. Aaeaiany/ii ?acia? naoe oaaee/eaaaony ia 7-10%. Internet
ia?acoao eae au yae?i, iaania/eaathuaa naycue ?acee/iuo eioi?iaoeeiiiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui o/?aaeaeaieyi ai anai ie?a, iaeia n
ae?oaie.

Anee ?aiaa naoue eniieueciaaeanue eneeth/eoaeueii a ea/anoaa n?aaeu
ia?aaea/e oaeeia e niiauaiee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou, oi naaiaeiy ?aoathony
aieaa neiaeiua caaea/e ?ani?aaeaeaiiiai aeinooia e ?ano?nai. Ieiei o??o
eao iacaae auee nicaeaiu iaiei/ee, iiaeaea?aeeaathuea ooieoeee naoaaiai
iienea e aeinooia e ?ani?aaeaeaiiui eioi?iaoeeiiiui ?ano?nai,
yeaeo?iiiui a?oeaai.

Internet, neoaeeaoay eiaaea-oi eneeth/eoaeueii enneaaeiaaoaeueneei e
o/aaiui a?oiiai, /uee eioa?anu i?inoe?aeenue aieioue aei aeinooia e
noia?eiiiuethoa?ai, noaiiaeony ana aieaa iiioey?iie a aeaeiaii ie?a.

Eiiiaiee niaeaciytho auno?ioa, aeaoaaay aeiaaeueiay naycue, oaeianoai
aeey i?iaaaeaiey niaianoiuo ?aaio, aeinooiiua i?ia?aiiu, oieeaeueiay
aaca aeaiiuo naoe Internet. Iie ?anniao?eaatho aeiaaeueioth naoue eae
aeiiieiaiea e naiei nianoaaiiui eieaeueiie naoyi.

I?e ieceie noieiinoe oneoa (/anoi yoi oieueei oeene?iaaiiay aaeaiany/iay
ieaoa ca eniieuecoaiua eeiee eee oaeaoii) iieueciaaoaee iiaoo iieo/eoue
aeinooi e eiiia?/aneei e iaeiiia?/aneei eioi?iaoeeiiiui neoaeaai NOA,
Eaiaaeu, Aano?aeee e iiiaeo aa?iiaeneeo no?ai. A a?oeaao naiaiaeiiai
aeinooia naoe Internet iiaeii iaeoe eioi?iaoeeth i?aeoe/anee ii anai
noa?ai /aeiaa/aneie aeayoaeueiinoe, ia/eiay n iiauo iao/iuo ioe?uoee aei
i?iaiica iiaiaeu ia caao?a.

E?iia oiai, Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oieeaeueiua aiciiaeiinoe aeaoaaie,
iaaeaaeiie e eiioeaeaioeeaeueiie aeiaaeueiie nayce ii anaio ie?o. Yoi
ieacuaaaony i/aiue oaeiaiui aeey oe?i eiathueo naie oeeeaeu ii anaio
ie?o, o?ainiaoeeiiaeueiuo ei?ii?aoeee e no?oeoo? oi?aaeaiey. Iau/ii,
eniieueciaaiea eio?ano?oeoo?u Internet aeey iaaeaeoia?iaeiie nayce
iaoiaeeony cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea i?yiie eiiiuethoa?iie nayce /a?ac
niooieeiaue eaiae eee /a?ac oaeaoii.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – naiay ?ani?ino?aiaiiay oneoaa naoe Internet. A
ianoiyuaa a?aiy naie aae?an ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa eiatho i?eaeeceoaeueii
20 ieeeeiiia /aeiaae. Iinueea ienueia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa iaoiaeeony
cia/eoaeueii aeaoaaea iinueee iau/iiai ienueia. E?iia oiai, niiauaiea,
iineaiiia ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa aeieaeao aei aae?anaoa ca ianeieueei
/ania, a oi a?aiy eae iau/iia ienueii iiaeao aeiae?aoueny aei aae?anaoa
ianeieueei aeiae, a oi e iaaeaeue.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy Internet eniuouaaao ia?eiae iiaeuaia, ai iiiaii
aeaaiaea?y aeoeaiie iiaeaea?aeea ni noi?iiu i?aaeoaeuenoa aa?iiaeneeo
no?ai e NOA. Aaeaaiaeii a NOA auaeaeyaony ieiei 1-2 ieeeea?aeia
aeieea?ia ia nicaeaiea iiaie naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u. Enneaaeiaaiey a
iaeanoe naoaauo eiiioieeaoeee oeiaine?othony oaeaea i?aaeoaeuenoaaie
Aaeeeia?eoaiee, Oaaoeee, Oeieyiaeee, Aa?iaiee.

Iaeiaei, ainoaea?noaaiiia oeiaine?iaaiea – eeoue iaaieueoay /anoue
iinooiathueo n?aaenoa, o.e. ana aieaa caiaoiie noaiiaeony
“eiiia?oeeaeecaoeey” naoe (iaeeaeaaony, /oi 80-90% n?aaenoa aoaeao
iinooiaoue ec /anoiiai naeoi?a).

*oi oaeia Internet?

Enoi?ey naoe Internet.

A 1961 aiaeo Defence Advanced Research Agency (DARPA) ii caaeaieth
ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA i?enooieei e i?iaeoo ii nicaeaieth
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe ia?aaea/e iaeaoia. Yoa naoue, iacaaiiay ARPANET,
i?aaeiacia/aeanue ia?aiia/aeueii aeey eco/aiey iaoiaeia iaania/aiey
iaaeaaeiie nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie ?acee/iuo oeiia. Iiiaea iaoiaeu
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo /a?ac iiaeaiu auee ?ac?aaioaiu a ARPANET. Oiaaea aea
auee ?ac?aaioaiu e i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo a naoe – TCP/IP. TCP/IP –
yoi iiiaeanoai eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo i?ioieieia, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho, eae
eiiiuethoa?u ?acee/iuo oeiia iiaoo iauaoueny iaaeaeo niaie.

Yenia?eiaio n ARPANET aue ianoieueei oniaoai, /oi iiiaea i?aaiecaoeee
caoioaee aieoe a iaa, n oeaeueth eniieueciaaiey aeey aaeaaeiaaiie
ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo. E a 1975 aiaeo ARPANET i?aa?aoeeanue ec
yenia?eiaioaeueiie naoe a ?aai/oth naoue. Ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca
aaeieieno?e?iaaiea naoe acyei ia naay Defence Communication Agency
(DCA), a ianoiyuaa a?aiy iacuaaaiia Defence Information Systems Agency
(DISA). Ii ?acaeoea ARPANET ia yoii ia inoaiiaeeinue; I?ioieieu TCP/IP
i?iaeieaeaee ?acaeaaoueny e niaa?oainoaiaaoueny.

A 1983 aiaeo auoae ia?aue noaiaea?o aeey i?ioieieia TCP/IP, aioaaeoee a
Military Standards (MIL STD), o.a. a aiaiiua noaiaea?ou, e ana, eoi
?aaioae a naoe, iaycaiu auee ia?aeoe e yoei iiaui i?ioieieai. Aeey
iaeaa/aiey yoiai ia?aoiaea DARPA ia?aoeeanue n i?aaeeiaeaieai e
?oeiaiaeeoaeyi oe?iu Berkley Software Design – aiaae?eoue i?ioieieu
TCP/IP a Berkley (BSD) UNIX. N yoiai e ia/aeny nithc UNIX e TCP/IP.

Nionoy iaeioi?ia a?aiy TCP/IP aue aaeaioe?iaai a iau/iue, oi anoue a
iauaaeinooiiue noaiaea?o, e oa?iei Internet aioae ai anaiauaa
oiio?aaeaiea. A 1983 aiaeo ec ARPANET auaeaeeeanue MILNET, eioi?ay noaea
ioiineoueny e Defence Data Network (DDN) ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.
Oa?iei Internet noae eniieueciaaoueny aeey iaicia/aiey aaeeiie naoe:
MILNET iethn ARPANET. E oioy a 1991 aiaeo ARPANET i?ae?aoeea naia
nouanoaiaaiea, naoue Internet nouanoaoao, aa ?acia?u iaiiiai i?aauoatho
ia?aiia/aeueiua, oae eae iia iauaaeeieea iiiaeanoai naoae ai anai ie?a.
?enoiie 1 eeethno?e?oao ?ino /enea oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e naoe
Internet n 4 eiiiuethoa?ia a 1969 aiaeo aei 3,2 ieeeeiiia a 1994. Oinoii
a naoe Internet iacuaathony eiiiuethoa?u, ?aaioathuea a iiiaicaaea/iie
iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaia (Unix, VMS), iiaeaea?aeeaathuea i?ioieieu TCP\IP e
i?aaeinoaaeythuea iieueciaaoaeyi eaeea-eeai naoaaua oneoae.

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 1 . ?ino /enea oinoia, iiaeeeth/aiiuo e
naoe Internet.

Ec /aai ninoieo Internet?

Yoi aeiaieueii neiaeiue aii?in, ioaao ia eioi?ue an? a?aiy iaiyaony.
Iyoue eao iacaae ioaao aue i?ino: Internet – yoi ana naoe, eioi?ua,
acaeiiaeaenoaoy n iiiiuueth i?ioieiea IP, ia?acotho «aanoiaioth» naoue
aeey naieo eieeaeoeaiuo iieueciaaoaeae. Nthaea ioiinyony ?acee/iua
oaaea?aeueiua naoe, niaieoiiinoue ?aaeiiaeueiuo naoae, oieaa?neoaoneea
naoe e iaeioi?ua ca?oaaaeiua naoe.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiyaeeanue caeioa?aniaaiiinoue a iiaeniaaeeiaiee e
Internet naoae, eioi?ua ia eniieuecotho i?ioieie IP. Aeey oiai /oiau
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eeeaioai yoeo naoae oneoae Internet, auee ?ac?aaioaiu
iaoiaeu iiaeeeth/aiey yoeo «/oaeeo» naoae (iai?eia?, BITNET, DECnets e
ae?.) e Internet. Nia/aea yoe iiaeeeth/aiey, iacaaiiua oethcaie,
i?aaeiacia/aeenue i?inoi aeey ia?anueee yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou iaaeaeo aeaoiy
naoyie, ii iaeioi?ua ec ieo au?inee aei aiciiaeiinoe iaania/aiey e
ae?oaeo oneoa ia iaaenaoaaie iniiaa. ssaeythony ee iie /anoueth
Internet? E aea e iao – an? caaeneo io oiai, oioyo ee iie oiai naie.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy a naoe Internet eniieuecothony i?aeoe/anee ana
ecaanoiua eeiee nayce io ieceinei?inoiuo oaeaoiiiuo eeiee aei
aunieinei?inoiuo oeeo?iauo niooieeiauo eaiaeia. Iia?aoeeiiiua nenoaiu,
eniieuecoaiua a naoe Internet, oaeaea ioee/athony ?aciiia?aceai.
Aieueoeinoai eiiiuethoa?ia naoe Internet ?aaioatho iiae IN Unix eee VMS.
Oe?iei i?aaenoaaeaiu oaeaea niaoeeaeueiua ia?o?ooecaoi?u naoe oeia
NetBlazer eee Cisco, /uey IN iaiiieiaao IN Unix.

Oaeoe/anee Internet ninoieo ec iiiaeanoaa eieaeueiuo e aeiaaeueiuo
naoae, i?eiaaeeaaeaueo ?acee/iui eiiiaieyi e i?aaei?eyoeyi, naycaiiuo
iaaeaeo niaie ?acee/iuie eeieyie nayce. Internet iiaeii i?aaenoaaeoue
naaa a aeaea iicaeee neiaeaiiie ec iaaieueoeo naoae ?aciie aaee/eiu,
eioi?ua aeoeaii acaeiiaeaenoaotho iaeia n ae?oaie, ia?anueay oaeeu,
niiauaiey e o.i.

Eoi oi?aaeyao Internet?

Ai iiiaeo ioiioaieyo Internet iioiaea ia ?aeeaeicioth i?aaiecaoeeth: a
iae anoue niaao noa?aeoei, eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue naoe iiaeao eiaoue
nai? iiaiea i i?eioeeiao a? ?aaiou e i?eieiaoue o/anoea a oi?aaeaiee
naoueth. A Internet iao ie i?aceaeaioa, ie aeaaiiai eiaeaia?a, ie Iaiu.
I?aceaeaiou e i?i/ea aunoea ioeoeeaeueiua eeoea iiaoo auoue o naoae,
aoiaeyueo a Internet, ii yoi niaa?oaiii ae?oaia aeaei. A oeaeii aea a
Internet iao aaeeinoaaiiie aaoi?eoa?iie oeao?u.

Iai?aaeaiea ?acaeoey Internet a iniiaiii ii?aaeaeyao «Iauanoai
Internet», eee ISOC (Internet Society). ISOC – yoi i?aaiecaoeey ia
iauanoaaiiuo ia/aeao, oeaeueth eioi?ie yaeyaony niaeaenoaea aeiaaeueiiio
eioi?iaoeeiiiiio iaiaio /a?ac Internet. Iia iacia/aao niaao noa?aeoei,
eioi?ue ioaa/aao ca oaoie/aneia ?oeiaiaenoai e i?eaioaoeeth Internet.

Niaao noa?aeoei IAB (Internet Architecture Board eee «Niaao ii
a?oeoaeoo?a Internet») i?aaenoaaeyao niaie a?oiio i?eaeao?iiuo eeoe,
eioi?ua aeia?iaieueii ecuyaeee i?eiyoue o/anoea a aai ?aaioa. IAB
?aaoey?ii niae?aaony, /oiau ooaa?aeaeaoue noaiaea?ou e ?ani?aaeaeyoue
?ano?nu (iai?eia?, aae?ana). Internet ?aaioaao aeaaiaea?y iaee/eth
noaiaea?oiuo niiniaia acaeiiaeaenoaey eiiiuethoa?ia e i?eeeaaeiuo
i?ia?aii ae?oa n ae?oaii. Iaee/ea oaeeo noaiaea?oia iicaieyao aac
i?iaeai naycuaaoue iaaeaeo niaie eiiiuethoa?u i?iecaiaenoaa ?aciuo oe?i.
IAB ian?o ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca yoe noaiaea?ou, ?aoaao, ioaeai ee oio eee
eiie noaiaea?o e eaeei ii aeieaeai auoue. Anee aicieeaao iaiaoiaeeiinoue
a eaeii-ieaoaeue noaiaea?oa, IAB ?anniao?eaaao i?iaeaio, i?eieiaao yoio
noaiaea?o e iauyaeyao ia yoii ii naoe. E?iia oiai, IAB neaaeeo ca
?aciiai ?iaea iiia?aie (e ae?oaeie aauaie), eioi?ua aeieaeiu inoaaaoueny
oieeaeueiuie. Iai?eia?, eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? Internet eiaao naie
oieeaeueiue 32-o ?ac?yaeiue aae?an; oaeiai aae?ana aieueoa ie o iaeiiai
eiiiuethoa?a iao. Eae i?enaaeaaaony yoio aae?an, ?aoaao IAB. Oi/iaa, nai
yoio i?aai i?enaiaieai aae?ania ia caieiaaony, ii onoaiaaeeaaao i?aaeea
i?enaiaiey aae?ania.

O eaaeaeiai iieueciaaoaey a Internet eiaaony nai? iiaiea ioiineoaeueii
oiai, eae aeieaeia ooieoeeiie?iaaoue naoue. Iieueciaaoaee Internet
au?aaeatho naie iiaiey ia canaaeaieyo eiaeaia?iie eiiennee IETF
(Internet Engineering Task Force). IETF – au? iaeei iauanoaaiiue i?aai;
ii niae?aaony ?aaoey?ii aeey ianoaeaeaiey oaeoueo oaoie/aneeo e
i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo i?iaeai Internet. Anee aicieeaao aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiay
i?iaeaia, IETF oi?ie?oao ?aai/oth a?oiio aeey aeaeueiaeoaai a? eco/aiey.
(Ia i?aeoeea «aeinoaoi/ii aaaeiay» icia/aao, eae i?aaeei, /oi iaoiaeeony
aeinoaoi/ii aeia?iaieueoeaa aeey nicaeaiey ?aai/ae a?oiiu.) Iinauaoue
canaaeaiey IETF e aoiaeeoue a ninoaa ?aai/eo a?oii iiaeao ethaie;
aaaeii, /oiau ii ?aaioae. ?aai/ea a?oiiu auiieiytho iiiai ?acee/iuo
ooieoeee – io auionea aeieoiaioaoeee e i?eiyoey ?aoaiee i oii, eae naoe
aeieaeiu acaeiiaeaenoaiaaoue iaaeaeo niaie a niaoeeoe/aneeo neooaoeeyo,
aei eciaiaiey cia/aiee aeoia a ii?aaeae?iiii noaiaea?oa. ?aai/ay a?oiia
iau/ii ninoaaeyao aeieeaae. Yoi iiaeao auoue eeai i?aaeinoaaeyaiay anai
aeaeathuei aeieoiaioaoeey n ?aeiiaiaeaoeeyie, eioi?ui neaaeiaaoue ia
iaycaoaeueii, eeai i?aaeeiaeaiea, eioi?ia iai?aaeyaony a IAB aeey
i?eiyoey a ea/anoaa noaiaea?oa.

Eoi ieaoeo?

Noa?ia i?aaeei aeey caiooaiiuo neooaoeee aeaneo: «eueoa aeaiaaeiue
eioa?an». Yoi i?aaeei, iaeiaei ia aiaeeony aeey Internet. Ieeoi ca ia?
ia ieaoeo; iao ieeaeie eiiiaiee Internet, Inc. eee ae?oaie, iiaeiaiie
ae, eioi?ay au niae?aea ni anao iieueciaaoaeae Internet aciinu. Caeanue
eaaeaeue ieaoeo ca naith /anoue. Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue oiiae ieaoeo ca
NSFNET, IANA – ca NASA Science Internet o o.ae. I?aaenoaaeoaee naoae
niae?athony e ?aoatho, eae niaaeeiyoueny e eae oeiaine?iaaoue yoe
acaeiiua niaaeeiaiey. Eieeaaeae eee ei?ii?aoeey ieaoeo ca iiaeeeth/aiea
e ?aaeiiaeueiie naoe, eioi?ay, a naith i/a?aaeue, ieaoeo ca aeinooi e
Internet iinoaaueeo ia o?iaia ainoaea?noaa.

Oi, /oi Internet – aanieaoiay naoue, ia aieaa /ai ieo. Eaaeaeia
iiaeeeth/aiea e iae eai-oi iiea/eaaaony. Ai iiiaeo neo/ayo yoe aciinu ia
aeiaiaeyony aei oaeoe/aneeo iieueciaaoaeae, /oi nicaeaao eeethceth
«aanieaoiiai aeinooia». Ii anoue e aieueoia /enei iieueciaaoaeae,
eioi?ua oi?ioi ciatho, /oi Internet ia aanieaoiay naoue: iiiaea
iieueciaaoaeue aiinyo aaeaiany/ioth eee ii/aniaoth ieaoo ca aeinooi e
Internet n aeiiaoieo eiiiuethoa?ia ii eeieyi ni nei?inoueth aei 56 Eaaeo
a naeoiaeo (oae aea, eae a aaciauo naoyo). A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa
auno?i ?ano?o /enei iieueciaaoaeae Internet, ioiinyueony e oaeei
eaoaai?eyi, eae iaeua i?aaei?eyoey e /anoiua eeoea, a iie i/aiue oi?ioi
ciatho oeaio naiei aeaiueaai.

I?ioieieu naoe Internet.

Iniiaiia, /oi ioee/aao Internet io ae?oaeo naoae – yoi aa i?ioieieu –
TCP/IP. Aiiaua, oa?iei TCP/IP iau/ii icia/aao ana, /oi naycaii n
i?ioieieaie acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie a Internet. Ii
ioaaouaaao oeaeia naiaenoai i?ioieieia, i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu, e aeaaea
naio naoue. TCP/IP – yoi oaoiieiaey iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey,
oaoiieiaey internet. Naoue, eioi?ay eniieuecoao oaoiieiaeth internet,
iacuaaaony “internet”. Anee ?a/ue eaeao i aeiaaeueiie naoe,
iauaaeeiythuae iiiaeanoai naoae n oaoiieiaeae internet, oi aa iacuaatho
Internet.

Naia iacaaiea i?ioieie TCP/IP iieo/ee io aeaoo eiiioieeaoeeiiiuo
i?ioieieia (eee i?ioieieia nayce). Yoi Transmission Control Protocol
(TCP) e Internet Protocol (IP). Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi a naoe Internet
eniieuecoaony aieueoia /enei ae?oaeo i?ioieieia, naoue Internet /anoi
iacuaatho TCP/IP-naoueth, oae eae yoe aeaa i?ioieiea, aaconeiaii,
yaeythony aaaeiaeoeie.

Eae e ai anyeie ae?oaie naoe a Internet nouanoaoao 7 o?iaiae
acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie: oece/aneee, eiae/aneee, naoaaie,
o?ainii?oiue, o?iaaiue naainia nayce, i?aaenoaaeoaeueneee e i?eeeaaeiie
o?iaaiue. Niioaaonoaaiii eaaeaeiio o?iaith acaeiiaeaenoaey niioaaonoaoao
iaai? i?ioieieia (o.a. i?aaee acaeiiaeaenoaey).

I?ioieieu oece/aneiai o?iaiy ii?aaeaeytho aeae e oa?aeoa?enoeee eeiee
nayce iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie. A Internet eniieuecothony i?aeoe/anee ana
ecaanoiua a ianoiyuaa a?aiy niiniau nayce io i?inoiai i?iaiaea (aeoay
ia?a) aei aieieiiii-iioe/aneeo eeiee nayce (AIEN).

Aeey eaaeaeiai oeia eeiee nayce ?ac?aaioai niioaaonoaothuee i?ioieie
eiae/aneiai o?iaiy, caieiathueeny oi?aaeaieai ia?aaea/ae eioi?iaoeee ii
eaiaeo. E i?ioieieai eiae/aneiai o?iaiy aeey oaeaoiiiuo eeiee ioiinyony
i?ioieieu SLIP (Serial Line Interface Protocol) e PPP (Point to Point
Protocol). Aeey nayce ii eaaaeth eieaeueiie naoe – yoi iaeaoiua
ae?aeaa?u ieao EAN.

I?ioieieu naoaaiai o?iaiy ioaa/atho ca ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo iaaeaeo
ono?ienoaaie a ?aciuo naoyo, oi anoue caieiathony ia?o?ooecaoeeae
iaeaoia a naoe. E i?ioieieai naoaaiai o?iaiy i?eiaaeeaaeao IP (Internet
Protocol) e ARP (Address Resolution Protocol).

I?ioieieu o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy oi?aaeytho ia?aaea/ae aeaiiuo ec iaeiie
i?ia?aiiu a ae?oaoth. E i?ioieieai o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy i?eiaaeeaaeao
TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) e UDP (User Datagram Protocol).

I?ioieieu o?iaiy naainia nayce ioaa/atho ca onoaiiaeo, iiaeaea?aeaiea e
oie/oiaeaiea niioaaonoaothueo eaiaeia. A Internet yoei caieiathony oaea
oiiiyiooua TCP e UDP i?ioieieu, a oaeaea i?ioieie UUCP (Unix to Unix
Copy Protocol).

I?ioieieu i?aaenoaaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy caieiathony ianeoaeeaaieai
i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii. E i?ia?aiiai i?aaenoaaeoaeueneiai o?iaiy
i?eiaaeeaaeao i?ia?aiiu, caioneaaiua, e i?eia?o, ia Unix-na?aa?a, aeey
i?aaeinoaaeaiey ?acee/iuo oneoa aaiiaioai. E oaeei i?ia?aiiai ioiinyony:
telnet-na?aa?, FTP-na?aa?, Gopher-na?aa?, NFS-na?aa?, NNTP (Net News
Transfer Protocol), SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol), POP2 e POP3
(Post Office Protocol) e o.ae.

E i?ioieieai i?eeeaaeiiai o?iaiy ioiinyony naoaaua oneoae e i?ia?aiiu eo
i?aaeinoaaeaiey.

I oii, eae ?aaioaao Internet.

Ia?aiauay aeou n iaeiiai ianoa ia ae?oaia.

Nia?aiaiiua naoe nicaeathony ii iiiaio?iaiaaiio i?eioeeio. Ia?aaea/a
niiauaiee a aeaea iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoe aeoia ia/eiaaony ia o?iaia eeiee
nayce e aiia?aoo?u, i?e/?i eeiee nayce ia anaaaea aunieiai ea/anoaa.
Caoai aeiaaaeyaony o?iaaiue aaciaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey,
oi?aaeythuaai ?aaioie aiia?aoo?u. Neaaeothuee o?iaaiue i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey iicaieyao iaaeaeeoue aaciaua i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa
aeiiieieoaeueiuie iaiaoiaeeiuie aiciiaeiinoyie. ?anoe?aiea
ooieoeeiiaeueiuo aiciiaeiinoae naoe ioo?i aeiaaaeaiey o?iaiy ca o?iaiai
i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi Au a eiioea eiioeia iieo/aaoa ii-ianoiyuaio
ae?oaeanoaaiiue e iieaciue eino?oiaioa?ee.

Naoe n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia.

Eiaaea Au iuoaaoanue i?aaenoaaeoue naaa, /oi aea oaeia Internet e eae
iia ?aaioaao, aiieia anoanoaaiii, /oi o Aan aicieeatho annioeeaoeee n
oaeaoiiiie naoueth. A eiioea eiioeia, iaa yoe no?oeoo?u eniieuecotho
yeaeo?iiiua n?aaenoaa ia?aaea/e, iaa iicaieytho onoaiaaeeaaoue
niaaeeiaiea e ia?aaeaaaoue eioi?iaoeeth; e?iia oiai, a Internet a
iniiaiii eniieuecothony auaeaeaiiua oaeaoiiiua eeiee. E niaeaeaieth, yoi
iaaa?iia i?aaenoaaeaiea, e iii yaeyaony i?e/eiie iaiiieiaiey i?eioeeiia
?aaiou Internet. Oaeaoiiiay naoue – yoi naoue n eiiiooaoeeae eaiaeia.
Eiaaea Au i?iecaiaeeoa aucia, Aai auaeaeyaony iaeioi?ay /anoue yoi naoe.
Aeaaea anee Au ia eniieuecoaoa aa (iai?eia?, iaoiaeeoanue a ?aaeeia
oaea?aeaiey), iia inoaaony iaaeinooiiie aeey ae?oaeo aaiiaioia, eioi?ui
a yoio iiiaio ioaeii iicaiieoue. Yoi i?eaiaeeo e oiio, /oi oaeie
aei?iaie ?ano?n, eae naoue, eniieuecoaony iayooaeoeaii.

Aieaa niioaaonoaothuay aeaenoaeoaeueiiio iieiaeaieth aauae iiaeaeue
Internet – ii/oiaia aaaeiinoai NOA. Ii/oiaia aaaeiinoai i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie naoue n eiiiooaoeeae iaeaoia. Caeanue o Aan iao auaeaeaiiiai
o/anoea naoe. Aaoa ei??aniiiaeaioeey niaoeaaaony n ae?oaeie ienueiaie,
ioi?aaeyaony a ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea e ni?oe?oaony. Ianiio?y ia oi, /oi
oaoiieiaee aaniethoii ?aciua, neoaeaa aeinoaaee ii/ou i?aaenoaaeyao
niaie oaeeaeoaeueii oi/iue aiaeia naoe; iu aoaeai i?iaeieaeaoue
iieueciaaoueny yoie iiaeaeueth ai anao inoaeueiuo ?acaeaeao aeaiiie
aeaau.

Iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie (IP).

N iiiiuueth eeiee nayce iaania/eaaaony aeinoaaea aeaiiuo ec iaeiiai
ioieoa a ae?oaie. Ii Au oaea ciaaoa, /oi Internet iiaeao aeinoaaeyoue
aeaiiua ai iiiaea oi/ee, ?aca?inaiiua ii anaio caiiiio oa?o. Eae yoi
i?ienoiaeeo?

?acee/iua o/anoee Internet naycuaathony n iiiiuueth nenoaiu
eiiiuethoa?ia (iacuaaaiuo ia?o?ooecaoi?aie) niaaeeiythueo iaaeaeo niaie
naoe. Yoi iiaoo auoue naoe Internet, naoe n ia?ea?iui aeinooiii,
oaeaoiiiua eeiee (ni. ?en.2).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 2 . Aiia?aoiua n?aaenoaa Internet.

Oaeaoiiiua eeiee e naoe Ethernet yeaeaaeaioiu aaoiiiaeeyi e naiieaoai
neoaeau aeinoaaee ii/ou. Ia?o?ooecaoi?u – yoi ii/oiaua iiaenoaioeee; iie
i?eieiatho ?aoaiey i oii, eoaea iai?aaeyoue aeaiiua («iaeaou»), oae aea,
eae ii/oiaay iiaenoaioeey ?aoaao, eoaea iai?aaeyoue eiiaa?ou n ii/oie.
Eaaeaeay iiaenoaioeey, eee ia?o?ooecaoi?, ia eiaao nayce n inoaeueiuie
noaioeeyie. Anee Au iionoeee ienueii a ii/oiaue yuee a Iueth-Oyiioe?a, a
aae?anao aeeaao a Eaeeoi?iee, oi ianoiia ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea ia aoaeao
a?iie?iaaoue naiieao, /oiau aeinoaaeoue Aaoa ienueii a Eaeeoi?ieth.
Ianoiia ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea iinueaao ienueii ia iiaenoaioeeth,
iiaenoaioeey iinueaao aai ia ae?oaoth iiaenoaioeeth e oae aeaeaa, iiea
ienueii ia aeieaeao aei aae?anaoa. Oaeei ia?acii, eaaeaeie iiaenoaioeee
ioaeii ciaoue oieueei, eaeea eiathony niaaeeiaiey e eaeie ec
«neaaeothueo nea/eia» aoaeao eo/oei aeey ia?aiauaiey iaeaoa aeeaea e
ioieoo iacia/aiey. Iioiaeay neooaoeey neeaaeuaaaony e a Internet:
ia?o?ooecaoi? niio?eo, eoaea aae?aniaaiu Aaoe aeaiiua, e ?aoaao, eoaea
eo iinueaoue.

Ioeoaea Internet ciaao, eoaea neaaeoao iai?aaeoue Aaoe aeaiiua? Anee Au
ioi?aaeyaoa ienueii, oi, i?inoi iionoea aai a ii/oiaue yuee aac
eiiaa?oa, Au ia iiaeaoa ?ann/eouaaoue, /oi ei??aniiiaeaioeey aoaeao
aeinoaaeaia ii iacia/aieth. Ienueii ioaeii aeiaeeoue a eiiaa?o,
iaienaoue ia eiiaa?oa aae?an e iaeeaeoue ia?eo. Oi/ii oae aea, eae
ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea neaaeoao ii i?aaeeai, eioi?ua ii?aaeaeytho ii?yaeie
?aaiou ii/oiaie naoe, ii?aaeaeaiiua i?aaeea ?aaeaiaioe?otho ii?yaeie
?aaiou Internet. Yoe i?aaeea iacuaatho i?ioieieaie. Iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie
(Internet Protocol, IP) ioaa/aao ca aae?anaoeeth, o.a. aa?aioe?oao, /oi
ia?o?ooecaoi? ciaao, /oi aeaeaoue n Aaoeie aeaiiuie, eiaaea iie
iinooiyo. Neaaeoy iaoae aiaeiaee n ii/oiaui aaaeiinoaii, iiaeii
neacaoue, /oi iaaenaoaaie i?ioieie auiieiyao ooieoeee eiiaa?oa.

Iaeioi?ay aae?aniay eioi?iaoeey i?eaiaeeony a ia/aea Aaoaai niiauaiey.
Iia aea?o naoe aeinoaoi/ii naaaeaiee aeey aeinoaaee iaeaoa aeaiiuo.

Internet – aae?ana ninoiyo ec /aou??o /enae, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo ia
i?aauoaao 256. I?e caiene /enea ioaeaeythony iaeii io ae?oaiai oi/eaie,
iai?eia?:

192.112.36.5

128.174.5.6

Aae?an oaeoe/anee ninoieo ec ianeieueeeo /anoae. Iineieueeo Internet –
yoi naoue naoae, oi ia/aei aae?ana niaea?aeeo eioi?iaoeeth aeey
ia?o?ooecaoi?ia i oii, e eaeie naoe ioiineony Aao eiiiuethoa?. I?aaay
/anoue aae?ana neoaeeo aeey oiai, /oiau niiaueoue naoe, eaeie
eiiiuethoa? aeieaeai iieo/eoue yoio iaeao. Eaaeaeue eiiiuethoa? a
Internet eiaao naie oieeaeueiue aae?an. Caeanue iai iiyoue iiiiaeao
aiaeiaey ni neoaeaie aeinoaaee ii/ou. Aicueiai aae?an «50 Kelly Road,
Hamden, CT». Yeaiaio «Hamden, CT» iioiae ia aae?an naoe. Aeaaiaea?y
yoiio eiiaa?o iiiaaeaao a iaiaoiaeeiia ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea, oi, eioi?ia
ciaao ia oeeoeao a ii?aaeaeaiiii ?aeiia. Yeaiaio «Kelly Road» iioiae ia
aae?an eiiiuethoa?a; ii oeacuaaao ia eiie?aoiue ii/oiaue yuee a ?aeiia,
eioi?ue ianeoaeeaaao aeaiiia ii/oiaia ioaeaeaiea. Ii/oiaia aaaeiinoai
auiieieei naith caaea/o, aeinoaaea ii/oo a ioaeiia ianoiia ioaeaeaiea, a
yoi ioaeaeaiea iieiaeeei ienueii a niioaaonoaothuee ii/oiaue yuee.
Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii, Internet auiieieea naith caaea/o, eiaaea aa
ia?o?ooecaoi?u iai?aaeee aeaiiua a niioaaonoaothuoth naoue, a yoa
eieaeueiay naoue – a niioaaonoaothuee eiiiuethoa?.

Ii oeaeiio ?yaeo oaoie/aneeo i?e/ei (a iniiaiii yoi aiia?aoiua
ia?aie/aiey) eioi?iaoeey, iinueaaiay ii IP- naoyi, ?acaeaaaony ia
ii?oeee, iacuaaaiua iaeaoaie. A iaeiii iaeaoa iau/ii iinueaaony io
iaeiiai aei 1500 neiaieia eioi?iaoeee. Yoi ia aeaao aiciiaeiinoe iaeiiio
iieueciaaoaeth iiiiiieece?iaaoue naoue, iaeiaei iicaieyao eaaeaeiio
?ann/eouaaoue ia naiaa?aiaiiia ianeoaeeaaiea. Yoi oaeaea icia/aao, /oi a
neo/aa ia?aa?ocee naoe ea/anoai aa ?aaiou ianeieueei oooaeoaaony aeey
anao iieueciaaoaeae: iia ia oie?aao, anee aa iiiiiieece?iaaee ianeieueei
nieeaeiuo iieueciaaoaeae.

Iaeii ec aeinoieinoa Internet ninoieo a oii, /oi aeey ?aaiou ia aaciaii
o?iaia aeinoaoi/ii oieueei iaaenaoaaiai i?ioieiea. Naoue aoaeao ia
i/aiue ae?oaeanoaaiiie, ii anee Au aoaeaoa aanoe naay aeinoaoi/ii
?acoiii, oi ?aoeoa naie caaea/e. Iineieueeo Aaoe aeaiiua iiiauathony a
IP- eiiaa?o, oi naoue eiaao anth eioi?iaoeeth, iaiaoiaeeioth aeey
ia?aiauaiey yoiai iaeaoa ec Aaoaai eiiiuethoa?a a ioieo iacia/aiey.
Caeanue, iaeiaei, aicieeaao n?aco ianeieueei i?iaeai.

Ai-ia?auo, a aieueoeinoaa neo/aaa iauai ia?anueaaiie eioi?iaoeee
i?aauoaao 1500 neiaieia. Anee au ii/oa i?eieiaea oieueei ioe?uoee, Aan
au yoi, anoanoaaiii, ?aci/a?iaaei.

Ai-aoi?uo, iiaeao i?iecieoe ioeaea. Ii/oiaia aaaeiinoai eiiaaea oa?yao
ienueia, a naoe eiiaaea oa?ytho iaeaou eee iia?aaeaeatho eo i?e
ia?aaea/a. Au oaeaeeoa, /oi a ioee/ea io ii/oiauo ioaeaeaiee Internet
oniaoii ?aoaao oaeea i?iaeaiu.

A-o?aoueeo, iineaaeiaaoaeueiinoue aeinoaaee iaeaoia iiaeao auoue
ia?ooaia. Anee Au iineaee ii iaeiiio aae?ano iaeii ca ae?oaei aeaa
ienueia, oi iao ieeaeie aa?aioee, /oi iie iieaeoo ii iaeiiio ia?o?ooo
eee i?eaeoo a ii?yaeea eo ioi?aaeaiey. Oaeay aea i?iaeaia nouanoaoao e a
Internet.

Iiyoiio neaaeothuee o?iaaiue naoe aeano iai aiciiaeiinoue ia?anueaoue
aieaa e?oiiua ii?oeee eioi?iaoeee e iicaaioeoueny ia ono?aiaiee oao
eneaaeaiee, eioi?ua aiineo naia naoue.

I?ioieie oi?aaeaiey ia?aaea/ae (ON?).

Aeey ?aoaiey oiiiyioouo auoa i?iaeai eniieuecoaony «i?ioieie oi?aaeaiey
ia?aaea/ae» (Transmission Control Protocol, TCP), eioi?ue /anoi
oiiieiatho aianoa n i?ioieieii IP. Eae neaaeiaaei au iinooieoue a
neo/aa, anee Au oioeoa iineaoue eiio-ieaoaeue eieao, a ii/oa i?eieiaao
oieueei ienueia? Auoiae iaeei: au?aaoue ec eieae ana no?aieoeu,
aeiaeeoue eaaeaeoth a ioaeaeueiue eiiaa?o e a?ineoue ana eiiaa?ou a
ii/oiaue yuee. Iieo/aoaeth i?eoeinue au niae?aoue ana no?aieoeu (i?e
oneiaee, /oi ie iaeii ienueii ia i?iiaei) e neeaeaaoue ia?aoii a eieao.
Aio yoe caaea/e e auiieiyao ON?.

Eioi?iaoeeth, eioi?oth Au oioeoa ia?aaeaoue, ON? ?acaeaaao ia ii?oeee.
Eaaeaeay ii?oeey ioia?oaony, /oiau iiaeii auei i?iaa?eoue, any ee
eioi?iaoeey iieo/aia, e ?aniieiaeeoue aeaiiua a i?aaeeueiii ii?yaeea.
Aeey ia?aaea/e yoiai ii?yaeeiaiai iiia?a ii naoe o i?ioieiea anoue naie
nianoaaiiue «eiiaa?o», ia eioi?ii «iaienaia» iaiaoiaeeiay eioi?iaoeey .
Ii?oeey Aaoeo aeaiiuo iiiauaaony a eiiaa?o ON?. Eiiaa?o ON?, a naith
i/a?aaeue, iiiauaaony a eiiaa?o IP e ia?aaeaaony a naoue.

Ia i?eieiathuae noi?iia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea i?ioieiea ON? niae?aao
eiiaa?ou, ecaeaeaao ec ieo aeaiiua e ?aniieaaaao eo a i?aaeeueiii
ii?yaeea. Anee eaeeo-ieaoaeue eiiaa?oia iao, i?ia?aiia i?ineo
ioi?aaeoaey ia?aaeaoue eo aua ?ac. Iinea ?aciauaiey anae eioi?iaoeee a
i?aaeeueiii ii?yaeea yoe aeaiiua ia?aaeathony oie i?eeeaaeiie i?ia?aiia,
eioi?ay eniieuecoao oneoae ON?.

Yoi, iaeiaei, ianeieueei eaeaaeece?iaaiiia i?aaenoaaeaiea i ON?. A
?aaeueiie aeecie iaeaou ia oieueei oa?ythony, ii e i?aoa?iaaatho
eciaiaiey ii aei?iaa aaeaeo e?aoeia?aiaiiuo ioeacia a oaeaoiiiuo eeieyo.
ON? ?aoaao e yoo i?iaeaio. I?e iiiauaiee aeaiiuo a eiiaa?o i?iecaiaeeony
au/eneaiea oae iacuaaaiie eiio?ieueiie noiiu. Eiio?ieueiay noiia – yoi
/enei, eioi?ia iicaieyo i?eieiathuaio ON? auyaeyoue ioeaee a iaeaoa.
Eiaaea iaeao i?eauaaao a ioieo iacia/aiey, i?eieiathuee ON? au/eneyao
eiio?ieueioth noiio e n?aaieaaao aa n oie, eioi?oth iineae ioi?aaeoaeue.
Anee cia/aiey ia niaiaaeatho, oi i?e ia?aaea/a i?iecioea ioeaea.
I?eieiathuee ON? ioa?anuaaao yoio iaeao e cai?aoeaaao iiaoi?ioth
ia?aaea/o.

Ae?oaea i?ioieieu ia?aaea/e.

I?ioieie ON? nicaeaao aeaeeiinoue auaeaeaiiie eeiee nayce iaaeaeo
aeaoiy i?eeeaaeiuie i?ia?aiiaie, o.e. aa?aioe?oao, /oi eioi?iaoeey,
aoiaeyuay ia iaeiii eiioea, auoiaeeo ia aoi?ii. A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ia
nouanoaoao auaeaeaiiiai eaiaea iaaeaeo ioi?aaeoaeai e iieo/aoaeai
(ae?oaea ethaee iiaoo eniieueciaaoue yoe aea ia?o?ooecaoi?u e naoaaua
i?iaiaea aeey ia?aaea/e naiae eioi?iaoeee a i?iiaaeooea iaaeaeo Aaoeie
iaeaoaie), iaeiaei nicaeaaony aia/aoeaiea, /oi ii anoue, e ia i?aeoeea
yoiai iau/ii auaaao aeinoaoi/ii.

Yoi ia naiue eo/oee iiaeoiae e eniieueciaaieth naoe. Oi?ie?iaaiea ON? –
niaaeeiaiey o?aaoao cia/eoaeueiuo ?anoiaeia e cao?ao a?aiaie; anee yoio
iaoaieci ia ioaeai, eo/oa ia eniieueciaaoue aai. Anee aeaiiua, eioi?ua
iaiaoiaeeii iineaoue, iiiauathony a iaeiii iaeaoa, e aa?aioey aeinoaaee
ia iniaaiii aaaeia, ON? iiaeao noaoue iaocie.

Nouanoaoao aua iaeei noaiaea?oiue i?ioieie, eioi?ue iicaieyao ecaaaeaoue
oaeeo iaeeaaeiuo ?anoiaeia. Ii iacuaaaony «i?ioieie iieueciaaoaeueneeo
aeaeoaa?aii» (user datagram protocol, UDP) e eniieuecoaony a iaeioi?uo
i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aiiao. Aianoi aeeaaeuaaiey Aaoeo aeaiiuo a eiiaa?o TCP
e iiiauaiey yoiai eiiaa?oa a eiiaa?o IP i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia
aeeaaeuaaao aeaiiua a eiiaa?o UDP, eioi?ue e iiiauaaony a eiiaa?o IP.

UPD i?iua ON?, iioiio /oi yoio i?ioieie ia caaioeony i i?iiaaoeo
iaeaoao, ?aniieiaeaiee aeaiiuo a i?aaeeueiii ii?yaeea e ae?oaeo
oiieinoyo. UDP eniieuecoaony aeey oao i?ia?aii, eioi?ua iinueatho
oieueei ei?ioeea niiauaiey e iiaoo iiaoi?eoue ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo, anee
ioaao caaea?aeeaaaony. I?aaeiieiaeei, /oi Au ieoaoa i?ia?aiio, eioi?ay
euao iiia?a oaeaoiiia a iaeiie ec naoaauo aac aeaiiuo. Iao ioaeaeu
onoaiaaeeaaoue ON? – niaaeeiaiea aeey oiai, /oiau ia?aaeaoue ii anai
iai?aaeaieyi ii 20-30 neiaieia. Iiaeii i?inoi iiianoeoue eiy a iaeei
UDP- iaeao, aeiaeeoue aai a IP- iaeao e ioineaoue. I?eieiathuay
i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia iieo/eo yoio iaeao, i?i/eoaao eiy, iaeaeao iiia?
oaeaoiia, aeiaeeo aai a ae?oaie UDP- iaeao e ioi?aaeo ia?aoii. *oi
neo/eony, anee iaeao ii aei?iaa iioa?yaony? Yoi – i?iaeaia Aaoae
i?ia?aiiu: anee neeoeii aeieai iao ioaaoa, iia iinueaao aua iaeei
cai?in.

Eae naeaeaoue naoue ae?oaeanoaaiiie?

Aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iano?ieoue i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ia eiie?aoioth
caaea/o e i?e ia?auaiee e eiiiuethoa?ai eniieueciaaoue ia aae?ana, a
eiaia.

I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu.

Aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae ia eniuouaatho eioa?ana e iioieo aeoia
iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie, eaeeie au nei?inoiuie ia auee eeiee e eaeie au
yecioe/aneie ia auea oaoiieiaey, eioi?ay iicaieeea aai iieo/eoue. Iie
oioyo auno?i eniieueciaaoue yoio iioie aeoia aeey eaeeo-oi iieaciuo
caaea/, aoaeue oi ia?aiauaiea oaeea, aeinooi e aeaiiui eee i?inoi ea?a.
I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu – yoi /anoe i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, eioi?ua
iicaieytho oaeiaeaoai?eoue yoe iio?aaiinoe. Oaeea i?ia?aiiu ninoaaeytho
aua iaeei o?iaaiue i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, iaaeno?aeaaaiue iaae
na?aenii ON? eee UDP. I?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu i?aaeinoaaeytho
iieueciaaoaeth n?aaenoaa aeey ?aoaiey eiie?aoiie caaea/e.

Aeeaiacii i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii oe?ie: io aeiii?iuaiiuo aei
iaoaioiaaiiuo, iinoaaeyaiuo e?oiiuie oe?iaie-?ac?aaio/eeaie. A Internet
anoue o?e noaiaea?oiua i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu (oaeaeaiiue aeinooi,
ia?anueea oaeeia e yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa), a oaeaea ae?oaea, oe?iei
eniieuecoaiua, ii ia noaiaea?oece?iaaiiua i?ia?aiiu. A aeaaao 5-14
iieacaii, eae eniieueciaaoue naiua ?ani?ino?aiaiiua i?eeeaaeiua
i?ia?aiiu Internet.

Eiaaea ?a/ue eaeao i i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aiiao, neaaeoao o/anoue iaeio
iniaaiiinoue: Au aini?eieiaaoa i?eeeaaeioth i?ia?aiio oae, eae iia
auaeyaeeo a Aaoae eieaeueiie nenoaia. Eiiaiaeu, niiauaiey, i?eaeaoaiey e
o.ae., iiyaeythueany o Aan ia ye?aia, iiaoo ianeieueei ioee/aoueny io
oao, eioi?ua Au oaeaeeoa a eieaa eee ia ye?aia o naiaai ae?oaa. Ia noieo
aieiiaaoueny, anee a eieaa i?eaiaeeony niiauaiea «connection refused», a
eiiiuethoa? auaeaao «Unable to connect to remote host: refused»; yoi
iaeii e oi aea. Ia oeaieyeoanue e neiaai, a iiiuoaeoanue iiiyoue nooue
niiauaiey. Ia aaniieieoanue, anee iaeioi?ua eiiaiaeu eiatho ae?oaea
eiaia; aieueoeinoai i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii niaaaeaiu aeinoaoi/ii
nieeaeiuie ni?aai/iuie iiaenenoaiaie, eioi?ua iiiiaoo iaeoe
iaiaoiaeeioth eiiaiaeo.

Aeiiaiiay nenoaia ei?i.

Oeeo?iaua aae?ana – e yoi noaei iiiyoii i/aiue nei?i – oi?ioe i?e
iauaiee eiiiuethoa?ia, a aeey ethaeae i?aaeii/oeoaeueiaa eiaia.
Iaoaeiaii aiai?eoue, eniieuecoy oeeo?iaua aae?ana, e au? o?oaeiaa
caiiieiaoue eo. Iiyoiio eiiiuethoa?ai a Internet i?enaiaiu eiaia. Ana
i?eeeaaeiua i?ia?aiiu Internet iicaieytho eniieueciaaoue eiaia nenoai
aianoi /eneiauo aae?ania eiiiuethoa?ia.

Eiia/ii, eniieueciaaiea ei?i eiaao naie iaaeinoaoee. Ai-ia?auo, ioaeii
neaaeeoue, /oiau iaeii e oi aea eiy ia auei neo/aeii i?enaiaii aeaoi
eiiiuethoa?ai. E?iia oiai, iaiaoiaeeii iaania/eoue i?aia?aciaaiea ei?i a
/eneiaua aae?ana, aaaeue eiaia oi?ioe aeey ethaeae, a eiiiuethoa?u
an?-oaee i?aaeii/eoatho /enea. Au iiaeaoa oeacaoue i?ia?aiia eiy, ii o
ia? aeieaeai auoue niinia iienea yoiai eiaie e i?aia?aciaaiey aai a
aae?an.

Ia yoaia noaiiaeaiey, eiaaea Internet auea iaeaiueeie iauiinoueth,
eniieueciaaoue eiaia auei eaaei. Oeaio? naoaaie eioi?iaoeee (NIC)
nicaeaaae niaoeeaeueioth neoaeao ?aaeno?aoeee. Au iinueaee caiieiaiiue
aeaie (eiia/ii, yeaeo?iiiuie n?aaenoaaie), e NIC aiinee Aan a naie
nienie ei?i e aae?ania. Yoio oaee, iacuaaaiue hosts (nienie oceiauo
eiiiuethoa?ia), ?aaoey?ii ?annueaeny ia ana eiiiuethoa?u naoe. A
ea/anoaa ei?i eniieueciaaeenue i?inoua neiaa, eaaeaeia ec eioi?uo
iaycaoaeueii yaeyeinue oieeaeueiui. Eiaaea Au oeacuaaee eiy, Aao
eiiiuethoa? eneae aai a yoii oaeea e iiaenoaaeye niioaaonoaothuee
aae?an.

Eiaaea Internet ?ac?ineanue, e niaeaeaieth, ?acia? yoiai oaeea oiaea
oaaee/eeny. Noaee aicieeaoue cia/eoaeueiua caaea?aeee i?e ?aaeno?aoeee
ei?i, iiene oieeaeueiuo ei?i oneiaeieeny. E?iia oiai, ia ?annueeo yoiai
aieueoiai oaeea ia ana oeacaiiua a i?i eiiiuethoa?u ooiaeeei iiiai
naoaaiai a?aiaie. Noaei i/aaeaeii, /oi oaeea oaiiu ?inoa o?aaotho
iaee/ey ?ani?aaeae?iiie eioa?aeoeaiie nenoaiu. Yoa nenoaia iacuaaaony
«aeiiaiiie nenoaiie ei?i» (Domain Name System, DNS).

No?oeoo?a aeiiaiiie nenoaiu.

Aeiiaiiay nenoaia ei?i i?aaenoaaeyao niaie iaoiae iacia/aiey ei?i ioo?i
aiceiaeaiey ia ?aciua a?oiiu iieueciaaoaeae ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca
iiaeiiiaeanoaa ei?i. Eaaeaeue o?iaaiue a yoie nenoaia iacuaaaony
aeiiaiii. Aeiiaiu ioaeaeythony iaeei io ae?oaiai oi/eaie:

ux.cso.uiuc.edu

nic.ddn.mil

yoyodyne.com

A eiaie iiaeao auoue ethaia /enei aeiiaiia, ii aieaa iyoe ano?a/aaony
?aaeei. Eaaeaeue iineaaeothuee aeiiai a eiaie (anee niio?aoue neaaa
iai?aai) aieueoa i?aaeuaeouaai. A eiaie ux.cso.uiuc.edu yeaiaio ux – eiy
?aaeueiiai eiiiuethoa?a n IP – aae?anii. (Ni. ?enoiie).

?enoiie SEQ ?enoiie \* ARABIC 3 . No?oeoo?a aeiiaiiiai eiaie.

Eiy yoiai eiiiuethoa?a nicaeaii e eo?e?oaony a?oiiie cso, eioi?ay anoue
ia /oi eiia, eae ioaeae, a eioi?ii noieo yoio eiiiuethoa?. Ioaeae cso
yaeyaony ioaeaeii oieaa?neoaoa ooaoa Eeeeiien (uiuc). uiuc aoiaeeo a
iaoeeiiaeueioth a?oiio o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee (edu). Oaeei ia?acii, aeiiai
edu aeeth/aao a naay ana eiiiuethoa?u o/aaiuo caaaaeaiee NOA; aeiiai
uiuc.edu – ana eiiiuethoa?u oieaa?neoaoa ooaoa Eeeeiien e o.ae.

Eaaeaeay a?oiia iiaeao nicaeaaaoue e eciaiyoue ana eiaia, iaoiaeyueany
iiae a? eiio?ieai. Anee uiuc ?aoeo nicaeaoue iiaoth a?oiio e iacaaoue a?
ncsa, iia iiaeao ie o eiai ia ni?aoeaaoue ?ac?aoaiey. An?, /oi ioaeii
naeaeaoue – yoi aeiaaaeoue iiaia eiy a naith /anoue anaie?iie aacu
aeaiiuo, e ?aii eee iicaeii oio, eiio ioaeii, ociaao ia yoii eiaie
(ncsa.uius.edu). Aiaeiae/iui ia?acii cso iiaeao eoieoue iiaue
eiiiuethoa?, i?enaieoue aio eiy e aeeth/eoue a naoue, ia ni?aoeaay ie o
eiai ?ac?aoaiey. Anee ana a?oiiu, ia/eiay n edu e ieaea, aoaeoo
niaethaeaoue i?aaeea, e iaania/eaaoue oieeaeueiinoue ei?i, oi ieeaeea
aeaa nenoaiu a Internet ia aoaeoo eiaoue iaeeiaeiaiai eiaie. O Aan iiaoo
auoue aeaa eiiiuethoa?a n eiaiai fred, ii eeoue i?e oneiaee, /oi iie
iaoiaeyony a ?aciuo aeiiaiao (iai?eia?, fred.cso.uiuc.edu e
fred.ora.com).

Eaaei ociaoue, ioeoaea aa?oony aeiiaiu e eiaia a i?aaiecaoeee oeia
oieaa?neoaoa eee i?aaei?eyoey. Ii ioeoaea aa?oony aeiiaiu «aa?oiaai
o?iaiy» oeia edu? Iie auee nicaeaiu, eiaaea auea ecia?aoaia aeiiaiiay
nenoaia. Ecia/aeueii auei oanoue i?aaiecaoeeiiiuo aeiiaiia aunoaai
o?iaiy.

Oaaeeoea SEQ Oaaeeoea \* ARABIC 1 . Ia?aiia/aeueiua aeiiaiu aa?oiaai
o?iaiy.

? Aeiiai Eniieueciaaiea

1. com Eiiia?/aneea i?aaiecaoeee

2. edu O/aaiua caaaaeaiey (oieaa?neoaou, n?aaeiea oeieu e o.ae.)

3. gov I?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey (e?iia aiaiiuo)

4. mil Aiaiiua o/?aaeaeaiey (a?iey, oeio e o.ae.)

5. org I?i/ea i?aaiecaoeee

6. net Naoaaua ?ano?nu

Eiaaea Internet noaea iaaeaeoia?iaeiie naoueth, aicieeea iaiaoiaeeiinoue
i?aaeinoaaeoue ca?oaaaeiui no?aiai aiciiaeiinoue eiio?iey ca eiaiaie
iaoiaeyueony a ieo nenoai. Aeey yoie oeaee nicaeai iaai? aeaooaoeaaiiuo
aeiiaiia, eioi?ua niioaaonoaotho aeiiaiai aunoaai o?iaiy aeey yoeo
no?ai. Iineieueeo ca – eiae Eaiaaeu, oi eiiiuethoa? ia oa??eoi?ee
Eaiaaeu iiaeao eiaoue oaeia eiy:

hockey.guelph.ca

Iauaa /enei eiaeia no?ai – 300; eiiiuethoa?iua naoe nouanoaotho
i?eaeeceoaeueii a 170 ec ieo.

Ieii/aoaeueiue ieai ?anoe?aiey nenoaiu i?enaiaiey ei?i ?ano?nia a
Internet aue iaeiiaoe-oi iauyaeai eiieoaoii IAHC (International Ad Hoc
Committee). Niaeanii iiaui ?aoaieyi, e aeiiaiai aunoaai o?iaiy,
aeeth/athuei naaiaeiy com, net, org, i?eaaayony:

firm – aeey aeaeiauo ?ano?nia Naoe;

store – aeey oi?aiaee;

web – aeey i?aaiecaoeee, eiathueo ioiioaiea e ?aaoee?iaaieth
aeayoaeueiinoe a WWW;

arts – aeey ?ano?nia aoiaieoa?iiai ia?aciaaiey;

rec – ea?u e ?acaea/aiey;

info – i?aaeinoaaeaiea eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oneoa;

nom – aeey eiaeeaeaeoaeueiuo ?ano?nia, a oaeaea oao, eoi euao naie iooe
?aaeecaoeee, eioi?ua ionoonoaotho a i?eaaae?iiii oaiaii nienea.

E?iia oiai, a ?aoaieyo IAHC neacaii, /oi o/?aaeaeaaony 28
oiieiiii/aiiuo aaaionoa ii i?enaiaieth ei?i ai an?i ie?a. Eae cayaeaii,
iiaay nenoaia iicaieeo oniaoii i?aiaeieaoue iiiiiieeth, eioi?ay auea
iaaycaia aaeeinoaaiiui oiieiiii/aiiui – eiiiaieae Network Solutions. Ana
iiaua aeiiaiu aoaeoo ?ani?aaeaeaiu iaaeaeo iiauie aaaionoaaie, a
i?aaeiea aoaeoo ioneaaeeaaoueny niaianoii Network Solutions e National
Science Foundation aei eiioea 1998 aiaea.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy aaeaiany/ii ?aaeno?e?oaony i?eia?ii 85 ouny/ iiauo
ei?i. Aiaeiaay iieaoa eiaie ninoaaeyao 50 aeieea?ia. Iiaua
?aaeno?aoeeiiiua aaaionoaa aeieaeiu aoaeoo i?aaenoaaeyoue naiue oneiaiuo
aaia?aoe/aneeo ?aaeiiia. Aeey i?aoaiaeaioia ia ?ieue aaaionoa ec
eaaeaeiai ?aaeiia aoaeoo ono?iaiu eioa?ae. Eiiiaiee, aeaeathuea
o/anoaiaaoue a ieo, aeieaeiu aianoe anooieoaeueiue aciin a ?acia?a 20
ouny/ aeieea?ia e eiaoue no?aoiaeo ia noiio ia iaiaa 500 ouny/ aeieea?ia
ia neo/ae ianiiniaiinoe ni?aaeoueny n ?ieueth ?aaeno?aoi?a aeiiaiiuo
ei?i.

Iiene aeiiaiiuo ei?i.

Oaia?ue, eiaaea iiiyoii, eae aeiiaiu naycaiu iaaeaeo niaie e eae
nicaeathony eiaia, iiaeii caaeoiaoueny e iaae oai, eae aea i?eiaieoue
yoo /oaeanioth nenoaio. Au eniieuecoaoa a? aaoiiaoe/anee anyeee ?ac,
eiaaea caaea?oa eaeia-oi eiy «ciaeiiiio» n iae eiiiuethoa?o. Aai ia
ioaeii ie eneaoue yoi eiy a?o/ioth, ie aeaaaoue aeey iienea ioaeiiai
eiiiuethoa?a niaoeeaeueioth eiiaiaeo, oioy i?e aeaeaiee yoi oaeaea
iiaeii naeaeaoue. Ana eiiiuethoa?u a Internet iiaoo iieueciaaoueny
aeiiaiiie nenoaiie, e aieueoeinoai ec ieo yoi aeaeatho.

Eiaaea Au eniieuecoaoa eiy, iai?eia?, ux.cso.uiuc.edu, eiiiuethoa?
aeieaeai i?aia?aciaaoue aai a aae?an. *oiau yoi naeaeaoue, Aao
eiiiuethoa? ia/eiaao i?ineoue iiiiue o na?aa?ia (eiiiuethoa?ia) DNS,
ia/eiay n i?aaie /anoe eiaie e aeaeaaynue aeaai. Nia/aea iia i?ineo
eieaeueiua na?aa?u DNS iaeoe aae?an. Caeanue nouanoaotho o?e
aiciiaeiinoe:

Eieaeueiue na?aa? ciaao aae?an, iioiio /oi yoio aae?an iaoiaeeony a oie
/anoe anaie?iie aacu aeaiiuo, eioi?oth eo?e?oao aeaiiue na?aa?.
Iai?eia?, anee Au ?aaioaaoa a IAOO, oi o Aaoaai eieaeueiiai na?aa?a,
aa?iyoii, anoue eioi?iaoeey iai anao eiiiuethoa?ao IAOO.

Eieaeueiue na?aa? ciaao aae?an, iioiio /oi eoi-oi iaaeaaii oaea
ni?aoeaae i i?i. Eiaaea Au ni?aoeaaaoa ia aae?ana, na?aa? DNS iaeioi?ia
a?aiy aea?aeeo aai «iiae ?oeie» ia oio neo/ae, anee /ooue iicaea i i?i
ni?ineo au? eoi-ieaoaeue. Yoi cia/eoaeueii iiauoaao yooaeoeaiinoue
?aaiou nenoaiu.

Eieaeueiue na?aa? ia ciaao aae?an, ii ciaao, eae aai ii?aaeaeeoue.

Eae eieaeueiue na?aa? ii?aaeaeyao aae?an? Aai i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
ciaao, eae naycaoueny n ei?iaaui na?aa?ii, eioi?ue ciaao aae?ana
na?aa?ia ei?i aeiiaia aunoaai o?iaiy (e?aeiae i?aaie /anoe eiaie,
iai?eia?, edu). Aao na?aa? cai?aoeaaao o ei?iaaiai na?aa?a aae?an
eiiiuethoa?a, ioaa/athuaai ca aeiiai edu. Iieo/ea eioi?iaoeeth, ii
naycuaaaony n yoei eiiiuethoa?ii e cai?aoeaaao o iaai aae?an na?aa?a
uiuc. Iinea yoiai Aaoa i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea onoaiaaeeaaao eiioaeo n
yoei eiiiuethoa?ii e ni?aoeaaao o iaai aae?an na?aa?a aeiiaia cso.
Iaeiiaoe, io na?aa?a cso ii iieo/aao aae?an ux, eiiiuethoa?a, eioi?ue e
aue oeaeueth aeaiiie i?eeeaaeiie i?ia?aiiu.

Iaeioi?ua eiiiuethoa?u aei neo ii? eiatho eiioeao?aoeeth, ?ann/eoaiioth
ia eniieueciaaiea noa?iiiaeiiai oaeea hosts. Anee Au ?aaioaaoa ia iaeiii
ec ieo, Aai, aiciiaeii, i?eae?ony iii?ineoue aai aaeieieno?aoi?a iaeoe
ioaeiue Aai aae?an a?o/ioth (eeai naeaeaoue yoi naiiio). Aaeieieno?aoi?
aeieaeai aoaeao aaanoe eiy ioaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a a eieaeueiue oaee
hosts. Iaiaeieoa aio, /oi ia iaoaei au iinoaaeoue ia eiiiuethoa?
i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea DNS, /oiau ecaaaeaoue iiaeiaiuo ineiaeiaiee a
aeaeueiaeoai.

*oi iiaeii aeaeaoue a Internet?

*oi iiaeii aeaeaoue a Internet – neiaeiue aii?in. Internet – ia i?inoi
naoue, a naoue naoae, eaaeaeay ec eioi?uo iiaeao eiaoue naith
nianoaaiioth iieeoeeo e nianoaaiiua i?aaeea. Iiyoiio caeanue neaaeoao
o/eouaaoue i?aaiaua e yoe/aneea ii?iu, a oaeaea iieeoe/aneea
niia?aaeaiey. Acaeiinaycue yoeo oaeoi?ia e noaiaiue eo aaaeiinoe ia
anaaaea iaeeiaeiau.

Aeey oiai, /oiau /oanoaiaaoue naay aiieia oaa?aiii, aeinoaoi/ii
caiiiieoue ianeieueei iniiaiuo i?eioeeiia. E n/anoueth, yoe i?eioeeiu ia
neeueii ia?aie/eaatho iieueciaaoaey; anee ia auoiaeeoue ca onoaiiaeaiiua
i?aaeaeu, iiaeii aeaeaoue an?, /oi oaiaeii. Anee Au ieacaeenue a
cao?oaeieoaeueiie neooaoeee, ia?aoeoanue e naiaio iinoaaueeo oneoa,
/oiau oi/ii ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi iiaeii aeaeaoue e /aai iaeuecy. Aiieia
aiciiaeii, /oi oi, /oi Au oioeoa, aeaeaoue ?ac?aoaaony, ii Aaoa
iaycaiiinoue – auynieoue, oae ee yoi. ?anniio?ei iaeioi?ua i?eioeeiu,
/oiau ii?aaeaeeoue a?aieoeu aeiionoeiiai.

I?aaiaua ii?iu.

I?e ?aaioa a Internet aeieaeiu niaethaeaoueny o?e i?aaiaua ii?iu:

Cia/eoaeueiay /anoue Internet oeiaine?oaony ca n/?o oaaea?aeueiuo
noaneaeee, aneaaenoaea /aai eneeth/aaony /enoi eiiia?/aneia
eniieueciaaiea naoe.

Internet – eioa?iaoeeiiaeueiay naoue. I?e ioi?aaea /aai-eeai, a oii
/enea e aeoia, /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiioth a?aieoeo neaaeoao
?oeiaiaenoaiaaoueny caeiiaie, ?aaoee?othueie yenii?o, a ia i?aaiauie
ii?iaie aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa.

A neo/aa aeinoaaee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey (eee, iai?eia?, i?inoi
eaeae) ec iaeiiai ianoa a ae?oaia neaaeoao o/eouaaoue ?aaeiiaeueiua
i?aaiaua ii?iu, eanathueany eioaeeaeooaeueiie nianoaaiiinoe e eeoeaicee

Enneaaeiaaiey, ia?aciaaiea e oaaea?aeueiia oeiaine?iaaiea.

Iiiaea aoiaeyuea a Internet naoe oeiaine?othony oaaea?aeueiuie
aaaeiinoaaie. Niaeanii oaaea?aeueiiio caeiiiaeaoaeuenoao, aaaeiinoai
iiaeao ?anoiaeiaaoue naie athaeaeao oieueei ia oi, /oi aoiaeeo a noa?o
aai aeayoaeueiinoe. Iai?eia?, aiaiii-aicaeooiua neeu ia iiaoo oaeii
oaaee/eoue naie athaeaeao, caeacaa ?aeaou ca n/ao IANA. Yoe aea caeiiu
?ani?ino?aiyony ia naoue: anee IANA oeiaine?oao naoue, oi a? neaaeoao
eniieueciaaoue oieueei aeey eco/aiey einiina. Eae iieueciaaoaeue, Au
iiaeaoa ia eiaoue ie iaeaeoaai i?aaenoaaeaiey i oii, ii eaeei naoyi
iooaoanoaotho Aaoe iaeaou, ii eo/oa, /oiau niaea?aeeiia yoeo iaeaoia ia
anooiaei a i?ioeai?a/ea n aeayoaeueiinoueth oiai aaaeiinoaa, eioi?ia
oeiaine?oao oo eee eioth naoue.

A aeaenoaeoaeueiinoe ana yoi ia oae no?aoii, eae eaaeaony. Ia?o eao
iacaae a Aaoeiaoiia iiiyee, /oi iaee/ea iiiaeo ia?aeeaeueiuo IP-naoae
(NSFNET, NASA Science Internet e ae?., ii iaeiie ia oaaea?aeueiia
aaaeiinoai) – ionoay o?aoa aeaiaa (aanueia ?aaeeeaeueiay eaeay). Aue
i?eiyo caeii i nicaeaiee NREN – iaoeeiiaeueiie naoe aeey iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaiee e ia?aciaaiey. *anoue Internet auea auaeaeaia aeey
iiaeaea?aeee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ia?aciaaiey – caaea/e, iauae aeey
anao oaaea?aeueiuo i?aaiia. Yoi cia/eo, /oi Au iiaeaoa iieueciaaoueny
oneoaaie NREN aeey i?iaaaeaiey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e iao/aiey eee aeey
iiaeaea?aeee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e iao/aiey.

Aaaeiinoue oneiaey «aeey iiaeaea?aeee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e
ia?aciaaiey» o?oaeii ia?aioeaieoue. Yoei iieiaeaieai a /enei ?ac?ao?iiuo
aeeth/aaony iiiaeanoai aiciiaeiinoae eniieueciaaiey naoe, eioi?ua iiaoo,
ia ia?aue acaeyae, ia niioaaonoaiaaoue a? iacia/aieth. Iai?eia?, anee
oe?ia i?iaea?o i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, eioi?ia eniieuecoaony i?e
i?iaaaeaiee iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e a nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, oi iia eiaao
i?aai ?ani?ino?aiyoue aeiiieiaiey e ioaa/aoue ia aii?inu ii yeaeo?iiiie
ii/oa. N/eoaaony, /oi oaeia iai?aaeaiea eniieueciaaiey ioiineony e
«iiaeaea?aeea iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e ia?aciaaiey». Ii i?e yoii oe?ia ia
iiaeao i?eiaiyoue NREN aeey eiiia?/aneeo caaea/, oaeeo eae ia?eaoeia,
o/?o e o.ae. – aeey yoie oeaee nouanoaoao eiiia?/aneay /anoue Internet.

A iineaaeiaa a?aiy iiiai aiai?eony i «Iaoeeiiaeueiie eioi?iaoeeiiiie
eio?ano?oeoo?a» (National Information Infrastructure, NII). Yoi iau?iiue
e iinyuee aeiaieueii iauee oa?aeoa? i?iaeo nicaeaiey naoae a ianooaaa
ainoaea?noaa. Aai iiaeii n iaeeiaeiaui oniaoii ?anniao?eaaoue eae
aeieain?i/iue ieai ?acaeoey NREN, e eae aeueoa?iaoeao NREN. Nouanoaoao
iiiaeanoai o/anoieeia yoie ea?u (oaeeo eae iinoaaueee naoaauo oneoa,
oaeaoiiiua eiiiaiee, eiiiaiee eaaaeueiiai oaeaaeaeaiey e aeaaea
yia?aaoe/aneea ei?ii?aoeee), eioi?ua iuoathony aeiaeoueny, /oiau oeoee
oiaee ia eo oa??eoi?eth. A yoii ?aoa?aoa NII ia aoaeao oaeaeaii iiiai
aieiaiey, oae eae iu ?anniao?eaaai ?aaeueii nouanoaothuoth naoue, a ia
oo naoue, eioi?ay iiaeao iiyaeoueny /a?ac ianeieueei eao. Niaa?oaiii
ynii, /oi NII ieaaeao cia/eoaeueiia aeeyiea ia ?acaeoea eiiiuethoa?iuo
naoae, ii iiea ia i?iynieeinue, a /?i eiie?aoii yoi aeeyiea aoaeao
i?iyaeyoueny. Ana caeioa?aniaaiiua eeoea iaauatho onei?aiiue aeinooi,
nieaeaiiua oeaiu e iiauoaiioth nei?inoue ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo, ii, eae
aiai?eoueny, eo/oa iaeei ?ac oaeaeaoue, /ai noi ?ac oneuoaoue.

Eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea.

Eiaaea Aaoa i?aaiecaoeey aeiaiaa?eaaeanue i iiaeeeth/aiee e Internet,
eoi-oi aeieaeai aue niiaueoue iinoaaueeo naoaauo oneoa i oii, aeey eaeeo
oeaeae aoaeao eniieueciaaoueny iiaeeeth/aiea: aeey iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee
e ia?aciaaiey eee aeey eiiia?/aneeo oeaeae. A ia?aii aa?eaioa Aao o?aoee
aoaeao iai?aaeyoueny ii noaneaee?iaaiiui ia?o?ooai NREN, ai aoi?ii – ii
/anoiui eaiaeai. Ieaoa ca aeinooi e naoe aeey Aaoae i?aaiecaoeee aoaeao
caaenaoue io auai?a aa?eaioa; eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea naoe iau/ii
noieo aei?iaea, o.e. iii ia noaneaee?oaony ainoaea?noaii. Aeiioneaaony
ee ?aoaiea eiiia?/aneeo caaea/ /a?ac Aaoa niaaeeiaiea, Aai iiaoo
neacaoue oieueei nio?oaeieee Aaoae naoaaie aaeieieno?aoeee. I?iaa?ueoa
yoi ia?aae oai, eae eniieueciaaoue iiaeeeth/aiea a eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo.

Eiia/ii, iiiaea ei?ii?aoeee i?eniaaeeiyony e Internet eae oeaio?u
enneaaeiaaiee e iao/aiey – e yoi aeiionoeii, oae eae iioeaii aeey
iiaeeeth/aiey /anoi yaeythony iao/iua enneaaeiaaiey. Iai?eia?, eiiiaiey
ii i?iecaiaenoao naiyi iaia?aia i?iaiaeeoue niaianoii n oieaa?neoaoii
enneaaeiaaiey naienoa naiyi nie. Iiiaea th?eaee/aneea ioaeaeu
ei?ii?aoeee, iaiai?io, iauyaeytho naie iiaeeeth/aiey eiiia?/aneeie. Yoi
iaania/eaaao ionoonoaea i?aaiaie ioaaonoaaiiinoe a aoaeouai, eiaaea,
iai?eia?, eaeie-ieaoaeue iaeioi?ie?iaaiiue neoaeauee caionoeo ii
i?aaeiacia/aiiiio aeey ia?aaea/e aeaiiuo i iao/iuo enneaaeiaaieyo
iiaeniaaeeiaieth eiiia?/aneoth eioi?iaoeeth.

A Internet nouanoaoao ?yae eiiia?/aneeo iinoaaueeia, iai?eia? Advanced
Networks and Service (ANS), Performance Systems International (PSI) e
UUNET. O eaaeaeie ec yoeo eiiiaiee anoue naiy nianoaaiiay ieoa ?uiea e
naiy nianoaaiiay naoue a i?aaeaeao ainoaea?noaa aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey
eiiia?/aneeo oneoa a Internet. E?iia oiai, naoe ooaoia e ?aaeiiaeueiua
naoe i?aaeinoaaeytho eiiia?/aneea oneoae naiei /eaiai. Eiathony
iiaeeeth/aiey iaaeaeo eaaeaeie ec yoeo naoae e oaaea?aeueiuie naoyie.
Acaeiiaeaenoaea anao yoeo naoae iaaeaeo niaie n niaethaeaieai anao
caeiiia e ii?i inouanoaeyaony iin?aaenoaii eniieueciaaiey yoeo
iiaeeeth/aiee e caeeth/aiey ii?aaeaeaiiuo niaeaoaiee ii o/aoo.

Yenii?oiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai.

Ciaaoa ee Au, /oi yenii?o aeoia iiaeiaaeaao iiae aeaenoaea yenii?oiuo
ia?aie/aiee Ieienoa?noaa oi?aiaee? Oi, /oi Internet, ii nooe aeaea,
yaeyaony oeaeinoiie aeiaaeueiie naoueth, aeaeaao aiciiaeiui yenii?o
eioi?iaoeee aac Aaoaai aaaeiia. Iineieueeo y ia th?eno, ia aoaeo
aaeaaaoueny a oaoie/aneea aeaoaee, ii iiiuoathnue e?aoei ?anneacaoue,
/oi ioaeii aeey niaethaeaiey caeiia. Anee, iciaeiieaoenue n yoeie
caia/aieyie, Au ana-oaee ni/oaoa, /oi aeey Aan nouanoaoao ?ene ia?ooeoue
caeii, ia?aoeoanue ca eiiiaoaioiie th?eaee/aneie iiiiuueth.

Yenia?oiia caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai iino?iaii ia aeaoo iieiaeaieyo:

Yenii?o /aai-eeai o?aaoao iaee/ey eeoeaicee.

Yenii?o oneoae n/eoaaony i?eaeeceoaeueii yeaeaaeaioiui yenii?oo
eiiiiiaioia, iaiaoiaeeiuo aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey yoie oneoae.

Ia?aue ioieo a iiyniaieyo ia ioaeaeaaony: anee Au ioa?oaeaaoa,
ia?aaiceoa, ia?anueaaoa oaee eee ioi?aaeyaoa /oi-eeai ii yeaeo?iiiie
ii/oa ca i?aaeaeu no?aiu, oi aeey yoiai iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue
yenii?oioth eeoeaiceth. E n/anoueth, caeanue eiaaony eacaeea –
aaia?aeueiay eeoeaicey, iaeanoue i?eiaiaiey eioi?ie aanueia iaoe?ia.
Aaia?aeueiay eeoeaicey ?ac?aoaao yenii?o anaai, ia /oi ia nouanoaoao
yaiuo cai?aoia ia yenii?o e /oi iiaeao ioe?uoi ianoaeaeaoueny a NOA.
Oaeei ia?acii, ana, /oi Au iiaeaoa ociaoue ia eiioa?aioeee eee a
aoaeeoi?ee, nei?aa anaai, iiaeiaaeaao iiae aeaenoaea aaia?aeueiie
eeoeaicee, anee yoa eioi?iaoeey ia yaeyaony nae?aoiie.

Oai ia iaiaa, a ia?a/ia oiai, ia /oi ?ani?ino?aiythony ia?aie/aiey,
niaea?aeeony iiiaeanoai nth?i?ecia. Ii oaeaea iiaeao aeeth/aoue
iaeioi?oth eioi?iaoeeth, aeinooiioth nooaeaioo ethaiai oieaa?neoaoa.
Iiaeao auoue cai?auai yenii?o oaenoia naoaauo i?ia?aii e caoeo?iaaiiie
eioi?iaoeee. *anoi auaaao oae, /oi nia/aea ?a/ue eae?o i eaeii-oi
iaaieueoii ioieoa, ii iioii, eiaaea niioaaonoaothuea eino?oeoeee oaea
ninoaaeaiu, ieacuaaaony, /oi ia?aie/aiey ioaaouaatho ai?acaei aieaa
oe?ieoth iaeanoue. Iai?eia?, ai a?aiy aieiu a Ia?neaeneii caeeaa
e?aeneoth aiaiioth naoue auei ai?acaei neiaeiaa auaanoe ec no?iy, /ai
ieaie?iaaeinue. Ieacaeinue, /oi E?ae eniieueciaae eiiia?/aneea
IP-ia?o?ooecaoi?u, eioi?ua i/aiue auno?i iaoiaeeee aeueoa?iaoeaiua
ia?o?oou. Iiyoiio yenii?o anao ia?o?ooecaoi?ia, eioi?ua iiaee iaoiaeeoue
aeueoa?iaoeaiua ia?o?oou, aue n?i/ii cai?au?i.

Aoi?ie ioieo au? i?iua. Anee yenii?o ii?aaeae?iiuo aiia?aoiuo n?aaenoa,
iai?eia? noia?eiiiuethoa?ia, cai?au?i, oi aeenoaioeeiiiue aeinooi e yoei
aiia?aoiui n?aaenoaai, iaoiaeyueiny a i?aaeaeao aeaiiiai ainoaea?noaa,
oaeaea ia ?ac?aoaaony. Iiyoiio aoaeueoa inoi?iaeiu n i?aaeinoaaeaieai
aeinooia e «iniaui» ?ano?nai (oeia noia?eiiiuethoa?ia) eiino?aiiui
iieueciaaoaeyi. Oa?aeoa? yoeo ia?aie/aiee caaeneo, anoanoaaiii, io
eiie?aoiie ca?oaaaeiie no?aiu e (eae Au iiaeaoa noaeeoue ia iniiaaiee
niauoee iineaaeieo eao) iiaeao i?aoa?iaaaoue cia/eoaeueiua eciaiaiey.

Aiaeece?oy naith iioaioeeaeueioth i?aaiaoth ioaaonoaaiiinoue,
eiini?oeeoi, eioi?ue oi?aaeyao naoueth Bitnet (CREN), i?eo?e e
neaaeothuei auaiaeai. Iia?aoi? naoe ian?o ioaaonoaaiiinoue ca iacaeiiiue
yenii?o eeoue a oii neo/aa, anee ii ciae i ia?ooaiee e ia
i?ieioi?ie?iaae ia yoii niioaaonoaothuea i?aaiu. Iia?aoi? naoe ia ian?o
ioaaonoaaiiinoe ca aeaenoaey iieueciaaoaey e a aai iaycaiiinoe ia
aoiaeeo ii?aaeaeaiea eo niioaaonoaey eee ianiioaaonoaey caeiio. Iiyoiio
ianeoaeeaathuei ia?niiaeii naoe ia i?iecaiaeeony i?iaa?ea niaea?aeeiiai
iaeaoia, eioi?ua Au iinueaaoa ca a?aieoeo. Ii anee iia?aoi?
iaia?oaeeaaao a Aaoeo iaeaoao eaeea-eeai ia?ooaiey o?aaiaaiee caeiia, ii
iaycai i?ieioi?ie?iaaoue i?aaeoaeuenoaaiiua i?aaiu.

I?aaa nianoaaiiinoe.

Au? iaeei oaeoi?, eioi?ue iaiaoiaeeii o/eouaaoue i?e ioi?aaea /aai-eeai
eiio-eeai, – yoi i?aai nianoaaiiinoe. I?iaeaia ineiaeiyaony, eiaaea
aeaiiua ia?aaeathony /a?ac ainoaea?noaaiiua a?aieoeu. Caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai
a iaeanoe aaoi?neeo i?aa e iaoaioia a ?aciuo no?aiao iiaeao eiaoue
aieueoea ?acee/ey. Au iiaeaoa iaia?oaeeoue a naoe ethaiiuoiue nai?iee,
niaea?aeauee iniiau caauoiai o/aiey, n?ie aeaenoaey aaoi?neeo i?aa ia
eioi?ue a NOA oaea enoae. Ioi?aaea yoeo oaeeia a Aiaeeth iiaeao i?eaanoe
e ia?ooaieth a?eoaineiai caeiiiaeaoaeuenoaa. Iaycaoaeueii ociaaaeoa,
eiio i?eiaaeeaaeao i?aaa ia oi, /oi Au ia?aaeaaoa ii naoe, e a neo/aa
iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia caaoaeueoa iieo/eoue niioaaonoaothuaa ?ac?aoaiea.

Caeiiu, ?aaeaiaioe?othuea yeaeo?iiioth ia?aaea/o aeaiiuo, ia iiniaaatho
ca oaoie/aneei i?ia?annii. Anee o Aan anoue eieaa, aeo?iae eee ee/iia
ienueii, oi i?aeoe/anee ethaie th?eno eee aeaeeioaea?ue niiaeao
ioaaoeoue ia aao aii?in, iiaeii ee niyoue n iaai eiieth eee eaeei-eeai
ia?acii eniieueciaaoue aai. Iie i?ieioi?ie?otho Aan i oii, eiaaoa ee Au
i?aai yoi naeaeaoue, eee /uea ?ac?aoaiea iaiaoiaeeii aeey yoiai
iieo/eoue. Caaeaa oaeie aea aii?in i noaouea a yeaeo?iiiii atheeaoaia,
niiauaiee, iieo/aiiii ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa, eee oaeea, Au ia iieo/eoa
oi/iiai ioaaoa. Aeaaea anee au Au ciaee, /uea ?ac?aoaiea ioaeii
iieo/eoue, e iieo/eee aai ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa, ana ?aaii iaiiiyoii,
eaeei ia?acii iiaeii n iiiiuueth niiauaiee, iieo/aiiuo ii yeaeo?iiiie
ii/oa, iaania/eoue ?aaeueioth caueoo eioi?iaoeee. A yoie /anoe
caeiiiaeaoaeuenoai yaeyaony aeinoaoi/ii ooiaiiui, e e ii?iaeueiiio aeaeo
aai oaeanony i?eaanoe, aeaeeii, ia ?aiueoa, /ai a neaaeothuai
aeanyoeeaoee.

N i?aaaie nianoaaiiinoe iiaoo aicieeiooue i?iaeaiu aeaaea i?e
eniieueciaaiee iauaaeinooiiuo oaeeia. Ia iaeioi?ua i?ia?aiiiua
n?aaenoaa, aeinooi e eioi?ui a Internet yaeyaony ioe?uoui, iaiaoiaeeii
iieo/eoue eeoeaiceth iinoaaueea. Iai?eia?, iinoaauee ?aai/ae noaioeee
aiineo aeiiieiaiey a naith iia?aoeeiiioth nenoaio, aeinooiioth /a?ac
aiiieiiue FTR. Au iiaeaoa eaaei iieo/eoue yoi i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea,
ii aeey caeiiiiai aai eniieueciaaiey iaiaoiaeeii eiaoue eeoeaiceth ia
nii?iaiaeaeaiea i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Nai ii naaa oaeo iaee/ey oaeea
a naoe ia icia/aao, /oi acya aai, Au ia ia?ooeoa caeii.

Iieeoeea e Internet.

Iiiaea iieueciaaoaee naoae n/eoatho iieeoe/aneee i?ioeann e aeaaii, e
aaaenoaeai. Aeaai – yoi aeaiueae. Noaneaeee iicaieytho iiiaei ethaeyi
iieo/eoue oneoae, eioi?ua ?aiueoa ei auee iaaeinooiiu. Aaaenoaea ninoieo
a oii, /oi aeaenoaey iieueciaaoaeae iaoiaeyony iiae iinoiyiiui
iaaethaeaieai. Iaeoi a Aaoeiaoiia aae?oa aicueiao e ?aoeo, /oi Aaoe
aeaenoaey iiaeii eniieueciaaoue a iieeoe/aneeo oeaeyo. Ia eneeth/aii,
/oi ioeeo?iaaiiia oeaaoiia ecia?aaeaiea iaiaaeaiiie aeaaooee, eioi?ia
caienaii o Aan ia aeenea, a iaeei i?ae?aniue aeaiue noaiao oaiie
ia?aaeiaeoeu iiae a?ineei caaieiaeii «Aeieea?u iaeiaiieaoaeueueeia eaeoo
ia ?ani?ino?aiaiea ii?iia?aoee». Yoi iiaeao aeinoaaeoue iaiaei
iai?eyoiinoae oai, eoi ioaa/aao ca oeiaine?iaaiea Internet.

Aaaeii iiieiaoue, /oi o Internet anoue iiiai noi?iiieeia a aunoeo
yoaeiiao aeanoe – a eo /enei aoiaeyo /eaiu eiia?anna NOA, i?aaenoaaeoaee
aaeieieno?aoeee Eeeioiia, aaaeouea o/aiua e ?oeiaiaeeoaee oaaea?aeueiuo
i?aaiia. Iie iiaeaea?aeeaatho Internet, iioiio /oi iia i?eiineo iieueco
no?aia, ?anoe?yy aiciiaeiinoe NOA a ieaia eiieo?aioeee n ca?oaaaeiuie
no?aiaie a iaeanoe iaoee e oi?aiaee. Iiauoaiea nei?inoe iaiaia aeaiiuie
niaeaenoaoao onei?aieth i?ia?anna a iaeanoe iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e
ia?aciaaiey; aeaaiaea?y Internet aia?eeaineea o/aiua e nooaeaiou iiaoo
iaoiaeeoue aieaa yooaeoeaiua ?aoaiey oaoie/aneeo i?iaeai.

Eae e iieiaeaii a ie?a iieeoeee, anoue e oaeea, eoi n/eoaao yoe
aeinoieinoaa ionoyeiauie. Ii eo iiaieth, ieeeeiiu aeieea?ia, ooiaeyuea a
naoue, iiaeii auei au iio?aoeoue ia «ai/ee n naeii» a ?iaeiuo
ecae?aoaeueiuo ie?oaao.

Naoue iieuecoaony iiaeaea?aeeie aeiaieueii aieueoiai eiee/anoaa
iieeoeeia, ii a oi aea a?aiy yoo iiaeaea?aeeo o?oaeii iacaaoue
iaae?aeiie, /oi oaeo a naaa enoi/iee aiciiaeiuo iai?eyoiinoae: ethaia
niauoea, iieo/eaoaa iieeoe/aneee ?aciiain, iiaeao neeiieoue /aoo aania a
ae?oaoth noi?iio.

Naoaaay yoeea.

Naoue ii?iaeaeaao iiiaeanoai yoe/aneeo i?iaeai, iaeiaei yoeea caeanue
ianeieueei ioee/aaony io iauai?eiyoie. Aeey oiai /oiau iiiyoue yoi,
?anniio?ei oa?iei «caeiiu ia?aii?ioiaeoeaa». Eiaaea Caiaae oieueei
ia/aee inaaeaaoue, caeiiu Niaaeei?iiuo Ooaoia caiaaeiaa ?aee Ienneneie
o?aeoiaaeenue eia/a, /ai e ainoieo io ia?. Naoue iaoiaeeony ia ia?aaeiai
e?aa aiaae?aiey iiauo oaoiieiaee, iiyoiio ii ioiioaieth e iae
ni?aaaaeeeai aoaeao i?eiaieoue auoaoiiiyiooue oa?iei. Au iiaeaoa
oaeoaeyoueny a ia? aac iianee, anee ciaaoa, /aai iiaeii iaeeaeaoue.

Naoaaay yoeea iniiaaia ia aeaoo aeaaiuo i?eioeeiao:

Eiaeeaeaeoaeeci oaaaeaaony e iiiu?yaony.

Naoue – oi?ioay e a? neaaeoao caueuaoue.

Ia?aoeoa aieiaiea: yoe i?aaeea i/aiue aeecee yoeea ia?aii?ioiaeoeaa
Caiaaea, aaea eiaeeaeaeoaeeci e nio?aiaiea aeeciaiiiai oeeaaea auee
aeaaainoaothueie. ?anniio?ei, eae aea yoe i?eioeeiu i?iyaeythony a
aeayoaeueiinoe Internet.

Eiaeeaeaeoaeeci.

A iau/iii iauanoaa eaaeaeue iiaeao i?aoaiaeiaaoue ia
eiaeeaeaeoaeueiinoue, ii ai iiiaeo neo/ayo eiaeeaeaeooi auioaeaeai
niaeaniauaaoue naie eioa?anu n eioa?anaie aeinoaoi/ii aieueoie a?oiiu
ethaeae, a ii?aaeae?iiie noaiaie ?acaeaeythueo acaeyaeu aeaiiiai
eiaeeaeaeooia. Caeanue i?iyaeyaony yooaeo «e?eoe/aneie iannu». Au
iiaeaoa ethaeoue n?aaeiaaaeiaoth o?aioeocneoth iiyceth, ii a?yae ee Aai
oaeanony i?aaieciaaoue a Aaoai ai?iaea e?oaeie aeey a? eco/aiey. Nei?aa
anaai, Au ia noiaaoa nia?aoue aeinoaoi/iiai eiee/anoaa ethaeae,
eioa?anothueony yoei i?aaeiaoii e niaeaniuo a?aiy io a?aiaie
ano?a/aoueny aeey ianoaeaeaiey yoie oaiu. Aeey oiai /oiau eiaoue oioy au
ieieiaeueioth aiciiaeiinoue iauaiey, Aai i?eae?ony anooieoue a iauanoai
ethaeoaeae iiycee, eioi?ia iauaaeeiyao ethaeae n aieaa iaueie
eioa?anaie, ii a?yae ee oai iaeae?ony oioy au iaeei ethaeoaeue
o?aioeocneie n?aaeiaaaeiaie iiycee. A Aaoai ai?iaea ae?oaeo iiyoe/aneeo
iauanoa iiaeao e ia auoue, a /eaiu aaeeinoaaiiiai eiathuaainy a iaee/ee
iinoiyiii ianoaeaeatho ieioea inaaaei?aeeaeiciua noeoe. Oaeei ia?acii,
aicieeaao i?iaeaia «e?eoe/aneie iannu». Anee Au ia iiaeaoa nia?aoue
a?oiio aaeeiiiuoeaiieeia, Aaoe eioa?anu no?aaeatho. Ia ooaeie eiiaoe,
iiaeii i?eniaaeeieoueny e ae?oaie, aieaa iiiai/eneaiiie a?oiia, ii yoi
aoaeao ia oi, /oi ioaeii.

A naoe e?eoe/aneay ianna ?aaia aeaoi. Au iauaaoanue eiaaea oioeoa e eae
oioeoa – yoi anaaaea oaeiaii, e ieeaeiai i?eioaeaeaiey ia o?aaoaony.
Aaia?aoe/aneia iieiaeaiea cia/aiey ia eiaao. Aao niaanaaeiee iiaeao
iaoiaeeoueny a ethaie oi/ea naoe (i?aeoe/anee a ethaii oaieea caiiiai
oa?a). Iiyoiio nicaeaiea a?oiiu ii eaeie oaiaeii oaia aaniethoii
aiciiaeii. Iiaeii oi?ie?iaaoue aeaaea aeueoa?iaoeaiua a?oiiu. Iaeie
oioyo «ano?a/aoueny» ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa, ae?oaea – iin?aaenoaii
oaeaeiioa?aioeee, iaeioi?ua – eniieuecoy ioe?uoue aeinooi e oaeeai, e
o.ae. Eaaeaeue naiaiaeai a naiai auai?a. Iineieueeo aeey aeinoeaeaiey
e?eoe/aneie iannu ia ioaeii anooiaoue a aieaa iiiai/eneaiioth a?oiio,
eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue yaeyaony /eaiii iaeiae a?oiiu-iaiueoeinoaa.
I?aneaaeiaaiea eiaeiiuneyueo ia i?eaaonoaoaony. Ii yoie i?e/eia ieeoi ia
cayaeo, /oi «aeaiioth oaio ia neaaeoao ianoaeaeaoue a naoe». Anee au y
iicaieee naaa iaiaaeee ia ethaeoaeae o?aioeocneie iiycee, Au eiaee au
iieiia i?aai aunooieoue i?ioea iiae ethaeiie eiioa?aioeee. Eaaeaeue
iiieiaao, /oi aeey anao inoaeueiuo iieueciaaoaeae naoe aiciiaeiinoue
iieo/eoue eioa?anothuoth eo eioi?iaoeeth aaaeia ia iaiaa, /ai aeey iaai
naiiai. Iaeiaei iiiaea iieueciaaoaee Internet iianathony ( e ia aac
iniiaaiee ), /oi iiaeao aicieeiooue aeaeaeaiea a iiaeaea?aeeo aiaoiae
oeaico?u, e a ?acoeueoaoa Internet noaiao ai?acaei iaiaa iieaciie.

Eiia/ii, eiaeeaeaeoaeeci – yoi iaeea i aeaoo eiioeao. Aeaaiaea?y aio
naoue yaeyaony i?ae?aniui o?aieeeuai ?aciiia?aciie eioi?iaoeee e
niiauanoaii ethaeae, ii yoio i?eioeei iiaeao iiaeaa?aiooue eniuoaieth
Aao aeueo?oeci. Iiaeii nii?eoue i oii, eaeia iiaaaeaiea neaaeoao
n/eoaoue i?eaieaiui. Iineieueeo Au acaeiiaeaenoaoaoa /aua anaai n
oaeaeaiiui eiiiuethoa?ii, aieueoeinoai ethaeae ia ciatho i oii, eae Au
naay i?e yoii aaaeaoa. Oio, eoi ciaao, iiaeao ia ia?auaoue aieiaiey, a
iiaeao e ia?aoeoue. Anee Au iiaeeeth/aaoa naie eiiiuethoa? e naoe, oi
aeieaeiu ioaeaaaoue naaa io/ao a oii, /oi iiiaea iieueciaaoaee n/eoatho
ana oaeeu e eioi?ui iie iiaoo aeia?aoueny, naieie. Iie a?aoiaioe?otho
yoi i?eia?ii oae: anee Au ia niae?aeenue ?ac?aoaoue ae?oaei
eniieueciaaoue oaeeu, oi iaca/ai aiiaua eo iiiauaoue ooaea, eoaea iiaeii
iiianoue ii naoe. Yoa oi/ea c?aiey, eiia/ii, iacaeiiia, ii aaaeue e
iiiaia ec oiai, /oi i?ienoiaeeei a iia?aie/iuo ?aeiiao ai a?aiaia
inaiaiey Caiaaea, oiaea ia auei iiaee?aieaii caeiiaie.

Caueoa Internet.

Iinoiyiiua iieueciaaoaee Internet n/eoatho Internet n/eoatho aa aanueia
oeaiiui eino?oiaioii eae aeey ?aaiou, oae e aeey ?acaea/aiee. Oioy
aeinooi e Internet /anoi inouanoaeyaony ca n/ao n?aaenoa i?aaiecaoeee, a
ia naieo iieueciaaoaeae, iieueciaaoaee naoe, oai ia iaiaa n/eoatho naiei
aeieaii caueuaoue yoio oeaiiue ?ano?n. Nouanoaotho aeaa enoi/ieea oa?ic
aeey Internet:

eioaineaiia eniieueciaaiea ia ii iacia/aieth;

iieeoe/aneia aeaaeaiea;

NREN nicaeaaony n ii?aaeaeaiiie oeaeueth. Eiiia?/aneia i?eniaaeeiaiea
eaeie-oi eiiiaiee e Internet oiaea eiaao ii?aaeaeaiioth oeaeue.
Aiciiaeii, /oi ieeoi ia ianoa ia noaiao i?aneaaeiaaoue oiai, eoi
eniieuecoao iiaeniaaeeiaiea ia ii iacia/aieth, iaeiaei n oaeeie
ceioiio?aaeaieyie iiaeii ai?ioueny ae?oaeie niiniaaie. Anee Au
eniieuecoaoa eiiiuethoa? naiaai ia/aeueieea a ee/iuo oeaeyo
iai?iaeieaeeoaeueiia a?aiy, iai?eia? aeey iiaen/aoa naeueaei naiae
/aeiaie eieaeee, oi yoiai, aa?iyoii, ieeoi ia caiaoeo. Aiaeiae/ii ieeoi
ia ia?aoeo aieiaiey ia iaaieueoea cao?aou naoaaiai a?aiaie a
iai?aaeoniio?aiiuo oeaeyo. (Ia naiii aeaea eiiaaea ia eniieueciaaiea ia
ii iacia/aieth iiaeii iiniio?aoue e eia/a. Neaaeai, eiaaea nooaeaio
ea?aao a ea?ou ii naoe, yoi iiaeao eaaeeoeoee?iaaoueny eae i?ioeann
iao/aiey: aeey oiai, /oiau caeoe oae aeaeaei, nooaeaio aeieaeai aue
ociaoue aeinoaoi/ii iiiai i eiiiuethoa?ao e naoyo). I?iaeaiu aicieeatho
eeoue a oii neo/aa, eiaaea iieueciaaoaeue aeaeaao /oi-ieaoaeue aiiethua
iaaeiionoeiia, iai?eia? i?aaiecoao a naoe iauaiaoeeiiaeueiue aeaiue ea?u
a «iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneea iiaecaiaeuey».

Eniieueciaaiea naoe ia ii iacia/aieth iiaeao i?eieiaoue oi?io
iaaeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia. Naoue nicaeaaaeanue ia aeey
oiai, /oiau eiiiaine?iaaoue iaaeinoaoie iaiaoiaeeiuo aiia?aoiuo
n?aaenoa. Iai?eia?, iaeuecy eniieueciaaoue aeeneiaoth nenoaio,
iaoiaeyuothny aaea-oi a ae?oaii iieooa?ee, eeoue iioiio, /oi Aao
ia/aeueiee ia eoiee ca 300 aeieea?ia aeene aeey eiiiuethoa?a. Iiaeao
auoue yoio aeene e ioaeai aeey i?iaaaeaiey i/aiue aaaeiuo enneaaeiaaiee,
ii noieiinoue oaeie oneoae ii naoe e?aeia auniea. Naoue i?aaeiacia/aaony
aeey i?aaeinoaaeaiey yooaeoeaiiai e auno?iai aeinooia e ?ano?nai
niaoeeaeueiiai iacia/aiey, a ia aeey ia?auaiey n ieie eae n aanieaoiuie
n?aaenoaaie iauaai iieueciaaiey.

Iinoiyiiua iieueciaaoaee naoe e iinoaaueee oneoa – aiieia ii?iaeueiua
ethaee. Iie iieo/atho oaeia aea aeiaieuenoaea io ea?, eae e Aao ninaae.
E?iia oiai, iie ia aeoiu, /eoatho iiainoe, ?aaoey?ii ?aaioatho a naoe.
Anee ea/anoai oneoa iaaeaao aac i/aaeaeiie ia oi i?e/eiu, ethaee
noa?athony ociaoue, /oi neo/eeinue. Auyniea, /oi a eaeii-oi ?aeiia
a?aoee aic?in a nioie ?ac, iie ia/ioo eneaoue i?e/eio, e anee auynieony,
/oi naoue eniieuecoaony Aaie ia ii iacia/aieth, oi Au iieo/eoa ii
yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa aaaeeeaia niiauaiea n i?inueaie i?ae?aoeoue oae naay
aanoe. Caoai niiauaiey iiaoo noaoue iaiaa aaaeeeauie, e iaeiiaoe
iineaaeoao ia?auaiea e Aaoaio naoaaiio iinoaaueeo. ?acoeueoaoii aeey Aan
iiaeao noaoue iieiay iioa?y aeinooia e naoe, eeai oaaee/aiea ieaou ca
aeinooi aeey Aaoaai ia/aeueieea (eioi?ue, y aeoiath, ia neeueii
ia?aaeoaony yoiio).

Naiieiio?ieue i?e iieueciaaiee naoueth i/aiue aaaeai e ec iieeoe/aneeo
niia?aaeaiee. Ethaie cae?aaiiuneyuee /aeiaae iiieiaao, /oi naoue ia
iiaeao nouanoaiaaoue aac ceioiio?aaeaiee e i?iaeai. Ii anee yoe i?iaeaiu
ia ?aoathony a e?oao iieueciaaoaeae naoe, a auieaneeaathony ia no?aieoeu
aacao e noaiiayony i?aaeiaoii ianoaeaeaiey a eiia?anna NOA, oi
i?iea?uaatho ana. Ia?a/eneei iaeioi?ua aeaenoaey, eioi?uo neaaeoao
ecaaaaoue i?e ?aaioa a naoe:

/a?an/o? /anoua e aeeeoaeueiua ea?u;

iinoiyiiua ceioiio?aaeaiey;

ceiaiia, aa?anneaiia ioiioaiea e inoaeueiui iieueciaaoaeyi e ae?oaea
aioeiauanoaaiiua aeaenoaey;

iaia?aiiia iaianaiea oua?aa eee aiaoaoaeuenoai a aeaenoaey ae?oaeo
(iai?eia?, i?eiaiaiea i?ia?aiiu Internet Worm;

nicaeaiea iauaaeinooiiuo oaeeia iai?enoieiiai niaea?aeaiey.

I/aiue o?oaeii aoaeao i?iaanoe a eiia?anna ?aoaiea i auaeaeaiee n?aaenoa
ia nicaeaiea NREN, anee ca aeaiue aei neooaiee oaeaaeceiiiay i?ia?aiia
«Oanoueaeanyo ieioo» ia?aaeaea nthaeao i ceioiio?aaeaiee a naoe.

Yoe/aneea ii?iu e /anoiay eiiia?/aneay Internet.

A i?aaeuaeoueo ?acaeaeao iu aiai?eee i oao iieeoe/aneeo e nioeeaeueiuo
oneiaeyo, eioi?ua niinianoaiaaee oi?ie?iaaieth Internet a oii aeaea, a
eaeii iu a? ciaai naaiaeiy. Ii yoe oneiaey iaiythony. C eaaeaeui aeiai
aeiey oeiaine?iaaiey Internet ec oaaea?aeueiiai athaeaeaoa ana
oiaiueoaaony, iineieueeo aic?anoaao aeiey oeiaine?iaaiey ca n/ao
eiiia?/aneiai eniieueciaaiey naoe. Oeaeue i?aaeoaeuenoaa – aueoe ec
naoaaiai aeciana e ia?aaeaoue ooieoeee i?aaeinoaaeaiey oneoa /anoiiio
eaieoaeo. Aicieeaao i/aaeaeiue aii?in: anee i?aaeoaeuenoai auoiaeeo ec
naoaaiai aeciana, aeieaeai ee y i?iaeieaeaoue ea?aoue ii aai i?aaeeai?
Anoue aeaa aniaeoa aeaiiie i?iaeaiu: ee/iue e eiiia?/aneee.

N iaeiie noi?iiu, aeaaea ianiio?y ia i?ae?auaiea oeiaine?iaaiey naoe
oaaea?aeueiui i?aaeoaeuenoaii, iiiaea oioaee au, /oiau ?anoiaeu ia
iiaeeeth/aiey iiea/eaaeenue au ia ec eo ea?iaia. Iiyoiio anee Au
iieuecoaoanue iiaeniaaeeiaieai a oeiea, ioena, a aanieaoiie naoe e o.ae.
io Aan iiaoo iio?aaiaaoue i?iaeieaeaoue niaethaeaoue ii?aaeaeaiiua
i?aaeea. «Naiaiaea – yoi eiaaea Aai ia/aai oa?youe», e Aai, aiciiaeii,
i?eaeaony iiaea?oaiaaoue /anoueth naiae naiaiaeu, eeoue au nio?aieoue
noaneaee?oaiia iiaeeeth/aiea. Neaaeoao auynieoue, /oi iiae?acoiaaaao Aao
naoaaie iinoaauee iiae neiaaie «aeiionoeiia eniieueciaaiea».

N ae?oaie noi?iiu, eiiia?/aneee aniaeo i?iaeaiu iiae?acoiaaaao, /oi
Aaoe aeaea aeieaeiu aanoenue oae, eae yoi i?eiyoi a Internet. Oioy
eoeueoo?a acaeiiioiioaiee a Internet iaoiaeeony a noaaeee noaiiaeaiey e
ii?iu iiaaaeaiey iinoiyiii iaiythony, a naoe aua aeeau o?aaeeoeee
iai?eyoey ioe?iaaiiie ia?eaioeeueiinoe. Ioi?aaea ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa
anai iieueciaaoaeyi Internet niiauaiey n ?aeeaiie eaeiai-ieaoaeue
ecaeaeey aieueoeinoaii ec ieo aoaeao ?anoeaiaia eae ioaee/iia
inei?aeaiea. A ?acoeueoaoa ni?in ia yoi ecaeaeea iiaeao aeaaea
nie?aoeoueny, iioiio /oi ia?acoaony aieueoay a?oiia ethaeae, ia
aeaeathueo eiaoue aeaea n ia?ooeaoae i?aaeea i?eee/ey eiiiaieae.

I?aaeea iiaaaeaiey a Internet ia eneeth/atho ?aeeaio, ii o?aaotho,
/oiau iineaaeiyy aunooiaea a ea/anoaa eioi?iaoeeiiiie oneoae.
Aeiioneaaony aa?anuaaoue a naoue ia?eaoeiaiaoth eioi?iaoeeth, ii iaeuecy
i?eioaeaeaoue ethaeae ciaeiieoueny n iae. N oi/ee c?aiey naoaaie
iieeoeee e eoeueoo?u ia aoaeao ieeaeie e?aiieu, anee eiiiaiey ii
i?iecaiaenoao aaoiiiaeeae nicaeano na?aa? n ecia?aaeaieyie naieo
aaoiiiaeeae, oaoie/aneeie aeaiiuie e eioi?iaoeeae i aiciiaeiinoyo
iieoiee. Iieueciaaoaeue Internet, aeaeathuee i?eia?anoe iaoeio, iia au
«i?ieoenue ii iaaaceio» ni naiaai oa?ieiaea, ii?aaeaeeoue, /oi aio
ioaeii, e a ?acoeueoaoa aianoi o?ao aeceoia e aaaioai ii i?iaeaaea
iaieoenue n iaeiei. Oaeay oneoaa iii?aaeeanue au iiiaei, e iaeioi?ua
?ano?nu oaea ia/eiatho i?aaeinoaaeyoue aa. A aoaeouai Au niiaeaoa aeaaea
niaa?oeoue i?iaioth iiacaeeo n iiiiuueth i?ia?aii iiaeaee?iaaiey
ae?ooaeueiie ?aaeueiinoe, ia iooiaey io naiaai eiiiuethoa?a. Ii aiieia
iiiyoii aeaeaiea ecaaaeaoue eaaeiu ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiie yeaeo?iiiie
ii/ou n i?aaeeiaeaieyie eoieoue ana /oi oaiaeii, io ieanoeiie aei
naenoaeueiiai ieaeiaai aaeuey.

Niia?aaeaiey aaciianiinoe.

Iiaeeeth/aiea eiiiuethoa?a e Internet naii ii naaa ia nicaeaao i?iaeai
iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe, ioee/iuo io oao, eioi?ay nouanoaoao i?e ?aaioa
aeaoo eiiiuethoa?ia /a?ac iiaeai. I?iaeaia iaeia e oa aea, iaiyaony
oieueei noaiaiue aa aaaeiinoe. Anee o Aan iiaeai iiaeeeth/ai ia i?eai e
eiiiooe?oaiie eeiee ia?aaea/e, oi ethaie iiaeao iaa?aoue iiia? e
iii?iaiaaoue aeiieoueny e Aai a eiiiuethoa?. Anoue o?e ia?aie/eaathueo
oaeoth aiciiaeiinoue oaeoi?a: ai-ia?auo, iiia? oaeaoiia eiiiuethoa?a,
aa?iyoii, ecaanoai iaiiiaei; ai-aoi?uo, anee aceiiuee iaoiaeeony ca
i?aaeaeaie Aaoae ianoiie oaeaoiiiie ciiu, aio i?eaeaony ieaoeoue ca
yenia?eiaio; a-o?aoueeo, anoue oieueei iaeei eioa?oaen, eioi?ue iiaeii
aoaeiaaoue.

Anee ?aaioaoue a Internet, yoeo oaeoi?ia iii?inoo iao. Iauee aae?an
Aaoae naoe iiaeii iaeoe i/aiue eaaei, a aeey ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana
aeaenoaothuaai eiiiuethoa?a ioaeii iii?iaiaaoue eeoue ianeieueei
iiia?ia. A i?eioeeia yoi ana ?aii ia ooaea, /ai a neo/aa eiiiuethoa?iuo
neoaea, aeinooiiuo ii oaeaoiiiie naoe ii eiaeo 800. Iaeiaei yoe neoaeau
eiatho niaoeeaeueiue ioaeae iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe, e nouanoaoao
oieueei iaeia oi/ea aiciiaeiiai i?i?uaa: ii?o ASCII – oa?ieiaea. A
Internet aea ceioiuoeaiiee iiaeao iiiuoaoueny i?i?aaoueny /a?ac ii?o
eioa?aeoeaiiai oa?ieiaea, ii?o ia?anueee oaeeia, ii?o yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou
e o.ae. Iiaeii, eiia/ii, ia aeoiaoue i aaciianiinoe aiiaua: i?inoi
auoaueoue eiiiuethoa? ec ei?iaee, iinoaaeoue aai ia noie,
iiaeeeth/eoueny e Internet e ?aaioaoue. Ii ?aaioaoue Au aoaeaoa aei oao
ii?, iiea eoi-ieaoaeue ia aeiieony a eiiiuethoa? e ia naeaeaao
eaeoth-ieaoaeue iaeinoue. A eiia/iii n/aoa ai?acaei auaiaeiaa
iiaaniieieoueny i aaciianiinoe ca?aiaa, /ai iioii, eiaaea iai?eyoiinoue
oaea i?iecieaeao.

Ia/aoue iiaeii n au?aaioee i?aaeeueiiai ioiioaiey e i?iaeaia
aaciianiinoe. Ioaeii iiaa?eoue a oi, /oi caueoa – iaycaiiinoue Aaoae
?aai/ae noaioeee, ii ieeae ia ooieoeey naoe. Naoaaie iinoaauee iiaeao
ia?aie/eoue ia?a/aiue eeoe, eioi?ua iiaoo iieueciaaoueny Aaoei
iiaeeeth/aieai. Yoi , iaeiaei, ia nianai oi, /oi Aai ioaeii, iioiio /oi
oaeei ia?acii ionaeathony aeaaiua aeinoieinoaa Internet. Aieueoay /anoue
iaoae eieae iinayuaia oiio, /oiau iao/eoue Aan caae?aoueny a ?aciua
aeaeaeea ianoa e iaoiaeeoue oai anyeea oi?ioea aaue. Naoaaua ?acaiai?u –
yoi aeaonoi?iiiee eaiae. Anee oaeaeaiiue eiiiuethoa? ia iiaeao aiai?eoue
n Aaie, oi e Au ia niiaeaoa n iei ?acaiaa?eaaoue. E anee ia yoii
eiiiuethoa?a anoue ?ano?n, eioi?ue Aai iiiaaeiaeoueny a neaaeothuai
ianyoea, Au ieaaeaoanue a i?iea?uoa. Aeey oiai /oiau ainiieueciaaoueny
i?aeiouanoaaie Internet, ioaeii noaoue aa /anoueth. Yoi iiaeaa?aaao Aao
eiiiuethoa? iaeioi?iio ?eneo, iiyoiio neaaeoao iicaaioeoueny i aai
caueoa.

Aaciianiinoue a Internet iiaeaea?aeeaaaony iaueie oneeeyie. Iaeei ec
iaoiaeia, eioi?ue aceiiueee-ethaeoaee acyee ia aii?oaeaiea, caeeth/aaony
a i?i?uaa a oeaii/eo eiiiuethoa?ia (iai?eia?, aeiieoueny a A, ioooaea –
a B, caoai n iiiiuueth B i?i?aaoueny a C e o.ae.). Yoi iicaieyao ei
caiaoaoue neaaeu n aieueoae ouaoaeueiinoueth. Anee Au aeoiaaoa, /oi Aao
iaeaiueeee noa?aiueeee eiiiuethoa? ia iiaeao noaoue iauaeoii ianeeey,
iioiio /oi ii io i/aiue iaeaiueeee, oi aeoaiei caaeoaeaeaaoanue. Aeaaea
anee ia iai iao ie/aai noiyuaai, aai aiieia iiaeii eniieueciaaoue aeey
aceiia ae?oaie, aieaa aaaeiie nenoaiu Anoue oaeea ioioieee, eioi?ua
aeaeatho ca?oaee ia eeaaeaoo?a, iiaen/eouaay, neieueei eiiiuethoa?ia iie
aceiiaee. ?acia?u i?e yoii cia/aiey ia eiatho.

Ianoaeaeaiea aaciianiinoe e neooe ia oaio aaciianiinoe oiaea
i?aaenoaaeytho niaie /anoue i?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe. Iiaeaoa ee Au
i?aaenoaaeoue naaa oaeoth iiainoue:

Ia naaiaeiyoiae i?ann-eiioa?aioeee ioeoeeaeueiua eeoea eiiiaiee ACME
iauyaeee, /oi eo caiee ioe?uaathony ethaie eiiaeiaoeeae…

Aeey ?aoaiey caaea/e ono?aiaiey aiciiaeiuo i?iaeai, iieneai ?aoaiey e
eioi?ie?iaaiey i?aaeoaeuenoai oeiaine?oao i?aaiecaoeeth iiae iacaaieai
CERT(Computer Emergence Response Team, «Aaa?eeiay a?eaaaea ii
eiiiuethoa?ai»). NERT auiieiyao oeaeue ?yae ooieoeee: caieiaaony
eco/aieai i?iaeai, naycaiiuo n aaciianiinoueth, ?aaioaao n
oe?iaie-ecaioiaeoaeyie iaae eo ono?aiaieai e ?ani?ino?aiyao
niioaaonoaothuoth eioi?iaoeeth. E?iia oiai, yoa i?aaiecaoeey i?iecaiaeeo
n?aaenoaa, eioi?ua iicaieytho iieueciaaoaeyi ioeaieaaoue noaiaiue
caueuaiiinoe naieo eiiiuethoa?ia. Nio?oaeieee CERT i?aaeii/eoatho
eiioaeoe?iaaoue n oaie, eoi ioaa/aao ca aaciianiinoue, ii a aaa?eeiuo
neooaoeeyo ioaa/atho ia aii?inu ethauo iieueciaaoaeae. Anee Aai
iaiaoiaeeii ianoaeeoue n eai-ieaoaeue i?iaeaiu aaciianiinoe, iiaeaoa
naycaoueny n CERT ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa:

[email protected]

Nouanoaotho /aou?a enoi/ieea aicieeiiaaiey oa?icu aeey naoaauo
eiiiuethoa?ia. Iu ia?a/eneei eo a ii?yaeea oauaaiey aa?iyoiinoe:

Auai? caeiiiui iieueciaaoaeai iaoaea/iiai ia?iey.

I?eaiin (eiii?o) ?ac?ooathuaai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

I?iieeiiaaiea a nenoaiu iacaeiiiuo iieueciaaoaeae, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo
aneaaenoaea ioeaie a eiioeao?aoeee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa.

I?iieeiiaaiea a nenoaiu iacaeiiiuo iieueciaaoaeae, eioi?ia i?ienoiaeeo
aneaaenoaea aeaoaeoia a n?aaenoaao iaania/aiey aaciianiinoe
iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai.

Eco/ea yoio nienie, iiaeii naeaeaoue iaeei i/aiue aaaeiue auaiae.
Caueoeoue naith nenoaio Aai aiieia ii neeai. Oaia?ue ?anniio?ei, eae yoi
iiaeii naeaeaoue.

Ia?iee.

Aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae auae?atho ia?iee, oaeiaiua aeey naay. E
niaeaeaieth, oi, /oi oaeiaii aeey Aan oaeiaii e aeey aceiiueea. CERT
iieaaaao, /oi 80%aceiiia eiiiuethoa?ia iaoneiaeaii iaoaea/iui auai?ii
ia?ieae. Iiiieoa, /oi eiaaea aeaei aeioiaeeo aei ia?ieae, oi a ?iee
aceiiueeia aunooiatho oaea ia ethaee, a eiiiuethoa?u. I?ia?aiia oeaeue
aeaiue ia?aae?aao ?aciua aa?eaiou ia?ieae e ia a?inaao yoi neo/iia
caiyoea, anee ia?aua o?e ia iiaeoiaeyo. Au iiaeaoa, iaeiaei, i?eaeoiaoue
oaeie ia?ieue, eioi?ue i/aiue o?oaeii aoaeao oaaaeaoue. Aieueoeinoai
ceioiuoeaiieeia eniieuecotho ia ia?aua iiiaaoeany aoeau, a auae?atho
oeaeua neiaa ec neiaa?y eee i?inoua eiaia. Iiyoiio ioaeii auae?aoue
ia?ieue, eioi?ue:

ninoieo ieieioi ec oanoe neiaieia;

aeeth/aao eae no?i/iua, oae e i?iieniua aoeau e oeeo?u;

ia yaeyaony neiaii;

ia yaeyaony iaai?ii ninaaeieo eeaaeo (iai?eia?, QWERTY).

Iiiaei o?oaeii iiaeia?aoue naaa ia?ieue, eioi?ue oaeiaeaoai?ye au anai
yoei e?eoa?eyi, ii a oi aea a?aiy aue au e?aeei aeey caiiieiaiey.
Iiaeii, iai?eia?, acyoue ia?aua aoeau ecethaeaiiie o?acu, neaaeai
FmdIdgad (Franky, my dear, I don’t give a damn, o.a. «O?yiee, iie
aei?iaie, iia iaieaaaoue»).

Eiaaea Au onoaiaaeeaaaoa ?aai/oth noaioeeth, ia caaoaeueoa i?enaieoue
ia?iee eiaiai root, system, maint e ae?oaei eiaiai iieueciaaoaeae n
iniauie iieiiii/eyie. ?aaoey?ii eciaiyeoa yoe ia?iee. Iaeioi?ua
eiiiuethoa?u iinoaaeythony ni noaiaea?oiuie ia?ieyie. Anee eo ia
caiaieoue, oi Aaoe ia?iee aoaeoo ecaanoiu anai, eoi eoiee noaioeeth
yoiai aea oeia.

Iaeiiaoe, aoaeueoa inoi?iaeiu n iaoiaeaie iaoiaea ia?ieueiie caueou.
Anoue aeaa iauai?eiyouo iaoiaea: ooeeeoa rhosts IN UNIX e aiiieiiue FTP.
rhosts iicaieyao Aai iauyaeyoue «yeaeaaeaioiua» eiaia iieueciaaoaeae ia
ianeieueeeo eiiiuethoa?ao. Au ia?a/eneyaoa yaiua eiaia eiiiuethoa?ia e
eiaia iieueciaaoaeae a oaeea .rhosts. Iai?eia?, no?iea:

uxh.cso.uiuc.edu andrey

aea?o oeacaiea eiiiuethoa?o, ia eioi?ii iaoiaeeony yoio oaee, nieiaoue
o?aaiaaiey ii ia?ieueiie caueoa, anee eoi-oi iuoaaony
ca?aaeno?e?iaaoueny iiae eiaiai iieueciaaoaey andrey ia eiiiuethoa?a
uxh.cso.uiuc.edu. Anee eiiiuethoa? iieo/aao eiy iieueciaaoaey a
ni/aoaiee n oeacaiiui eiaiai eiiiuethoa?a, eiy iieueciaaoaey aoaeao
n/eoaoueny aa?iui. Ionthaea neaaeoao, /oi eaaeaeue, eoi noiaao
ainiieueciaaoueny i?aaaie iieueciaaoaey andrey ia eiiiuethoa?a
uxh.cso.uiuc.edu, iiaeao i?i?aaoueny e a aeaiiue eiiiuethoa?.

Aiiieiiue aa?eaio i?ioieiea FTP – n?aaenoai auno?iai iieo/aiey
ii?aaeae?iiuo oaeeia aac ia?iey. Iano?ieea na?aa?a aiiieiiiai FTP ia
aoiaeeo a iaoe ooieoeee. Caiaoei, iaeiaei, /oi n iiiiuueth oiiiyiooie
na?aeniie i?ia?aiiu Au iiaeaoa iieo/eoue ai?acaei aieueoa, /ai
iaia?aaaaoanue. Iiyoiio ia?aae oai, eae eniieueciaaoue yoo i?ia?aiio,
iinoa?aeoanue /?oei noi?ioee?iaaoue oeaeue ia?auaiey n iae. (Ai?i/ai,
eniieueciaaiea aiiieiiiai FTP i?inoi aeey ia?aaea/e oaeeia ia nii?yaeaii
n ?eneii.)

Eiii?o i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Ia?aienuaay i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea ia naie eiiiuethoa?, Au
iiaeaa?aaaoa aai iianiinoe. Eieeaeoeaiia eniieueciaaiea i?ia?aii,
ianiiiaiii, auaiaeii, ii ?aoeoue, ii?aaaeai ee i?e yoii ?ene, iiaeaoa
oieueei Au. Aeey oiai, /oiau naanoe ?ene e ieieioio, neaaeoao noa?aoueny
i?eia?aoaoue na?eeiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea o iaaeaaeiuo oe?i. A naoe
iao ieeaeie no?aoiaee. Au i?inoi iaoiaeeoa eiiiuethoa?, ia eioi?ii
iaoiaeeony ioaeiay Aai oneoaa eee ?ano?n, e ia?aienuaaaoa oi, /oi Aan
eioa?anoao. *oi iiaeii naeaeaoue aeey iaeneiaeueii aaciianiiai
eniieueciaaiey yoeo i?ia?aii? Aio iaeioi?ua yiie?e/aneea i?aaeea:

Eniieuecoeoa ioeoeeaeueiua enoi/ieee. Anee Au euaoa ioeaaei/iua
i?ia?aiiu aeey ?aai/ae noaioeee Sun, aaciianiaa a?aoue oaenou n
eiiiuethoa?a, eiy eioi?iai caeai/eaaaony ia sun.com, /ai n
hacker.hoople.usnd.edu.

Anee yoi aiciiaeii, iinoa?aeoanue aeiauoue enoiaeiua oaenou i?ia?aii.
Ia?aae onoaiiaeie eco/eoa eo. Oaaaeeoanue, /oi i?ia?aiia ia aeaeaao
ie/aai no?aiiiai. Yoi oaeaea ioiineony e a?oeaai char, oaeeai make e
o.ae. Eiia/ii aea , yoi aanueia neiaeiay (a aeey iiiaeo e iaauiieieiay
caaea/a), ii anee Au oioeoa iaaciianeoue naay, ea?a noieo naa/.
?eneiaaiiui iiaeao auoue eniieueciaaiea aeaaea aanieaoiiai i?ia?aiiiiai
iaania/aiey.

Ia?aae onoaiiaeie i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey ia aaaeiue, eioaineaii
eniieuecoaiue eiiiuethoa?, iiaiiyeoa yoi i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea nia/aea
ia ae?oaii, iaiaa e?eoe/iii. Anee o Aan eiaaony aeaa eiiiuethoa?a, ia
iaeiii ec eioi?uo Au aeaeaaoa aaaeioth ?aaioo, a aoi?ie eniieuecoaoa io
neo/ay e neo/ath, caieoeoa iiaua i?ia?aiiu ia aoi?ie e iiniio?eoa, ia
i?iecieaeao ee /oi-ieaoaeue ieioia.

Ia?aae oai, eae eniieueciaaoue iieo/aiiia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea,
naeaeaeoa ?aca?aiua eiiee anao naieo oaeeia.

Anee Au ?aaioaaoa n IBM PC eee Macintosh, oi n iiiiuueth aioeae?oniie
i?ia?aiiu i?iaa?ueoa ia iaee/ea ae?ona ana i?ia?aiiu, iieo/aiiua ec
Internet.

Iiiieoa: a?aae iiaoo iaianoe oieueei oaeeu, eioi?ua auiieiythony.
Aeaie/iua oaeeu – naiua iianiua; iaeiaiueooth iianiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao
enoiaeiue oaeno i?ia?aii. Oaeeu aeaiiuo ia i?aaenoaaeytho aeey
eiiiuethoa?a ieeaeie iianiinoe, ii iie iiaoo auoue iaoi/iuie.

Ioeaee a eiioeao?aoeee i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey.

Yoio ?acaeae iinayuai aieaa «iianiui» i?iaeaiai aaciianiinoe.
Iineieueeo ethaay eiie?aoiay eioi?iaoeey i?aa?aoeo aeaiioth eieao a
?oeiaiaenoai ii aceiio eiiiuethoa?ia aeey oaea?ia, iai caeanue i?eaeaony
ia?aie/eoueny iaueie iieiaeaieyie.

A iaeioi?uo nenoaiiuo i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoaao anoue ioeaaei/iua
ia?aeeth/aoaee, eioi?ua i?e onoaiiaea eee iano?ieea iiaeii
aeoeaece?iaaoue e aeacaeoeaece?iaaoue. A na?eeiuo nenoaiao yoe
ia?aeeth/aoaee eiiaaea inoaaeytho aeeth/aiiuie – eeai ii
iainoi?iaeiinoe, eeai n oai, /oiau ?ac?aaio/eee iiaee a iineaaenoaee
caaeyiooue aioo?ue (iai?eia?, anee o Aan ia/eiatho aicieeaoue i?iaeaiu)
e iiniio?aoue, /oi i?ienoiaeeo. Ii ethaay uaeue, aeinoaoi/ii oe?ieay
aeey ?ac?aaio/eea, aoaeao oe?ieie e aeey aceiiueea. Iaeioi?ua n?aaenoaa
aceiia (iai?eia?, Internet Worm) aicieeee eiaiii ia yoie iniiaa. Iiyoiio
aac iniaie iaiaoiaeeiinoe ia inoaaeyeoa ioeaaei/iua ia?aeeth/aoaee
nenoaiiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeeth/aiiuie.

Enoaoe, anee eaeia-oi n?aaenoai ia ioaeii a Aaoae nenoaia, ca/ai aai
aiiaua aeeth/aoue? Aieueoeinoai oe?i iano?aeaatho naie iia?aoeeiiiua
nenoaiu oae, /oiau iie ?aaioaee, aaeaa eo aeeth/atho. Yoi iaeaa/aao
onoaiiaeo; anee ana iioeee aeeth/athony aaoiiaoe/anee, Aai ia i?eaeaony
aaaaoue aie?oa, auyniyy, eaeea ec ieo ioaeiu. E niaeaeaieth, oaeay
i?aeoeea iaeaa/aao aeeciue e ceioiuoeaiieeai.

Aeaoaeou caueou a nenoaiiii i?ia?aiiiii iaania/aiee.

Anee iaia?oaeeaathony aeaoaeou a iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao, iie eeai
iia?aoeaii ono?aiythony, eeai auno?i ?ac?aaaouaathony iaoiaeiua
i?ioeaaeo?u. I?iecaiaeeoaeue eiiiuethoa?ia, ?acoiaaony, ia caeioa?aniaai
a oii, /oiau aai ecaeaeea iieo/eei ?aiooaoeeth eaaei iiaeaeathuaainy
aceiio. Ii oe?ia-ecaioiaeoaeth a aeaiiii neo/aa i?iua, /ai Aai. Aeey
oiai /oiau caueoeoue naie eiiiuethoa?, Aai iaiaoiaeeii iieo/eoue e
onoaiiaeoue aeiiieiaiea. A aeey oiai, /oiau onoaiiaeoue iaiiaeaiea
?aaeaeoeee i?ia?aiiiuo n?aaenoa, Au aeieaeiu ciaoue i oii, /oi iie
nouanoaotho. Iiyoiio Au auioaeaeaiu iinoiyiii auoue a eo?na iineaaeieo
niauoee, eanathueony Aaoae iia?aoeeiiiie nenoaiu. Naiue i?inoie niinia –
iiaeaea?aeeaaoue aeeaeia n i?ia?aiienoaie naiaai oieaa?neoaoa,
i?aaiecaoeee eee oe?iu-iinoaaueea. Ii aiieia i/aaeaeiui i?e/eiai
iinoaaueee ia aeatho ioaee/iuo iauyaeaiee oeia «Aieiaiea, a aa?nee
7.4.3.2 anoue aieueoea i?iaeaiu n aaciianiinoueth!». Aai i?eaeaony
oaeaea /eoaoue iaoa?eaeu eiioa?aioeee e nienee ?annueee, a eioi?uo
oiiieiaaony Aaoa nenoaia. Iiaeoiaeyuea eiioa?aioeee Au iaeaeaoa a
ea?a?oee comp.sys. Iai?eia?, anee Au iieueciaaoaeue ?aai/ae noaioeee
Sun, iiniio?eoa a comp.sys.sun.

*oi aeaeaoue, anee caueoa eiiiuethoa?a ia?ooaia?

Eae ociaoue, /oi caueoa eiiiuethoa?a ia?ooaia? Ceioiuoeaiiee anaaaea
noa?aaony aeaenoaiaaoue eae iiaeii iacaiaoiaa e iiauno?aa caianoe
neaaeu. Iaia?oaeea eo, Au aeieaeiu i?eiyoue ia?u ii eni?aaeaieth
iieiaeaiey. Oae eae aea auyaeoue aceii? Aieueoeinoai iieueciaaoaeae ia
eniieuecotho aiciiaeiinoe eioi?iaoeee i aaciianiinoe, eioi?oth ?aaoey?ii
i?aaeinoaaeytho eo eiiiuethoa?u. Ionoue, iai?eia?, Aao eiiiuethoa?
auaeaao niiauaiea: «Last login 06:31 26 Jan 1997». Iiiieoa ee Au, eiaaea
aoiaeeee a nenoaio a iineaaeiee ?ac? Aa?iyoii, niooii. Ii aaaeue iiaeii
ia?aoeoue aieiaiea ia oi, /oi ?aaioa a 6 /ania oo?a – yaeaiea aeiaieueii
iaiau/iia aeey Aan. Eiaiii oae auyaeythony iiiaea ia?ooaiey. *anoi
iaia?oaeeoue aceii iiiiaaao eiooeoeey: Au i?inoi «/oanoaoaoa», /oi
/oi-oi ia oae. Iai?eia?:

Ia aeoiath, /oi y aoiaeee a nenoaio a yoi a?aiy.

*oi-oi eiiiuethoa? naaiaeiy iaaeeaiii ?aaioaao.

Ia i?eiiieiath, /oiau y oaeaeye eee eciaiye yoio oaee.

A oaeeo neo/ayo neaaeoao i?iaeieaeaoue ?aaioo, ioiaoioaoenue io naieo
iiaeic?aiee. Nia/aea oaaaeeoanue, /oi iie aanii/aaiiu. Anee Au
iiaeic?aaaaoa, /oi noaee aea?oaie aceiiueea, iaiaoiaeeii naeaeaoue
neaaeothuaa:

I?iaa?ueoa oaee ia?iee (a IN UNIX yoi /etc/passwd) ia i?aaeiao iaee/ey a
iai iaiau/iuo yeaiaioia, iai?eia?, n iiiaeanoaii ?ac?aoaiee.

Iieo/eoa nienie anao caaea/ (a BSD – aa?neyo UNIX yoi eiiaiaea ps aux; a
aa?neyo System V ps -el) e iiniio?eoa, ia auiieiythony ee a ianoiyuee
iiiaio eaeea-ieaoaeue iaiau/iua nenoaiiua caaea/e.

Iieo/eoa ?anoe?aiiue nienie oaeeia naiaai ?aai/aai eaoaeiaa (iai?eia?,
eiiaiaeie ls -la) e anao inoaeueiuo eaoaeiaia, eioi?ua eaaeoony neeoeii
aieueoeie eee eciaiaiiuie. Iaeaeeoa iaciaeiiua oaeeu eee
iiaeic?eoaeueiua aeaou eciaiaiey.

Ii aeey oiai, /oiau caiyoueny ?anneaaeiaaieai, Au aeieaeiu ciaoue, eae
iau/ii auaeyaeeo oaee ia?ieae, nienie aeoeaiuo i?ioeannia e ae?. Anee Au
yoiai ia ciaaoa, oi ia niiaeaoa ?aoeoue, /oi i?aaeeueii, a /oi iao.
Iiyoiio iaei i?iaa?youe oaeeu ia?ieae, ?aai/ee eaoaeia e o.ae. n?aco aea
i?e aicieeiiaaiee iiaeic?aiee, yoi neaaeoao aeaeaoue ?aaoey?ii. Anee Au
aoaeaoa i?iecaiaeeoue oaeoth i?iaa?eo ia?eiaee/anee, oi iiaeic?eoaeueiua
neiioiiu (anee oaeiaua aicieeioo) n?aco a?inyony Aai a aeaca e, e?iia
oiai, Au aeeaea iiciaeiieoanue ni naiae nenoaiie.

Anee au caiaoeee /oi-oi iiaeic?eoaeueiia, ia?aoeoanue ca iiiiuueth a
ioaeae eiiiuethoa?iie aaciianiinoe naiaai oieaa?neoaoa eee oe?iu. Anee
oaeiai ioaeaea iao, ia?aoeoanue e oe?ia-iinoaaueeo. Ia oyieoa n yoei e
ia iuoaeoanue ie/aai aeaeaoue naiinoiyoaeueii. Aei iieo/aiey iiiiue
ie/aai ia oaeaeyeoa. Ia na?anuaaeoa niaea?aeeiia aeenea ia noaiaea?oioth
?aca?aioth eaioo eee aeeneaou. Yoa eaioa iiaeao ieacaoueny iineaaeiae
iacaii?/aiiie eiieae. Ia aeoiaeoa, /oi caoeioa iaeio aeu?o, Au
ecaaaeoanue io i?iaeaiu. Ia?aia, /oi aeaeaao aceiiuee, iieo/ea aeinooi –
caiaoaao neaaeu. Caoai ii aeaeaao ae?oaea aeu?u, /oiau nio?aieoue
aeinooi e Aaoae nenoaia.

An? neacaiiia auoa, aac niiiaiey, aeinoaoi/ii na?ue?cii, ii
io/aeaaoueny ia neaaeoao. Iianiinoue – ia i?e/eia aeey oiai. *oiau
aiiaua ioeacaoueny io ?aaiou a naoe. Ianaoaaie ie? oiaea iieii
iianiinoae; ii anee ia ieo ia?auaoue neeoeii iiiai aieiaiey, Au ?eneoaoa
i?iaanoe anth inoaaoothny aeeciue a aaoiiiii iiaecaiiii aoiea?a.
Aieueoeinoai ethaeae no?iyo naith aeeciue oae, /oiau naanoe iianiinoue
aei eiio?iee?oaiiai o?iaiy. Aaciianiay, caei?iaay no?aoaaey iiaeao auoue
noi?ioee?iaaia, iai?eia?, oae: caei?iaua ac?ineua ia iiaeaa?aatho naay
niciaoaeueii iianiinoyi, eioi?uo iie iiaoo ecaaaeaoue, e iuoathony
aeeoue n iianiinoyie, eioi?uo iie ecaaaeaoue ia iiaoo. Iie
i?aaeii/eoatho i?enoaaiooue ?aiie e i?iaeieaeaoue iooaoanoaea. A ie?a
naoae Aai ioaeii aeaeaoue oi aea naiia. Auaa?aoa oi?ioee ia?ieue,
aoaeueoa inoi?iaeiu n onoaiiaeie iauaaeinooiiuo i?ia?aii, neaaeeoa ca
naiae nenoaiie, /oiau aia?aiy ociaoue i aceiia, e ia?auaeoanue ca
iiiiuueth, anee a iae ioaeaeaaoanue.

Neieue aaeeea Internet nae/an?

Ia?e Eiooi? (Mark Lottor), auaoee iao/iue nio?oaeiee Noyiaeoi?aeneiai
enneaaeiaaoaeueneiai einoeoooa (Stanford Research Institute), a iuia
i?aceaeaio eiinoeueoaoeeiiiie eiiiaiee Network Wizard, iioaeeeiaae
iieoaiaeiaie io/?o i ninoiyiee Internet. Niaeanii iiaaeoei aeaiiui,
Naoue ninoieo ec 828 ouny/ aeiiaiia, a ia? iiaeeeth/aii 16,1 iei.
eiia/iuo ono?ienoa a 176 no?aiao ie?a. Eae ni?aaaaeeeai i?aaeoi?aaeee
Eiooi?, niaa?oaiii iaaiciiaeii ii?aaeaeeoue /enei iieueciaaoaeae
Internet, iineieueeo nouanoaoao iaii?aaeae?iiia eiee/anoai
iiiaiiieueciaaoaeueneeo eiiiuethoa?ia, oethcia a ei?ii?aoeaiua naoe e
niaoeeaeueiuo i?eeiaeaiee, eioi?ua auaeyaeyo ecaia eae aaeeie/iua
eiiiuethoa?u. E?iia oiai, oioy ca i?ioaaeoee aiae ioia/ai ?ino
eiee/anoaa iiaeeeth/?iiuo e Naoe ono?ienoa ia 70%, ia naiii aeaea yoi
cia/eoaeueii iaiueoa ?aaeueiuo eciaiaiee, iineieueeo iiiaea nenoaiu
ne?uaathony ca a?aiaeiaoy?aie e iaaeinooiiu aeey i?iuoiuaaiey e o/?oa.

A Internet aieueoa anaai ?ano?nia, eioi?ua aeeth/atho a ninoaa eiaie
«WWW». Eo eiee/anoai a yiaa?a 1997 aiaea ninoaaeei 408382 ii n?aaiaieth
n 75000 a yiaa?a 1996 aiaea. Naiui aieueoei aeiiaiii aunoaai o?iaiy
yaeyaony «COM», eioi?ue eiatho 3,96 iei. naeoia, /oi ninoaaeyao 25% eo
iauaai eiee/anoaa. Iaeaieaa auno?i ?anoe?ythony aeiiaiu COM, EDU, NET,
Japan e MIL. Eae niiauaao Eiooi?, aeiaaeueiua aeiiaiu aunoaai o?iaiy e
aeiiaiu 89 no?ai iieacaee aiaeiaie ?ino, i?aauoathuee 100%.

Oneoae, i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth.

Ana oneoae i?aaeinoaaeyaiua naoueth Internet iiaeii oneiaii iiaeaeeoue
ia aeaa eaoaai?ee: iaiai eioi?iaoeeae iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie naoe e
eniieueciaaiea aac aeaiiuo naoe.

E /eneo oneoa nayce iaaeaeo aaiiaioaie i?eiaaeeaaeao:

Telnet – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ?aaioaoue ia
ethaie YAI naoe Internet eae ia naiae nianoaaiiie. Oi anoue caioneaoue
i?ia?aiiu, iaiyoue ?aaeei ?aaiou e o.ae.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo iaiaieaaoueny aeaie/iuie e oaenoiauie oaeeaie n
ethaui eiiiuethoa?ii naoe. Onoaiiaea naycue n oaeaeaiiui eiiiuethoa?ii,
iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao neiie?iaaoue oaee n oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a ia
naie eee neiie?iaaoue oaee ni naiaai eiiiuethoa?a ia oaeaeaiiue.

NFS (Network File System) – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay oaeeiaay nenoaia. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo iieueciaaoueny oaeeiaie nenoaiie oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a, eae naiae nianoaaiiie.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie n ethaui aaiiaioii naoe
Internet. Nouanoaoao aiciiaeiinoue ioi?aaee eae oaenoiauo, oae e
aeaie/iuo oaeeia. Ia ?acia? ii/oiaiai niiauaiey a naoe Internet
iaeeaaeuaaaony neaaeothuaa ia?aie/aiea – ?acia? ii/oiaiai niiauaiey ia
aeieaeai i?aauoaoue 64 eeeiaaeo.

Iiainoe – iieo/aiea naoaauo iiainoae e yeaeo?iiiuo aeinie iauyaeaiee
naoe e aiciiaeiinoue iiiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe.
Yeaeo?iiiua aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe Internet oi?ie?othony ii oaiaoeea.
Iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao ii naiaio auai?o iiaeienaoueny ia ethaua a?oiiu
iiainoae.

Rsh (Remote Shell) – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aiaeia Telnet, ii ?aaioaao
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a noieo IN UNIX.

Rexec (Remote Execution) – auiieiaiea iaeiie eiiaiaeu ia oaeaeaiiie
UNIX-iaoeia.

Lpr – naoaaay ia/aoue. Ioi?aaea oaeea ia ia/aoue ia oaeaeaiiii (naoaaii)
i?eioa?a.

Lpq – naoaaay ia/aoue. Iieacuaaao oaeeu noiyuea a i/a?aaee ia ia/aoue ia
naoaaii i?eioa?a.

Ping – i?iaa?ea aeinooiiinoe oaeaeaiiie YAI ii naoe.

Talk – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ioe?uoey “?acaiai?a” n iieueciaaoaeai
oaeaeaiiie YAI. I?e yoii ia ye?aia iaeiia?aiaiii aeaeai aaiaeeiue oaeno
e ioaao oaeaeaiiiai iieueciaaoaey.

Iptunnel – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e na?aa?o EAN NetWare n eioi?ui
iao iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce ii EAN, a eiaaony eeoue naycue ii naoe
Internet.

Whois – aae?aniay eieaa naoe Internet. Ii cai?ino aaiiaio iiaeao
iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth i i?eiaaeeaaeiinoe oaeaeaiiiai eiiiuethoa?a, i
iieueciaaoaeyo.

Finger – iieo/aiea eioi?iaoeee i iieueciaaoaeyo oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a.

E?iia auoaia?a/eneaiiuo oneoa, naoue Internet i?aaeinoaaeyao oaeaea
neaaeothuea niaoeeoe/aneea oneoae:

Webster – naoaaay aa?ney oieeiaiai neiaa?y aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

Oaen-na?aen – aeaao aiciiaeiinoue iieueciaaoaeth ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey
ii oaeneieeueiie nayce, iieuecoynue oaen – na?aa?ii naoe.

Yeaeo?iiiue ia?aaiae/ee – i?iecaiaeeo ia?aaiae i?eneaiiiai ia iaai
oaenoa n iaeiiai ycuea ia ae?oaie. Ia?auaiea e yeaeo?iiiui ia?aaiae/eeai
i?ienoiaeeo iin?aaenoaii yeaeo?iiiie ii/ou.

Oethcu – aeatho aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ioi?aaeyoue niiauaiey a naoe, ia
?aaioathuea n i?ioieieaie TCP\IP (Fido, Goldnet, AT50).

E nenoaiai aaoiiaoece?iaaiiiai iienea eioi?iaoeee a naoe Internet
i?eiaaeeaaeao neaaeothuea nenoaiu.

Gopher – iaeaieaa oe?iei ?ani?ino?aiaiiia n?aaenoai iienea eioi?iaoeee a
naoe Internet, iicaieythuaa iaoiaeeoue eioi?iaoeeth ii eeth/aaui neiaai
e o?acai. ?aaioa n nenoaiie Gopher iaiiieiaao i?iniio? iaeaaeaiey, i?e
yoii iieueciaaoaeth i?aaeeaaaaony i?ieoe neaicue ?yae aeiaeaiiuo iaith e
aua?aoue ioaeioth oaio. A Internet a ianoiyuaa a?aiy nauoa 2000
Gopher-nenoai, /anoue ec eioi?uo yaeyaony oceiniaoeeaeece?iaaiiie, a
/anoue niaea?aeeo aieaa ?aciinoi?iiithth eioi?iaoeeth.

Gopher iicaieyao iieo/eoue eioi?iaoeeth aac oeacaiey eiai e aae?ania
aaoi?ia, aeaaiaea?y /aio iieueciaaoaeue ia o?aoeo iiiai a?aiaie e
ia?aia. Ii i?inoi niiaueo nenoaia Gopher, /oi eiaiii aio ioaeii, e
nenoaia iaoiaeeo niioaaonoaothuea aeaiiua. Gopher-na?aa?ia nauoa aeaoo
ouny/, iiyoiio n eo iiiiuueth ia anaaaea i?inoi iaeoe o?aaoaioth
eioi?iaoeeth. A neo/aa aicieeoeo cao?oaeiaiee iiaeii ainiieueciaaoueny
neoaeaie VERONICA. VERONICA inouanoaeyao iiene aieaa /ai a 500 nenoaiao
Gopher, inaiaiaeaeay iieueciaaoaey io iaiaoiaeeiinoe i?iniao?eaaoue eo
a?o/ioth.

WAIS – aua aieaa iiuiia n?aaenoai iieo/aiey eioi?iaoeee, /ai Gopher,
iineieueeo iii inouanoaeyao iiene eeth/aauo neia ai anao oaenoao
aeieoiaioia. Cai?inu iinueathony a WAIS ia oi?iuaiiii aiaeeeneii ycuea.
Yoi cia/eoaeueii eaa/a, /ai oi?ioee?iaaoue eo ia ycuea aeaaa?u eiaeee, e
yoi aeaeaao WAIS aieaa i?eaeaeaoaeueiie aeey
iieueciaaoaeae-iai?ioanneiiaeia.

I?e ?aaioa n WAIS iieueciaaoaeyi ia ioaeii o?aoeoue iiiai a?aiaie, /oiau
iaeoe iaiaoiaeeiua ei iaoa?eaeu.

A naoe Internet nouanoaoao aieaa 300 WAIS – aeaeeioae. Ii iineieueeo
eioi?iaoeey i?aaenoaaeyaony i?aeiouanoaaiii nio?oaeieeaie aeaaeaie/aneeo
i?aaiecaoeee ia aeia?iaieueiuo ia/aeao, aieueoay /anoue iaoa?eaeia
ioiineony e iaeanoe enneaaeiaaiee e eiiiuethoa?iuo iaoe.

WWW – nenoaia aeey ?aaiou n aeia?oaenoii. Iioaioeeaeueii iia yaeyaony
iaeaieaa iiuiui n?aaenoaii iienea. Aeia?oaeno niaaeeiyao ?acee/iua
aeieoiaiou ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai iaai?a neia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea a
oaenoa ano?a/aaony iiaia neiai eee iiiyoea, nenoaia, ?aaioathuay n
aeia?oaenoii, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e ae?oaiio aeieoiaioo, a
eioi?ii yoi neiai eee iiiyoea ?anniao?eaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii.

WWW /anoi eniieuecoaony a ea/anoaa eioa?oaena e aacai aeaiiuo WAIS, ii
ionoonoaea aeia?oaenoiauo naycae ia?aie/eaaao aiciiaeiinoe WWW aei
i?inoiai i?iniio?a, eae o Gopher.

Iieueciaaoaeue ni naiae noi?iiu iiaeao caaeaenoaiaaoue aiciiaeiinoue WWW
?aaioaoue n aeia?oaenoii aeey nayce iaaeaeo naieie aeaiiuie e aeaiiuie
WAIS e WWW oaeei ia?acii , /oiau nianoaaiiua caiene iieueciaaoaey eae au
eioaa?e?iaaeenue a eioi?iaoeeth aeey iauaai aeinooia. Ia naiii aeaea
yoiai, eiia/ii, ia i?ienoiaeeo, ii aini?eieiaaony eiaiii oae.

WWW – yoi ioiineoaeueii iiaay e aeeiaie/ii ?acaeaathuayny nenoaia.
Onoaiiaeaiu ianeieueei aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo na?aa?ia, a oii /enea Vatican
Exibit a aeaeeioaea Eiia?anna NOA e ioeueooeeuei i iiaiaea “Aeoee
niooieea” a Ie/eaaineii ainoaea?noaaiiii oieaa?neoaoa. A ea/anoaa
aeaiiino?aoeeiiiuo oaeaea ?aaioatho na?aa?u into.funet.fi (Oeieyiaeey);
into.cern.ch. (Oaaeoea?ey) e eies2.njit.edu (NOA).

I?aeoe/anee ana oneoae naoe iino?iaiu ia i?eioeeia eeeaio-na?aa?.
Na?aa?ii a naoe Internet iacuaaaony eiiiuethoa? niiniaiue
i?aaeinoaaeyoue eeeaioai (ii ia?a i?eoiaea io ieo cai?inia) iaeioi?ua
naoaaua oneoae. Acaeiiaeaenoaea eeeaio-na?aa? no?ieony iau/ii
neaaeothuei ia?acii. Ii i?eoiaeo cai?inia io eeeaioia na?aa? caioneaao
?acee/iua i?ia?aiiu i?aaeinoaaeaiey naoaauo oneoa. Ii ia?a auiieiaiey
caiouaiiuo i?ia?aii na?aa? ioaa/aao ia cai?inu eeeaioia.

Ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea naoe oaeaea iiaeii iiaeaeeoue ia eeeaioneia
e na?aa?iia. I?e yoii i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea na?aa?a caieiaaony
i?aaeinoaaeaieai naoaauo oneoa, a eeeaioneia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea
iaania/eaaao ia?aaea/o cai?inia na?aa?o e iieo/aiea ioaaoia io iaai.

Ianoi aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey a eiiieaena i?ia?aiiiuo
n?aaenoa naoe Internet.

Eae oaea oiiieiaeinue, Internet iino?iaia a iniiaiii ia aaca
eiiiuethoa?ia, ?aaioathueo iiae IN Unix. Ii IN Unix o?aaotho iau/ii
iiuiuo iaoei n aieueoeie iauaiaie IAEIAe e iia?aoeaiie iaiyoe. E oiio
aea ii/oe ana ?aaeecaoeee IN Unix eiatho eae i?aaeei ieioie
iieueciaaoaeueneee eioa?oaen. Iaiaeoth neiaeiinoue i?aaenoaaeyao oaeaea
i?ioeann aaeieieno?e?iaaiey e iano?ieee oaeeo nenoai.

Iiyoiio a aeaea i?eiauaiey e naoe iiauo aaiiaioia i?eia?aoatho iniaia
cia/aiea iaeaou aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Oaeea iaeaou
?aaioatho a IN MS-DOS eee MS-Windows. Iie ian?aaieii aeaoaaea /ai IN
Unix, eae i?aaeei i?inou a eniieueciaaiee e i?aaeinoaaeytho aeinooi
ii/oe ei anai ?ano?nai naoe Internet.

Aaiiaioneia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aanueia ?aciiia?acii. Aai auioneatho
oe?iu-i?iecaiaeeoaee naoaaiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, a oaeaea
i?aaiecaoeee, caieiathueany enneaaeiaaieyie a iaeanoe aeiaaeueiuo naoae.

Eiaiii aaeaeo aieueoiai /enea oaeeo iaeaoia e aaaeiinoe aaiiaioneiai
i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey aeey ?acaeoey naoe, ia aeeieiiiia
i?iaeoe?iaaiea auea iinoaaeaia caaea/a: nia?aoue eioi?iaoeeth i iaeaoao
aaiiaioneiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey, enneaaeiaaoue eo aiciiaeiinoe,
n?aaieoue iaeaou ii caaeaiiui e?eoa?eyi e aeaoue ?aeiiaiaeaoeee ii
eniieueciaaieth iaeaoia a naoe.

Ana i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea, eioi?ui iiaeii iieueciaaoueny aeey ?aaiou a
naoe Internet, iiaeii iiaeaeeoue ia aeaa /anoe. Yoi
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua iaeaou e aaiiaioneia i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea aeey
?aaiou a naoe Internet.

Oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua iaeaou.

Oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua iaeaou aeiaieueii ?ani?ino?aiaiu n?aaee
iieueciaaoaeae IYAI. Eo iau/ii eniieuecotho aeey nayce n oae iacuaaaiuie
BBS – yeaeo?iiiuie aeineaie iauyaeaiee iauaai iieueciaaiey.

A naoe Internet i?eiaiaiea oaeeo iaeaoia aanueia oceia. Iie iicaieytho
iieueciaaoaeth oieueei iieo/eoue aeinooi e oinoo naoe, iieuecoynue
iau/iuie oaeaoiiiuie eeieyie. I?e yoii aio i?aaeinoaaeyaony
aiciiaeiinoue ?aaiou ia iaeiii ec oinoia naoe a ?aaeeia “online”, oi
anoue iieueciaaoaeue iiaeao iieueciaaoueny anaie ?ano?naie ocea naoe
oae, eae anee au ii ?aaioae ia aai oa?ieiaea. Ii iieueciaaoaeue ia
iiaeao ia?aienaoue eaeie-eeai oaee ia naith IYAI, iieo/eoue ?acoeueoaou
naiae ?aaiou.

Oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuo iaeaoia i/aiue iiiai. Iau/ii e eaaeaeiio iiaeaio
i?eeaaaaony naie oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiue iaeao. Aiciiaeiinoe,
i?aaeinoaaeyaiua oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiuie iaeaoaie i?aeoe/anee iaeeiaeiau.
Oeaia oaeiai iaeaoa iau/ii ia i?aauoaao 50$.

A ianoiyuaa a?aiy iaeaieaa ?ani?ino?aiaiu neaaeothuea
oaeaeiiioieeaoeeiiiua iaeaou. TELEMATE, MTEZ, BITCOM, COMIT, PROCOM.

Ana iie i?inou a iano?ieea e a eniieueciaaiee e ii nouanoao ie/ai ia
ioee/athony iaeei io ae?oaiai.

Yeaiaiou io?aiu o?oaea e caueou eioi?iaoeee.

Iieueciaaoaee ?aoeaoea iiaeeeth/eoue naie eiiiuethoa? e naoe aeieaeiu
ia?aoeoue iniaia aieiaiea ia caueoo eioi?iaoeee. No?iaea o?aaiaaiey e
caueoa eioi?iaoeee naycaiu n oai, /oi iiaeeeth/aiiue e naoe eiiiuethoa?
noaiiaeony aeinooiiui ec ethaie oi/ee naoe, e iiyoiio ian?aaieii aieaa
iiaeaa?aeai ii?aaeaieth ae?onaie e ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiio aeinooio.

Oae ianiaethaeaiea ?aaeeia caueou io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia
iiaeao i?eaanoe e ooa/ea eioi?iaoeee, a ianiaethaeaiea ?aaeeia caueou io
ae?onia iiaeao i?eaanoe e auoiaeo ec no?iy aaaeiuo nenoai e
oie/oiaeaieth ?acoeueoaoia iiiaiaeiaaiie ?aaiou.

Eiiiuethoa?u ?aaioathuea a iiiaicaaea/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao (oeia
Unix, VMS) iaei iiaeaa?aeaiu ca?aaeaieth ae?onaie, ii eo neaaeoao iniai
ouaoaeueii caueuaoue io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia. A nayce n yoei
iieueciaaoaee iiiaicaaea/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoai aeieaeiu auiieiyoue
neaaeothuea o?aaiaaiey.

Eaaeaeue iieueciaaoaeue aeieaeai eiaoue naia eiaeeaeaeoaeueiia eiy
aoiaea a Unix-na?aa? e ia?ieue.

Onoaiiaeaiiue aeey iaai ia?ieue iieueciaaoaeue ia aeieaeai niiauaoue
ae?oaei eeoeai.

Niaio ia?iey iieueciaaoaeue aeieaeai i?iecaiaeeoue ia ?aaea iaeiiai ?aca
a eaa?oae, a oaeaea ai anao neo/ayo ooa/ee eioi?iaoeee i ia?iea.

Aaeieieno?aoi?ai e iieueciaaoaeyi oaee-na?aa?ia EAN NetWare iaiaoiaeeii
oaeaea neaaeiaaoue i?eaaaeaiiui auoa o?aaiaaieyi a ?aieao naiae EAN. Yoi
naycaii n oai, /oi anee a oaee-na?aa?a, iiaeeeth/aiiii e naoe,
caa?oaeaia ooeeeoa Iptunnel, oi oaee-na?aa? oaeaea noaiiaeony aeinooiiui
ec ethaie oi/ee naoe.

IYAI ?aaioathuea a iaeiicaaea/iuo iia?aoeeiiiuo nenoaiao (oeia MS-DOS),
aeinoaoi/ii caueuaiu io ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiiai aeinooia (a neeo eo
iaeiicaaea/iinoe), ii eo neaaeoao iniaaiii ouaoaeueii caueuaoue io
ii?aaeaiey ae?onaie.

Aeey caueou io ae?onia ?aeiiaiaeoaony i?eiaiyoue i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa
caueou (oeia aidstest), a oaeaea aiia?aoii-i?ia?aiiiua (oeia Sheriff).

Caeeth/aiea.

Yoi aeaeaei ia an?, /oi iiaeii ?anneacaoue ia Internet, ii an? aea
aeinoaoi/ii aeey oi?ie?iaaiey ia?aiia/aeueiiai acaeyaea. Iauyniyoue
iiaeii iiiai, ii eo/oa an? aea iaeei ?ac iii?iaiaaoue naiiio, /ai noi
?ac oneuoaoue, eae yoi caei?iai.

Internet – iinoiyiii ?acaeaathuayny naoue, o eioi?ie au? an? aia?aaee,
aoaeai iaaeayoueny, /oi iaoa no?aia ia ionoaiao io i?ia?anna e aeinoieii
ano?aoeo XXI aae.

Neiaa?ue oa?ieiia.

Aiaeeeneea oa?ieiu.

Archie – a?oea. Nenoaia aeey ii?aaeaeaiey ianoiiaoiaeaeaiey oaeeia a
ioaee/iuo a?oeaao naoe Internet.

ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) – i?ioieie ii?aaeaeaiey aae?ana,
i?aia?acoao aae?an eiiiuethoa?a a naoe Internet a aai oece/aneee aae?an.

ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) – ath?i i?iaeoia ia?aaeiauo
enneaaeiaaiee ieienoa?noaa iai?iiu NOA.

ARPANET – yenia?eiaioaeueiay naoue, ?aaioaaoay a naieaeanyoua aiaeu, ia
eioi?ie i?iaa?yeenue oai?aoe/aneay aaca e i?ia?aiiiia iaania/aiea,
iieiaeaiiua a iniiao Internet. A ianoiyuaa a?aiy ia nouanoaoao.

Bps (bit per second) – aeo a naeoiaeo. Aaeeieoea ecia?aiey i?iioneiie
niiniaiinoe eeiee nayce. I?iioneiay niiniaiinoue eeiee nayce
ii?aaeaeyaony eiee/anoaii eioi?iaoeee, ia?aaeaaaaiie ii eeiee ca
aaeeieoeo a?aiaie.

Cisco – ia?o?ooecaoi?, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Cisco-Systems.

DNS (Domain Name System) – aeiiaiiay nenoaia eiai. ?ani?aaeaeaiiay
nenoaia aac aeaiiuo aeey ia?aaiaea eiai eiiiuethoa?ia a naoe Internet a
eo IP-aae?ana.

Ethernet – oei eieaeueiie naoe. Oi?ioa ?aciiia?aceai oeiia i?iaiaeia
aeey niaaeeiaiee, iaania/eaathueo i?iioneiua niiniaiinoe io 2 aei 10
ieeeeiiia bps (2-10 Mbps). Aeiaieueii /anoi eiiiuethoa?u, eniieuecothuea
i?ioieieu TCP/IP, /a?ac Ethernet iiaeniaaeeiythony e Internet.

FTP (File Transfer Protocol)

i?ioieie ia?aaea/e oaeeia.

i?ioieie, ii?aaeaeythuee i?aaeea ia?anueee oaeeia n iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a
ia ae?oaie.

i?eeeaaeiay i?ia?aiia, iaania/eaathuay ia?anueeo oaeeia niaeanii yoiio
i?ioieieo.

FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions) – /anoi caaeaaaaiua aii?inu. ?acaeae
ioaee/iuo a?oeaia naoe Internet a eioi?ii o?aieony eioi?iaoeey aeey
“ia/eiathueo” iieueciaaoaeae naoaaie eio?ano?oeoo?u.

Gopher – eioa?aeoeaiay iaiei/ea aeey iienea, i?eniaaeeiaiey e
eniieueciaaiey ?ano?nia e aiciiaeiinoae Internet. Eioa?oaen n
iieueciaaoaeai inouanoaeai /a?ac nenoaio iaith.

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language)- ycue aeey iaienaiey aeia?oaenoiauo
aeieoiaioia. Iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue – iaee/ea aeia?oaenoiauo naycae
iaaeaeo aeieoiaioaie iaoiaeyueieny a ?acee/iuo a?oeaao naoe; aeaaiaea?y
yoei naycyi iiaeii iaiin?aaenoaaiii ai a?aiy i?iniio?a iaeiiai
aeieoiaioa ia?aoiaeeoue e ae?oaei aeieoiaioai.

Internet – aeiaaeueiay eiiiuethoa?iay naoue.

internet – oaoiieiaey naoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey iaaeaeo eiiiuethoa?aie
?aciuo oeiia.

IP (Internet Protocol) – i?ioieie iaaenaoaaiai acaeiiaeaenoaey, naiue
aaaeiue ec i?ioieieia naoe Internet, iaania/eaaao ia?o?ooecaoeeth
iaeaoia a naoe.

I?-aae?an – oieeaeueiue 32-aeoiue aae?an eaaeaeiai eiiiuethoa?a a naoe
Internet.

Iptunnel – iaeia ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii naoe Internet. Aeaao
aiciiaeiinoue aeinooia e na?aa?o EAN NetWare n eioi?ui iao
iaiin?aaenoaaiiie nayce ii EAN, a eiaaony eeoue naycue ii naoe Internet.

Lpr – naoaaay ia/aoue. Eiiaiaea ioi?aaee oaeea ia ia/aoue ia oaeaeaiiii
i?eioa?a.

Lpq – naoaaay ia/aoue. Iieacuaaao oaeeu noiyuea a i/a?aaee ia ia/aoue.

NetBlazer – ia?o?ooecaoi?, ?ac?aaioaiiue oe?iie Telebit.

NetWare – naoaaay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, ?ac?aaioaiiay oe?iie Novell;
iicaieyao no?ieoue EAN iniiaaiioth ia i?eioeeia acaeiiaeaenoaey
eeeaio-na?aa?. Acaeiiaeaenoaea iaaeaeo na?aa?ii e eeeaioii a EAN NetWare
i?iecaiaeeony ia iniiaa nianoaaiiuo i?ioieieia (IPX), oai ia iaiaa
i?ioieieu TCP/IP oaeaea iiaeaea?aeeaathony.

NFS (Network File System) – ?ani?aaeaeaiiay oaeeiaay nenoaia.
I?aaeinoaaeyao aiciiaeiinoue eniieueciaaiey oaeeiaie nenoaiu oaeaeaiiiai
eiiiuethoa?a a ea/anoaa aeiiieieoaeueiiai IAEIAe.

NNTP (Net News Transfer Protocol) – i?ioieie ia?aaea/e naoaauo iiainoae.
Iaania/eaaao iieo/aiea naoaauo iiainoae e yeaeo?iiiuo aeinie iauyaeaiee
naoe e aiciiaeiinoue iiiauaiey eioi?iaoeee ia aeinee iauyaeaiee naoe.

Ping – ooeeeoa i?iaa?ea nayce n oaeaeaiiie YAI.

POP (Post Office Protocol) – i?ioieie “ii/oiaue ioen”. Eniieuecoaony
aeey iaiaia ii/oie iaaeaeo oinoii e aaiiaioaie. Iniaaiiinoue i?ioieiea –
iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie ii cai?ino io aaiiaioa.

PPP (Point to Point Protocol) – i?ioieie eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy iicaieythuee
eniieueciaaoue aeey auoiaea a Internet iau/iua iiaeaiiua eeiee.
Ioiineoaeueii iiaue i?ioieie, yaeyaony aiaeiaii SLIP.

RAM (Random Acsess Memory) – iia?aoeaiay iaiyoue.

RFC (Requests For Comments) – cai?inu eiiiaioa?eaa. ?acaeae ioaee/iuo
a?oeaia naoe Internet a eioi?ii o?aieony eioi?iaoeey i anao noaiaea?oiuo
i?ioieieao naoe Internet.

Rexec (Remote Execution) – auiieiaiea iaeiie eiiaiaeu ia oaeaeaiiie
UNIX-iaoeia.

Rsh (Remote Shell) – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aiaeia Telnet, ii ?aaioaao
oieueei a oii neo/aa, anee ia oaeaeaiiii eiiiuethoa?a noieo IN UNIX.

SLIP (Serial Line Internet Protocol) – i?ioieie eaiaeueiiai o?iaiy
iicaieythuee eniieueciaaoue aeey auoiaea a Internet iau/iua iiaeaiiua
eeiee.

SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) – i?inoie i?ioieie ia?aaea/e ii/ou.
Iniiaiay iniaaiiinoue i?ioieiea SMTP – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie
i?ienoiaeeo ia ii cai?ino iaeiiai ec oinoia, a /a?ac ii?aaeaeaiiia a?aiy
(eaaeaeua 20 – 30 ieioo). Ii/oa iaaeaeo oinoaie a Internet ia?aaeaaony
ia iniiaa i?ioieiea SMTP.

Talk – iaeia ec i?eeeaaeiuo i?ia?aii naoe Internet. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue
ioe?uoey “?acaiai?a” n iieueciaaoaeai oaeaeaiiie YAI. I?e yoii ia ye?aia
iaeiia?aiaiii ia/aoaaony aaiaeeiue oaeno e ioaao oaeaeaiiiai
iieueciaaoaey.

Telnet – oaeaeaiiue aeinooi. Aeaao aiciiaeiinoue aaiiaioo ?aaioaoue ia
ethaie YAI naoe Internet eae ia naiae nianoaaiiie.

TCP\IP – iiae TCP\IP iau/ii iiieiaaony ana iiiaeanoai i?ioieieia
iiaeaea?aeeaaaiuo a naoe Internet.

TCP (Transmission Control Protocol) – i?ioieie eiio?iey ia?aaea/e
eioi?iaoeee a naoe. TCP – i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, iaeei ec
iniiaiuo i?ioieieia naoe Internet. Ioaa/aao ca onoaiiaeaiea e
iiaeaea?aeaiea ae?ooaeueiiai eaiaea (o.a. eiae/aneiai niaaeeiaiey), a
oaeaea ca aacioeai/ioth ia?aaea/o eioi?iaoeee ii eaiaeo.

UDP (User Datagram Protocol) – i?ioieie o?ainii?oiiai o?iaiy, a ioee/ea
io i?ioieiea TCP ia iaania/eaaao aacioeai/iie ia?aaea/e iaeaoa.

Unix – iiiaicaaea/iay iia?aoeeiiiay nenoaia, iniiaiay iia?aoeeiiiay
n?aaea a naoe Internet. Eiaao ?acee/iua ?aaeecaoeee: Unix-BSD,
Unix-Ware, Unix-Interactive.

UUCP – i?ioieie eiie?iaaiey eioi?iaoeee n iaeiiai Unix-oinoa ia ae?oaie.
UUCP – ia aoiaeeo a ninoaa i?ioieieia TCP/IP, ii oai ia iaiaa ana aua
oe?iei eniieuecoaony a naoe Internet. Ia iniiaa i?ioieiea UUCP –
iino?iaiu iiiaea nenoaiu iaiaia ii/oie, aei neo ii? eniieuecoaiua a
naoe.

VERONICA (Very Easy Rodent-Oriented Netwide Index to Computer Archives)
– nenoaia iienea eioi?iaoeee a ioaee/iuo a?oeaao naoe Internet ii
eeth/aaui neiaai.

WAIS (Wide Area Information Servers) – iiuiay nenoaia iienea eioi?iaoeee
a aacao aeaiiuo naoe Internet ii eeth/aaui neiaai.

WWW (World Wide Web) – anaie?iay iaooeia. Nenoaia ?ani?aaeaeaiiuo aac
aeaiiuo, iaeaaeathueo aeia?oaenoiauie naycyie iaaeaeo aeieoiaioaie.

Whois – aae?aniay eieaa naoe Internet.

Webster – naoaaay aa?ney oieeiaiai neiaa?y aiaeeeneiai ycuea.

?onneea oa?ieiu.

Ae?aeaa? – caa?oaeaaiay a iia?aoeaioth iaiyoue i?ia?aiia, oi?aaeythuay
iaiaiii aeaiiuie iaaeaeo i?eeeaaeiuie i?ioeannaie e aiaoieie
ono?ienoaaie.

Aeia?oaeno – aeieoiaio, eiathuee nayce n ae?oaeie aeieoiaioaie /a?ac
nenoaio auaeaeaiiuo neia (nnueie). Aeia?oaeno niaaeeiyao ?acee/iua
aeieoiaiou ia iniiaa ca?aiaa caaeaiiiai iaai?a neia. Iai?eia?, eiaaea a
oaenoa ano?a/aaony iiaia neiai eee iiiyoea, nenoaia, ?aaioathuay n
aeia?oaenoii, aeaao aiciiaeiinoue ia?aeoe e ae?oaiio aeieoiaioo, a
eioi?ii yoi neiai eee iiiyoea ?anniao?eaaaony aieaa iiae?iaii.

EAN – eieaeueiay au/eneeoaeueiay naoue.

Ia?o?ooecaoi? (router) – eiiiuethoa? naoe, caieiathueeny ia?o?ooecaoeeae
iaeaoia a naoe, oi anoue auai?ii e?ao/aeoaai ia?o?ooa neaaeiaaiey
iaeaoia ii naoe.

Iiaeai – ono?ienoai i?aia?acothuaa oeeo?iaua neaiaeu a aiaeiaiaoth oi?io
e ia?aoii. Eniieuecoaony aeey ia?aaea/e eioi?iaoeee iaaeaeo
eiiiuethoa?aie ii aiaeiaiaui eeieyi nayce.

IAEIAe – iaeiieoaee ia aeanoeii iaaieoiii aeenea.

I?ioieie – niaieoiiinoue i?aaee e niaeaoaiee, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo oi?iao e
i?ioeaaeo?o iaaeaeo aeaoiy eee ianeieueeeie iacaaeneiuie ono?ienoaaie
eee i?ioeannaie. Noaiaea?oiua i?ioieieu iicaieytho naycuaaoueny iaaeaeo
niaie eiiiuethoa?ai ?aciuo oeiia, ?aaioathuei a ?aciuo iia?aoeeiiiuo
nenoaiao.

?ano?n – eiae/aneay eee oece/aneay /anoue nenoaiu, eioi?ay iiaeao auoue
auaeaeaia iieueciaaoaeth eee i?ioeanno.

Na?aa?

i?ia?aiia aeey naoaaiai eiiiuethoa?a, iicaieythuay i?aaeinoaaeoue oneoae
iaeiiai eiiiuethoa?a ae?oaiio eiiiuethoa?o. Ianeoaeeaaaiua eiiiuethoa?u
niiauathony n na?aa?-i?ia?aiiie i?e iiiiue iieueciaaoaeueneie i?ia?aiiu
(eeeaio-i?ia?aiiu).

eiiiuethoa? a naoe, i?aaeinoaaeythuee naie oneoae ae?oaei, oi anoue
auiieiythuee ii?aaeaeaiiua ooieoeee ii cai?inai ae?oaeo.

Ocae – eiiiuethoa? a naoe, auiieiythuee iniiaiua naoaaua ooieoeee
(ianeoaeeaaiea naoe, ia?aaea/a niiauaiee e o.i.).

Oino – naoaaay ?aai/ay iaoeia; aeaaiay YAI. Naoaaie eiiiuethoa?, eioi?ue
iiieii naoaauo ooieoeee (ianeoaeeaaiea naoe, ia?aaea/a niiauaiee)
auiieiyao iieueciaaoaeueneea caaeaiey (i?ia?aiiu, ?an/aou, au/eneaiey).

Oethc – noaioeey nayce n aiaoiae eee ae?oaie naoueth. Iiaeao
iaania/eaaoue naycue ianiaianoeiuo naoae, a oaeaea acaeiiaeaenoaea
ianiaianoeiuo i?eeiaeaiee a ?aieao iaeiie naoe.

Yeaeo?iiiay ii/oa – iaiai ii/oiauie niiauaieyie n ethaui aaiiaioii naoe
Internet.

I?eeiaeaiea A.

Aeiionoeiia eniieueciaaiea.

Ieaea i?eaaae?i ia?a/aiue i?eioeeiia ioeoeeaeueiie iieeoeee
«aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey» aeey naoe NSFNET, aeaoe?iaaiiue ethiai
1992 aiaea. Iaiiae?iiua aa?nee iiaeii iieo/eoue ii aiiieiiiio FTP n
na?aa?a nic.merit.edu (oaee /nsfnet/acceptable.use.policies/nsfnet.txt).
Yoio eaoaeia oaeaea niaea?aeeo oaenou n eceiaeaieai i?eioeeiia
aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey aeey ae?oaeo naoae.

Oioy ia?aue ia?aa?ao yoiai aeieoiaioa cao/eo aeiaieueii eaoaai?e/ii, ia
noieo iaaeaoue aeooii. Eae oeacuaaeinue a aeaaa «I oii, eae ?aaioaao
Internet», «iiaeaea?aeea» enneaaeiaaiee e iao/aiey o?aeooaony aeiaieueii
naiaiaeii. Iiiieoa i oii, /oi NSFNET – yoi ia any Internet, a eeoue a?
/anoue, e iieeoeea ia?aie/aiee aeiionoeiinoe eniieueciaaiey caeanue
iaeia ec naiuo ae?noeeo. N oa/aieai a?aiaie iieeoeea NSFNET an? aieueoa
e aieueoa oo?a/eaaao nai? cia/aiea. Iniiaiay oeaeue iineaaeieo
ia?ii?eyoee ii i?eaaoecaoeee – nicaeaiea «naoe naoae» aac ia?aie/aiee
aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey, o.a. naoe, a eioi?ie ia aoaeao ia?aie/aiee
a eniieueciaaiee a? a eiiia?/aneeo, ethaeoaeueneeo e ae?oaeo oeaeyo.

Neaaeiaaoaeueii, a naoe, n eioi?ie Au onoaiaaeeaaaoa niaaeeiaiea,
iiaeao aeaenoaiaaoue ianeieueei eiay iieeoeea; iaeioi?ua aoiaeyuea a
Internet naoe aeoeaii iiiu?ytho eiiia?/aneia eniieueciaaiea. N
iiaeiaiuie aii?inaie ia?auaeoanue e naiaio iinoaaueeo naoaauo oneoa,
eioi?ue ii?aaeaeeo, /oi i?eaieaii aeey Aaoaai niaaeeiaiey. Anee Aai
iaiaoiaeeii Internet – iiaeeeth/aiea eneeth/eoaeueii aeey eiiia?/aneeo
eee ee/iuo oeaeae, Au eaaei iaeae?oa niioaaonoaothuaai iinoaaueea.

Iieeoeea aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey aaciauo oneoa naoe NSFNET.

Iauee i?eioeei:

Aaciaua oneoae NSFNET i?aaeinoaaeythony aeey iiaeaea?aeee enneaaeiaaiee
e iao/aiey a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo einoeoooao e o/aaiuo caaaaeaieyo
NOA, a oaeaea a iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo iiae?acaeaeaieyo oe?i,
eioi?ua caieiathony auiieiaieai iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneeo ?aaio e
eioi?iaoeeiiiui iaiaiii. Eniieueciaaiea a ae?oaeo oeaeyo ia
aeiioneaaony.

Eiie?aoiua iai?aaeaiey aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey:

Iaiai eioi?iaoeeae n ca?oaaaeiuie o/?iuie e iaaeaaiaaie aeey iaania/aiey
iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneie aeayoaeueiinoe e ia?aciaaiey i?e oneiaee, /oi
naoue, eioi?oth eniieuecoao ca?oaaaeiue iieueciaaoaeue aeey oaeiai
iaiaia, iaania/eaaao yeaeaaeaioiue aeinooi o/?iui e iaaeaaiaai
Niaaeei?iiuo Ooaoia.

Iaiai e ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo a oeaeyo i?ioanneiiaeueiiai ?acaeoey,
iiaeaea?aeee i?ioanneiiaeueiiai o?iaiy e iao/iuo aeeneonnee a ethaie
iaeanoe ciaiee.

Eniieueciaaiea naoe a oeaeyo iiaeaea?aeee naycae iaaeaeo eoeueoo?iuie e
iao/iuie iauanoaaie, a niaianoiie aeayoaeueiinoe oieaa?neoaoia,
i?aaeoaeuenoaaiii-eiinoeueoaoeaiie ?aaioa, noaiaea?oecaoeee, anee oaeay
aeayoaeueiinoue naycaia n iao/iie e o/aaiie ?aaioie iieueciaaoaey.

Eniieueciaaiea naoe aeey iiaea/e cayaeaiee ia noeiaiaeee, iacia/aiey
oaeiauo, ioi?ieaiey eiio?aeoia ia iao/ii-enneaaeiaaoaeueneoth eee
o/aaioth aeayoaeueiinoue, ii ia aeey ae?oaie aeayoaeueiinoe,
iai?aaeaiiie ia i?eaea/aiea n?aaenoa, eee aeayoaeueiinoe a ?aieao
iauanoaaiiuo naycae.

Ae?oaea aaeieieno?aoeaiua eiiioieeaoeee, iai?aaeaiiua ia i?yiia
iaania/aiea iao/iuo enneaaeiaaiee e iao/aiey.

Niiauaiea i iiauo i?iaeoeoao e oneoaao aeey eniieueciaaiey a iao/iuo
enneaaeiaaieyo e nenoaia ia?aciaaiey, eneeth/ay ana aeaeu ?aeeaiu.

Ana aeaeu o?aoeea ec naoe ae?oaiai aaaeiinoaa – /eaia Oaaea?aeueiiai
niaaoa ii naoyi, anee o?aoee niioaaonoaoao i?eioeeiai iieeoeee
aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey aeaiiiai aaaeiinoaa.

Ia?aaea/a aeaiiuo, naycaiiay n ae?oaeie aeaeaie aeiionoeiiai
eniieueciaaiey, ca eneeth/aieai iacaeiiiiai e iaaeiionoeiiai
eniieueciaaiey.

Iaaeiionoeiia eniieueciaaiea:

Eniieueciaaiea n oeaeueth iieo/aiey i?eauee, anee iii ia niioaaonoaoao
oeacaiiiio a ia?aa?aoao «Iauee i?eioeei» e «Eiie?aoiua iai?aaeaiey
aeiionoeiiai eniieueciaaiey».

Eioaineaiia eniieueciaaiea a /anoiuo eiiia?/aneeo oeaeyo.

Aeaiiua iieiaeaiey ?ani?ino?aiythony oieueei ia aaciaua oneoae naoe
NSFNET. Iaoeeiiaeueiue iao/iue oiiae iaaeaaony, /oi naoe, niaaeei?iiua n
NSFNET, aoaeoo oi?ioee?iaaoue naie nianoaaiiua i?eioeeiu aeiionoeiiai
eniieueciaaiey. Ana aii?inu ii aeaiiie iieeoeea e o?aeoiaea a?
i?eioeeiia ?aoaao ioaeae NSF ii enneaaeiaaieth e eio?ano?oeoo?a naoae e
eiiioieeaoeee.

Nienie eeoa?aoo?u.

An? ia INTERNET. ?oeiaiaenoai e eaoaeia. Yae E?ie. BHV, Eeaa.

AEo?iae ii ia?niiaeueiui eiiiuethoa?ai PC Magazine Russian Edition.
? 1–12 ca 1996 aiae; ? 1–4 ca 1997 aiae.

Eiiiuethoa?iue aaeaiaaeaeueiee «Eiiiuethoa??a». ? 120 – 167 ca 1996
aiae; ? 180 – 190 ca 1997 aiae.

AEo?iaeu Ie? Internet.

AEo?iae aeey iieueciaaoaeae ia?niiaeueiuo eiiiuethoa?ia Ie? IE.

Aaeaiany/iue eiiiuethoa?iue aeo?iae CompUnity ? 9 ca 1996 aiae.

Eiiiuethoa?iue aeo?iae aeey iieueciaaoaeae Hard ‘n’ Soft.

AEo?iaeu Eiiiuethoa? I?ann.

Iaaeaeoia?iaeiue eiiiuethoa?iue aaeaiaaeaeueiee ComputerWorld ?inney.

Aaeaiaaeaeueiee PC Week Russian Edition.

Aaeaiaaeaeueiee aeey i?aaei?eieiaoaeae e niaoeeaeenoia a iaeanoe
eioi?iaoeeiiiuo oaoiieiaee ComputerWeek Moscow.

I?iaanoe a?aieoeo iaaeaeo iiaeaae?anii naoe e iiaeaae?anii eiiiuethoa?a
aeiaieueii neiaeii. Yoa a?aieoea onoaiaaeeaaaony ii niaeaoaieth iaaeaeo
ninaaeieie ia?o?ooecaoi?aie. E n/anoueth, eae iieueciaaoaeth, Aai
ieeiaaea ia i?eae?ony aaniieieoueny ia yoii. Yoi eiaao cia/aiea oieueei
i?e nicaeaiee naoe.

Aeiionoei, Au ia?aaea?oa iaia?aaioaiiua oeeo?iaua aeaiiua 8-ie aeoiauie
ii?oeeyie eee aaeoaie. Naiue i?inoie aa?eaio eiio?ieueiie noiiu –
neiaeeoue cia/aiey yoeo aaeoia e iiianoeoue a eiiaoe yoie ii?oeee
eioi?iaoeee aeiiieieoaeueiue aaeo, niaea?aeauee yoo noiio. (Eee oioy au
oo a? /anoue, eioi?ay iiiauaaony a 8-ie aeoao.) I?eieiathuee TCP
auiieiyao oaeie aea ?an/?o. Anee a i?ioeanna ia?aaea/e eaeie-ieaoaeue
aaeo eciaieony, oi eiio?ieueiua noiiu ia aoaeoo niaiaaeaoue, e Au
ociaaoa ia ioeaea. Eiia/ii, i?e iaee/ee aeaoo ioeaie iie iiaoo
eiiiaine?iaaoue ae?oa ae?oaa, ii oaeea ioeaee iiaeii auyaeoue aieaa
neiaeiuie au/eneaieyie.

Aeaiiua io 24 oaa?aey 1997 aiaea.

Oi/iaa, NREN – aeaenoaothuay naoue, eioi?oth au? i?aaenoieo nicaeaoue.
Caeiiii?iaeo naieoeeiie?oao o?aoee ii nouanoaothuei oaaea?aeueiui naoyi.
I?aaeeueiaa auei au iacaaoue oi, /oi nouanoaoao ia naaiaeiyoiee aeaiue –
Interim Interagency NREN (A?aiaiiay iaaeaaaeiinoaaiiay NREN).

Nienie iieiaeaiee, ?aaeaiaioe?othueo eniieueciaaiea NSFNET, i?eaaae?i a
i?eeiaeaiee A. Yoe o?aaiaaiey yaeythony iaeieie ec iaeaieaa no?iaeo ii
ioiioaieth e eiiia?/aneiio eniieueciaaieth. Anee Aaoa ?aaioa
niioaaonoaoao ei, cia/eo iia niioaaonoaoao o?aaiaaieyi anao inoaeueiuo
naoae.

Yoe caia/aiey ioiinyony oieueei e NOA. A ae?oaeo no?aiao ia na?aa?u
?ani?ino?aiythony ae?oaea caeiiu.

Aiieia aiciiaeii, /oi yoa enoi?ey – iaeia ec «naoaauo eaaaiae». Ana a
Internet aiai?eee ia yoii neo/aa, ii eiaaea y iiiuoaeny i?iaa?eoue
aeinoiaa?iinoue yoie eioi?iaoeee, oi ia niia iaeoe ie iaeiiai
iaae?aeiiai enoi/ieea.

Iiaeiaiue neo/ae eiae ianoi. Niaea?aeeiia oaeeia iineei ianeieueei
aieaa ioe?iaaiiue oa?aeoa?, /ai eeethno?aoeee ec aeo?iaeia, e yoio
neo/ae iinoaaee iiae oa?ico oeiaine?iaaiea anae NSFNET.

«Ai/ea n naeii» – ia?ii?eyoea, i?iaiaeeiia a NOA iieeoeeaie aeey
caaiaaaiey iiioey?iinoe e o.i.

Internet Worm – yoi i?ia?aiia, eioi?ay eniieuecoao Internet aeey
«iaiaaeaiey» ia eiiiuethoa?u iaeioi?uo oeiia. Iieo/ea
ianaieoeeiie?iaaiiue aeinooi e eiiiuethoa?o, iia eniieuecoao aai aeey
oiai, «aeiieoueny» ia neaaeothuee. Yoa i?ia?aiia iiaeiaia eiiiuethoa?iui
ae?onai, ii iieo/eea iacaaiea worm («/a?aue»), iioiio /oi ia i?e/eiyao
oiuoeaiiiai a?aaea eiiiuethoa?ai. Iiae?iaiia aa iienaiea i?eaaaeaii a
eieaa «Computer Security Basics» (Russell and Gangemi), O’Reilly &
Associates.

Kris Kristofferson and Fred Foster, «Me and Bobby McGee», 1969.

Iai?eia?, yoi aeaeaao nenoaia Global Network Navigator. Iieo/eoue
eioi?iaoeeth iiaeii, iineaa ii yeaeo?iiiie ii/oa niiauaiea ii aae?ano
[email protected]

Anee Au oioeoa auoue aieaa inaaaeiie?iiui a aii?inao aaciianiinoe,
ia?aoeoanue e aeieoiaioo RFC1244 e na?aa?o CERT. E?iia oiai, iiaeii
iciaeiieoueny n iauei iaci?ii i?iaeai aaciianiinoe a eieaa «Computer
Security Basics» (Russell and Gangemi). Aii?inu aaeieieno?e?iaaiey UNIX
– nenoai inaauathony a eieaa «Practical UNIX Security» (Garfinkel and
Spafford).

Yoa oaia inaauaia a ni?aai/ieea «TCP/IP Network Administration» (Craig
Hunt, O’Reilly & Associates).

Eiia/ii, iu ia eiaai a aeaeo i?ia?aiiiua n?aaenoaa, ?ac?aaioaiiua
Oiiaeii naiaiaeiiai i?ia?aiiiiai iaania/aiey. Yoei i?ia?aiiiui
n?aaenoaai iiaeii aeiaa?youe oioy au a eo enoiaeiii aa?eaioa. Iiaoi?ei
ia?aue ioieo: noa?aeoanue a?aoue ioeoeeaeueiua eiiee i?ia?aii.

?aiaa, ?aaioay a Noyiaeoi?aeneii enneaaeiaaoaeueneii einoeoooa, Eiooi?
caieiaeny aii?inaie au?aaioee iao?ee aeey Internet, /oi oaia?ue oniaoii
i?eiaiyao ia i?aeoeea. ?aaoey?iua io/?ou i ninoiyiee Internet,
iiaeaioiaeaiiua Network Wizard, ?ani?ino?aiythony /a?ac iiae?acaeaeaiea
Internet Business Development eiiiaiee General Magic.

An? ia INTERNET. Ai?cia Aiae?ae Ieeieaaae/. A?oiia A-513.

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